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Full text of "Vi︠e︡stnik Evropy, Volume 137"

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HH o BaKHXi H3M'6HeHÍflX'b B'B rocy^apCTB^. IIpHTOirb Cb I^apCTBO- 
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IldTpB BeiHBiň ycTaHOBHJii. HaAi> hck) oneKy Poccíh, np^eaBmyio 
Bi Ha^ajscjk i^apcTBOBaHÚi EBaTepHQu II lopHAH^ecKyio <|)opMy „ra- 
paHTÍH'' . OoaTOMy nepBbnťL nojn>CKUM'L pe^pMaTOpairL Hejibsa óujio 
mme A'&ňcTBOBaTb, Kanx m> corjiaciH Cb neTepÓyprcBHiťB BaÓu- 
HeroMii: ABHHyTbca BnepeA'i> 6e3Tb Poccíh sHa^aao ji^jisi TorAam- 
Heň Pb^H IIocnojraTOň ABHHyTbCfl npOTHBii Poccíh, htó ^'i^ajiocb 

MUCJUOibDťb TOjIbEO Bl C0H)3^ Ch BaBHM'I>-JIH6o BparoMi Mopyii^e- 

CTBeHHOfi cocíakh, h hmohho no 9T0My nyTH nonuiH nocjrfeAHÍe nojib- 
CKÍe pe^pnaTopu, HCRaBmie noAA^psKH cbohmi njanaifb bi Eep- 
JHHk KaRTb 6hi TaMi* hu 6buo, npeoCpasosaTejiHM^B BnyTpenHHx^b 
OTHomeniň Pžhh IlocnojiHTOĚ npnxoAHJiocb, BaBi* HHKOMy, CHHTaTbca 
ci (^asTaHH nojiHTHBH BH'6niHe6, HM^ npoTHKb ceófl coc6Aefi, nsi 

KOTOpUXl OAHHX 6bL31> AOJIFOe BpCMH HpHHI^HniaJIbHUMl npOTHBHH- 
SOMl BCHKHXl pe^^OpMl Wb HOJIbCKOMT* TOCyAapCTB^, ^TOÓU CA^- 

jaTBCfl BHOcatACTBÍií Hxi BOBapHUHi AO^posKeJíaTeieMi, a Apyroň 
AonycKaďi* npeoÓpasoBaHia tojbbo bi hbb^cthhx^b rpaHHi^ax'B h noAi> 
BSBtoHUMH ycjiOBiflMH, pacHOJiarafl npoTHFL nenoKopHuxi, KpoH*]^ 
yaoMflnyTofi „rapaHTÍH", onHpaBmeficfl na 4>H3HHecRyK) ciLiy, en^e h 
BOSMOSHOCTbH) npHBJíe^eHÚi na cboh) cropony san^HTHHKOBi crapo- 
numxeTCKOň „boaoToň bojiehocth'', h bo3moshoctí>k) cor^amenÍH c% 



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10 B^CTEHROb EBPOnU. 

ApyrHHH A^psaBaHH, Óubiobme ee npoqb OBpyrjiHTB cboh BJiaA'6HÚi 
Ha cnert »6e3noKoSHoft" Píto IIocnojiHTOĚ. 

HecMorpa na Bck aiH HeÓJiaronpiflTHUfl BHyTpeHHÍ£ u bh^qihúi 
ycjLOBÚi, jiikjLO 6ujio Ha^axo; oho ne Ópocajiocb noroMi bi le^eHÍe 

H-tCKOJIbKHXt ^eCflTHJliTiií K yjEG yCU-fejIO npHHeCTH peSyjIBTaTU, OjíHO 

BpeMfl BOSÓy^HBinie h y nojibCBHXii naTpioroBi, h cpe^u nepe^o- 
Buxi* npe;i;cTaBiiTejie3 oÓn^eciBeHnaro mh-Ihí^ na SanaA^i^, Ójecraii^iji 
Ha^eaiAu* Ho Bce dxo ABHJiocb cjiHniROirB no3AHo: nojbcsoMy rocy- 
AapcTBy apnme^x ROHei^i Kan^B pasi bi xy anoxy, Kor;(a oho. no- 
BHAUMOMy, bbixo^hjio Ha nyxb óojiie npaBHJiBHaro Heiopn^ecRaro 
pasBHxia. 1\ijib, KOxopyH) nocxaBMjiw ceói pe<|K)pMaxopH — cnacTH 
oxenecxBO oxi> BHÍniHe& onacHOCXH, — ne Óujia AOCXHrayxa, h mhcjb o 
xaBOMx oxpHi^axejbHOM^B pe3yj[bxax^ jrerjia b% ocHoay HCxopHHecsHx^B 
cysiA^HÍfi, BUCBasuBaBHiHxcfl o nojibCBHx^B pe4>op]faxrb Kasii bi xy- 
seHHofi, xasi h b^ HHOCxpaHHoA JiHxepaxypi: o^hh HHcaxeJiH cjia- 
rajiH BHHy Ha spasA^^Hua nojiBm'b A^p^saBu, npeB03H0Cfl noxBa- 
jiauH caMUfl pe4)opHii; Apyrie, naoóopoxi, noABeprjiir cypoBOň Kpa- 
rmti 3XH pe4K)pMU, BaK^b BecbMa Hajio yEpd^nHBmúi Ilojibmy u jsfi^sne 
xavbBO npOHSBeAmifl bi> neň noxpflcenie, BaBoro ona ne Horjia bh- 
AepaEtaxb 6ea^ xoro, hxoÓu caMoň no ce64 ne pacnacxbca Ha co- 
cxaBHbifl ^aexH. na^eme rocyxapcxBa npexcxaBJUierb hsi cetia xa- 
Koík BpyHHufi, BanHxajibHO BasBHLifi 4^aBrb, hxo HOjncBaa Hai90- 
najibHafl Hcxopiorpa^^ifl BecbHa ecxecxBenHO pascMaxpsBaexi rjiaB- 
Huifb oépaaoifb no oxnomemH) B^b Heny ne xojibbo coÓuxía, neno- 
cpeACXBenno eny npeAHiecxBOBaBmifl h ero conpoBoasAaBmifl, ho qyrb 
He Bce npom^oe noJibCBOfi nai^ÍH; HnoBOHnue me hcxophbh, nsy- 
HaBHiie noca^J^ABiOK) dnoxy vb nojiHXHqecBoK shbhh nojibCBaro Ha- 
poAa, MaJio BHHBanH BO BHyxpennifl oxnomenifl dxofi jbhshh, nnxe- 
pecyflCb noHXH HCBjnoqnxeJibHO ^^ftKxoifB, HMŠBniHifB o6n^eeBponefi- 
cBoe 3HaqeHÍe, — na^eflieMi Hojibnra. TaBi BaBi cxpaxi sa canoe 
cyni.ecxBOBaHÍe rocyAapcxBa, BOxopoMy rposaaa 6jiH3Baa raóejib, Óbuit 
AtftcxBHxejibHO rjiaBHHíTb ABHraxejieMX bi pe^opMaxopcRofl A^axejib- 
HOCXH, npoHcxoAHBmeĚ b% Vimi nocnojHxoň, n xaBi BaB'^ HCxopH- 
necBaa jiHxepaxypa yae bx xeneme Biijaro cxojrfexia cxaBHxi bo- 
npocb o noJiBCBHXi* pe4>opMaxx bi xicH^žmyio CBflSb ch <|)aBxoirb 
naAeHÍji dxoro rocyAapcxsa, xo Becbiia xpyAHO ÓuBaexi oxpd^mHXbCfl 
ox^ xaBoft xoHBH 3ptHÍa, HXo6u BHABHHyxb Ha nepBHĚ HJiaH^ BO- 
npocb, nacBOJibBO dXH npeoópasoBanifl hm&ih bx. BH^y h a'Í^cxbh- 
xejiBHO ocyn^ecxBJíflJiH ofin^ecxBennoe djaro, noHHMaeMoe b'b óojvke 
mapoBOM^b CMucjii. Ecjih oxBJíe^bCfl MBicjenno oxi> Baxacxpo4|>u, 
ynecnieií ch coÓok) noJibCBoe rocy^apcxBO, peíJíopMH, fb HeM'B npo- 
HSBOAHBmíflCfl, MorjiH 6u CbtxB pascMaxpHBaeMBi coBepmenno xaBi nce, 



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nOJTLCRÍ)! PE^OPMU. 1 1 

san pascMaxpHBaioTca npeoÓpasoBaHia „npocBimcHHHXt AecnoroBi*" 
HiH peBOJiioipoHHHXx co6paHÍ&, TfeM^ <5oji'te, HTO m> siaxejibHOCTb 
noibeKHX'^ pe^pMaTopoFE cb Te^euiewb BpeMeHH Bce 6oji'ke h Úojvke 
BXOAHJH HAeňHUfl Hanajia, cooÓn^aBiniH aKTaMi — nepBona^ajibHO o^eoro 
jHfflb HaipoHaJibHaro caMOcoxpaHenia — aaaieHie aKTOB^ oómecTBen- 
earo 6ďara h cnpaBeAJiHBOCTH. ConocraBJíeHie arHx^B pe(j[K>pM'L cb 
cosepniHBmHMHCfl Kasi* vh crpaHaxi npccB^n^esHaro a6cojiiOTH3Ma, 
Tasí H BO ^aHipH Bi* anoxy peBOJVioi^iH, en^e Óojrte pacniHpH.io 
6u BaI^^ npeAuen: ohi. sbejlcs 6u vb cbští oÓn^eeBponeňcRoá 

HCTOpÍH BTOpofi nOJIOBHHU XYIU-FO B., 86 TOft HCTOpÍH ^KHIUIOMaTH^e- 
eSHTB HHTpHPb H BOeHIIUX'B JlíkÍLCrBÍŘ, Ch KOTOpOH) OH'B, TJiaBHLIM^ 

oĎpasoMi, CBflsaHi wb cymecTByiomefi JiHTepaTypfe, a HcropÍH npe- 
o5pa30fiaHÍ2 rocy^upcTBa h oón^eciBa vb Ehpowk noji,% a9ÍflHÍeMT> 
sf jn>TypHaro ^BiiseHÚi XVIII B'lKa. Mu HM'beií'B ocHOBasie yrseps^aTb, 
TTO vh MHoro^HCieHEiixt RHHraxi H craTBflxi*, pa3CRa3UBaion^iixi 
H pascysjB^ioiilHxi o BHyTpeHHeň s&mmi Ilojibinii vb dnoxy pas^^- 
JiOBi, OTHomeme pe^piťb, xapaRxepHsyiOii^HXi bto Bpeiifl, r^b <|)aRTy 
na^em Víhe FIocnojiHToft cjiiAmKowb rocnotACTByerb na^^ npnei^H- 

ni&JnbHOlO HXl CTOpOHOK) H Ha^l* HXl CfiflSbH) Cb aHaJIOrHHHUHH 

iRieHiflHH vb ApyrHx^b crpaHaxi 3a to se BpeMfl, xoth di^ oóctoa- 
TeibCTBO, RaRi MU BHA^ra, BM-lerb BecbMa ecrecTBeHBoe o&bsicBeme. 
Borb no^emy, A^aa &kvAuii o63opu[HTepaTypHofi HcropÍH Bonpoca 
o nojibCRHxi pe<]^pMax'B, naMi npux^TCfl roBoperb tojbro o to% 
oi^^Hcb, KaRyio hmi npoHSBOAHJiH aBTopu oTA&ibHuxi coqnHeHifi, 
mrk HCRJnoHHTeJibHO B^ BH^y nepBOHaiaJibHyio i^&ib npeoópaso- 
BaBÍfi— .cnacTH Ilojibmy on yrpoauiBmet efi rnÓejrH; caMuň ;Re 06- 
3opi dTOTb HeoÓxoAHMi ASfl BUflCHeHÍfl saAaHH HacTOfln^aro onepRa. 
no saBHMaioii^eň Hacb dnox-l HcropiRecRafl HayRa pacnojraraen* 
o^eHb ÓoraTuiťB MaiepiajiOMi h BecbMa oÓmEpnoil JiHTepaTypoň. Bi 
cocraBi nepsaro bxoaatx MHoroHHCJieHHbie Meiiyapbi h nepenHCRH, 
AOHeceHÚi nocjiaHHHROBi, CBHA'6Tej[bCTBa HHOcrpaHHuxi nyTemecTBeH- 
HHBOffb, mBUcrísi coBpeifeHHHXi) nojibCRHXi H qyaceseMHux^B řasen, 
rpoMaAHoe ROJiviecTBO ny6jiHi^HCTHHecRHx^ iipoBSBe^eHiň, cefiMOBue 
jÚapÍH (AHeBHHRH) H ROHCTHTyi^H (nocTaHOBJieHÍfl), pasHaro poAa 
Apyríe HCTO^HHRHy HSBJíeRaeiibie usi apxHBOBi», ne roBopa 060 bc^xi 
Ttxb AOByneHTaxi, Roropue othocatca ri MesAyHapoAHOň nojH* 
Tvvk H BasHu cneiuaJibHO fi^is ucropÍH nojibCRuxi pasA^OBi. He 
MeHbmee pa8HOo6pa8Íe sajLiioHeHO wb HCTopH?ecROfi JiHxepaTypd^, 
HMiioiiieĚ npeAMeroMi cbohmi bck) ary anoxy hjeh OTA&ibHue efl 

XOMeHTbl H flBJíeHifl. 

Ob saH^^aTejbHUMi eABno^ymieMi*, h coBpeMeHHue uocji^jífiiAWb 
AecflTHj^TÚiHi nojibCRaro rocy^apcTBa nojiHTHHecRie nHcaiejiH, h 



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12 MCTHHRb EBPOnU. 

nosAH^fiinie HcropHKH npHSHaiOTb coBepmeHtíyio Hero^HOCTL BHyr- 
peHHflro ycrpoficTBa P^hh IIocnoiHToň h bhaatl b% Bewh npinHHy 
Toro ynaAsa^ bi KaKOMi oua HaxoAHJiacb bi cepe^HH^ XYlU-ro b. 
no MÍpt Toro, KSJíT> HaHHHajo oÓHapysHBaTbCfl fl nasBini npe- 
o($pa30BaTejibHoe ABHseme, BUBOAHBmee ee na HOByio Aopory, eBpo- 
neňCRoe ofin^ecTBeHHoe MH^me nocrenesHO hsm^hajío CBoe otho- 
meHÍe Kt rocy^apcTBy, (Jesnopa^o^HOCTb Koero ycntia boMte vb no- 
ciOBHi^y; ocoÓeHHO bi» anoxy HerupexjiTHflro cedna Cuuia pacnpo- 
crpaHena na SanaA*)^ B'bpa b-b eosposA^Hie IIoJbinH, coeAHHeHHafl 
ci> HeroAOBaHÍeM'B na A^P^Kasu, eny M^maBinifl. B^b btomi HMeneo 
Ayx^ Óujio HanHcaHO nepBoe ucropHqecKoe coHHHeme, vb BOTopoirb 
H3o6pasajiocb i^apcTBOBame CranHOiaBa-ABrycTa: mu roBopHMi o&b 
„HcTopÍH anapxÍH bi* Ilojibm^ h pacnjenemH axoň pecny&iHKH"" , 
3HaMeHHTaro vb CBoe Bpeua Piojbepa, co^noHeHÍH, HairacaHHOirb en;e 
jífl 1791 r. (roAi CMepTH aBTopa), ho yBn^iBmeicb CB^Tb bi ne- 
qaxH Jiiniib bt* 1807 ro^y ^). Xora CMepxb noMiraaJia aBTopy ao- 
BecTH HCTopÍH) UojibniH jsfixe AO nepBaro pasxtjia, a rbui, 6ojAe 

Jífi TOtt nopu, KOrAa nQflBHJIHCb ^'b^CTBHTeJIbHUe IipH3HaKH B03M02K- 

naro^ no KpafiHeS vfbpkj BOsposA^HÚi nojibCKoň sai^iH, vkurb ne 
Mentě, b% naMŠpemflx^b h A'^ftcTBÍHX'b CHMnaxHqHod aBxopy naprÍH 
OH^b oxoTHO ycMaxpHBaerb h^hto laKoe, ht6 saiuiOHajio vh ce6/b 
BOSMOsuocTb cnaceHÍfl Uojibinn h a&s^ ero ocyn^ecxBHJio 6u^ ecmióbi 
dTOMy He BOcnpenflTCTBOBajH cocbp^msL AepaiaBu. CoBepmeeno BtpHO 
noHUMafl HeoóxoAHMOCTb pe^pMi e vb to me BpeMH TpyAHOCTb hxx 
upoBe^ema, ohi> ABJífleTCfl, OAHaEO, crpacTHUMi iipothbhhkomi Ora- 
HHCiaBa-ABrycra, BaBi craBJíeHHHKa Poccíh, no OTHomeHÍio k'b 
ROTopoň PH)j[bepi ÓwTb Hacrpoem KpaSne BpasA^HO. IIo ero 
mh^Lhík), rjiaBHoe a^o saoiOHajiocb 3% tomi, htoóut F'b^ Uocno* 
jiHTyH) ^HSiflTb H3i»-noA'b aHapxHMecKofi BJiacTH ABopflHCTBa^, no- 
cpeACTBOMi) yHHTTOsemfl sasona o eAHHorjiacHOMi ptmemn bc^xi 
A^jii) Ha cefiMaxi, „cnacaa vb to se BpeMfl pecnyCjiHBy orb Bcbx^b 
onacHOcreň A^cnoTESMa'' OTHarieMi* y Bopoufl npaBa HasHanaTbHa 
Bbtcmifl AOJaKHOCTH vb rocyAapcTB^. 3to& nporpaMMt ^paniityscRaro 
HCTopHRa-nydíHi^HCTa bhojih^ yAOBjerBopflja HSAaHHaa B^b roA'b ero 

CMepTH ROHCTHTyi^ifl 3rrO Mafly TBOpiViI KOTOpOfi (KOJIJIOHTaň H AP-) 

BBflJiH Ha ceófl xpyA^b vb roA^b BToporo pasA*]^ onpaBAaTb cboio 
AÍflTejibHOCTb B^ ocoóOM^ coHHHeHÍH noA'b 3arjiaBÍeBrb: „06i> ycra- 
HOBJíeniH H naAeHÍH RoneraTyi^iH 3-ro Maa" '^). Bi 3T0ft hojhth- 
HecRoS Cpomiopš a*^ AORasaTeibCTBa neoÓxoAUMOCTH MafiCRoft peeo- 

Be Rvlhiére. Histoire de Tanarcbie de Pologne ft du démembremcut de 
cette répnbUque. Paris, 1807. 

^) O ustanowienia i o úpadku koustytucyi 3 mája. 1793. 



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HOilbCBia P£<>OPMU. 13 

jjoip He TOJibKO oTfiHMaercfl Bcasoe ójiíLVO^^TejíhBoe sHa^eme y 
pe^pirb, npoHSBeAeHHUxx bi* nojibmi paHBme cb cor^iacifl h npu 
coji^Sctbíh Poccíh, ho A^a^e npHnHCHBaeTCfl hm'b npoAOJiseHie 
aHapxÍH b^b rocy^apcTB^: aHOHHMHUe aBTopu Hsoópa^Kaiarb mjnflXTy 
oj(epsHMOH) AyxoMi pe^^opMi Bi> nojibsy roposaHx u RpecTEflHi, ho 
Bceiiy, no hxi cJiosaM^, M^majia pyccRaa „rapanTia'' . Kon^e^epai^fl 
1788 r. saAyMaaa cnacrn nojubmy h nanuia bi HantÍH nojinoe co- 
íyBCTBÍe BC^iťB CBOHMi» HJiaHaMi; MŠpu HerupexJi^THflro cefina Óujia 
XOCtoíhu BCflBOfi noxBaJiij; BOHCTHryi^ifl 3-ro Maa, mrB Bse^eHnaa, 
npeAcraBJífleTCfl BopxoMi coBepmencTBa. noveny se BOHCTHTy^ifl bta 
He sanua AOcraTOTOoft noAAep»BH wb Ha^iH? „^jm EBpomi, — roso- 
jmicfl vh OAHOMx M^krl BToft RHHrH, — AOJURHO óujio noBasatBCfl 
crpaHHHirb, BaKHirB oÓpasoMi nojibCBafl Hai^ia, nesa^ojiro nepeA'B 
rba coBepmeHHO npe^aHnaa BOHCTHryi^in 3-ro Maa, Morja npH- 

MKHyTb Kb SaBJlOqeHHOMy npOTHB^B HOCJliABtí^ TaprOBHI^BOMy C0H)3y. 

EcjHÓu, — npH^aBJíeHO AftJiie, — naiíifl, jíMcTBiiTeJiBHO, ÓHJia xas^B 
BenocTOflHHa, to ona cnpaseAJiHBO sacjiymiija 6u BCflBoe npesp^nie 
H ne 6ujia 6u ;(OCTottHa HHBaBofi xopomeK BOHcraTyi^iH". AoTopi 
rjaeii, hsi Boett BunHcaHu 8th crpoBH, buxoahtb HsisaTpyAHenifl, 

O^BHHflfl BO BCeMl POCCÍH) A& ^eJIOB^Bl TpHAI^TB HOJIBCBHXl H8- 

vIhhhbobx OTenecTBy. „UovEÓeJih rocy^apcTBa, — CBasano vb koehIí 
KHHrH, — vb TO BpoMfl, BOF^a OHO HK^o HpaBO Ha Jiyqmífl na^esAu, 
sor^a OHO npeAnpHHfljio pasyMHUfl wbpu wb nojiBsy BceoÓn^aro 
diarococTOflHÍfl, bohohho, óy^erB npHaieBaTB b^b ceGb pasMumjieHifl 
rpi^yn^HX^B BpeMeHi. IIojiBma, Boropyio aocojií HecnpaBOA^HBO ocjia- 
BijH, sas^B SHjnrn^e BapBapcTBa, BaB^ ytítsHn^e 4>^Afi^H3Ma, no- 
mipaiontaro HoraMH nejiOBŠ^ecBÚi npaBa, noBasajia bi p'£meHÍflxi 
KOHCTHTyipoHHaro cefina, tto ona HAeri HapaBH^ ci oÓpasoBan- 
HMnmMH Ha^úiMH EBponu b'b hcthhhom^ npocBŠn^emH, kb pasyM- 

HOITB saBOHOAaxeJIBCTBi, BX npkI3HaBaHÍH H HOHHTamH qeJ[OBÍqeCBHX'B 

npasi... Be3% BCflBofi bhhu (tb CBoefi croponu, ho a&b-b coc^a^mi 
HH luuMmaro nOBO^a bb MecTH hjih BpasA'^) na^aerB IIojiBnia b% 
TO caifoe BpeMfl, Borxa npnroTOBHJia Bce am CBoero CHacrifl!'' 

Bi 1818 r., no HcropÍH hocjiíahhx^ ipexi flecflTHjri&xift cy- 
o^ecTBOBaHÍfl UosbuiEj Bunua HeÓojiBniafl BHHSBa nojiBCBaro ucro- 
pHsa, loaxHica JlejieBejui, a XBa ro^a cnycra Hs^ano 6uxo na ^^pan- 
ncyscBoirB sí^usík ÓojiBmoe co^nHenie o toitb se npeAMOT^ ^eppana. 
C^ BumeyBasaHHtiHH npoHSBeAeniflMH PiojiBepa h aBTOpoB'B bohcth- 
Ty^iH 3-ro Mafl o(5a tojibbo-?to HasBanHBie HCTopn^ecBÍe xpy^u 
;(ojiro cocraBJífljiH rjaBnua co^HneHÍfl no HcropÍH aToK anoxH, h 
BSTjflAHy Bi hhtb BUCBasaHHue, 61J.1H AO^roe npena rocnoACTByio- 
nQDfH vb HcropHqecBoft JHTepaiypt. JlejieBeJiB wb CBoeMi „II,ap- 



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14 B^bCrHHlCJb E15ťOUJbl. 

CTBOBanÍH nojKBCRaro Ropana OraHHcaaBa-ABrycra IIoHflTOBCRaro, 
oÓHHMaioii^eMi TpHAi^aTHjr6THÍfl ywjÚA Hapoxa BOspOAHTbCfl H co- 
xpaHHTb cyn^ecTBOBaHÍe h HesasucHMOCTB^ O, B£iCRa3UBaerB Becbiia 
onpeA'^eHHi]tt B3rjisíHT> na pe<{)opMu, Roropua coBepinajHCB bi axy 
dnoxy B^b nojiMO'!. Bjaj^h caiťB ctopohhhromi xofi h^^ch, hto 
Pšw QocuaiHTofi HeoÓxojiHMEí 6uAVL KopeHHUfl npeo6pa30BaHÍfl, ohi*, 
OAHaRO, Heco^CTBeHHO OTHOCHTCfl El pe<{)opHam ^apxopucRHxi Bl 
caifoiťB Hanajíš i^apcTBOBaHifl GraHHCJiaBa-ABrycTa: uocjAaeísi 6iuh 
BHynieHu BHaMeHHToft „4^aMHJiÍH^ MOHapxHqecRHMH HAeflMH, pacnpo- 
CTpaHflBiiiHMHCfl B'B HOJBCROMi o6mfiGrwb E3% $paHi^ÍH, a JleieBeiB 
cnaceme IIojibioh bh^^^-b bi AAJKi>H^ftineirb pasBHTÍH pecnydíHRaH- 
csoft ocHOBu nojibCRaro rocyAapcTBeHHaro 6uTa. I^itb ne uente, 
nflTHaAi^aTL jAtb, cjvb]í,jjom}si 3a nepBtuTB pa3A'&ioirb, Ror^a »poc- 
dficRÍfi nocjiaHHHRi npaBHJix Qojibmefi", pHcyH)TCfl HcropHRy, EaRTL 
dnoxa BasHEixi BHyrpeHHHxi yjtyHmemfi, xota „nox^iue judah, 
pyROBOAHHue npeApascjARaMH hjih HHiepecoMi") crapajnicb Bce n(^* 
THTb: no coÓcTBeHHUHi. ero ciOBaifb, craponojibCRie nopa^KH bi» 

dTO Bpeiffl 9 3aMÍHflH)TCfl, O^HaRO, HOBUMH ^OpiiaMH, ÓOJIŠO 00^X0* 

ABBmHiíH R^ yifbpeHHOfi MonapxÍH, R'b ciťlmaHHOMy otipasy npaB- 
jiemsij o ROTOpOHi Bce Óojibme u ÓOJibme ueTrajH, rx ROTopoMy 
Bospacrajia CRJiOHHocrb'^. ^.^:o Racaerca ao ROHCTHTy^iH 3-ro nafl, 
TO H Bi pascMaTpHBaeiíott rhef^, h bi» ocoÓomi* co^HeemH o neft ^), 
JleJieBejib cb óojibio bi cepAií'^ npn CBoefi pecnydíHRaHCRott tohb^ 
sp^HÍfl CMOTpHTb Ha STO „yRiOHeHÍe OTB crapoAaBHHxi eanaji^B^, 

XOTfl H MHpHTCfl Cb CSMOŘ R(mCTIITy^iefi, nOTOMy HTO OHa BCe-TaRH 

6Hjra CBOfl h y^epsEBajia mjuixeTCRift pecnyÓJiHRaHHSifb, xota h He 
oxpaHHjia ÓwňSi lIojibniH, RaRi paBCHHXHBajiH ea TBopipi. Oóoufi 
BsvjkBjí,T> 3HaMeHHTaro nojLbCRaro HCiopHRa ea snoxy CBOAHTCfl rtb TOiiy, 
TTO PŠHb nocnojiHTafl HecoHH^HHO nporpeccHpoBaxa: CHanaja ee- 
MHoríe xOT&aH pej^opMu h to opn HEOseMHOft noMOm^H, a noTO]r& 
Óesi noci^AHett yse Bce eapOAHoe npeAcraBHTasbCTBO aReJUUo pe* 
^pMu; CHanaja iiaccEi HeAOBOJbH&ix'b pe<{)opifaMH nopo^KiE icon- 
^e^epai^ÍH, noRpuBinifl Koposy h JlerBy, a nOTOirb juamh cribcROiBRo 

HBM^HHHROBX ynOTpeÓHJO npOTHBl HOBUXl HOpSAKOBl HHOSeMHyiO 

CELiy; Bi nepBOifb BOscraHÍH wh saiQHTy HesaBHCHMOCUH (HiieHHO b^b 
ÓapcBoft ROH^^AepaqiH) npifHajia y^aerie OAHa JLvimh nuuixTa, vb 
noe^rb^tHesTb (t.-c. K0CTi)inR0BCR0M'b) — u lAmfise^ h cejEb^ane, h soft- 



M Lélewet Panowanie króla polskiego StanÍBlawa Augosta PomatowBkie^o 
obejmuj^ce trzydziestoletnie usilnoáci národu podiwignigcia si§, ocalenia bytn i niepod- 
legtosci. 1818. 

') Trzy konstitncje polskie 1791, 1807, 1816, porównař i róžnice jich rozwažy^ 
loachm Lekwd w roku 1831. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



noJbCKifl PEa>0PMu. 15 

CBO. dmsTb nojibCRift HapoA'B ^nOKasuBarb BceMy MÍpy, hto, npH- 
diHxaflCb BT» na^enÍH), oei BOSBpan^a^ca nocjvk AO^iraro or^^&neH^Hia 
Kb aui3HH, HTO Bi cauoMi ero naAeHin Ha^EHaeicfl ero óucrpoe' 
B03posA6HÍe^. Bi nocjiŠAHifl TpHAi^aTb jňrb cyn^ecTBOBaHia P^qsí 
nocaojHTofi, noA'B B^iameMi. nonuŤOKB pe^^opMupoBaTb rocy^apcxBO, 
,npo6yAHj[HCB bc£ s^iaccu; 3p'&iHii:(e diHXi apeAnpiflTiň noTpacjio 
Hxi AO ocHOBaHÍfl: mjiflXTa ÓpocHJiacb cnacaib cboh npiiBEjieriH, so- 
TopuiTB rpo3H;ia onacHOCTb; AHCCHAeHTH, MŠu^ane BcnoiiHHjra bi 
CBOK) OHepeAB 061 yTpaHeHHux^b npaBax'B; ryMaHHOCTB Ha^ajia ro- 
BopBTb sa HecBOÓOAHBiK jiK)Ai>, CA'&iaJia nonuTBy ABBHyrB BnepeAi> 
ero A^^* Cro^bBo ofin^ecTBeHHUxi ajieMeHTOBi oshbuo nocji^AHifl 
TpHAiviTb jFbrb naAaBmett Vimu QocnojHTOfi!'' GA^ano Óujio, OAHaBo, 
weBO ne Bce, nnb 6ujío HymeO; h ne xaKi*, Ras^b nysHO. OcyaiA&fl 
soHCTHxyiUK) 3-ro naa 3a to, ^to OHa „nocraBBia pecnyÓJiHBaHCBifl 
y^pesAeHk noA'b HacJiiACTBeHHoe npasjíeHÍe'' , JlejieBeJib HaxoAun 
vb HeĚ H TOTb HeAOCTaTOR'b, HTO mjiflXTa coxpaHflja B^b Hefi CBOe 
BceMoryn^ecTBO h npeporaTiiBu: ynoMHHyB^b, hto ycrynRH, CA^aHHua 
MioíMCTBy, TOT^acb me npHfiaBHJiH chjih P4hh IlocnojiHTOft, owh 
HeBOiBHO BOCRJiHi^aerb: „RaRyio 6u cajiy OHa npio6ptj[a, ecJinCu 
ciyjiijH ABHHyTb caMuS MHOroqHCJieHHu& b TpyAOJnoÓHBufi Rjiaccb!^ 
PascKasuBafl o nocjriAHeft nonbiTR'^ cnacTH nojbmy b^ 1794 roAy, 
ucK^BRi, paBHUM'b oÓpasoMi, OTM'£qaerb xorb 4>&Rrb, ^to oTHomeme 
nuflXTH B'b BoscraHÍK) crajio oxjiaA^Baxb, RorAa KocriamBo oópa- 
THjiefl vb npocTOMy JiiQAy, h ^to vrb nocjribAHeifb snaMeHHTutt bosab 
He HamejTb Tofi MopajibHoft cejiu, na Roropyio pascqBTUBajrb. Bo 
BCflKOiTb aíyHa'6, no ero npeAcraBJíeHiH), Ilojibina nua BnepeA'b, ho 
ona Óbura cjiemROsrb CJiatia ajisi 6opb6Er ci xpeifa AepaiaBaMH. B'b 
Heft npoHcxoAHJia nojBTHqeCRaa h coi^iasbHafl peBOJioiiiifl, h „Bparb 
ne ynycTHJii CJiynaa HBBje^b nojibay hst. BaMiraaxeJibCTBa, ynorpe- 
5HTb Bce, HTĎ 6ujíO HeroAHaro mi> npesHeB nopw, h3% npesHaro 
CDOAJieHk^, oirapaflCb na BOspacraBmyio óessacriHTOBOcrb BHyxpeH- 

HHXl nOJIbCBHXl H3M'£HHHR0B'b. 

^ppasb, coqHHeHÍeiťb Roxoparo „HcTopia xpexi pasA^OBi 
QoAiDH^ ^) noj[b30Bajicfl JlejieBejib b% AAJibH']^&inHX'b HSAaHÍaxi CBoett 
BHRSRu, TaKse saxpoFHBaerb HCTopiio BHyTpeHHHX'b pe4)opM'b, co- 
BepmaBDíHXCfl wb P-Ihh IIocnojiHTOň. Bi* noJibCROM'b rocyAapcxB']^, 
roBopHTb owbj 6hi,n eu^e nai^ioHajibHbitt Ayxi, h ohi uocjA Bou^a- 
peHiji OraHHCJiaBa-ABrycTa cjiíbji?LJVb'6ujio nonuxRy yHHHxoaRHTb BHyr- 
peHHÍe 6e3nopflAKH, nonuTRy, OAHaRO, no mh^híh) ^^pam^yscRaro 

*) Histoire des trois démembremens de la Pologae pour faire suitě á Phistoire 
de Paoarchie de Pologne par Rulhiére, par Pauteur de L'£sprít de Phistoire et de 
la théoríe des révolutions* Paris, 1820. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



16 B^CTHUKl) fiBPOUU. 

HCTopHRa, upaHHe HepacnojosieHHaro ki sopojiH), Hey^a^HyK), bcj^- 
CTBÍe OTcyrcTBifl bi pe4>opMax'B oón^aro luana h BCi^ACTBÍe 6e3- 
nopsAKOBi, EOHifB noMorajia Poccía. Ilponsomejn nepBuň pasA^^, 
H OHrb-TO OBasajii diaro^xejiBHoe Esiame na Hai^ionajibHuft Ayj% 
noiflKOBi: Bsfísumch npeoÓpaaoBaHifl, yse AOCiHraBinifl i^h, Ror^a 
Bce jsíbjío Óujio Hcnop^eHO hshíhoh) Bopojia. ^eppani — dosbmoŘ 
noBJíoHHHKi HeT£ipexji'lTHflro cefiMa h peBaIH)^ÍH 1794 r., xota vb 
nocjňAndk^ no ero csoBaM^b, h ne ycn&rb npoflBHTBCfl bhojih^ na- 
i^ioeajibHiitt AyTb. 

HecMOTps Ha pasJíH^e, ROTopoe mosho oÓnapysETb iiesAy bbf^- 
AaMH PiojBepa, asropoBi rhbtii o ROHCTHTy^iH 3-ro naa, JlejieB&ifl 
u ^eppana, WíS&e b% tomi KpaxBoifb esjíosemH, b% BaKoifB mh 
3A'iteb dTH BsrjTflAu npeAcraBHJiH, mu HaxoAHiťE HyaumiťB bkjih)- 
qHTB HX'B B% OAHy BaTeropiio: xapaKxepHaa hxx oco6eHHOCTE — BÍpa 
Bi cepEesHOCTB yjiynnoHift, npoHCxoAHBniHxi bi TloJbini, cjoseme 
Bcett bhhu sa ney^a^y pe^^opM-E Ha hhtphfh h^rojibkhxx h3m%h- 
HUROBi H na HacHjdfl cocéahhxi x^psaBi. KpoM% xoro, h wl hš- 
KOTopBixx qacTHOCTflxi Ha3BaHHue HHcaTejiH cxoAflTCfl MesAy CO6O10: 
TaROBu — HepacHOJioseme r'b pe^opuš ^apTOpErcRHxi, BpasA^noe 
OTHomeHÍe r^ CraHHCJiaByABrycTy, yRasanie na BoaposACHÍe HaiUH, 
ofiHapyjKHBmeecfl nocjň nepsaro pa3A*Jia, co^BCTBÍe kb A^aTCJib- 
HOCTH ^eTupexji-iTHaro cefiifa, npHHHMaion^ee jifiíSRe bh^tb esi npo- 
ciaBieHÚi. IlepBiíMH HcropHRaMH, H3yqHBniHMH dnoxy h cocraBHB- 
niHMH ce6% o nett npeAcraBareme hhofo pOAa, 6um hšmi^i, roto- 
pue, HHTepecyflCB npeuMyn^ecTBenHO „pasA^aMH^, sarjflAUBajiH h 
BO BHyrpeHHÍH OTHOmeHÍa IIojiBmH. Hsi H^Mei^RHx^B hctophrob'^ 
HasoBeirs saícl PayHepa, nucaBraaro, Mea^y npo^HMi, o&b espo- 
neftcRHXx coóuTÍaxT. MesKAy 1763 h 1783 rr.; Tepnana, aBTopa 

H3b4cTH0& HÍMeDlROft HCTOpÍH PoCCÍH; ShÓBM, HCTOpHRa peBOJK)- 

i^íOHHott anoxH; CHHTia, nocBflTHBmaro nojibCRHirB a^^m^b ABa Ba»- 
Huxi TpyAa; Ffonne, cocraBHBmaro BecbMa xopomee onHcame hojib- 
CRaro rocyAapďBeHHaro ycrpoScTBa, h 4>OH^~A6P*"BpH)rreHa, ro- 
Toputt HeAaBHO AaNi'B p^a^b 9CRH30b%, HsotfpaiRaionJtiixii „pasjíoseme 

nOJBHIH'' ^). UepBOMy H3T. aTHXl aBTOpOBl npHHurocb rOBOpHTb 

TOJibRO o nepBOMi pa3A*Jrife, h mbi ynoMHHaeM^B sa^cb o ero co^h- 



^) Raumeť. Europa vom Ende des siebenjarigen bis zum Enge des amerika- 
niscben Krieges. Leipzig. 1839. 

— Hermann. Gescbicbte des russiscben Staats. Hamburg. 1853, 60, 61. 

— Syhel. Gescbicbte der Revolutíonszeit. Dússeldorf. 1853 sq. 

— Smitt, Soworow und Polens Untergang. Leipzig und Heidelberg. 1858. 

— HUppe. Die Verfassung der Republik Polen. Berlin. 1867. 

— Von der Brúggen. Polens AuflOsung. Lepzig. 1878. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



nOSbCKlfl PE^OPMU. 17 

HeHÍH Mmh noTOicy, hto fb Bewb oneBh acho DucKasaHa Mucjib, 
npoxoAflnvui nepeafb bcio HÍMeipiyK> jHTepaxypy o&b dioicB npex- 
Hert, HMeHHO TO, HTO rjaBHUMH BUHOBHHsaMH CBOHxi HecHacritt 
(iiuH caMH noiflRH. repuaHB jme rjiyCse npoHHBaerB kb canyio 
siSHB Tor^aoíHeft IIojbioh, noiBsyscB AOHeceniflMH h8t» BapmaBBi 
vh j^pesxeicB casooHCRaro pesHA^Hra dccena n pasHiniH ^fiORyiieH* 
TUH lOHxoHCBaro n CepjEHCsaro apxHBOBi. Ha ocHOBaHm diHxi 

ICíO^EKOVb^ OITB nepBUft, CROJIBKO HailX HBB^HO, CTaJIl ^OKaSH* 

Ban, ^TO vb UojíhuA BOBce ee 6huto HHsaBoro nporpecca vh uat* 
Hsuu^KTB xkrbj 0TxÍJiflH>ii^8xx HeT£ipexjrÍTHÍ& cefiiťB OTB nepBaro 
pa3AÍJUt; no ero coficiBeHHuiťB ciOBajfB, „cjíblÓusí nonuTEH ota^b* 
mm jíwib yjy^mHTB iiopajiBHoe h nanHTHqecRoe cocroame CBoefi 
mo)R HCiesajiH ho^th tfescjrlAHO, BaRi bo^ahua Ranjm bi Hopš, 
pacKajieHHaro neeRy^. ^ajiie, BecBMa HepacnojKoaseHHufi ri hoja- 
laicB SaCeAB w^tb ohobb mhofo H^cra dojbcriimi a^^itb bi CBoefi 
fiojBBioft „HcTopÍH peBonoitioHHaro BpeMenn^. Bo bcíx^ rbTh ota^- 
uxi cBoero xpy^a, Tf,i ohi BOBBpan^aercfl ri bthmi Kbjiem>, owb 
HoeiOflHHO noBTopaeri oaho n to ase, T.-e. u8o6paaieHÍe tjljÓowř 
QopHH nojBCRaro rocy^apcTBeHnaro h otfn^ecTBeHHaro tiura, RaR^B 
6y^ He npHAaBafl HHRaRoro BHaneHifl tím^b cpeACTBam, r^ roto- 
pmrB P6qB llocnojurrafl o6paTHJiacB, HaROHei^'B, j^si H3Jie<reHÍfl BHyT- 
peHHiFo CBoero ne^yra, h coBepmeHHO Aase BrHOpepyfl to oÓctob- 
TeďBCTBO, ^T0 nojiBma vb anoxy ROHCTHTyi^iH 3-ro nas h B03CTaHÍfl 
KocnomRH au^ko ocraBa^a nosa^H ce6fl IIojBiny BpeiieHi ahcch- 
j^eflTcsaro Bonpoca, (ktpcRoft ROH^^e^epai^iH h nepBaro pa8A'Í^a. 
EciH HiMe^BiĚ ucTopHR^ H ynoMHHaeTi o pe4)0pMaxi vb Vimi 

IIocnOJIHTOft, TO, FJiaBHUHl O(5pa30M!B, A^B TOrO, HTOfiu nORasaTB HXl^ 

HeBHTOAHOCTB fl^ IIpyccÍH H onpaBAaTB npyccRyH) nojETHRy^ ho 
xonnyH) AonycTHTB ycHJtemfl CBoefi ÓJiusattniefi coc&abh. VL Cmhttb, 
aBTOpB HanHcaHHaro no^^^pani^yscRH co^HneHia o „^pHAPHX-i U, 
i^TepHH^ n H noiBCROiffB pasA^&st^ B 6ojiBinoro H']kMeiíRaro TpyAa 
noAB sarjiaBieHi: ^GyBopoFB h naAenie IIojibiiiH^, o6pain;aeT% oco6oe 
BHBifaBie Ha anTaroHBSifB npyccRHx^ h jio;ibcrbx'b HHTepecoBi, ho 
FopasAO rjyóse, nesejiH SafieiB, BHHRaeTi wh cyn^HOCTB BnyTpeHHefi 
HCTopÍH o6peqeHfiaro na raCejiB rocyAapcxBa. B-b coBepmeHHyio 
npoTHBoaoioasHOCTB aBTopaifB RHHfH o ROHCTHTyi^m 3-ro Mafl, Gmhttb 
co^yBCTBOHEO OTHOCHTCfl Ri pe^^opMBMi, npeAnpHHBTLIMl B% DoJiBiirb 
nocjii 1772 roAa, hbxoab, hto oh*! CA^Jain bobmokhumh bi crpae-i 
fl^ROTopuB yjy^meHk. „HecnacTBe nepBaro pasA^^a, roBopHTB oni*, 
Ao.mHO óojLO craTB cpeACTBOMi HcnpaBJíemfl BnyrpenHEx^ otho- 
meflift Bi nojiBmš", a coŠAyion^itt 8aTÍM'B nflTHaAi^aTHjrferHift nepioA'B 
OBi^ CHBTaerB „OAHHirB mi> HaH6oji']te c^acrjuiBUXi nepioAOBi nojiB- 

To» lU.-Mifl, 1889. 2 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1 8 BftotHmrB SBPOioi. 

CKOtt HCTopÍH". P^HH IIocnoiHTOft, no ero mf6híh), HysHO 6ftiao 
AepmaTBCfl corosa ch Pocdeft: owh oxoÓpaerB vb ^^tu, Koropne 
cooTBŠTCTByiorB aroft mucih, n nopHivier& ^^c^tbi, hiitb npoTHBOno- 

JIOflBHHe, BCXbxCTBie H^O, CB OAHOft CTOpOHH^ OETB flBJUieTCfl OTOpOH- 

HHKoiTB BHyrpeHHeft nojiHTHBH OTasHCJasa-ABrycTa, ocyaiAaBnietcii 
noiBCKHHii HCTopHKaifE, K&Rjíj iTpo^íBMiyj sa pycesoB GBoe HanpaB* 
lenie, a cb xpyrofr eropoHH, KpflXHxyen xb&cimsL lempeu^THflro 
cefiiia, CB caiiaro sa^ajia noisexinaro npoiiiBi Poccm, Toro caiiaro 
cetMa, EOTopiifi, HanpoTHFB, Ůiurh npeBOSHeceHi vh WĚrwbiĚbUfSBJL^ 
mrapisa.^ na^enífl IIojiBnm. KoHCTHTyipi> 3-fo Maa owb hoab^- 
raeTB pasóopy, mroóu onpaBxarB CBOft cypoBuft o h^ npHroBopi»: 
no ero cxoBairB, ona 6iLsa AOBOJUBEO-rasH „ÓesroisoBiDrB asjííb- 
^úeuPh^y XOTS. npH ]Sfissax% oócroflTejiBCTBax^B Bce-iasH „<$oj[Biiiinf% 
maroiTB Bnepexi*'. IIpETOirB, ;^yMaerB oh^b, h Óeai HEOcrpanHaro 
BHŠmaiejBCiiBa ona ne iiorjia 6u y^epasaTBoa, BCjribxcTBie BHyrpeHHefi 
onnosimiH, ts6o „b% npexcifepTHHJi MiHyrEi nejíjbŘcrBUTeJshBu bh* 
RaKifl .cpeACTBa^. TasHiTB oÓpasoirB, bb coHHHeHÍH CMHira, ocias- 
meMCfl, BB cosaJi^HÍH), H60B(m^eHHmrB, oÓiajŘ BsrjflA^ sa BHyr- 
peHHÍJi noiBCsifl K^Jiň xiaiieTpajiBHO nporiiBoiiojioseHi oÓn^eMy npex- 
craBiemH) x^a y BasBaHHHxi j^paHityscKHXB h nojobCBHXi mica- 
Teoíeft. Otmítemb emfi BHiiry Fioniie o6i> ycrpoftcTB^ noiBCsaro 
rocyAapcTBa, vjsjb asit^, no^oChiO SHÓeJno, nepe^iHCJiflerB bc^ cmpne 
rp&LH IIojBniH, H noryiSHBniie ee, ho ohobb Ma.io BEHKanifl o6pa- 
n^texB Ha npeAnioHflTiifl bx i^apcTBOBame OiaHHCjaBa-ABrycra pe- 
<|k>pmu, HaxoAfl Booón^e, tto „eAnHCTB^HiorB cpeAcmom> macenÍH^ 
AJI2 dToro rocyxApcTBa Cujnh ^despotisme éclairé^, ne Mormift, OAnaso, 
BOSHHBHyxB B% UojshisA. HaROHei^, H ^H%-Aepi-Epx)rreHi vh 
CBOHXB HHTepecHiix'B OHcpsaxi, HOCfln^Hxx o6m,ee sarjaBie: ^Paa- 
Jioseme IIoJiBmn'', BucBasuBaerB meicjib, ^to nojiHBaMi> HyasHa 6iija 
atícojiH)THafl Monapxifl, hto o^na ona Horjut hxb cnacTH otb rohc^- 
Hoft nitfeiH. IIpHBHaBafl ÓMTOKbrexbiiocTb pe4>opMi, BBexenHim 
nocii nepBiu'0 pas^^a, oh^b HaxoAHTB, oxnaBO, ^to owk uajio sa- 
TpoFHBajiH mjuixeTCByH) Maccy, TaBi Bas^B na nee pe<|>opiíaTopii 
o6pan^ajiH ciHmBOirB Maio BHHMamfl, osH^aa cnacemji CBepxy, x.-e. 
OTB ycuenífl BopojeBCBOfi BJiacrn, otb BH-i&niHdro sHaneHÍfl IIojbuih, 
OTB cpeACTBB npaBHTeJiBCTBeHHaro BOSA^ftciBÍfl. Othocscb 6oAÍe 6iaro- 

CB40HH0, líbirb BTO 6hl TO HH 6UJ10 H3B HÉHeipLHXB HCTOpHBOBTb, 

BB BOHCTExyiuH 3-ro Mafl, OHB, Tbm> ne iiente, saM^werB, hto dro 

ÓUJIO JlibnO HOMHOTEXl JDO^^B, He HMŠBHiee IipOHHEIX^B BOpHOft B^B 

Maccš. 

y pyccBHXB HCTopHBOBi, saHHMaBDmxcfl na^eHÍeMi Uosaím^ 
MU, paBHBDTB oCpasoMB, BCTplHaeMCfl CB BsrjuiA&MH, EpafiHe Hecxo^- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



nOflBCKIfl PEMPMU. 19 

Hmoi ch tímMj BOTopHe rooioxcTBOBaJiB y Óojáe paemzi naca- 
leieft naiBOBHX'B h l|»paH^y8CBEX'B. Ilepe^HCSflfi npHiHHu, nosBO- 
jranúfl Poccíh CBecrni si bohi^ crapHe c^tu ci P'|qBH) IIoeDO- 
jKTot, CojOBBeBii B% cbobí ^HciopÍH naxeHÚi IIojíiaiiH'' ^) ysasH- 
BaeTB, Mes^ nporairB, Ha ynpeoÓpasoBaTejOíHUfl ABHseHifl'', ro- 
€D0XCTBOBaBiDÚi vh Esponi CB HaHajia B^Ba ao KOBDDia ero. HiieHHO, 
HOiCHsen GoxoBBeKb cboh) hucjib, „cpe^n npeoÓpasoBaieiBHUxi 
jlBiixeHifi^ xoTopiiMH 3HaMeiiM)Baj[Cfl B^Bx, cpeAB ABUSeHÍft^ npoHCxo* 
XEBiiDix'B BCK>Ay ofiOJLO, IIojiBina HS iiorja ocraBaT&Cfl cnoso&HOH), 
Tkm 6o.s^, 710 Kb Befi npeoÓpasoBaHÍfl 6iuih Hyseie, ^m^ r^^ 
jh5o... Ho, — iqwtfaBiuierb hck^hb'^ — mnb ÓHBaen GnacuTejiBHO m^ 
KpbnsaTb opraHHSMOBi, ib ry^HTB ciatiiue^ h nonuisa opeo^paso- 
BiHÚi TOjn»BO ycBopHiia na^eme Uojihmii''. TasHirB oďpasoirb, b% 
Tia caMHX'B pe^pvax^b, bobmh noiBCBie narpioru AyMaiH cnacni 
CBoe oreiecTBO, a hctophbh ccÓíl yrimajiH, BaBi upoflBjeHÍ^rb 
BHjrrpeHHeĚ mmyiecrsi h BOspos^eHk nojibCBaro rocy^apcTBa, Go- 
MOBhidVb jBExkMfb OAHy H81 iipH?HH^ ycBopHBiziflxi na^eflie 8T0r0 
rocyxapcTBa. FoBops o iipeo6pa80BaTejibHofi A^TejbHOCTH CiaHE- 
GiaBa-ABrycTa nocjvjb nepBaro paax&ia, ohx sairl^aeri en^e, ^to 
,Be6 9TB ipŽTBB, noBadaBmiecfl na nOBepxHocTH hoibíi nps nteo- 
lopHxx 6iaronpúiTtarB yciOBÚixx, ne 5ujui npEsnaBaiiH Bospos- 
Aemfl Ilojiuiiif, BOTopafl HemHyeiio AOJSHa CbLia noiuaTHTbCfl 

aBHBHbK) Sa <»0K> HGTOIHK)^. Bl APyTOlTb M^^CXt CoJEOBbeBl 611^6 

paffb noBTopflen, wto „npeoÓpaBOBaxaibHafl A^ATexbHOCTB tojbbo 
eierBa Boceyjacb noBepxHOCTH^ , hto „nopaseasoe HeHaiewiioio 
ÓoiisHBH) oÓn^ecTBeHHoe t&io cnoco6HO Óujio tojibbo bi cy^opos- 
fiOMy npexcMepTHOMy ABHsemH)^. II no noBO^y BOHCTHryi^iH 3-ro 
xbs ohb roBopHTB Bco TOiTB aBO „napajiH^t rocyAapcTBeHHaro 
H HapoAHaro iď^, Boropoe H&sbSfl 6wio BOsÓyAHTB bi shshh HHBa- 
KmH pe4K>pMaMH^. Gtoa se HeÓJiaronpúiTHO othochtca kl BHyxpeH* 
HSTb jf^bssLWb IIojibmH H RocTOHapoB'b Bi CBoeiii ofinmpHOjrB xpyA^ 
o „IIocjŠAHHXi roAax'B Pi?n IIocnojiHTofi^ ^). FopasAO BEHMaiejb- 
jde, HeseiH GojiOBBeKB, pasciforp^B^b 8th A&sa, ohi npHnHCUBaerb 
H doJDune BHanemfl pe^pnairb) npoH8BeAeHHUM'b wb JIoja>urb nocjA 
nepBaro pasA^Jia, ho npH 8tomi hoctoahho BUcraBiiieTB na bha^b, 
wto TO 6wiQ Bpeiffl HenocpeACTBeHHaro AaBJceHÍa pyccsott BJiacTH. 
^noxBma, — roBopHTb ohi, HanpHiišp^b, — tojibbo npn AaBjremH orb 

PoodH H MOrJia CBOJIbBO-HH^yAB yCTpOHTbCfl, CA^BHIHCb OBOH^a* 
TeAHO HeCHOCOÓHOH) B'b CaiiOÓUTHOfi HOJIHTH^eCBOfi SHBHe'^. Owb 



^) C. CoAOeheeb. HcTopi^ oaxenia IIoibiiih. MocKsa. 1863. 

') jET. EopnoMapoeh. Hoci^AHie roxH Píhh UocnojiHToft. Gn6. 1870. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



20 BftOTHHKB EBPOHLI. 

BHAHTB Bce xopomee, htď 6uio CA^jano bb nepíoA'B otb nepsaro 
pa8;(&ia xo. ^erapexjri^Hflro cefina, ho bo wewb yciuiTpHBaerb npa* 
MyH) KiH EOCBeHHyH) noMon^B Poccíh. OxHaso, pesyjBiaTBi axoft 
AÍflTejBHocTH DpexcraBJUKxrcfl aiy Aaieso ne tíiecTfln^iofH: j,naiflKfl, 
BpHqaBmie o Bospos^eBÍH oieiecTBa, — roBopsirB ohb, — ne qa&ulhí 

nOHTH HHHerO A^UÍ dlOtt BeJlHBOfi I^&IH. BnOď^ACIBÍH OHH rOBOpiUH, 

HTO BHHOH) dTOiiy tfujia Poccifl, yMHmjeHHO noMepsHBaBoiafl fjsjh 
pasAopoBB H MimaBmafl BO^Bopemia (SMroycrpoficTBa. Mucib hcto- 
pH^ecRH HeB^pnafl'', saBuoiaerB HcropHBi* Ho ero mh^hík), rjaBHaa 
omH^Ba noiSROVh Óuja b^b tomb, ^to na nepBufi tíMWh ohb cia- 
BHJiH „He BHyrpeHHee CjiaroycrpoĚcrBO, He HpaBCTsesnoe h yiiciBeH- 
Hoe yjiyqmeHie, a noJUHTH^ecKyK) CHjy rocyAapciBa''. P^ojnoipa 
TOJiBBO OKOHHaTeiBHO MOFJia HOryCBTB nojiBmy: cb eroft HMeHHo 

TOHBH 3ptHUI ClCOrpHTB KoCTOMapOBl ^t aBTE-pjCCByK) KbSkTeSbBOCTh 

HeTEipeúbTHflro cefina. »Hítb, — HHTaeirB mu eme y nero, — Bibrrb 
HB^ero jierEOiciícjieHH']^ (j^pasB, noBTopflBímxcfl hšcroibbo pas^ 
nojiAKaiiH, a 3a hiihh h macaTejiflMH ApyraxB eapoAOBB, ^to IIojiBina 
CB BOHCTBxyi^eH) 3-ro naa Morjia 6h Boq)aAHTBca bbhho& acHSHH, 
ecjiHÓu e& He noM^majiH hsbh^^. BBmHCUBaeii^B, HaEoeeiiB, jsai^ 
pasHUXB míctb BHHni, eJi%AyH)ii;ie otsubsi EocroMapOBa o ^ertipex- 
liTHeMB cefiMŽ H BOHCTHTyi^in 3-ro Hafl: ^?eT[ipexi'bTHÍfi ceftiTB 
HarjiflA&o noBasajDíB HeBOSHOSHociB pecnyÓJuiB^ cnacTH ce($H u ncajk-- 
jHTBCfl OTh CBoero pasBpan^eHifl... HecocroflTeJiBHocTB SToft npocjiaB- 
jieHHofi BB CBOe Bpeiifl BOBCTHTyi](ÍH, BpoMt cnoco6a ea npoBOsrjia- 
memfl, BBrcBasajacB h b^b caiioft cyn^HOCTH ea coA^psaiiia... Bearh 
tíxb ne^ajiBHuxi h Heii86iaKH£[XB no xoAy sen^efi o6cTOflTej[BciBi», 

EOTOpUfl 06paTHJ[H BB BpaXB H MaŽCByH) BOHCTHTyi](ÍlO, H 6CJt^A'B 

saTiM^B H caMyio P^^b IIocnojiHTyH), nojiBma cb domoh^bh) axott 

B0HCTHTy^i]3 HO MOOa AOCTHrHyTB BOSpOSA^HÍA... Bb nOJíOSeHÍB 

IIojiBniH nocjii BOfiCTHTyi^iH 3-ro uaa mu ne bhahmb HHEaBHxi> 
fijiaronpiaTHUxrB ycnoBÍň bb oÓHOBJíemio; eanpoTHBB, cjhiiibomb bk^ 
nyBJEO H p^BO npeAcraBJífleTCfl to, htó aojukeo 6um> noM^maTB. 
STOMy padBHTÍH)... OTq)o?HTB jLOCjAjíjifov) aFOBÍH) Morjio 6h CBopie 
npeÓuBame ITojBinH bi tom^b qaxju>M'B coctoanÍH, b^b BaaoMB OHa 
BaxoAH<iacb AO nepeBopoia^. 

IlepexoAHMi B^B HOBtfimefi noiBCEofi BCTopiorpa4>ÍH, nocraBHBíHeft 
ce6^ A6BH30MB HCBaHÍe rojiofi hcthhíi, TorAa saBB npeasHÍe noj[B- 
CBÍe HCTopuBH Hep^AKO npflMO craBHiH ce&b saAany noAorp^Bars 
naTpioTHqecBoe ^yBCTBO. 3A'bCB, apoMÍ ofirnepnaro TpyAa Kpa— 
mcBCBaro o „HoJiBnii bb anoxy Tpexi' pasA^jiOBB** ^), ne hmík)-^ 



») L J, Kraszewslá, Polska w czasie trzech rožbiorów. Poznaú. 1873—1875^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



nOJIBGBia PE«OPMH. 21 

mfffo 6ojnuiiHX'b xoeroHHcm cb Hay^Hoft tohbh Býbfási, riasnoe 
idcTO wpaEAwemwTh XBjírB pa5oTairB se. KajiHHBH h pa6oT£ 
r. SopsoHa. Ke. RaJiHHBa BanBTajBH'6ftmHMi otfpasoiTB HscjiiAOBajrB 
anoxy na^enifl IIojiunH fb 9nocaÍAH0X'B raAax'B i^apcTBOBaHifl Cm- 
BieiaBa-ABrycra'' h wl „^&mpeiZjATaewh cefiMŠ'' ^). Bb nepeoMi 
H9B dTHTB coiEHeHÍft, BOopeBH ero sarjiaBiH), pascMaTpaeaioTCfl 
eoBdbrB He nocJiixHie foah ivípcTBOBaBÚi HasBaHHaro Bopojia (bx 
oocrtxHHiťB ro^aiTB OTHOCBTCfl TOiBBO TOiTB xoByHeHTOBi); a fiao(So* 
poTB, Haujo H oepeAHHa bhoSl suoxsl (1764 — 1787), TasfB hto 
.^enipezJiŤTHift cefiirB'', ocraBinificfl HeoBOQ.WHHHH!B sa OMepTBio 
anopa (fb 1886 r.), eiyserB maa> (Su npc^ojmeHieMi nepBOMV 
Tpyxy. OcHOBHaa TO^Ba spárna EaraHBH Ta, hto masHaa h9b BByi- 
peHHHXx iipiraHH'B na^eBÍfl IIojnmB saBJnoHaiacB bx otfn^ecrBeHBoft 
X6Mopajni8ai(ifl, h tto HpaBCTBeBBoe nepesocnoTaHÍe o6ni(eGTBa Óuxo 
ropa^o 6o3fbe B^otfxoxBMO, h^itb naiHTB^ecBafl h oÓn^ecTBeBBaa 
nepeerpofisa, a BpoHÍ Toro, P£hh Iloenojiffroft, no ero mhíbíio, 
Hyauo 6hiM xepsaTBCfl coiOBa cb Poccieft h BdtiiraTB pecBOBan- 
HBxi npeAnpiBŤÍit. Ob nocrtAHeS to^bb 8pÍBÚr KajBHBa san^B- 
B^ierB nojraniBy GxaflBQiaBa-ABrycTa. IIojiaBH 6imh caMH bbbobbh 
n oaxesÍB cBoero rocyAapcTBa. Asropx se paBA^^exi MB^BÍa 
<ssosai% npexme^nveflflHBOKB o toitb, hto UojiBnia Bucrynaia na 
AOpory nporpecca nocii nepsaro pasxi&ia: „&bjs,GtBÍe nepsaro pas- 
xisa, — AOBasHBaerB obi, — bo acnpaBBJO Bapo^a^, b bco, ht6a$- 
laiocB xopomaro wb ary anoxy, x&oajiocB BopojieirB, „BocroaBBHirB 

CObAtOITb'', BaXOXBBBIBMCa B0A'B BJliflBieiťB PoCCÍB, B yCBJlkMB exB- 

HHi^x. Brb coHBfleBÍB O HeTupexi^TBeiTB ceĚirb K&iBBBa asjuiercfl 
BeeBua crporBiffB (b Be Bcerxa cnpaBeAJiflBHifB) bpbtbboitb x^&CTfiift 
9ioro sflaiceBBiaro coópasia. Bsrjtaxx BcropBaa Ba TorxamHÍH noA- 
ciia xbjoi BpaftBe BeccBMBCTB^ecBift: BesA^ obi 0TM'l^aeT7i ^aBTii 
otfn^eeTBeBBoft xeMC^Murasai^iB, jierBOMUciifl nojniTBHeacBXi x^ie- 
jet, rjiyÓOByiD BeBcnpaBBMOCTB o6n](6CTBa, BasBiia obib6bb cefiMO- 

BilTB BOpOTBJIlb. BCfl A^TOJIBBOCTB pe^pMaTOpOBX B8'B „BaTpiOTB- 

HecBoť" napTÍB BpexcrasjífleTca OMy bmobbo BaBx cnjfonraot psA*^ 

nOIBTBHeCBBXX OinB60B'B: MeSXy npOHBICB, OffB BUCBa3BIBaeTCB 

BOoÓBie npOTBBx „npeo^pasoBaTeiBBoft ropa^BB^ BTopoĚ bojiobbbu 
XYin B^Ba. nojiBniy Morjia 6u cnacTB toibbo yMŠpeflBaa b nocxe- 
oeBflaa pe4K)pMa no BjaBy Bopoia b kb coiosi cb Pocdeft. Ha- 
xoAB i^iTB fle MeB^ wb B0BCTflTy^ÍB 3-ro Maa mbofo xopomaro, 
EaiBBBa B ee no^eepraerB oÓciOflTeiBBofi bpbtbbš, yBasuBaa Ba 



O TT. Kálinka. Oatatoie lau StanisJawa \ugu8U. Poznaú. 1868.— Sejm czte- 
ndetni 1880—1886. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



22 BftCTHHKb BBPOOBl. 

efl CJiatfiui ctopoHH: vh Heft 6wio mhoto HeAOxl^aHHaro, Hexoro- 
BopeHHaro, ocraKseHO 6hjo HHoroe nsi noxJiesaBmeft yHHVOxeHW 
crapiiHEi. O^HOBpeMeHHO cb nocxbxHHm co^HHemeMi KajraHmBii^ 
meM vb CBfbrb rpoMa^Hiift Tpjxb v. Kq)30Ba nojí,% sarjiaBÍeiťB: 
„BHyTpeHHflfl HCTopifl nojiLinH npH OraHBCJNtBi-ÁBryert ch to^ibh 
spimsL dROHOMiraecBoft h aAMHHHcrpanBBoft^ ^). ÚpesHie hcto^ 
pHBH, — roBopRTB aBT^TE Vh iipeAHCiOBÍv, — ^onscuBafl noc^AHifl Bpe- 
HeHa P6^H nocnaniToft, BamnfajracB, rjmBHH]r& o({pa90ir&, x^HÚmB 
npaBfin^Hxi c4>epi h sjíaccoBi^ ecrecTBeHBO npHxoAfl ai camiirs 
sea^HHHcmecBsirE odoG^eHÚiirE, ho ytrycKafl hbi Biixy „saraAO^i- 
Huft BJieMeHTi' „npoflBieaift aHSHefiHOCTH rbctojib raHrpenoBHOM^ 
opraHHBMŠ Hapoxa'*. ÁBTopi ocraBJÚien vh cropont itmyxapcTBeH- 
Hoe yCTpcAcTBO n nojamnecKíB npeodpasoBamu, ofin^ecTBeHHyio 
HpaBCTBeHHOCTB H nepeBOCHHTaHÍe nuflXTii, ^wóu dSMSuhca Bonpo- 
eami o^ BROHOMH^ecsoiTB 6mrh h npeyeii&iHiH IlaiBmH, o($i ynpaB- 
jiesm H eoBepmoHHBixrE b% nenrB pe4K)pMax'B. Vbáisi jí^bio ebHHOH> 
o6jiacrBio co^iaJIBHSlrB HBjreHit, nemexE Ta, vb aoropoft Bpa^ajics 
KajUHEa, r. EopsoHi xosasKiBaerB, nro vh P%^h JIocnoiHToft co- 
Bepmajucfl nporpeceB, onrl^aerB mhopo xopomaro, cx&iaHHaro vy 
Jloxbisrb Vh BHOxy nesxy nepBBíM'^ pasx^oiťB h ^erspexjri&THHirs 
cefiiíoiTb, p&HHTejnbHO 6epen» btot^ cetirb nox'B cbok> santury h 
BOo6n];e npBxoxHTB vhBUňOfímrh 6ojAe OHinifHCTH^ecRapo CBO&CTBa. 
noMHMO Toro pasjnraifl bo vsviíLffiji^h oÓohxi HcropHBOBrE, Boropoe 
o($iflCHfleTCfl TbM%y ^TO OHH HeoxiHaBOBO noHHMaion BonpocE, KaKE. 
ar6xoBaio Becm cetfa IIojiBmi, vro<5u otctoatb cbok) HesaBHCHifOCTB, 
H BpOMŠ Toro, qro o6a HcropHBa ^acro ysaBUBaiorB tojibbo Ha 
pasHHfl npnHHu oxHoro h toto se $asn, pasHEi^a BBrjuxoBTB Ra- 

JHHKH H r. EopSOHa SaBHCHTB H OTl TOFO, WO OHH rOBOpffTB TOCTO 

pasjíHiHtixi npexMeraxi: oxhhi 6ísuí% MopajmcTB, BHx^BHiift bch> 
nop^iy nojíBCKaro o6n^ecTBa, h HpHTOHx gb% craBHjrB cyxB^n IIojiBmH vy 

SaBHCHMOCTB OTl BHÉDIHeft HOJIHTHBH, Bl BOTOpOft HOJflBH HaX^baJCK 

Maecy omafioKL, Torxa BaRi» xpyroft otípaTHJTB BHHMaHÍe npeHHy- 
HieeTBeHHO na napoxHoe xoBirftcTBO, ^HnaHeii, ynpaBJíeHie, vh jsovry 
IIojiBnia x^bajia snauTe^iBHHe ycni^XH, h es ero to^h spirnspe- 
4K)pMu eraBHjni IIojiBmy na Bf^pnyio xopory: HoiABaiťE tojbbo ne- 
xocrajio MaxepiajsBHHxx epej^crvh jíjisí ycn^HiHoft ($opB6u. 

TasoBa vh oÓrajuTh Hepraxx HCTopia BiicBasnBaBniHXCfl vh yne- 
Hoft JHTepaTypl BsrjrflxoBi na hojibcbíh pe^^opHU nponuiaro B^Ba. 
B^B TO BpeHfl, BaBx oxHH HHcaTejH, BecbMa HacTO pacxoxflCB Hesxy 



O Tadtusz Korzon. Weim^trzne dzieje Polski sa Stanislawa Augusta. Badania 
historyczne ze stáno wiska ekonomiczoego i administracyjnego. Erakbw. 1862-1886. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



nOACBIfl PE<^PMiI. 23 

coóOD KB noxpoÓHOcm^B, npHxaiOTB coBepmoHHEurB fb IIojibihí 
gpe^pyBftBaifMTirB Óoxhmoe SHaneBÍe h xyiiaioTB, ^ro, (Sjaroxa^Mi 
m, PJ^ noeDOJumui Óelm he nyrH Hd^emu orx bÍsoboí CBoeft 
(íortsHV, xpyne, naotSopon, Toase He bo BceicB MesxT coóoio co- 
rjacHHe, spexciuiam^ xiso TaB'B, qio bc£ (Sjaria HaHHBama b% 
cjnpocn BsiiteiLiH owhb muo crapiie nopaxBB h npHBsraBH^ h 
jUMce jTKpMiWíByrhj vso wníMsimmí pe^opuaiiE HejtBdJí 6bulo yse 
enaen nojBcsoe rocy^apciBO on ooBepmeHHaro paaioseEÍfl. Ilapai* 
M&sbBO ch 9nocb oócTSffemeicb npeotfpasoBaeift cl to^bh spima 
noifi^orarb on HHn pesyjBTaTOKB, EciopsKH oÓcys^aiH Hxib en^e 

Ch HHOft TO^SH Spisifl, HMeHHO ISpBBmULB Vh pEdC^eTB OTHOHieme 

n ram pe^piiairB co cxcqpoHu Poocbi: xorw bwb oahh hbi 
HBn oco6eBfio co^yBCTBeHHO othocatca ko BCOMy, ni) npexnpHHE* 
Mftjoeb npoTHB^ sejiaBifl pycesoft mmepeofmífi h bjíohkiocb npaico 
n oaio(k)axeHÍ» Pito nocnojmofi orb pyccsofi „rapacrrÍH^, xpyňe 

ICTOpBBH, HanpOTHKEy POTOBII OAHO XBaj[HTB TOJIBBO 3a TO, TTO OHO 

oxo6peHO tiiuo Poecíeft, paBHO saiCB nopBi^iTB xpyroe jmmB no*^ 
TOny, ^To Pocdfl Ha 9T0 HO MOTJia 6a xaiB CBoero corjiacúi, TasB 
KaKB upaamMThj ^ro epracTBeHEO fb cok>8Š cl Pocdefi h uojí^b 
es (mewoA noura vorjni npespasiTB cBoe rocy^apcxBO kb ójaro- 
yeiporaHyio crpasy h cnaem ee otb pasApofiímA Mes;(y codbAflMB. 
.SÍpymcH cioBaMH, TyrB pšmaies BonpocB o toitb, mopm jih IIojBma 

PHraTBCfl BHepeX^B CBOHMH CO^CTBeHHUMH CpeACTBaHH, HJIH xoisHa 

6siM& BosposxaTBCfl B^B HOBoft SH8HH HO^i^ oHeBofi APF^& ;^epfliaBU. 
BecBiia ecrecTBeHHO, vro hgxophbh, Boropiie Óblih Óojrie hih Menle 
anTHMicraMH no OTHomemK) b^ hojibcbhk^ pe^piiairB, CHHTaiH 
noiBCsyK) Ha^iM) bhojh^ chocoCÍhoh) kb BnyrpenHeny BOspoa^eHÚD 
oo((ciBeHHiiMH CBiaMH H Wh „rapaHTiH^ PoccÍH bhxíjih tojkbbo noicixy 
pe^IMiairB; to^bo las^B se ecrecTBeHHO h to, hto HcropHBH-neccH- 
iHcni, Hao6opOTB, xynAjaíy hto Bd^ npeoÓpasoBamji CA^aiH cjram- 
losTB Maio fjoí BHyrpeHHflTO yBpinjimfl h BH^nraflro ycuiemii 
Piu noaiaiHTOĚ, H ^TO noTOMy SApaBas noiHTHBa Tpe6oBaia nox* 
^raemH nocjrbAHeĚ bh^bitb pyccBaro npaBHiejiBCTBa. TasoBO na- 
eiosqee noioseme Boopoca b^ HcropHqecBot jHTepaxypi. dra jh- 
leparypa, BasrB CBasano 6újio Bume, BecBMa oónrapna, h fb ^sfia- 
lyK) MHHyry mosho CBasaTB, too Bonpocii o njHraHHaxi h oÓctoh- 
TejBe!rBax'B na^eRifl IIojBniH BHAcneoB eK) BecBMa ocnoBaTejiBHO h 
HoxpoÓHO, sa HCBjno^eHteMi cnopflaro nyHBTa o pe^^opnaxx. Bi 
caxoiTB fíkAj BHyTpeHHflfl HCTopÍH nojEBniH sa nocjri^AHÍe Tpn BÍsa 
efl cyn^ecTBOBanÍH paspatfoTana nacrojiBBO oÓcroflTOJiBHO, hto mu 

HBieirB B08M03BHOCTB BeCBMa TO^IHO npOOťifflTB, BaBHSTB OÓpaSOMX 

Vin nocnojumtfl npHnuia fb CBoe neMoa^Hoe, h BnyTpH, h esbež. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



24 BftCTHHKl BBPOnU. 

oocToraie, no^najia BCjA^ctúe storo no^^ onesy Poccíh h noj^sepr- 
jacB pasxijy MesAy h^h) h abyma xpyrHint coctxHEiiH A^psaBanH. 
BjmroAajMi iiHoroHHCJieHHuirB apxii6iuiir& HSHCRaHÍflirB iiocJtifflia% 
nflTHxecflTH iťn, bc6 rjasEHii o6cToneABCTBa xHiuovaTnecsoft 
HCTopÍH naiBCBHX'B pESA^OB^ He wpejífiTMjuooTb Óoíše HHqero Ten- 
Haro v cnopnaro. HaBonei^ R^Mei^Bie HcropniB, npocji^xHBS Bb- 
B0BU2 OTHomeHÍfl MesAj naiBmefi Ilpyccieft, rl caaiHxi orxa* 
.leHHiuci BpeMeBax!B jbea^h HeotixoABMOCCB OT^anHEott 6oph6u 
H& oiepTB M6SA7 dTHicH AByMfl rocy^apcTBaiiH, a pyccide hctophsh 
yxasajiH ea B^^Boft se enopo^ vejSAy MocsBOft ■ jiHXOBCso-nojiB- 
csBiTB rocyAapcTBOiTB sa ,co6BpaHÍe Pycn'', — cnopx, ecrecTBeHHoe 
pasptoeHie Boroparo sasanoHajiocb fl „BOSBpam^eHiH orropseH- 
Haro^i T.-^e. vb otxoaí otb Ptw IIocnojiHTOtt erapuxi pyccBHX'b 
zeuea. Bce oto, noBTopieirB, crovrb npoHHO vh Haysfe, ■ oahhi 
TOiBKO BonpocB o&b OTHomeHÍH npeAnpHUTiixi b^ IlaiBiirb pe* 
^pi» Ex efl naAeHÍH) Cjiyanr^ npeAMerom cnopa. Ho bmíctí 
eib T&irb Heo6xOAHM^ v HOBHft nepeenoTpi lonpoca o Tasi-na- 
amaeMOMi BsyrpenHarB BOsposAema IIojibiiih. Ectb, BO-nepBuxi^ 
OTA&iBHiifl CTopoHu nojBCBaro nojraTHHecRaro h otfn^eexBeHHaro 
ÓEira, HEAB KOTopmíH hctophbsmi HysHO esnfi nopatforaTB, a ao- 
BTopuxi, H BCfl dnoxa, BSflTafl Bi i^oiTB, HysAaerofl Vb BpH- 
T196CB0MI nepecMOTpt. n^ijian Tanoro Rpirmecsaro nepecMO^a 
OT^acTH H AOJiseKb cjysHTB Hacrofln^itt ovepsi. 

Mu He AyMaeir& AaBaxB kb neirB nojiHofi HcropÍH anoxii BHyr* 
peHHHrE pe^opiiB vh noiBCsoirB rotyAapcTBi, (SuBineft h dvoxoft 
ero pasA^OBB nesAy coc^a^mh: h paaifipii aamero o^^Ka ne 
nosBOJMDTB 3Toro CA^iaTB, H caiiafl saAa^a nama coctohtb ne vh 
Ton, ^TOÓsi nepecsasiiBaTB ^asTH, 6ojr6e kih uewb^ HBBtonue 
BecBva MHorHirB hbb „UocjAwxrb foaobx Píhh nocnaniTofi'' 
KocTOMapoBa. I]^'&niK) cjri(AyH)n(Hx^ rjiaBB (SyAerB ycraHOBHTB oporo* 
HCTopEHecBÍtt BsrMXb Ha dnoxy noq>eACTBOirB RpHTHHecKaro pasóopa 
OTA^j&HuxB, naHÓaiie BasHiix'B cropoHB Bonpoca, npHieMB dře 
CTopoHu ^yAyrnb no bosmoshocth pascicaTpHBaTBCfl vh tomb ocbí* 
n^eHÍH, Kanoe Morjo 6u hm% AaTi> conociaBJíeHie hju cpaBHenie 
noJiBmii CB ApyniMH rocyAapcTBaMH sa totb se nepioA^, ÓtiBmift, 
EaR'B MU HanoMHHJH, BpeiíeHeici ^npocB^n^eHnaFO aÓcojsoTHsiia'' h 
^pani^yscBOí peBOJlK)^iH, T.-e. Asyxi ABJíeHii, cb bohmh, Ha hto 
ÓuJio laBse yBasano, naiBCRifl BByrpennia A^a nocji'6AHeft ipexH 
npomjiaro Bi^Ka hhííotb o6m}Sí ^epni. BecBMa Ótuo (Sbi sejiaxenno, 
HTotfu Moryn^ifl ^e nomaiBca nacTHiifl HSCJriAOBaHÚi (HanpHM., 

pe^^OpMB nOIHTHHeCBOft, aAMHHHCrpaTHBHOt, CyA^HOft) ^HHaHCOBOft, 

RpecTBAHCKofl H T. D.) HOCTOflHHO HpHHHMajni BB padc^eTB aHaio* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HOJTBCBlfl PE^M^^MH. 25 

rmsoí pe^opifH fb ApyrHrB roc7AapcTBax'B. 3totb npíeMi nosBO- 

sm 6r E9LKh BHecTH FB oi^HBy coBepmaBniHxcfl vb PI«ih IIoc- 

nonroft iipeo6pa30BaHÍft HtocojBKO hho& EpHiepift. HeseJiH totb, 

KmpBfi sacraBJífleTB hctophkob^ dnoxH oópan^aTb rjiaBHoe bhh- 

jOHÍe na OTHomeme Bmxi> pe^opirB Kh na^emio IIojiBiiin, 6yAT0 

Qocii^ee oÓyoiOBjraBajiocB moAmo oxBfbuE BHyrpeHHHMH npH^H- 

eun, xan cuohhh xyMaTB HcropHSii-neccHicHCTii, hjib oahímh 

npraHaMR BB^mHHHH, BaB% cTpeMHTefl npexcraBHTB HCTopnR-onTH* 

XRCTB, HCxo;(fliitie H3B 6újrie ejie uewbe anpiopHOft yB^peHHOCTH, 

m cam no ce&b coBepmoHnua iipeo($pa30BaHÍfl Óujin ciioco6hbi 

yciaHOBHTB BHyrpH rocyAapcrea navJíyHinifl nojHTH^ecaía k coi^aiB- 

iBs OTflomemji. PascMaTpHBafl nojBrny, besb oaho hbb rocy^apcTSB, 

n EOHXB csepxy uh cHHsy coBepma^acB npeoÓpasoBaTejBHaji 

lioeAHoerB, m dyxexi hm^b nepexx co5ok), Tax^B csasaTB, 

oxKHB viCTBOŘ fjy^aft ^^Toparo o6a(aro asjíemfl, — exywt, fb bo- 

Tí^OMB imoroe ocraerca HenooirraEnrB kto npeAcrasjuerca caop- 

wn imiB noTOMy, ^to ÚepyrB ero bhí cbish cb ofin^BMB sBJíe- 

mm wso6eaBO buxbo 8to jím npirai^HiiiajrBHoft oii^foBH noiBcraxB 

p^wpn, TSSB BaB% jramB cpaBHeme hxb cb rtoth^ ^t6 npexnpH- 

HnuocB, ;^ajioeB a (Smo coBepnreHO fb xpymi rocyxapCTBarB, 

wia ($& xaTB Hav6ojAe to^huS OTFferB Ha BonpocB o toitb, ea- 

ooaso FB 9THXB npeoÓpasoBaHÍax^B npoaBJíajiHCB ayjiBTypHBiH hkbh 

nixmuaro crojrikrifl. Mu nojiaraeMB, yto ecro hmíotb CBOtt raison 

i'étre TO^iEa sp^HÍfl, sacraBJíflioii^afl bha^tb bb ho.ibcrhxb Ipe^qh* 

WB (^j^ cnacema (hjih npn^iHHii ra^ejra) UoxBuni, to HeiBsa 

onasaTB fb tomb aee h Apyrofi tow6 spinia. He pasc^HniBaa na 

Qonorjr ^oero nepecnorpa Bonpoca o BHyrpeHHeirB sHaHemB ^an- 

3ot MoxH nojíBCBoft HCTopÍH, no spatHet ifípb, Mti HaA^eMCfl la- 

>0D BicBaiBBO OTJHHHOK) 0TB ApyTHXB nocTaHOBBOK) Bonpoca oBasaTB, 

^ xoserBy C0A$ftcTBÍe bb jiynineMy pasBACHeniK) itIbotopeixb ero 

nopoBB. Bo BCABOiTB ciy^a'6 h npeyBeiHqeHHtia npeAcraBieHÍfl o bob- 

WKBsm P6hh noenojrarofl, Faxo^Hiraa y oxhhxb hctophbofb, h 

3eieiaHie xpyrHx^ npnsHaTB Basoft 6(i to hh 6ujio nporpeccB fb 

DoiubI — nojynaTB 3a*cb spETH^ecRyio iiposipKy ^). 

^ Hm |)a6oTa (5HJia yze OKOHnena, Korxa BHnua n cirbrb KHvra r. jrHHaHOBCRaro 
*WttnaBÍem: „Hcropia o^n^ecTBeHHaro XBHzeHii bo BTopoft noiOBHaii XVIII cto- 
ASt* (ffirtorya mcba Bpo^ecznego w dragiej potowie XVIII stulecia. Lwów. 1888). 
^nofi naen HcropÍD nojHTH^ecKott jrarepaTypn h 0<5iKecTBeHHHz% pe<|>op]nb bo 

^ &$M 10 BTOpOi nOJOBHRi OpODUarO BJ^Sa, H Vh 3T0fi HCTOpÍK OTBOXHTb M^CTO 

' Hií BocROdORoi, voeBAoaa ei híckojibko crpaemirB wb rjavb o npecópasoBaTOjn- 
XBIinnrixn f& xo-pesoJDiuoBHom nepiox^ XVin CTOjrlria h u,ijiyi) ÓojiBmyD 
^li%ÍiÍM|f0 XBOBWb npexueroirb anoxy ^eTHpexjiÍTH£ro cefiMa h aiúiHie <t>paH- 
ta nonmy. riaBHHm oópasoiit, ohi Hajiaraerb HxeH h 4>&kth m 




Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



26 . vhCfnaaih sBPOini» 



11. 



IIoibckía noiHTu^ecKÚ Daprin h BB±inHifl ycjoidA pe4»opHi bi> P%hh flocnou- 
Tofi.— Bo8HHKHOBeHie H^OH pe(jK)pMu.— HapTopHCKÍe H lIoTOUKie.— Tlpoerarb pe- 
4>opirH 1744 r.— CeftM-L axoro roxa h cit^yiomie óesMO^ane ccímh.— Besiipra- 
i^HneHe dimsoxH napTÍfleofi óopBÓH.— T'iCH'l8ini& cods^ «<)>aMHiiH'' ci Pocciei. 
— JBonpocb o liberum veto h KOB4»exepaaijuc'b.--OTHonieHie k% noACsen pe#op- 
Man HHOcrpaHHHxi x6paa]rB.~^Boiipoci o flpaBUTeiBCTBeHHoi <|»opifi Piu IIo- 
caauiToft.-'MoHapxHCTU a peciiyáiHKaHitiL— Pe4K)pMa ^pxopucKHxi.— YcraHOB- 
jeHíe pyccKoft rapaHxiH h hobua pe4»opM£i. — QoseAeHie pa3HEix'b uapriĚ bi aio 
BpeMA.— RopoiB-pe4)opMaTop'& h onnoBHuifl.— HacTHaA pe<|^pMaTopcKafl HOHula- 
THBa.— napTÍH BTb 3noxy íenipexjiTHaro celhia.— Pe<topMH aroro ceftiia.— Tap- 
roBinaHe.*-Bo3CTaHÍe 1794 r.--íloiBCKiff a^odaumwb, 

noaHasoMHMCfl iipexAe Bcero ch nojumneCRiuai uB^pasmBj ey- 
u^ecTBOBaBiDHMH B% ŮojihttA Bi dDOzj pc^piffB. EciH dia »noxa 
o($HHMaen co6oia itapcTBOBame OtaHncjiaBa-ABrycTa, to ne sysHO 
safiiiBaTB, no caxoe BcrynjieHie nocji&AHflro na naiBCsift npecron 
6uio peayjEBTaiovB nanrranu! ero poACTBeHHHSOB^, Rmiseft ^íapTO- 
pucsHxi, 6uBunia% wňcrb cb OTi^oir& noei^AHaro nojiBCBaro bo- 
pou — CiaHiícjiaBOirB IIoHiiTOBCBHirB — opraHHBaTopaMH nepsoft napm 
B'B Piw nocnonrot, iiocTaBiiBme& na CBoeirB sHaMeHH wffiio pe- 
ýopmi. BoTb noHeify Ham npHXOAHTCfl BawTB (^ott oósoph noiB- 
CBHx^B naprift cb i^apciBOBamfl npeAnocíšj^flro Ropasfl IIojbiiui, 
Aprycia in ^). 

MucjiB o HeotfxoxvMOCTH pe^pMi BB Fim IIoenojraToft ctajia 
BucBasuBaTBCfl ropasAó panše oCpasoBama nepsoS pe4K)pHaTopciu>ft 
naprÍH bi IIojBinš; cana se dra napdfl BucTyaua oo cbohmh npe- 
otfpasaBaTe^HBnni luaHaMH iiHoro nosxBie, Heseje craia Boodn^e 



npeBMyioiecTBeHHO ezi oÓiacm coi^iaJBHHxi oTHomeHifi, Bci^xcTBie ^ero noxpoÓHo apex- 
craBieiH j eero tojbeo BpecTLflHcaiff h nin^HCsit BonpocH n nojunrfc. IIo ero MBfadD, 
npoBosrjaiiieBie soHCTHryiáB 8-ro mře x&iaio bsi IIojurh lasoi se qeBTpi» p^^u)- 
lÓOBBoi npooaraBXH na boctokí, lasHirb na sanaci (^hm (^paHqU. lIojBcaoe BOBCTEHie 
1794 r. 0CB060XHJ0 4^paHitiK> on soaiBiun: IIojiBnia noraóia, ho penoiDipii óiuia cna- 
cena, b no6ixxeHHHe dojush dub b-b apMÍK> caHKB)Ji0T0Bi, noMoraa hmb pasrpoiu^TB 
4»6oxaibflyD EBpony. IIodTOMy, npoxoisaeTB asropi, codbi noucKoft xoMoapaTH^ecKofi 

ni^ÍB CB pOBOJDKÍOBHOft (DpaHIUefi 5iUl ABieHieMl HeOÓXOXHMHlťB: TOJIBKO TaBHMl» 

nyTeiTB xoua HojBoa BosBpaTHXB ce6i HesaBKCBHocTB, upeoópasoBaBi bmíctí ce t&m'b 

CBOB yCiapftlHB nOJHTH^eCSiil H O^meCTBOHHHH (Í)0pMii. 

') Cm. coHBBeBÚi FenCÁJM (i^epeZÍ)— boai aariaBieirB: „Polen um dieMitte des XVUI 
Jahrhaoderts*^ (Gotba. 1876), b BoAUtueecKaio — no^B sarjiaBieirB: „Potoccy i Czarto- 
ryscy. Walka stronnictw i programów polity cznych przed upadkiem Rzeczypospolitej. 
x784— 1763 (Eraków. 1887). 06-b ynoMEHaeMOM^B bi rjBBi aioft CTanBCJiaBi Hohbtob 
CKOMi ecTB oco6oe coíHHeHÍe Kanteckego^ BHmexmee fb cbítb bi 1880 roxy* 



Digitized by 



Google 



BOJČbORIfl PE^OPMH. 27 

irpaTB BHAHyio nojiHTA^ecRyio pojib. OcraRXflfl noRa vh CToposb 
ixeH pe4K)pifaTopoB%-'TeopeTHKora^ mu MOseiTB Bxbcb saníbraTh o 

WĚTh TOXhSO TO, HTO B!& CBOe BpeMfl H^eH aTH He ORasajff HHBa^ 

KÓTO BjriflHÍi Ha otfn^ecTBo; mosho coc^HTaTb no naiBiiaMi neb isj6- 
jan^ECTH^CRifl npcHseexemfl, sa Boropiifl otfuBHoseHHo ysa8ciBaior& 
fioxBCKie HcropHKff, roBopfl a nepsiix^ npotfjieeKaxi iipeo(^a30Ba- 
leiBHaro XBHseHifl vb 1I(m>rsA\ nperoia HpoeBTu, npe^aaraHmiecs 
ffh smxi npOH8MxeHÍiix'B, Óeijh cann no cetíib Kpaftne h^cmÍjih^ 
a Baxfiribe Bcero (^a yMCTBeiinav anarai nojbCRaro o(hqecTBa, bcjsía- 
cníe Koeft khhtb, ns^aBaBrnincfl nponoBŠAHHBaini pej^opM'^) onenb 
xaio nrajnicfi, h Bce npo^HTannoe CBopo datfHBaiocB. IIpOHHsiifrBOJi 
HOBBíMH HxeflHH cnoeotfflo 6aj[o vb ly dnoxy toako nesnawTeJiB- 
loe iieHbmnncTBO rocnoACTByiDn^aro couobíh, ceeroflemee hss Mar- 
jAmsMVh ^MHiifl: Keasxy nocjr&XHHiíH 6um Óojcbe, ^wh vh jrpy- 
mi atosThj pacapocipaneHO o^pasoBanie n, GjHxe eroa si roey- 
wpcTBeHHHirE ff&aaHiy omi jny^me nonmcajtH ej[a(tefl cropoHii oro- 
lecrBenmirb nopn^KOBi. Dionepaini pe^^opin Vb P^hii IIocnojiHTai 
I ci&iajiBci noBTOMy MarHafu, ci MOjro^y ^^SHBone sa rpamiii^y, 
Doxoiry rocTEBrnie bi JTioneBníri h HancR npn 'XBopb „Bopoifl^ 
OmmeiaBa jlen^EHCsaro, „6jiBV0Kbrexf>mLT0 ^Ejfoco^"", niri^Bniie 
ciy^aE q)aBHHBaTB ?y»oe co CBoni h natfiipaTLefl noBaro oCpado- 
um Bi mKOjA OranncjiaBa Jlen^nncRaro, Koropiit caici BBCfry*- 
B&n Bi 1733 r. bi jsnrrepaTyp^, Bani aBropi npeo<$pa80BaTeA- 
flaro npoesra. IIiwxoAHjrH onn, OAnaEo, kb n^eb pe^pmi ne bi 
cuy RaKHXi-HH6yxB OTejieHeHnurE, ^HJoeo^^cBHXi npHHiiini(^i; si 
ixei BTOft npHBOAHJio Hxi sptom^e ynnaemfl, fb KaBOMi naxoxH- 
sBCb nojunia, Borxa npn cOBepmenHoft noTra naccHBHOcrn Bceft 
nuflxeTCKoft naipH HffocrpaHHUfl xepasaBH Bera Botay sa es npeciojn, 
a noTOirB naBAsajH efi CBoero Ran/^xaTa vh Ropoorn. He onacaaci 
KrpkrBTh HH d RaROft CTq)OHH HH oxHoro cepiesnaro Bospasenia, 
MB (huiH 6h Bi npaBŠ yTBepsj^aTb caMUici ptmRTejiBHiiir& otipa- 
30m, ^tro nepBBUi nonuTRH pe^opmi ne 6um pesyjiBTaTOMi pacnpo^ 
crpaneHúi bi oómficrífb hobuxi BdfJiJiAOBi, BiipatfoTanniixi bi THnm 
Kafiraera oahhobhiíh MucjnrrejiflMH, paBHO RaRi ne hcxoahjih hbi 
oosHanúi Bci^Mi oÓn^ecTBOirB TflrocTHOt HeHopMajTBHOcrn rocnoxcTBO- 
BSBinixi Bi Hem nops^ROBi. Majfo Toro: nojiBCRoe o(ímecTBO, — paay- 
xifl nox% HmiB niJuixTy, TaRi RaRi Apyrie coi^ia^BHiie BjeMenni 
Vh Víhe IIocnaiHToft 6um eoBepmenno no^aB^enii, EHRor^a ne 
BOSBHinajiH CBoero rojioca h norony HH^ero ne sna^EJH, — nojBCRoe 
6(fiitec!rB0 ne npexcraBjfljo ce6b jiyqmaxi nopa^^OBi h ocoóenno 
peBHiBo oíJeperajio „sojioryio bojbeoctb** otb bcariíxi ^McTBeTejrB- 

HUXB H2H IfBlIMIIXl SaXBaTOBB CO CTOpOHU BMCTH, TOF^a RaRl 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



28 raCTHHB'B SBPOniiI. 

HMeHHO nepBafl pe4K)pMa xo^sna (Suia coctoatb bi jcsuLemji npa^ 
BHTeibOTBa, yMBOseHÍE Botcsa, HaxosxeBÍH hobsetb rocy^apcTBeH- 
HBnrB ]ífixoAOVhy (Sesi ?ero IIojKMoa ehkohitb o6pa80irB ne Morjui 
BHtxH H31 CBoero yHEseaifl. Tiir& oCcroaTeiBCTBOicb, vro mhcu o 
npeotfpaaoBaHÚixi 6um BHymeHa bh^iiihhich OTHomeHiflMH Pí^h 
nocnauTOfi h Biumia ne hsi t6x% cioeBi o6ii(ecTBa, Koropufi hm&di 
ÓH HaHÓojibmift HHTepeci npoHSBecTH nep^iŠHy bo BHyTpeHHHX'B no- 
pnAKftxi rocyxapcTBa, h oth^CHAercfl h^boaro orpaHffHeHHut Rpyr& 
H^eft n^BOt naprÍH pe^pnu; Misaie ijfsjíocoífft&ttvb npHHmraoFB 
XVni-ro B., caMOCTOflTejibHoe BucrymeHÍe Ha nojivraiecsoe no* 
apHnie HepoxoBHTaro mjisíXTmA, a tÍm'b Óojpbe lueóea, OTHOCflTca 
Bi Oojebe nosAHeicy nepioAy. Oi Apyroft ciopoBH, HeibBa ne o6pa* 

THT& BHHMSUdfl E Ha 0(5CT0flTeJ[BCTB0 HHOrO pO^a. HMeHHO, HeCMOTpH 

Ha TO) HTO nojibCBoe rocyAapcroeHHoe ycrpoftciBO npHBHaBaJo noji- 
Hoe AeMOKpaTH^ecBoe paBenoTBO cpe^H CBoero „Hapo^a^^-miaxní, 
Ha jiíbxb BC&TL vh Pi^H IIocQOJiHTOft sanpaBJUJia apncrospaTLi „na- 
HOffB*', TaBi HTo BCfl BHyTpeHHiifl H BH^QiHflfl HoniTHBa FOcyAap- 
CTBa HazoxHJiae& vb pysaxi hšcbojibbhxi BeAMOSHuz^ pOAOB^ 
BdtxcTBÍe dToro nojumneciási naprÍH, ÓopoBrnisca sa BJiacTB, sa 
Mto:a, sa aoxoaU) sa HHrepeeu HHocrpaHHiix^B ^epsasi, y bohx'& oni 
HcsajH MopaiBHoft H MaTepiaiBHoi noMepaBBH, — Cum vb cyn^HOcra 

apHCTOKpaTH^eCBHlfH 4>PftKipflMH CB MHOrOTOCieHHOft BjleHTeiott, 00- 

eroflBmett hsi nepoAOBHToft nuflXTiii, Koropafl bo sceirB npHBUKja 
wKm sa CBOHMH „nanaMH''. IIoaTOMy h ho Morjo cjiy^HTBCfl, ttoCh 
oaprieft pe^^opira cff&iajacB ho o^na hb^ ho^oÓhiixt* ÝpaK^ift: no- 
flBjeHÍe naprÍH coBepmenno caMOcroflTeibHOft otb apHcroBpaTHHe- 
CBHxib BjásifáŘ oano motjio 6u ůhrth tojtbko cjAf,cmiewb rj[y((oKaro 
npeo^pasoBanifl BnyrpeHHHXi OTHomemft nojiscsaro o6n^ecTBa. 

En^e B^ BOHA^ i(apcTBOBaHÍA ABrycra II cpe^H nojiBCBHX'B Mar- 
HaTOBx oco6yH> CHJiy naiHnaiOT^ npexcraBJíflTB cotíbio bhasba ^&p- 
TopucBie CB MHoro^HCJOfeHHOft po^neft, kb uďfe Boet rjiaBHoe 
irtcTO npEHaAJieatajio omy ^y^yntaro BopoM — OranHCiaBy nonaroB- 
cBOMy, HacTOfln^eify opranesaTopy napiÍH ^apropucBHxi hjh «4^- 
MHam", BaB'B ee oóuBEOBenno HasusajiH. Bi na^arb cji^AyH)n^&ro 
i^apcTBOBaHifl „í^eMajásL" ocHOsajia AaiBHŠftmee csoe ÓJiaronojiyqie 
Ha TOMi, HTO nocn^miLia ocraBHTB OranHCJiaBa Jlen^HHCBaro, Bor^a 
AÍjio ero 6ujio nponrpano, nepemaa na cropony Hosaro Bopojui 
ABrycra III n crajia saHCBHBaxb y Poccíh, aas^ AepxaBu-no6^AH- 
TOJiBHHi^u wb BOŘwb sa HOJBOBÍft npecTOJTB. CoBepmeHHO TaBi se, 
BaBi H Apyrie MarsaTCBÍe poAu, %pTopHCRÍe ci IIoHflTOBCBHirB 
crpeMHJiHCB 8aBjiaA'i^TB bcIitb b'b Píhh IIocnojraTOft h ne ópesrajH 
q)eACTBaMH, RoropHfl sejiH 6u bi stoS i^'6j[h. ^ocraTO^HO HifB 6ujio 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



naiBCKifl PE^OPMU . 29 

JTfmiKEYTb Kl HOBOICy JlfiO^Y H Bl POCCÍH, HT06u BilSBaTB onno3B- 

quo npoisFB ce6fi bi AP7roM'B MarHarcKOMi pOA^, fb noroi^Laxi^ 
He TaK!B JierBO nosHHyBniHxx CraHHCJiaBa JdeniHHCKarOy npoxojiHaB- 
mm B^HTb Bo BHyTpeHHÍfl CHJUi crpami h pasc^HTSBaTB aa cra- 
pjK) ApjmÓj $paHiÚH. Bopb(5a icesAJ oOobme po^aifE cb hx^b 
xpysBflMH H BjdeHieJioft, 6ojíe MHonHHOieHHHMH y IIotoi^ehxi, ne- 
saiH y ^tpropucKHXi, ÓpaBuraz^B^ HaoÓopoTB, (Ř>JiBnieK) ciuio^eH'' 
HocTBD, HM&ia 6h ooBepmeBHo TaKoe se ssa^Hie, kski h Apyiie 

UOJlflÚBSie 9IIH30AH B-B HOJIBCBOfi HCTOpÍH, eCIHÓU BCe A&IO OrpaHH- 

HHBaiocB 6opB6oB) sa BJiiame, sa ]Sf)JSMBOCiEy sa HanpaBieiiie BH&n- 

Heft nOIHTHBE H CBOAHjIOCB Kb 060H>XHIOrB UHTpnraiTB, CB OAHOtt 

CTopoHH, a CB xpyroft, Kb nepeMŽHaBTB, KoropuH Ónuai 6u tfeapas- 
iH^Hii AU Bcero BHyrpeHHflTO tfuxúi Pž^h IIocaaiHToS. Bce axo, 
KOHeuo, ÓRso H xyTB, HO Kb ABieHÍfliTB cTaparo nopflAKa npBco- 
eAHHniocB coBC^irB HOBoe aKienie: „^aMiuifl^ Bucryniua cb njia* 
HOiTB pe^pM^, a ea nojiHTE^ecme dpothbhhkh crajiii ifiinaTB ero 
ocyn^ecTBJíeHiK). HctophkH) onecuBaBinie dTy 6opB6y, sasjuD^aa otb 
nocs^AyioiiKaro bi* npeAUAyn^eMy, crajiH npeAcraBJíflTB Bnoai^ACTBÍH 
xiio TaEHJTB o6pa30irB, HTO ^apropucBÍe cb caMaro na^ajia oópa- 
30BaHÍji cBoeft naprÍH hm^^ bhoji^ fotobuž njani, h tto pa^H 
»t> ocyn^ecTBjíeHifl ohh Hacroft^HBO AoCeBaincB bucth, yspiiufla 
CBoe noioseme npe ABoprl n CHHCBHBaa pacnaioaaeHie Poccíh, ao- 

ŮmSOL ACXOmOCTH H BCflBÍfl HHUfl dsaia fM CBOHXl pOACTBeHHHBOBTB, 

xpyseft H ludeHTOBi. EABa jh fb A^ftcraHxejiBHOCTH mKb Óujlo: mx> 
lapropucKie cb caxaro Ha^iaJia Bjnflibm, wb neirb saRJiBO^iajHCB npn- 

HHHU 6£a1^ P^™ nOCnOJETOft, H UOHHHalH, FA^ Hya&HO ÓUM BCSaiB 

0TB HHXi cnacemfl, vb aroirB ne MoacerB 6bitb coMH^mfl; ho ho 
jm Toro TOJBBo, moóhi sacjiysETB cjiaBy pe4K>pMaTopoBx^ AoOHBa- 
ncB OHH BJiacTE, BJiiflHÍfl H 6oraTCTBa, nojiHTEHecBÍe se bxi njanu 

BOSHHBaJH H paSBHBaJlHCB Vb HpaMOfi SaBHCHMOCTH 0Tb OÓCTOflXeJIBCrBl. 

IIodTOify MU He Aynaeni, hto6h vb nepBiifl a^catb jubn AapcrBOBa- 
Bifl ÁBrycra lU, BorAa pe^opiia ^propiiCBHxib en^e hhh^mi He 
xanaja ce6fl snaTb, „^aicHjifl^ tojbbo h Óum saHflTa noAroroBJíe- 
HieKB noHBu H q^eACTBi A-^á pe<|)opMBi; y ?apTopucBHXi» cyn^ecxBO- 
BajH CBOH „4^MiiJiBHiie HHTepecu'', a rb hjih Apynn noJHTHHecBia 
HAeH HOACsasBiBajincB hm^b xoaomx fljbjrb vb nocreneHHOMi TeTOHÍe 
qpeneHH. EciH ^propucBie na CBoeM'B nyiH Bcrpinaion IIotoi^- 
WTb^ BaBi nponramBOBi, to onaTB-TaBH ne noTony, hto6u no- 
ciÍAHÍe 6iuH npHHi^HHiajiBHiiME BparaMH peýopm*; ao 1744 r, 
s^^aMHjdH^ en^e ne 6um npeoSpasoBaTejiBHoft napiiefi, a nesAy 
TJbi'B aHTaroHHsirB yse cyn^ecTBOBanx. O^eHB MOserB A&se 6bitb, hto 
npH ApyTHxrb o6croATejiBcrBax'B csasa poAOHanajiBHHBOFB pe4K^M'B 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



30 BftCTHHKCb EBPOQU. 

B% nojiBmi AOcrajiacB 6u IloToii^KHirB; aeaib AyMaen, Hanp., ho* 
Biimift HCiopfiBi 6&pb6u mxsHTH^ecRffx^ napiíft h nporpaMiTB nps 
ÁBrycrt m^ r. BajnuneBCsift) ne 6effb ocfiOBafláfl aair&Hafl, teo Be<^ 
9Ton aHTaroHH8M'B B03HHS% He Ha noiB^ BHyrpeHHeft hojihthibi, 
He no Bonpocy o pe^K^piffe hjh efl xapaKiepi h pasifipax^b, a no 
noBOjty HHOcrpaHHoft hoíihthsh, — BasoĚ codbi Ówvh Jiy^une jsm 
IIojibmH. Korxa ko Bcbwh npEHEHam conepHEiecTBa npBeoejiCHHHJica 
BonpocB o npeoÓpadOBaHÍflxi, to Iloroi^ide crajra idbmaTb ^pro- 
pKCKBMi rjiaBHuirB oÓpasoiTB cb TOK) JsjbshiOj HT0({ii npeoSpasoBa- 
hís ne CA^aiaeB, Tasí csasaTB^ irononojdeft nocrtxHHxnb. ho ycn- 
jiEiu Hxi sHavraifl Bi rocy^apcTB^ ne yBp^nHJiH npaBHTOJiBCTBai 
£!» soeny caMH ohh ctoajih vb omI08H^iH. IIpH TaRHX'B OTHome- 
HÍflX'B ROHcepBaTopu H nporpeccncTBi hotjih ji&iío noicimrrbca po- 
iuiMH, CB TOK) se jierROCTBH), c^ KaBOH) na caMOMi jiibjA ^pro- 
pucBÍe H noT(»pde noMŠHfljmcB noiosecdeirB npn ABOpi ÁBrycra III, 
TaBi BavB B^ soEi^t i(apcTBOBaHÍfl 9Toro Bq>ojui wb onnosm^H 
Ówm yxe ?apTOpiiCKÍe, a UoTOipde, naoíSopoT^, oÚuihbiuhce c:b 

ABOpOlTB. 

BonpocB O pe^^opM^ npaBTffiecBir Bucrynorb na ci^esy Bnepeiie 
vb 1744 roAy. ÁBrycn in jiyHajii BTBHyrb IIoAmy vb aBCipo- 
aHrjrifieByK) Boani^iK), nojiLsoBaBmyDca co^CTBieiíx h Poccíh, npo- 
THB^ ^paHEo-npyccBaro coK)3a, Tor^a BaBi onno3Hi9a crofljia 3a 
(SjmrocBiOHHuft a^a $paHipH h IIpycdH HefirpajiiiTeTB. Coseibui na 
5-e OBTflÓpfl 1744 r. onepe^Hot ceftm vb FpoAHO, Bopojs b% no* 
caaHHOiTL Ha oettMVRH yHHBepcajrb otfiiBHJTB, iro fj^bhiim^ ngejs,- 
MeroifB coB^n^aHÍK, BpoM^ HStf^HeHÚi ce&MOBoft npoi^eAypu h yj^H* 
menifl cocToanifl 6^ACTByK>niaro napo^a, óy^en yMHOsenie BOftcsa, 
BecBHa noHflTHoe npa Ba^ynanHoft RopojOMi BH^mneft nararnB-i^. 
OAHOBpeMeHHO H crapiitt CTaHHCJiaBi* noHUTOBCsift nepeA'B tíjch se 
cefiifHKaHH, xoJiseHCTBOBaBniHMH Bu6paTL nociOBi Ha ce&Mi h eaaó- 
AHTL Hxi ^HCTpyK^iflKH, pacnpocTpaHHJTB no rocy^apcTBy anoHHMHoe 
„IlHCbMO nojiBCBaro muxníHa e:l oxHOMy hsi cbohxti Alfyseft bx 
ApyroiTB BoeBOACTBi^ ^), coAepasaBmee vb ce&b i^&uift nABS!b pe- 
^opiTB, rjiaBHafl Jííbjíb bohxx daBjiK)^aiacb wb yMHOsenÍH BoftcBa, 
o^EBBJíeHHOirL sajn^ nepBuft, caMBift neoÓxoAHHutt h nacioflTairBHiift 
man a^ji tofo, hto6h bíibocth Pí^b IIocnojHTyK) Hsib ea neHajuB- 
naro nojnosenifl. Jí^íl co^epsanifl fiojiBmofi apiiin nysHKi h cpe^- 
CTBa ÓojíhjmsL: OTCK)Aa cob^u aBTopa, KjiOHHBmiecfl b^ yBejíH^eHÍK) 
rocyAapcTBeHHuxx xoxoaobi nocpexcTBOirB ycianwjieHií noniJuiffB 



') PeneAAh Hane^arajn (crp. 207 — 228) (t^pam^yscdi nepeioxi 8T(»o „nHCBica") 
BajlA«HHHft ApoftseHoiTB Bi CepjaBczowb TalBoiTb rocyxapcTBeiiHon apzHBi. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



QOJIBCRIS PE4»0PMU. 31 

Ha TOfiapii, coaMcibúe pasraTiio npoMinnjieHHOCTH h ToproaiH, 
cípaxaBnfHXi Wh pa3Hux'& crtcaaiitt, BSEManifl ^erBeprott ^cra 
loxox^i co cnpocm (rocyAapCTBeHHiixi Hifyn^ecTB^, pas^aBaB-^ 
Bfflxefl sa aaeiyra), ycTaHOueHÚi HfeotopHrB KaseHHuxi mohoho- 
jíi, BBexefdH Hajiora ch iiL[[flxeTG]CHX'B h j^jxomsíTh Hir^mfi, 8a6<mi 
ofo yMBosenÍH HapoAOBaee^eHÚi, npineHi nocjii']&AHet líjbjai, no 
nkrin aBTopa, kosho 6uio 6hí AOcntrnyrB, enoco($CTB7fl saiuiH)- 
ioíd 5paxoBi», yMeHBnuui c^iHOiBOirB Óo^smoe BOJn^ecTso MOHa- 
cnipet, nepeAasafi mh HMyn^ecTBa odn^enoJiedHUifB y^pesAemaiTB, 
npmieKaí bte ceOt nepeceieBKeB^^ BOSBpaii^eHieirB ropoxaMi wTh 
npesem npsBS h AaposaHíeMi HtsoTopott TepHHMOCTH neBaTOJiH- 
wa. Pass IlasBíHa, npexcnsuBajrB nosuiTOBCEitt, CA'i^aeTCfl CEib- 
ffle I jsjHinBTh npH wrom> h BHyTpeHHáe nopa^BH (cy^efinafl pe* 
^(fna, Hacni^Haa OTutna liberum veto w t* n.)) osa ne tojibro 
nljien ssí CBoero ne^ajiBHaro nojiosemfl, ho h ci:&iaeTCfl se* 
mrt ooiofflHi^eft XJis cocbxei. HensFlcTHO, sasoe Bne^iaiJit* 
me npoBBBejo „HHCUfo'' IIoHflTOBCsaro na ceftMHRynii^yK) nu^xTy: 
m Hefl npoeRTH aHOHmiHaro miaxTH^a bo bcaroki (uy^at jmxMu 
ten (iiTb ^biFh-TO HOBtnrL, HeciuxaHHUBTB. Caifo „nucbuo*^ da- 
uMmuo vb ce&b njbJívň mi^wb pe^pM^, ho boí oh'6 mv^kxE npa- 

lOD I^H> eXBHCTBeHBO BH^OIHiOK) 6e80naCH0CTI> nOJDIBIDH H 65jB- 

ndt ei bícb b% MesAyii&poAHHXi a^ax^ — mBHHft mothfb mho- 
nn ejrbAOBaBHiHXT. sa draiii npoeKTOBi h upeoÓpadOBamft. IIpaB- 
mecsaro sHa^emfl pe^piiaTopcBift MaHH^ecrb „<)>^mhj!iíh^ ne 
nin: ohb cJHniKOMi onepesajrs anoxy, a cefini 1744 r.^ KavB 
QsierHO, <$HJs oxHHi H8i tfesnjTOAHuxii cefiHOBi Toft dnoxH, h(5o, 
(iuroxqui TaBTHsi onnoBHipH. aobojbho otíiraaott kb TaBHX'B ejiy* 
WXE, saBOHmitt meerirHeA&iBHEitt cpoR^B coB^o^amK npomejTB wh 
coopaxi, HH Kb Heny ne hphboahbiuhx^b, noojrinero nocjiu MorjiH 
pmixaTBCfl no AOMaiii, Hs^ero ne p^mroniH. UepeA^B cefiMOici 
1746 r. RopoiB yace OTRasaJica otb BHecenu Ha cett pas-B npes- 
Hvo npeAioa^HÍfl ofe yMHOsemH BoftcRa, otjioshb^ 9totb BonpocB 
W> cAxyioiqaro cefina, ho ctopohhhrh ^apropucRHXX noAHfljiH ero 
cim BB caMOifB se Ha^ajit coBin^amt, h ciry^HjiocB ohstb to 
u^ rň ffijMSL roxaMH panBme, h npeTOM'B ne 6e3i hohod^h ^pan- 
^Hmi H iipyccRHX'B xenerB. H ceflMi 1748 r« hm^i noxoÓHyK) 
16 cyXBtfy, xoTfl na aroTB pa^B HaxoÓHOCTH b'b HHOcrpaHHOirB so-* 
wA yse He ORasaJiocB. Ha 1750-fi roA'B, bmšcto otfuRHoeeHHaro 
cefatt, 6ujn> HasnanenB ^esBEiHa&nuft, AByxHeA'&a[BHiifi: o6edneqHTB 
ipiexeme pe4K)piiru — rjiaBHUATB oópasonrB, yMHOseme BoBcRa — 
^<Wm>raiocB pasmocH oco6umh ifipaMH, ho bcí ohš hh ri neny 
se jmeifr, h cefiirB 6uii> copBaH'B oahhmi hs^ hociorb, noARyniee- 



fci.*. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



32 WbCTBJÍ&l> SBFOIQI. 

Buwb $paH^ieft H Ilpyceiefi. C!opBaH'b 6iijl% h ceftifB 1752 r.^ 
míb ABJío noBOA'B ^t^propucRfiHi oociaBHTb MaHE^^ecn, bi soeiťb 
oflH onpaBAUBaJiH esofl Haiii^peHifl, — MaHHJ^ecrB, onuÓoqHO npHHfl- 
TBifi BnocjrbACTBÍH 3a Hanajio onacHoft BOH^exepaiÚH, soTopaa (StLsa 
6yAT0 6u noAaBjeHa vh caitoMi nmsLxbj 6jiaroAapfl repoficKoicy no- 
CTynsy o^Horo mjiflXTflqa O- ^^aííHJiifl" ^e pasi tfasa noÓiasAena, 
mib He ocrajiocb óesi bjiúihúi Ha ea OTHomeBÚi b^b ABopy. Ob 
BToro HMesHO BpeMeHH HawHaercfl BsaBMHoe cuasA^HÍe crapux^b 
coH)3HHBOBi: Bo MHonoTb ApyrHM'B npmniB&wb ofioiOAHaro HeyAO- 
BOJibCTBifl, HirlBinHM^ 6ojí^ jiHuuft xapaBxepi, npHCoexHHHJiocb 
TenepB pasoupoBame ABopa bi» mjA ^^^anulH"' , Boropafl, Cb CBoett 
CTopoHu, HaxoAHJia, ^TO ABopi npoflBJueTO cahidboiii^ Majio 9HeprÍH« 
YAajieHie or& ABopa ^pTopíiCBHX'B, — BCBopi uocjA xero Ha^aBniHx:^ 

BeCTH CBaiO JlEHÍfO HCBJElDHHTeSbHO Bl> C0H>3Í^ Ob PoCCieĚ, TaBT> HTO 

Hxi napxifl CTajia ^pycCBOfi" napiiefi, — conpoBOisAajEOCB, Hao6opoTB, 
cÓJiHaeHieMi ABopa ci hx% npemHHKH aHiaroHncraMH, IIotoi^bíimh. 
Bo Bpeiffl dTofii 6opB6u, noRa ^apTopucEÍe cociaBJíflJiH npEABopnyio 
naprÍH) hjih to^ibro-hto naicfe^ajcfl hxi paspuBo^ ci> cbohbih cia-- 
puMH cotosHHBaiiH, npeoCpasoBaHÍfl AaJíeso ho cocraajtaiH caiiaro 
saM^THaro npeAHera nojHXHqecBoft pacupn: HcropHBaMi onoxu, na- 
o6opo'rB, npExoAHTCfl BOJieň-aesojiefi ocraHaBJHBaTBca na xaBHXi 
anHsoAaxi éopBÓu, Boxopue ne HEŠiorB hh MaaMmaro OTHomoHia 
B'B pej^opnaMi h MoryrB tojibbo xapaBTepESOBaxB CBOOBopucrie nap- 
niL. 1749-fi r. 6ujít> osHaifeHOBaHi t^itb, hto BopoHHufi TpHÓVHajťB 
Bi nCxpBOBt, HJienu Eoero Bu^EpajiHCB ceftiíEBaicE, ho uon eocra- 
BETBCfl^ fl Ha ic&juul roA'B noJBma ocrajiacB óearb CBoero Bticmaro 
cyAEJifln^a: ^apropucEÍe ynoipe^EjH bcš cpeAcrsa, rtoÓu npoBecm 
Ha cefiiíEBaxi* cboex'b BaHAHAaxoBx, emía b'b BEAy CA^axB nap- 
maiBOMi njreMEHHEEa CBoero KasEMÍpa IIoHflTOBCEaro; 8aT^'By 
BOFAa ABnyiaiu codpajmcB vb TpE6yHaJiBCEÍň ropoA'B, npEsepseBiJ^u 

„^SMEÚK*' npOBOSr^CEJIE MapmaJIROHI» nOHETOBCBarO, HO npoTEB- 

HEBE cxBaTHiECB 3a ca^JiE, H ood^AHeify ocraBajiocB tojibbo ho- 
BEHyxB ropoA'B; TorAa napxifl ^piopucEEXi craia ocnapHBaTb 
npaBEJiBHOC^ Buóopa ota&ibhbixi hjeohobx Apyrofi napxÍE, a dxa 
na^aja orniaHEBaTB Tbwbs&e npHBepseniJiaMi* „^aMSjdE^. ^pyrnirb 
BHESOAOifB napTÍfinoK 6opB6u Úwib A'^eaB'B rpoiiaAHaro ocrpoas- 
CBaro Maftopaia hjih, BaBi roBopflTi hojabe, „opAEHai^iH^ (1753 r.): 



1) TaKi> pascKasHBaeTCfl bcímh HCTopEsaMH, bcji-Iai* sa FujbepoMi. BoepeU 
noBTopaerb pascsasi (exp. 98—96), xoxa npHBOjiHTB bt» npiuoaeHÍH (exp. 285 — 287) 
4)paHuy3CKÍfi nepeBoxi* MaHH4)ecxa, nojtyneHeuft npyccK^i npaBBxejbCTBOiťb ovh cBoero 
nocjauHHsa (doxjihrhbri óeixi pasopsani bo spemi co6iipaHÍJi nojinacett). Bnepaue 
BuncBoxb cMHCJii* dTofi BCTopÍH WcMsstwski. I, 145—157. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



nojbCBifl P£^0PMU. 33 

ero ycrpoiuiH ^^propucRie, BecBMa jobro BOcnojib306aBmHCB hmi, 
íTo6u BHecTH pasAopi Fb cpeAy cbohxi iipothbhhbobii h ^o6uTh 
ctíB^ HOBiix'B iipHBep^eHi^eBi, u jíihjio bto craio npeAMero&rL hobo& 
pacope, vb BOTopyio BM^majicfl Aa^Ke BepcajscRÍfi ABop%, AORasu- 
BaBnrifi, HTO 4^paHiiy3CKaA RopojieBa Mapia Jlen^nHCRafl HaxoAH^acb 

Bl pOACTB^ Ch BJiaA^BI^aMH OpAHHa^iH. IIOAOÓHlIlfB 6e8npHH]i(Hn- 

HoifB dnnso^OMi oBJísiennai h nomiTBa RopoHHaro Mapmajnca — Ha^Bop- ' 
Haro K)pifl MHHmxa, ssírsi caRCOHCRaro MHHHcrpa EpiojA, oópaso- 
BaTb TpeTbK) naprÍH), bo vmvb Roefi Mon Óu craiB ohi cairB, 
orrcuBHyBí otb ABopa ^apiopucRincB h npHBjeRmn Ha cboh) cto- 
poHy <iacTB crapofi onnosHi^iH: npHHi^HniajiLHaro vb 8to& nonuTR*]^ 
HHqero ne 6hjio, a MesAy i^m^ ona ne Morjia ae OTpasHTBCfl na 
BsaHMHuxi OTHomeHÍflX'B crapuxi* iipothbhiirob'b h ne ycJi02RHHTB 
H 6e3i Toro aobojieho sanyraHHyK) noiHTHRy, tím-b 6ojri&e, 'jto 
^^^aMKjdu'' yAaJOCB ynoMAHyTUMi A^emoiTB JiaROMaro RycRa nepe- 
TgHyTB R-B ce^ He OAHoro ^naipiora^, RaR'B HasuBajHCB efl crapue 

DpOTHBHHRH. HaROH^I^'B, IipHHI^HIIU OTCyTCTBOBajIH H Vh HCTOpÍH 

cefliia 1754 r. CefiHHRH, emy npeAmecTBOBaBmie, Óujiví o^enB 6ypHBi, 
H MHorie Esrb hhxi óujie copBaHu. O^ho dTO ne npeAB^n^aJio HH- 
qero xopomaro. Co cropoHu Ropojia noBTopeHBi 6ujiví crapus npo- 
hosbi^íh oTHOCHTejiBHO yííHOiBeHifl BO&CRa, yBejiHHemfl aoxoaobi 
Pt™ IIocnojiHTofi H T. n., paBHO RaRx nocraBJíeFB óujtb Bonpoci 
0^ ocrpoau^RoK opAHHai^iii. Ha ce&MŠ a^o ne Aomjio jí^b^jq ao 
H35paHÍfl líapmajiRa: nawjiH cb cnopoBi o6'b ocrposcROft opAiraai^iH, 
HO na ToiTB Hce h noROH^HJiH, HHq^ifB He pimHBi Bonpoca, TaRi 

KARI CefilTB 6uJVb COpBaH^ OAHHMl HOCaOM^, nOARynjeHHUM'B JIH- 

iViMii^ ROTopufl noA^HJiH MCSRAy C060K) 6oraTBi& MašopaT'B. TaRoft 
pesyjiBTaTB Óua^ BHroAeH^ ^^aMHJiiH*', ho nocjri& 3Toro ona yate 
OBOHqaTejiBHO ne Morja 6utb napriefi ABopa. 

Mu TOJBRO naifl^THJiH cyn^ecTBOBanie bc£x'b bthxi anHsoAOBx 
noatcRoft HCTopÍH cepeAHHu nponiJiaro BÍRa, ttoóli noRaaaTB, npn 
KaRHxi ycjiOBÚix'B npHXOAHJiocB ABHraTBCfl A^y pe^opMu: noApo6- 

HOCTH 9T0Ě (^OpBÓU, CBasaHHBIXl CB HeH) AHHJIOMaTHHeCRHXl HHTpHPB, 
HOBUXl ROMÓHHai^ft Bl Hapri&HEIX^B OTHOUieHÍflX'B H T. H. He MO* 

ryrB npeAcrasjuiTB HHRaRoro HHrepeca cb totch spŠHÍA HcropÍH 
pe^piťB. Ob 1754 r. íapropHCRÍe naxoAaTca pimHxejiBHO b^ 
onno3Hi^ÍH H tíitb Rptn^e AépataTca Pocdn: r-b 1755 r. othochtch 
noefcURa hmh b^ rXerepóyprB MOJOAoro CTaHHcaaBa IIoHflTOBCRaro, 
■M^Bniafl TaRífl BasHBifl nocjrbACTBk jí,jis noiBCROft Hcropin. He 
craHeiTB pascRasuBaTB TaRse jífiuthwbimeŘ HcropÍH 6opB6u naprift 
BT» IIojrBm^: BnyrpenHÍa h Bninraia OTHoraema Pí^h IIocnojíHTOft 
Bce 6ojťke h óojÁe sanyruBajiHCB, h a'^o pe^opnu hh na man 

Ton IIL— Maíí, 1889. 3 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



34 raCTHHBX EBPOnU. 

ne ABHnuocB BnepeA'B. P'linaK)ii^HMH MOMeHTaMH CA^jia^HCb TOJbKO 
CMepTB pyccBoft HMnepaxpHi^u EjiHsaBeru nerpoBHu, npHBeAmafl 
Poccíh) Kb C0H)3y CB Ilpycciež, BCTymieHie Ha npecrojii EKaxe- 
pHHu II, Kh BOTopott 6ujm 6jiMdKE ^apTopBiCBÍe ^epesi CBoero 
lueMflHHHBa, H, HaROHei^, BOHHHHa ÁBrycra III, CA'&saBmafl noib- 

CKÍft IipeCTOJCb BaBaHTHBIM'B ]Í,JISL TOFO, HTOĎH PoCCifl H IlpyCCia 

MorjH Ha Hero noca^Hrb ctiHa nesa^OJiro nepeA'B t&mi (1762 r.) 
yMepmaro poAona^ajibHHKa „^aMEiBHofi^ hojhtheh, HMenno tojiero- 
HTO ynoMaHyraro njieMaHHHKa ^apropiicKHX-B, MOJio^oro OraHHCJiaBa 
noHHTOBCEaro. JífiCSLTh jAvb OT^ijaioTx nepBoe cÓJHaeme ^apropu- 
CBHX'B CB Pocciefi 0TB BucTynjeHÍa hx'b cb nporpaMHOH) pe^opMi>; 
AecHTB jí%Tb nponiJio CBdToro Mpnenia ao nepexo^a „$aMHJiÍH" B'b 
onnoBHipH) KO ABopy h jsfl nanajia 6ojvke Ticnaro coioaa ea erb 
Poccieft; AecaTB »e jiítb nporeicjio cb axofl nocJŠAHeft nopu ao 
piinHTeJTBHaro npioÓp^Tema hhh BjracTH npn noA;(epsB'6 co cropoHu 
pyccKaro npaBHxejiBCTBa. Bt» 9totb nepiojí^ no crapoaiy 6opo*iecb 
MejiBie napTifiHBie sHTepecu, cRpen^HBajracB bi IIo^Bin^ unocrpaH- 
Hua HHTpiirH, cpuBajiHCB cefiifu, H vbwb o?eBHAH'6e jiibMJíSkCb Heo6- 
xoAMMOCTB pe4)opMu. íapTopHCKÍe ne noKH;i;ajiH CBoeň cxapoft mucsh, 
u ti% caMOMi KOEníb i^apcTBOBaHia ÁBrycra III Ta se mucjib Jierjia 
Bi ocflOBy HOflBHBnraxcfl BTb 1760 — 1763 rr. ota^ibhuxx ^acre^ 
co^HHenia bc. CTanncjiaBa KonapcRaro o „^'^ficTBHTeJBHOMi cnoco^ 
coB^maHifl*' O, HanpaBJíeHHaro npoTHBi liberum veto. 

OnBTTB noEasuBajrB, HTOHHBaBÍfl pe^opMBi ne 6iuh 603mo»;hu, 
noRa cyn^ecTBOBajio liberum veto h cpuBanie ceKiiOBi. OrpauHoe 
ABjíeHie npeACTaBj[flji'B h3'b ce6a btotb ^bojbruS rojioeB^ (wolny 
glos), ara „npaBO EHTepiíecciH*' (jus intercedendi), cpiiBaHÍa ceň- 
MOBi. TIojiflKH Bujiibm. Bi HeM'B ^s^HHBiy^ CBoefi CB060AU, a ueí&fl^Y 
rkwb H nepBBifi eocojtb, copBaBnnft cefiMi bi 1652 r., noRpuai> 
ce6fl ciaBOfi FepocrpaTa, h Bd§ CJrŠAOBaBmie sa hhbtb cpueaTejiH 
HOCHJui Ha ce^ narao no3opa. CaMO no ce6* liberum veto 6ujio 
HenpHROCHOBeHHoň CBflTUHeK: 6ojrke panHÍe ny6jiHi;HCTu, RaKOBu 
Jlwb flfíjiOHOBCRift (bi Ópoffliopi: ^Skrupul bez skrupulu, 1730), 
CranHOiaB-B Jlen^HHCRÍfi (b-b cbooitb „BojiBHOíirB rojocfe", 1733), 
caiTB CraHHCJiaBi IIoHATOBCRifi crapmift, bi HdBtcTHOsrB yse „nHCbM'á 
nojiBCRaro nuiflXTHHa" (1744), ne p^maiOTca B£iCRa3aTBCfl npHa- 
i^HoiaJiBHO npOTHBi liberum veto, BOscraBan jhoib npoTHB^ sjíoyno- 
TpeÓJeHiň BTHifB npaBOiťB hjih npe^^araa tojibro HŠRoropua ero 
orpaHH^eHÍa. RoHapcRift nepBufi ocM^HJca, — Birkrro xoro, bsk-b 
caiTB OHI BBipasaerca, hto6u oÓpiiBaiB jhicthre h bštohrh,- — bii- 



*) o skutecznym rad sposobie. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



nOJBCKIfl PKOOPMU. 35 

psaib pacreHie erb KopHeMi, yBasaei na p^mesde js!ksi> 6oiBniHH- 
cTBon rojoeoBTB, nas^ na e;(HHCTBeHHO npaBHJibHufi cuoco^. 
Co^HHeHÍe KoHapcKaro npoHSBeJio Bne^TJitHie h óujo npHHflro 
Becuia coqyBCTBeHBO pasHUMH napriaMu: no;!;^ 6jiaroAapcTBeHHiiMH 
H XBajedHuifH orsEiBaifH dxofi BHHr^ ctoajih mfena n qjieHOBi 
3^^ainuÍB'', H „naipioTOBi", n K)pifl MHHmxa, rjaBU „npHABopHOft 
napris'', Tas^ ?to npHHi^HiiiajibHoe orpui^aHÍe Itberum veto ee 
6fijio MOHonoiiieft KaKofi-jiH($o oahoě napiÍE, xota Óuí, sanpHBc^pB, 

OAHHX'L ^aprOpUCKHXl, HO dTO He HtmaAO BCbWb nOJBBOBaTBCfl 

fCiyraMB „BOJibHaro rojoca^, BOrAa copsaiB ce&Mi tfujio BuroAHO bi 
u&iniiHux:B HHTepecaxi. Líberum veto óhulo Hexopomo, pimeHÍe 
xfcJTB óo^hmwHffiBOWh 6hUiO JiyHme, ho nysHO 6uao tojibro, htoÓu 
oojbnrHHCTBO He 6wlo na cropoHŠ npoTHBHO& naprin, h npoTHBHHKH, 
juneHHue npaBa qpuBaiB ceítwh^ ne mofjih nn^ero noi9.'kiaTB npoTHBi 
3Toro óojibQiHHCTBa. Bpa^AeÓHUfl naprÍH HicenHO TasuMi otipasoirb h 
oforpíjui na jkiJLO. TaBi ^íim> BOH^^epaipa npeAcraBjuiJia hsi 
eeSfl q>eACTBO ptmaTb A'i^a ÓojBomncTBOirB, ceiok) sacraBjflfl noji^- 

ÍHHflTBCfl BC£X'B HeAOBOJlBHUXX, TO HapTÍH BO BpeMfl CBOefi 6opB6u 

nocTOflHHO HOCHjmcB Ob npoeBTaMu BOH^Aepai^iH, He jAaBaBniHMHCfl 

miBBO BClŠACTBÍe paSHUXnb npE^HHl, T^Ml 60.1^, HTO ROH^A^pa- 

ipir, cmoH) aaxBaTUBaBmifl BJiacTB wb cboh pyRH h chjok) s&e npH- 

HpSjUkBHlÚi CBOHXl* npOTHBHUBORB nOBHHOBaTBCfl, OH^e 6oJI^, ^^Wb 

npocTiui napTÍH, HyacAajincB vb HnocrpanHoft homoh^h. KonapcRÍft 
HiCsasBiBaiíCfl npoTHBi Ron^e^epai^itt, vb bohxi bha^'b jihoib npo* 
THBOBtob „BOAHOMy rojiocy**, cocTaBJuiK)n^í& vb cyn^HOCTH Apyroe 
so^o^Hoe ase aio. Hsi* aroro bhaho, hto e^Ba jih RHHra 6fiL!ia sny- 
H^a RoHapcROMy ^apropucRHicH, RaR^B crjiohhu ^yMaxB H^ROTopue 

ICIOpHKH: „íff^MtuáSL*^ ^ HOAOShO CBOHITB HpOTHBHHRaMl, HOCTOflHHO 

BosBpan^aiacB r'b AJiany ROH^e^epaipH. H na caMOMx jijkjrk 9to 
61L10 eAancTBeHHoe cpejífirBO h ?ero-HH6yAB AotíHTBCfl, RorAa ce&Mu 
epasaiHCB OAHffB sa xpyrnirB, u y^epasaTB rocnoACTBO bi> cbohx'b 
IiyBax'B. Bi naiajT^ mecTHAecflTuxi* foaob^b ^propucRÍe CHJiBHie, 
ďm BorAa-JHÓo xjionoraaH o cocraBJíeHiH ROH^e^epai^in, npflifo 
jxe yKasuBafl na to, tto hs^ neji MOseTi bu&th npeo($pa30BaHÍe 
wcfWpctBSL. n^ea pe^pnu Bcrynaia bi hobeiS 4^a3Hci>: yn^e b% 
1762 r. ^propucRÍe bcjih cb ERaTepHHOfi 11 neperoBopu otho* 
enenHO Roň^AepaipHy Boefi pyccRaa HMnepaTpni^a ^ojisna 6u;ra 
XenesnyH) h BoeHHyio homoo^b, upiiqeMX vjbjíbío boh^ac- 
cnBHJiHCB BBeAeHÍe jy^meft ^opnu cettiiOBUX^B coB^n^aHÍft 
c tfQyribe npo^raufi C0H)3ib cb PoccieK. Bi> cjrbAyK>n^eirB ro^y Ri 
AkmiHCB yse npHroTOBjemfl, ho, no sejianÍH) Eaa- 
Ofla He cocTOiiJiacB npn sh3hh ÁBrycra III. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



36 BfiCTHiaCB EBPOnU. 

Ki 6e3KopojieBBK), HacryiiHBineMy no CMepiH aroro Eopoďfl, 

BUflCHBJrOCB TaRHM'B OÓpaSOlťb BnOJIH']^, HTO JÍM KaBHXOb 6£I TO HH 

úhíJíO npeo<5pa30BaHÍfi ifpe»Ae Bcero neoÓxoxHMO 6ujio ycrpottcTBO 
K0H4>eAepaipH. Tóro se Tpe6oBaJiH h hhcto napriftHue ^HTepecu 
^propucRHX^B. Bnpo^eifB, BOMy hh AOcrajiacB 6u BJiacTB, npo- 
H30fiTH 3T0 npH TorAamHHxi o6cTOflTe^CTBax'B HHane se Morjio, BaKx 
nyreiiťB BOH^e^epai^iH, h aojAq y Bjcaera nejibsfl 6wio y^epsaTbea, 
RaRi> npoHBBeAinu h^rojibko caiíux^B HeoÓxoAHMUxi) pe^pirb. G^b 
Apyroft CTopoHBi, cbohme coÓCTBeHHHMH CHJiaHH HH OAHa naprifl He 
6ujia Bf> coctoahíh bbatb prj^mHTeJiBHiift nepeBŮCB Ha^i CBOHManpo-* 
THBHHRaMH: nojiBCRÚi napTÍH H3AaBHa, E&Kb 6ujio ynoM^HyTO, npH- 

BB1R.IH HCRaTb Ce&b OnOpU Vb CBfl3aX'B Cb HHOCrpaHHUMH ABopaiiH. 

HeHopBiajiBHoe cocrosHie Píhh nocnojiHToft HyBCTBOBajocb Bd^iiH, 
H RasAAfl naprifl bi cbohxi^ BHŠmHHx^B CHomeniflxi npn cjiy^a^b 
npocHja noMO^H y coioshhrobi js^a tofo, ttoÓbi npoHSBecTH h^bo 
Topufl Bnyrpennifl nepeiffenu bi> IIoJiBnri^. Ecia ^propucRÍe C!> 
caMaro nanajia CBoeň nojHnraecRoft RapBepu npHiiRHyjiH r'b Poccíh 
u ocoóenno RpInRO ^epsajHCB btofo coiOBa b'b rohi^Í i^apcTBOBaHia 
ÁBrycra lU, to TaRofi Bu6opi oÓycjiOBjíHBajicfl, ROBenno, ne t^^mx, 
^toGbi ohh crpeMHJiHCB craTB pe<|>opMaTopaMn, a y Poccíh 6uái> 
ocoÓHft HHTepecB noMepjBaTB napTÍio pe^opMu vb IIojiboA. PaB- 
HuiTB o6pa30Mi BpasAe^HBiH Poccíh npaBHrejiBCTBa, bcahocrh no- 
on^pflfl CBOH napTÍH vb Pšhh nocnoiHToň, a&^6R0 ne 6wai crjeohhu 
noHoraTB RaRHBfB 6u to hh 6íhjio BHyTpeHHHifB nepeH^HaiTB b'b 
dTOHi rocyAapcTB^. ^paniÚH cwrajiacB crapoň coiosHHi^ett IIojBniH, 
H Ha Hee o6pan^aJiH cboh Bsopu TaR'B-Ha3UBaeMue „naTpioTu''. 6% 
1746 r. JIiOAOBHRi XV nojiyHHJTB iieMopíajrB qepesi oahofo hst. 
npeAcraBHTejieK 4>P&Hiíy3CRO& napTÍH vb ŘojiBnri^, vb botopobtb ro - 
BopHJOCB H o6t> yHHTToaeHÍH Kberutn veto^ h o&b yBeiH^emu 

apMÍH, H Aase 06l> H3M'6HeHÍH BCeft BOHCTRTy^ÍH nOJBCBOfi CB BBe- 

AenieM^B Hacji'&ACTBeHHOCTH npecTOJía. KoH^e^epaipoHHue njtaHBi „naT- 
píoTOBi^ paBHuiTB oÓpasoiTB oócysA^JiHCB CB HpeACTaBHi^ejiflMH <|)paH ' 
i^yscRoS AHUJiOMaTÍH. KaB^B hh 6uj!A Henocx6;[OBaTej[BHa nojiBCsaa 
noJHTHBa JIioAOBHBa . XY , h btoti BOpoJiB 6o»ieio mhjioctbh), no- 
Ao6ho ApyrHiTB a6coj[K)THinrB MOHapxairB XVIII-ro b., 6ujrb nospo- 
BHTeieMi „no^BCBoft CBodoAu**, T.-e. T0& caMoft Heypa^qn^u, ro* 

TOpafl TOJBBO H nOSBOJflja nHOCTpaHHl>IM'B npaBHT&IBCTBairB BMtniH* 

BaTBCfl BO BHyrpeHHÍfl x^a IIojBniH, ^aóu hit^tb ee sa co6ok) bo 
BH^mHeK noiiHTHB^. B'B Haqaji']^ nflTHAecflTtixi foaobi ^^Hipa ro- 
TOBa 6ujia homo^b „naTpíoTairB*', ho tojbbo b7> cxy^BÍk nonuTSB 

?apTOpUCBHX'B yCTpOHTB BOH^CAOpaipK), h6o XpHCTÍaHHÍ^ftmíĚ BO- 

pojiB ne xoT^^ AonycTHTB TaBoro AÍ^a, „BOTopoe noBJíeBJO 6hL sa 



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nC^BCKIfl PE*OPMU. 37 



cofioH) FHÓeJB pecnyÍJiHKaHCKHXt BOJibHOCTeft, H na^eHia líberum 
vetOj dTOfi eAHBCTBeHHoK oxpaHu pecnyÓJUiBaHCROĚ cbo6ojí,u^, 
$paHi^y3CKafl naprifl o6paiAajia cboh B3opu ^d^Me ea Ilpycciio, na- 
xoAHBmyiocfl b'b coios^ cb $paHi^ie& bo BpeMfl boKhbi 3a aBCTpiSí- 
esoe Hacji^ACTBO, ho ecjiH y ropo óujia oco(5afl Buro^a if^maTb 
fiCflSHirb pe^pnaarB, Roropufl mof^h 6u yRp^nexB Pšhb Ilocno- 
jHTyH), TaKt 9T0 HMeHHO y $pHApHxa U, B^ qeMB wb HacToamee 
spěna ne MO^en 6uTh HHRaRoro coMB']&HÍa. Bi BTOWh cuucjA 
iiesAy npyccRHMi RopojieMi» h HunepaTopoMi IleipoMB III cocroa- 
locB AStiKe oco6oe corjiaineHie, y^epa^aBineeca h npn ERaTepHH']^ 11. 
MesAy Tku% Kb hoboíí pyccRofi HMnepaTpin^'b b% caMOWb Haqajr^b 
eii qapcTBOBaHÍa, RaRi hh bha*]^, oÓpaxHJiHCB ^apTopHCRÍe ne- 
pesTB CBoero njeifaHHHRa, CiaHnciaBa IIoHaTOBCRaro, cb npocB6oH) 
noMO^ ycTpoňcTBy KOH^eAepa^iH, i^&ibk) Roxopofi nes^y npo^HMB 
fiiua 6ii HMeHHO pe^pna; ERaxepHna oiB^^ajia, ^to h ona sme- 
jaerB HSBje^B pecnyÓJiHRy hs^b ea anapxÍH. Kor^a ^apropucRÍe 
npHcrynHJiH yse rb oÓpasoBaHÍK) ROH^e^epai^in, HMnepaxpHi^a, o^naRO, 
BjipyrB oÓ^BaBH.ia, qio eíL bto ne yroAHO npH slhshh i^apcTByH)ni,aro 
Bopaia. MoTHBB ocraHOBRH A'^a BUCRasani* Óujrb bx ea A^nem*! 
K% pyccROMy HOCJiaHHURy vb BapmaB^ RopoTRo: HiinepaipHi^a ne 
xoriiia AonycTHTB HHRaRoro HOBOBBeAenía, Bpe^Haro ^m Poccíh. 
HepeifiHU BO Bdr^a^axi* pyccRofi HimepaipHi^u cjiš^yexB oÓiacHHTB 
BiiameiiB Ha nee HacroflqHBuxi* npe^craB^ieHiĚ ^pn^pHxa 11, ne 
xeJiaBniaro, qTo6u vb IIojiBniž oSpasoBajiacB RaRaa-JiH5o Ron^e^e- 
pai^a AO cnepTH ABrycra III. HoB^fimie hctophrh, RaRi* nojiBCRie, 
TaKB H He-noJiBCRie, naxoAarB, tí^tb ne Menie, hto ERaxepHHa II 
npHHilHHiajiBHO He 6ujia npoTHBB npeo6pa30BaHÍň bb Ví^ví Ilocno- 
jflTofi, RaRi* dTo H oÓHapysHJiocB uocjvk nepBaro pasA^a: a^o bb 
TOM^, qro DojiBma cb Ilerpa BeJiHRaro naxoAHJiacB ho^th cobc^m^b 
BB pyRax^B Poccíh, h noc^ť^AHeS 6uJio jw&e bufoaho, wro6u ea 
ejaéaa coc^ABa Bunua hsi CBoeK anapxÍH, ho hoab HenpeM']kH- 
HttMB ycjiOBieMB, HTOÓu, BO-HepBuxB, OHa ocraBaJiacB bb nocroan- 

HOMB COIOSt CB pyCCRHMTb HpaBHieJIbCTBOMX, H HT06h, BO-BTOpUXT*, 

pe^pmi, ROTopBia crajH 6u BBOAHTbca bb IIojiBm'!, npespaTHJiH 
3T0 rocy^apcTBO bi (JjiaroycTpoeHHyio crpany, jinniB ne AonycRaa ero 
(WijaTBca CHjiBHoft AepataBOft. CoCcTBengo roBopa, bhabi ERaxe- 
pHHH II H ^HApHxa II OTHOCHxejiBHO V'kmii IIocnojraTofi pacxoAH- 
íhcb: npyccRÍe RopojiB a^bho yse Me^xajiH o pac^JienenÍH nojiBCRott 
TeppHTopÍH, 3arjiaAB[BaacB na cŠBopnyio ea nacxB, oxA'&iaBmyH) oaho 
OTB Apyroro ABa rjiaBHua BJiaA^nia roreHitoJiJiepHCRO& 4^aMHJiÍH, h 
Aia hhx'b oco6eHHBifi uHxepecB npeACxaB^iajro ne AOSBOJiaxB ycxa- 
HOEJieHia BB nojiBni']^ jiy^niHXB nopaAROBB, xorAa RaRB pyccRoe 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



38 B^CTHHRl £BPOlm« 

npaBHTejibCTBO fb XYIII b., saÓHBx crpeMJieHie hocbobckhxi i^apeft 

BOSBpaTHTB OTE P^HH IIoCnOJIHTOň pyCCBÍfl SeiOH, HaXOAHBmiflCfl 

nojs,i> efl BjiacTBio, BiiEasBiBaio HairbpeHie rocnoACTBOBáTb HaA'B Bceio 
IIojLineH), a ms. AOCTHacemfl arofif upkiH ne ÓesnojresHO Óijjio jKpi- 
nHTB nojiBCKoe npaBHTejibCTBO, jhoib Óu oho ociaBajiocB nocjiyni- 
HHM^ npHEasamaMi hsi Herepóypra. Bi toitb, hto EKatepími 
He yAajtocB y^epsaTB 3a coďoio bi* TOft Hjnr Apyroň ^^opii^ rociioA- 
CTBO HaA* BceK) IIojiBraeK), Hyano bh^ítb HecoMHÍHHvio noCt^y 
BepjiHHa Ha^x nerepÓyproMi, h TaKoft pesyjBTara 6ujpb noAro- 
TOBJíeni ^HApHXOMi II en^e ;^o BCryn^eHia Ha nojBcRÍfi npecrojTB 
HJieHa pe^pMaTopcBO& „(j^aMHjdH^ h craBJíeHHHKa EnaTepuHu 11, 
OraHHCJiaBa IIoHflTOBCRaro: icas^ coiosHHita ^pHApexa II, pyccKaa 
HMnépaTpHua AOJia^Ha ÓBiJia OTBasaTB CBoeň naprÍH fb toitb, ea ^rro 
nocji^AHflfl HM'&ia npaBO pasc^imiBaTB, Bc^i^ACTBÍe aojioKfiTejiBHO aah- 
HHXT* efi o6imaHÍfi, h otí) ne Morjo ne npeAcraBHXB CBoero pow 
Buro;pi A^fl BHAOBi neTepÓyprcKaro ABopa, TaBi» icaRi ^propucRÍe 
FB A&HHOMx cjynai HHa^e He Morjra A^ftcTBOBaTB, Ras^ onHpaacb 
na pyccKyH) noMon^B. HHiepecu „^^aMHJÍH^ h Poccíh, laBuirB o<$pa- 
30M'B, cxoahjhcb: nepBaa AO^HBajiacB BJiacTH, fb to »e Bpens owhb 
xopomo noHHMafl, ^xo bi P^hh IIocnojiHTOň fieai H3B^THuxib hsm^- 
HeníĚ ea ycrpoftcTBa ne Moaen cymecTBOBaTB nacToamaiK) npaBM- 

TOJIBCTBa, H HTO FB JS^kllfk pe^OpMH HeJIBSH o6oňTHCB 6e31» HHOCTpaH' 

HOft noMomn; BTopaa crpeMiuiacB ki rocnoACTBy na^i Bceio ÍIojib- 
meio, jí^JíSí ^eTO HyiKHO óhuio ycrpaHHTB BM'linaTeJiBCTBO Apyroxi* 
AepKaFB FB noJBCKÍfl A^a, oÓycJOBJíHBaeMoe rjiaBHi^ňme anapxHqe- 
CKHirB cocTOflHÍeM^ caMOň P^HH IIocnojiBTofir, a, cjriAOBaTejiBHO, ORa- 
saTB noMor^B Toň napTÍH^ Koropafl oÓHapysHBaja sejranie cos^aTb 
B-B crpaHi npoqHoe npaBHxejiBCTBO. ^H^pHxy 11 h Hy«HO 6ujio 
He AonycTHTB no^oÓHott KOMÓHHaiím, h orciOAa-TO BUTeKaenb na- 
ctoShhboctb, ctb KaKOK) OHT> AotfHBajica, TToCu pyccBafl HMnepaT- 
pHi^a BOs^epffiajiacB otb noHon^H 3aAyHaHHofi ^apxopucRHMH koh- 
<|>eAepa^iH. IIoAAepiRHBaTB b^b Vimi IIocnojiHTOfi noeroflHHyH) aHapxiio 
CA'&iajiocB OAHHM'B wsn> npaBHj[i> eBponeňcROfi nojraTHRH, ROToparo 
npHAepjsHBajiHCB hck ^epzsaBu, A^ae bx toitb cjiy^aš, ecjmióu hxt> 
HHTepecKí, noHflTue óojrke npasHjiBHHBrB oÓpasoMi, Tpe(5oBajíH npo- 
THBHaro, RaRi dTO yTBepsAaerB aBcrpiňcRit HcropHRi Apnexb fljia 
HeoAOÓpeHHaro hmt. fb 3T0Wh OTHomeHia noBe^eHk Mapiii-Te- 
pe3ÍH, a noTOMy nysno jh yAHBJATBCfl, ?to ERarepHHa, CBasaH- 
Hafl npHTOMi coi030iťB Ob Ilpycciefi, ne nonua 6oji'be ptmHTejiB- 

HBIITB 06pa30M'B HO HOBOMy, en^e He H3BŠAaHH0My FB nOJHTHK^, 

nyTH, CtiTB MoaeTi, TpefioBaBraeMy H3%-3a coioaa Ch coMHHrejrBHoĚr 

CHJIOfi nO^aepTBOBaTB COIOSOMI Cb CSULOŘ HeCOMHŠHHOň? 



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nOJIBOElH PK^OPMtí. 39 

H3% Toro, qxo coc*;^Hifl rocyAapcTBa nwknii ofl;HH 6ojibini&, 
Apyrifl MeHbmiĚ HHTepecB npoxHBHTBCfl npecÓpasoBaHÍflirb fb IIoJiBnrJb, 
iiBCTByerb caMuĚ xapaRrep^ sthxi pe^^opMi: cocša^mi BuroAHO 
6iuo HM-ferb OKOJio ce6a ciaóoe rocy;i;apcTBO 6e3T» Hacroamaro npa- 
BffFeibCTBa, 6eQ'b BOopyseHHOň cnini h óesi a^hc^hiixi cpeAcre^. 
Mu BHA^jiH, qro nepeafl mucjíb o pe(|»opM% 6u.i[a BHymeHa HMeHHO 
BBhnHHMH oTHomefliflMH P-bMH IIocnoJHTot, H Ha tí 3Ke OTHomenia 
yKasuBajffl nyÓjmi^HCTu, m» po^ib KoHapcRaro. TaRimi* oÓpasoMX, 
nepBuirB maroMi IIojibmH na nyTH peil^opiíi j^ojisho 6wio 6uTh 
cos^ame y ce6fl RaBoň Óu to hh Óujío npaBHTOJiBCTBeHHott BďacTH. 
T.-e. Toro, íTO cymecřBOBaao bo bcéx* ^pynixi rocyAapcTBaxx. Ct> 
3T0F0 jífiJiTBMO 6uA0 ua^aTbCfl iipeo6pa30BaHÍe P^^h IIocnojiHToň, h 
xyMaTb o HeMi-HHÓyAb ;(py^OM^ paHbme btofo H&nbsfl tf&uio h no 
Toi npHHHH^, ^TO rocnoACTBOBaBmee b'b Uojihurb cocJiOBie óimo 
OAHHirb m^b HaHÓojiše oxcrajiBixi, nsmÓOJiše soHcepBaTHBHux^ bo 
Bcei Efipoir]^, a Apyrie o6iuecTBeHHue Bjaccu koch&ih kb Bpaň- 
Heifk HeB^secTB^, saKJiio^aa bx ceOi TOJibso dJieneHTu aja CTHxiň- 
Huxi BcnumeKi, i^bio Koropux^ mofjio 6yTb a flfbŘcmmeJihno 
6wío pa3pymeHÍe no.ibCKofi, EaTOjranecROt h miAxercKOĚ pecny^jraRH, 
a ne ea pe(|K>pMa. Ob Apyroň cropoHu, npeoCpasOBame , nojibCRHXi 
rocy^iapCTBeHHUxi* nopflAROBi u ne Morjo h^th niBuwb nyxeMi, 
Kasb nyreMi BOSHHRHOBemji BJiacT0JiH)6HB0ň MarHaiCROň naprÍH, 
yerpoĚCTBa vb es HHTepecaxi Ron^^e^epai^iH h npuBJíeTOHifl na ea 
CTopoHy RaRog-HH^yAb HHOcrpaHHOfi A^psaBU. 3to cocraBJuierb 
BHiniHiOH) cTopoHy x^a; BnyrpenHaa saRJDO^ajiacb vb Bonpocž o 
Ton, RaRafl npaBHTejibCTBeHHafl ^opiia ^ojURHa 6um sbiítlcs bi 
Doibini nocji^ ycrpaHeHia Bcix'b tíx'b npenaTCTBÍň, ROTopus cy- 
n^ecTBOBajiH Kb neň j[,jisi o6pa30BaHÍa RaRoro 6u to hh óujio npo^- 
Haro npaBHTejbCTBa, rjiaBHUHx oÓpasoMi, nocji'b yHn^Tomemfl libé- 
rum veto^ Ha neirb cxoAHJiHCb bc^ nojnmiHecRie A'^Tain pasHuxi^ 
ottíhrobi. JlfiXbwkŘmee npeo6pa30BaHÍe norjo npoHBOňTH jraóo wb 
MOiapxflqecRC^rb, J11160 vb pecnytfjHRaHCROirb ]sjs,% TaRi RaR^b, 
ooficTBeHHO roBopH, Ilo^ma, Hii^Brnafl Ropojifl h Óbmmafl Fb to se 
BpeMfl pecny($jiHR0&, ne HM^a, Ha canoMi jíikrbj hh MonapxH^ecRoft 
fijacTH, HH pecnyójHRaHCRaro npaBHTeibCTBa: pe^opnaTopairb o^h- 
HasoBO npHHiJiocb 6u qyrb ne bhobb cos^aBaTb h Ty, h Apyroe, 
CMorpa no TOMy, RaROfi HyTb ohh ButfpajH 6u jí^sl ^^ocTHsenifl no- 
craejieHHOň ce6% i^h, t.-o. yHHHTOseHifl bš^ho^ anapxin, ryÓHBmeft 
Pi^b IIocnojiBTyK). 

Ha ABa Jiarepfi h pasA^fljiHCb noj[bCRÍe nojTHrn^ecRÍe A^TaiH, 
a Biribcrb Cb hhmh h nncaTejiH, RaRi bi 3Ty, TaRi h wb nocjrk- 
JíjTomyio dDOxy, T.-e. RaRi nepeA-b HstípaHieMi* na npecTOJi'b Ora- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



40 B^CTHHRl EBPOnn. 

HHCjaBa-ÁBrycTa, xasi h wb ero i^apcTBOBaHÍe. E^e lasoMy pasA^emio 
H npHBejTB aHxaroHHsiťB „^SLUima^ h „BAupiorovh^ . TaRixaK-b, bi 
BOHi^'^ BOHj^OBi, pe<|)opMa ^apTopucBHXi npHHfljia xapaRTepB Monap- 
ZH^ecBÍtty a Hxi onnoHeHTu cxajiH OTCTaHBaT& pecny6jiHRaHCEÍfl na- 
^aaa nojibCEaro rocy^apcTBeHnaro crpoa. Oe Tbxi> nop^, BaR'B EKa- 
TepHHOá n AAHO 6kl2io ^aproptiCRHiTB od^n^am^ BOSBecxH* OAHoro is^% 
^jíenoB% „^^aiiHjdH'' na npecrojTB, ohh oco6eHHO aojshu óuia 
CTOflTb 3a upuBUfovb „pera^Hsica'', Ri RoeMy ^yBCTBOBajH crjoh- 
HOCTJb en^e lorAa, Ror^a Óblih cropoHHHRaMH RopojieBCRoň oojihtiirh 
vb nepByio nojiOBHHy lyipcTBOBaHia Afirycra III. Hao6oporB, npo- 
THBHafl napria, noMepsahSíeuía. ^pasi^ieň, Bce 6ojFbe u Óojsíke acho 
HaHHHajia coseaBaTB cbok) nporpaMMy, ne tojero RaRi coxpaHeeie, 
HO H RaRi* jífljLhwtíímee pasBHTÍe pecny6jiHRaHCRHXx ea^ajB nojibCRoi 
ROHCTMTyi^iH: JiJímh noA'B nocíŠAHHirB ycnoBÍeMnb h Morjia 6u ona 
corjiacuTbCA na yHHHTOseme Ubert^n veto. Ho ea luiaHy, y Ropojna 
CJiiAOBaio 6u OTHaTB jífiSL nepe^íaHH „HapcAy** ("r.-e. nuaxTt) to, 
^To en^e ocraBajiocb y RopojeBCRaro cana wh TLojihwb b% cmuci^ 
AMcTBHTejiBHaro 3HaqeHÍfl, jmeHHO npaBO HasHanaTB na Bcb Bucmia 
AOJSHOCTH H pasAaBaTB 3a sacjyrH rocy^apcTBennua Hnyn^ecTBa bi 
noaiusHeHHoe nosbsoBaHie. BecBiía ecrecTBeHHO, hto jh)ah, npn- 
HaAJiesBiaBinie ri dxoň napTÍH, óiuih cropoHHHRaMH HsfiHpaiejibHaro 
npecTO^a, h bx stomi OTHomeHÍE nacca mjaxTJU, BHAi^smaa ^d/k- 

BBUJ BOJIBHOCTU" He B^b O^HOMl líberum VetOy ho H B1> „BOJbHOfi 

^JIeR^iH Ropojieň^, óujia Hacrpoena bhojih^ bi js^yxi pecny^jiuRaH- 
CRoft napTÍH. „PerajiHcraicb*, Haotfoporb, BecbMa ecrecTBeHHo Chjio 
npHATH Rx H^e^ Hacji^ACTBeHHOCTH npecTOJa, h Ror^a Ropona ao- 
cxajiacb OAHOMy h3x H;ieHOBib „^^aifHján'', coBepmeHHO noHaxHiiUfL 
oÓpasoMi B03HHRJI0 HpeACTaBJíeHie, ?to ^apropucRÍe cb canaro Ha- 
Hajia nocTaBHjni ce&k nijih, r% Roropofi h crpeiiHJiHCb bo Bce BpeMa 
CBoeň HOJiHTHHecRoá Rapbepu, — cos^aib hsi IIojbniH Hacj['&ACTBeH- 
HyH) MOHapxÍK) H nojiojRHTb B-h Heft nanajio hoboě jsjíB&críB. Tsík% 
craBHJica bx Pí^h IIocnojiHTOd hobmě Bonpocb, BuxOAHBmifi sa nper 
flíkíu yHH^oseHÍa liberum veto; ho OTRpuToe nyójiHi^HCTHHecRoe 
oócysA^Hie 9Toro npe^^Mera OTHOCHTCa janib ro spenenH, nenocpefl,- 
CTBeHHO npe^íHiecTBOBaBnieMy hohutr* yqpeAHTb bx nojibm']^ Ha- 
CfliACTBeHHHĚ npecTOJx, — hohhtrí, c;íijiaHHO& ^eTBipexjifoHHirb ceS- 
MOM'b &b ROHCTUTyi^iH 3-ro Maa; noRa jsm upoBe^enia TaRoň pe- 
4»opMu Bpeifa óujio Rpa&He He6jiaronpiaTHO, TaRx RaRx dToro ne 
Aonyciiua 6u hh nuiaxia, hh HHOcrpaHHue ABopu, h6o jí^si hhx^b 
TaRse ÓBuio nojiHTHHecRHifb npaBHJioicb ne AonycRaib kb IIojiehií 
HacJi^ACTBeHHOft MOHapxÍH. Mu en^e yBHAHMx, ^to Tor^a BecB mo* 
HapxH3Hi CBeaca, o^naRO, joimB rx Haca^AC^^HHOCTH RopoHu Óeaíh 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



n04BCKM PEOOPMH. , 41 

pacmHpeHÍfl RopojieBCRo^ npeporaxHBBi. TaRH&fB o6pa80Mi>, Becb bo- 
npocB no ciiepTH ÁBrycra in Mon saKJiiOHaTbCfl tojbro b% Towbj 
KOMy AOCTanercfl Ropona u npiiTOH^ BOMy hsi nojiflBOBi>, Tasí BaBi 
Poem H Ilpyccia saasHJiH, tto ne ^íonycrarb HHKoro saHATt nojb- 
csifl npecTOJTb, Bpoirb EbiCTa (t.-c. npHpo^^Haro nojiaKa). 

OceHbK) 1763 r. yicepi Afirycra III. Y EKaiepaHu 11 6ujii 
yse Ha-roT06^ RaHAHAarb Ha npecrojTL bi> jrai^'b CiaHECiaBa XIoha- 
TOBCsaro euh, b^b RpafiHeBiib cJiynsA^ bi jushí^ ero ABOK>poAHaro 
6paTa, RHjiSfl A^aMa ^apropucRaro, cuea ÁBrycra, BoeBOAu pyc- 
cxaro. Ha RaHAH^aTa HMnepaTpni^u corjamajcfl h $pHApHxi>, jiHmk 
6u HOBuft Ropoab ee iipeAnpHHHMaji'L HHRaRHs:'^ npeoCpasoBamfi bi 
rocy;íapcTBeBHOM^ ycrpoftCTBé DlOjildih, h 9to ycjiOBÍe 6hjio npH- 
HjiTo, RaR'B MU BisflíújiB^ ERaTepHHofi 11. ^Ba coc^AHÍfl TOcyAapcTBa ro- 
TOBu 6um CHJioK) noMepauiTb naprÍH) ^apTopncRHXx npn H86paHÍH 
HOBaro Ropoifl, ho bos^am^b axoft naprÍH a^ho óujeo 3HaTb, hto bx 
nanmi Bce jífijíasiB.o óujío ocxaTBCfl no crapoiry. Hbbííctho, ^to „4^a~ 
mhiíh", A^CTBureJikHOy Óujla ORasana noMon^B, h hto npoxHBHURif 
ea, BejiBRiň remaHi* Roponnufi BpaHHi](RÍfi, caMi MenraBniifi o ro- 
poHÍ, RHasB Kap;i'B PaA3HBHjjrB, Óoraiifiniifi jurroBCRÍň MarnarB, 
rpa^ noTOi^RÍS, BoeBo;^ RÍeBCRÍfi, aojkhu 6ujih Óes^B 6oa ycry- 
miTB ei iribcTo: ^apropucRÍe ORasajHCB rocno^aifii nojioseHÍa. 9jieR- 
lÚOHHOMy ceĚMy, na ROxopoMi npoHCxoAHJio Hsdpame Ropojia, aojt- 
zeHi 6BurB Bcer^a npeAinecTBOBaTB TaR^B-HasuBaonuĚ cosuBareiB- 
Hufi, HJH ROHBORai^oHHBifi, cefiiťB, HH^ÍBuiiň 3Ha^eHÍe ROH^^e^epai^ÍH), 
H „^^Hjiifl^ BOcnojBdOBajiaCB hmi, ^to6ii npoBecTH H^RoropBiJi 
Hsif^HeHÚi vb ycrpoftcTBi Pi^u UocnojiHTofl, npOTHBX ROTOpUX^, 
KaRi Meffie cb BH^y Baanuxi, qiíix yHEHToatenie liberum vHo^ 
pyccRÍfi nocjiaHHHRi* HH^ero ne MorB hm^tb. XIojBCRÍe mhhhctpu, 
HasHaqaBmieCfl Ropoieiíx nosHBHenHO h37> HaHÓOJi']^ sHaTHux^ Mar- 
eaiOB^ 611JIGÍ coBepmeHHO HesaBocHMu otb Ropojia, ne HMbBmaro 
npasa hxi cmíhatb, h ovh cefiMa, xaRi* RaR^ nocn^AHÍd coÓHpajica 
JDnnB pa3^ bt» ABa ro^a h bi 6o;iBiniiHCTB]& ciyiaeBi ORaHqHBajiCfl 
HefijiaronojyqHo: mhhhctpu i^aRHMB oÓpasoMi 6e3ROHTpojiBHO pacno- 
pflsasHCB Ra»CABi& CBOHMi B^^OMCTBOMi. CefiM'B 1763 r. yqpe- 
Aiui TenepB oco6ufl rommhccíh npn RaTBAOMi MHHHcrpi, qjienu 
SOHXl aojukhu óujih BUÓHpaTBCa ce^MaMH. TaRi RaRi* pyccRÍž h 
npyccRift noeiaHHBRH caMUMi p^mHTejiBHUM^ oópasoMi saflBHjiH, 
iTo Hxi npaBHTejibCTBa HHRaRi ne corjiacflTCfl na yHn^TOsenie libe- 
rum vetOy TO ^apTopucRÍe BBejH jihhib H^ROTopua orpanH^enifl 
aroro upasa: ecJiH6u, Bo-nepBuxi, RaROň-JHfío ceňMx 6uJV\^ copBaH'B, 
H qjieHu ROMMHCciŘ HOTOMy He 6ujiH 6u6paHU, npaso hxi* Hasna*- 
leHÍfl npHHaAJieacajio 6u Ropojio; BO-BTopuxi, hdk A^^a, bhochmua 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



42 BftCTHmcB fiBPonu. 

Ha CeŘWb npaBHTeJÍBCTBeHHUMH KOMMirCCiflMH H BaCaiDII^iflCfl ^HHaHOOBl, 

Hapo^Haro xodaicrea h opaBOcy^ifl, aoj^hu óujih p^maihcfl „forma 
judiciaría", BaRx roBopHJiocb y nojuaiROBx, T.-e. npocTLUTE ÓojbinHH- 
CTBoiTB rojiocoBi>. 9to 6ujih caHEifl BaKHBifl pe^opMu, npOBeAeHHUfl 
hpHTOMi He 6e9b CBoero po^a BoeHHoft xhtpocth: pyccsoMy nocjiaH- 
HHEy KaŘsepjniHry, ne SHaBineMy hh ojroBa no-^nojibCBH h hmí^b- 
nieMy Jimnh caMua noBepxHocTHHfl CBi^enia o&b ycrpoftCTBt Píih 
DocnojiHTott, flaBajiH 3HaTS 060 bcíxi npe^JiOffiemaxi ceiÍHa, ^pe;^- 
craBJíflfl eiíy 3th npeA^Oď^Hia vb jiaTOHCROirb nepaBOA*)^ h cb bom- 

MeHTapiflMU, CKpUBaBniHHH HCTHHHUň CMUCJTb TOFO, Wťb SaMUIIIJIfl- 

jiocb. djeRipa npomjia cnoROŘHO noA'^ HenocpeACTBeHHBiiťb ea^- 
3opoM% Bopnyca pyccRHXi. BOftcRt: bi HanaJit oceHH 1764 r. 
CraHHCJiaBi IIoHflTOBCBift CA^aicfl Ropojenib. nocraHOBJíeHÍa (roh- 
CTIfTy^iH) ROHBORai^ioHHaro ce&Ma Óujví yrBep^R^eHu ceHaowh Bopo- 
Hai^idHHuirB, npHcrynuBmHMi-ÓEuro r^ jí,dJihE^íkmiiwb HOBOBBeAeHkirb, 
H31 ROHxi FiaBHmfB 6ujiB, ROHCTHTyiufl, pacnpocTpaHflBHiafl TaMO- 
seHHUji noHMUHU Ha Bcb cocjiOBisi (nuuiXTa orb ainx^ nomjiHHi 
6uÁa, CBOÓOAHa). Mes^y tístb BOSBpaTHJTHCb bi Ilojibmy y^asEBniíecfl 
HSi nefl nepoA^ Bu6opoM'B CTanHCiaBa-ABrycra box^h oheoshi^h 
H npHsnaJiH HOBaro Ropojra. Jíortpoe corjiacie tíujio, o^naRo, ne- 
npoAOJiSHTejiBHO, xopomia OTHomeHifl Me:KAy coiosHHRaMH crajiH na- 
pymaTbCfl: MOJiOAOň RopoJiB ne nojia^njn ch crapHRaM? ^apTopu- 
CRHiíH, HOcaŠAHÍe ne nojiaxHJiH Gb Pocdeft, a npaqHHu aroro, RaR^ 

H3BÍCTH0, SaRJnO^aJIHCb BTb TOBTL, HTO CxaHHCJiaFB-ABryCrL XOT^JTE 

ocBoóoAHTBCfl on ooeRH cBOHxx js^BjsfiŘ^ ROTopue, Bi CBOH) o^epe^B, He 
AajiH corjacifl na sejanie ERaiepaHu II saRjno^HTb cb Ilojibniett na- 
crynaxeJiBHuň h oÓoponnreJibHufi coiosi, Óoacb, wro xaROĚ coiosi 
HOBeABTX Kh TOpesx-Hyp^ óojbHioft saBHCHMOCTH Pt^H IIocnojiiiToá 
ovh Poccíh, a Rp0MÍ Toro, wb nereptíyprfe (Jitra nesoBOJiBHu noBe- 

AeHÍeMl ^pTOpUCRHXX Vb AHCCHA6HTCROMI BOnpOC^. „^aMHJlifl^ 

Ayiiaja o BjaciH h o pe^opnaxi, AOJi^eHCTBOBaBmHX^B yRptnHTB 
dTy caMyio BjracTB, ne js^isi Toro, Rone^mo, ^o6h IIojiBnia nonaja 
Wb BaccaJiBHyH) BaBHCBMOCTB orB Poccíh; ohh ne^TajiH o 6ojrbe bu- 
coROMi nojroffienÍH CBoett poAHHu, RaRoro ona Morja AOÓHBaTBcn h 
no CBoeMy upocrpancTBy, h no ROJiH^ecrey cbohxi atHxeJiett. Bmšct^ 
CB aroiTB vb AHCCHAeHTCROiTB Bonpoc*, nOAHaTOMX Pocdeft h ITpyc- 
cieft, OHH BejiH ceófl ne TaR'B, RaRx xot&iocb ERaTepHH'fe 11: snas 
^^anaTH^ecRoe nacrpoenie nuiaxTu, ohh ne piniH.iHCB bsatb na ceófl 
HHH^iaTHBy npeAJioseHifl o B03Bpan^eHÍH npaB'B ne-RaTOJHRaMi Ha 
ceŘwk 1766 r., peROMeHAOBajrn pyccROMy nocjaHHHRy (rhash) P'&n-^ 

HHHy) BeJHTOfirayH) OCropOíRHOCTB Wb CTOJIB HíeROTjnfBOM^ jifkjrky co- 

B^TOBaJH TaRme BtreecTH hs^ npeA^JiOB^ Pš^h IIocnojiHTOft pyccRÍa 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



nOJlBGRlfl PE^OPMII. 43 

BoftcKa. Pa3puBaTB cb PoccieK OKOHHaiejiBHO ohh, o^Haso, ne xo- 
rkra, qTÓ ;i^0Ra3UBaeTCfl c;iÍAyK)ii^BMi csynaeMi*, oÓHapyacHBmHM^, 
spoi^ Toro, BCH) CHJiy pa3Aopa, nocejitiBinarocfl vh H']^Apax'b caiioii 
.^mlmhjiíh^: OraHHCJiaFb-ABrycrL xor^i npcaecTH Ha tomi aie cefinli 
sasoETby no KoropoMy Óojbiuhhctbomi fojiocobi aojskhu 6uj[h pš- 
fflaibCfl Bonpocu o&b yHHoa:eHÍH no^axeň h BOficRa; o6i> ^TOM^ 
611U0 AOBe^eno ao cb^a^hía pyccKaro nocjaHHHBa, ^^opBiajibHO npo- 
TecroBaBmaro nponrBi Tasoro HaM^bpeHÍfl Bfiťkrri Ch npyccBHMi* no- 
, ciaHHHKOiTb, a AflAH Kopojifl OBasajHCL BeCbMa peBnocTHUMu no- 
Mon^HHsaMH BHflSfl P'bnHima bx ycTpaneHÍu nianoBi CBoero njie- 
MflHHHKa. CeftMi 1766 r., OTBeprmift TpeóoBanifl cockjsflux^ A^p- 
zasi OTHOCHTejbHO A&poBanifl npaBi> hxi e^HnoB^pi^aM^, no rpe- 
doBaniK) Tbx^b se a^P^abi*, OTidnHjrB npeAUAy^í^ npeo6pa30BaHÍfl 
H caMyK) KOH^e^epai^ÍH) ^apTopucRHX^b, ycHJiiflMH Koeti 9Th npe- 
oÓpasoBanifl e 61190 TO.ibRo cA^anu. 

JljBLCCaflfiirrciúŘ Bonpoci, ÓubuiHl npHHHHofi paspuBa Mes^y Poc- 
dei H ^apTOpBicKHMH u naqajOMi coóuiíň, Roropufl npHBeJiH bi 
KOHe^HOui peByjibTarb ri nepBOHy pasA^y IIojibmH, cairb no ce&b 
He npeAcraBJífleTB HHTepeca bx HcropÍH pe4)opMx bx IIojiBnit: pt- 
nmjH ero ne caiíH nojiARH, h6o npHHflJiH cobcími roroBoe ero 
irkneme hbx pyRx HHOcrpannuxx nocjanHHROBi. ERaTepíma 11, 
BCTpiTHBX conpoTHBJíeHie na ceůM* 1766 r. h ne nameAniH noA- 
^epsRH vb ^apTopucRHxi, 3aAyHaja npoBecre a^o AHCCHAenTOBi, 
oirapaflCb na ROH^eAepa]](ÍK), cocraB^ennyH), RpoM^ AHCCUAeHTOBi, 

H3rb pa3HUXl» dJieMeHTOBl, CTOflBmHXIi BX OnnOSHI^ÍH Kb ROpO^K) H 

ero A^A^Mi- 3a noMon^bio npoTHBi ^apropucRuxx oOpaTRjrucB le- 
nepb Ri> uMnepaTpHEli jik)ah, craBiiBnrie npOTHBHHRaMX bi> suny 
TO, ^ITO OHH HCRaJiH nOAA^pH^RH y TOfi T&e HMnepaTpHi^Bi, a bo 
TJÍLlfk HOBOfi R0H4)eAepaitÍH OnyTHJICfl OAHHI H3X npOTHBHUROBl 

B3($paHÍfl CTaHuciaBa-ÁBrycra, Kapjix PaAsuBUJiji^B, ÓtauiBmifi B*b 
Ape3AeRi>, TA^ H a^Hjii, HHTpnryfl npOTHBi ERaTepunu. He oauhi 
3T0TL 6oraTufi H B36ajiMoniHuň nam h.7b Bpara Poccíh ca*^- 
jaicfl efl C0K)3nHR0Hi>: noAi> snaMena noBOĚ ROHýeAepa^iH (no 
HasBaniio paAOHCRott) nonuin Bcb crapue npoTHBHHRH ^apropucRHXi, 
Bcfi HeAOBOjrbHse nxi pe4)opMaMH, bc£ ^RejiaBmie coxpaHHTb npem- 
m BOJiBHOCTH, pascHHTUBafl, HTO ROHi^OMi ABHatenifl ÓyAerb hhsjio- 
zeme Bopojia, — nonum, RaRi cnoxBaxHJiHCk noroBTB caMH nojiARH, 
,cjiOBHO nTamRH na RJiefi'', noTOMy qxo pesyjBTarb Ron^Aepai^iH, 
&utroAapfl npHCyrcTBÍK) pyccRHXi BoficRi, 6ujrb ne Ton, RaRoro 
OHH oxHAaJiH. CeŘwb 1768 r. aojikch-b óhjw* cor.mcHTtca na bc* 
Tpe<$OBaHÍH EBaTepHHU h, neacAy npoHHMx, npH3HaTb rapanriio Poc- 
cíh ornocuTeJBHO Hcii3M'lnH0CTH nojiBCRaro rocyAapcxBenHaro ycrpofi- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



44 wMynaoffí ebpoiui. 

CTBa, Ha aroiTb se ceMi n npEraararo no HacTOflHÍH) pyccRaro 
nocJiaHHHKa. Ha saiuHTy IIojiBmH, yTpaTHBmefi cbok) caMOcroflTejib- 
HOCTb, nojTHfljacb-Óujio 6apcKafl ROH^eAepa^ifl, ho noTepn^a hojí- 
HyH) Hey^any bi boAhí cb Poccieft: Kon^^e^epaTH ;íajiH tojbko no- 
BOAx Kx nepBOMy pa3A'i^y, a&bho da^yMannoMy $phaphxomi» II h 
AOBe^enHOiiy hmx ao ROHi^a, necMOrpa na neseiame pyccBoft HHne- 
paipHi^u, BHA^Bmeft b^b rapaHim 1768 r. jHmb ocoóyio ^pMy 
rocHOACTBa na^^b BceK) IIojibnieH). Ilocjrb nepsaro pasx^a Fi^íh 
nocnojHTaa nojyHHjia HOByio ROHCTHryHÍio, nocraBJíeHHyiD pasHuirb 
oópasoiťb noA'b rapaniÍH) Pocciu (1775 r.) h npocyu^ecTBOBaBniyio 
AO HH3BepseHÍfl efl nerupexjiiTHHirb cefiMoni (nociri^ na^enúi koh- 
CTHTyiuH 3 nafl ona CHOBa Óuásl BOscraHOBJíeHa). 

Ha KOHCTHTyiíiH 1 768 H 1775 r. mh aoji»hu CMOiptib icaKi na 
HecouH'&HHUfl DpoESBe^enifl namero npaBHTasbCXBa: pa^OMCKaji ROH<|>e- 
Aepai^ífl 6iLia TOiibRO opy^ieirb bi pyRaxi ERaxepHHu U, nocpe^^ 
CTBOMi ROToparo ona HHSBeprjia pe^pMu ^apTopucRHXi, paBHO i&SJffB 
no3AB^ HOAOÓHKiirb se ea opy^ieMi 6LLia laproBHiiiRaa R0H4>eAe- 
pai^ifl PM yHHHTOseHÚL HanpaBjenHoft npoTHB'b Poccíh ROHCiHry- 
i^íh 3 Maa h BOSBpanj^eHÍa nopsASOBi, ycraHOBJíeHHuxi nocji^ nep- 
Báro pasA^a. B% oCohxi (uyHaaxi, T.*e. ii TorAa, RorAa noraÚjiH 
npeo6pa30BaHÍfl ^pTopucRHxi, h TorAa, RorAa naia ROHCTHxyi^ifl 
3 iiafl, naprÍH, BpasA^HKu pe^^opnaMi, vb cjAuoř HenaBECTB Kn^ 
npoHBBeAeHHiDfb nepeM']^HaMi, oÓpaxHJiHCb sa noMon^io jifisi hxx 
yHHHTOseHifl Ri PocdH, ne hlu^ cana hh onpeA'&neHHaro njraHa, 

HH CHJU OTCTOflTb CBOK) HesaBECHMOCTb. PedyJtbTaTOlTb dTOFO ÓUJIO 

TO, 1T0 HacToa^^eft no6ŠAHTejibHHi](ett 6uja, h vh 1768, h bi 1792 rr., 
Poccifl, CA&iaBmaflCfl TaRHicb oÓpasoMi A'ittCTBHTej[bHoK npaBureabHH' 
i^eii HojtbmH. Hocit OTM'bHu npeoÓpasoBaHÍň ^apropucRHxi h Bosepa- 
n^cHÍa Ri crapuiTb y^pesAemaMi h nopsAKaMi sBHjiacb, OAHaRO, 
Heo6xoAHMOCTb TO^Bo onpoA^^Tb ycrpottCTBO nojbCRaro rocyAapcTBa: 
HMeHHO 3T0-T0 H 6ujio CA^^HO ROHCTHTyi^iefi 1768 r. Ecjih6ii 
HOCjrbAHflfl 6um A^OMi pecny6jiHRaHCR0fi napTÍn bi Uojibniš, to 

Bl Hefi MU HM&IH 6hL HpaBO BHA^Tb HOJHyK) no6^Ay dTOĚ HapTÍH, 

TaRi RaR^b BO rjaBÍ ROHCmryi^iu ctoajio 06'bflBJieHie, tto „pecny6- 
jHRancRafl ^^opna npaBJíeHifl HHRorAa ne Horjia tfuTb BdHŠHeHa"" 
vb Ilojibui^. Ha caMOMi jsikrbj fb hhcjií TaRi-HasuBaeMuxi RapAH- 

HaJIbHHX^b 3aR0H0Bl>, ROTOpUO He MOrJW ÓUTh nSM^HeHBI Aft3Re 

eAHHOfJiacHUMi ptmeHieMi ceňna, pflAOMi Ch vb^moŘ sieJusXeVt 
Ropojieň, cocraBJíflBmett noJiHTH^ecRoe credo noJibCRHXi pecnydíH- 
RaHiteK'b, Úhuio ocraBjeHO na B^HHua Bpenena h líbertim veto^ 
dTOTb nanjiaAiyMB pecny6jiHRaHCR0& cbo6oau. EoHCTHTy^iJi xpeóc- 
Bajia, HTo6u Bck „materiae status'^, RaROBUiiH npHSHaBajiHCb sa- 



Digitized by 



Goógle 



1 



nOJBCRIfl PGOOPMU. 45 

KOHu o HaAOrax^b h eoňcR^ h TpaEiaTU Cb HHOcrpaHHUMH rocy- 
AapcTBEMH, ne mofjih HSMŠHflTBca HHa^e, RaRi vb CHJiy jiHinb e^HEO- 
riacHaro ptmemfl, h tojibro ocrajrbHUfl a'^&9 oóosea^eHHBifl oÓJuawb 
iMeHeiTb „aROHOMiraecRHxi naTepifi^, mofjih pi^inaTbCfl ÓoabniHH- 
CTBOMi rojiocoBi. KoHMHCCÍH ^pTopucRHxi 6u.iH, o^HaRO, y^ep* 
saHu. HecoMH^HHO, HTO name npaBuxeJiBCTBO b^ 9to Bpeicfl se- 

J&IO BHeCTH H^ROTOpuft nOpflAORl BO BHyxpeHHIOH) ď^HSHB HOJIb' 

esaro rocy^apcTBa, nonaBmaro Kb Heny noA'B ^^opnaJiBHyH) oneRy, 
HO xora ROHCTHTyipfl 1768 r. coxpaHHja bi IIojibiii^ pecnyÓJiH- 
saHcsyK) 4K)pMy, onnosHi^ífl npoTHBi Poccíh, BupasHBmaflCfl b^ 
(SapcKoi ROH^^e^epai^iH, 6um HHeHHO mjiflxeTCRO-pecnyójiHRaHCRaro 
xapaRTepa, xaRi RaR^ napríji pe^^opm vb MOHapxHHecROirB Ayx^ 
ne npHHHMajia HHRaRoro y?acTÍH vb 9T0Wb qHCTO-CTapoinjiflxeTCROM'B 
;(BiuKeHÍH. Bi TO caifoe spěna, RaRi R0H4)e;i[epaTEi HCRajiH noMon^R 
y saoaAHuxi A^p^asi, a CTaHHCJiaB'B-ABrycTB crsjvb en^e 6oji^, 
^tiTB npea^e, paBCTOTUBaTB to.ibro Ha noMon^B Poccíh, íapxo- 
pucRÍe 3aHflju cpejiflee nojio»;eHÍe: ee naj^CB hh na BByrpeHma 
cmu crpaHu, hh na A^ftCTBureJiBHyH) homoh^b hsbhí, ohh ne cxo* 
IHJIH cb .lerajTBHoft no^u, ho bi to 2Re BpeMji npoTecTOBajiH npo- 
THBi pimeHifl cenaTa npocnxB y ERaTcpHHU II BoftcRa }s,m 6opb6bi 
CB ROHij^AepaTaMH. 3to tfujii uocjAabíř nojiHTHHecRitt aRTB „^^a- 
mhiíh''. 

JI,McTBHTeJiBHO, Ha ci^eHy BucrynHJiH xenepB HOBue jiioau. 
Cpe^H fíapcRHx^ ROH^e^epaTOBi 6uxn jiioah, BH;^fo^rie HeoÓxo^H- 
MOCTB pe<]^opHKí. Oahhi» h3i» hhx'b oópan^ascfl sa nojiHTHnecRHMB 
eoB^TaiiH K% a6. MadiH h ri ^.-JK.-Pycco, HanHcaBnmifB no- 
9Toiiy CBOH coo6paa;eHÍa o hojibcrhx-b A^Jiaxx ^). Ci Apyroft cto- 
poHH, BQ Bpeifji ^nepBaro pa3AÍ^a BKicrynEjra h HHue a^tcjih, na- 
laBnne nrpaTB BecBua Basnyio pojB RaRi bi stohi A^jcky homo- 
raa sa a^hbih coc^ahhm^ AepmaBairB o4>opmhtb „pasóop^"' IIojiBniH, 
lasi H B^ ycraHOBJíeHÍH hobbdcb nopa^ROBi Bnyrpn rocy^apcTBa. 
Cetwb 1773 r. ynojraoMoqHJTB AenyxaiíiH), HasHa^ennyio js,Jisk co- 
craaieHÍfl TpaRxara o pas^^^, Bupa^oraTB BwkGrk cb nociannH- 

MMH TpeX-B ACpataBX H npOeRTX H3M4HeHÍft B^ ROHCTHTyi^iH, RaRÍa 
OKaS&lHCB 6U Hy»HUMH ^JIB ÓJIBJ^ CTpaHBI. Bl CBOK) oHepe^B, 

noeiaHHHRu Tpexi ABopoKB coo6mfljm OBHa^eHnoft Aenyrai^iH, hto 
HTB npaBHTeiBCTBa HenpeM^HHO Tpe6yH)Ti> coxpaneHia vb nojiBm*! 
HsfiflpaTeiBHaro npecrojia^ cb HCRjioqeHieiirB bc^xi sarpaHHqHuxi 
KaHAH^aTOBfB E coxpaHeHÍfl CBo6oAHofir, HeBaBHCHMOfi H pecny6;iHRaH- 



') Mably, Du gouvernement et des lois de la Pologne. niL—^Roussecm. Cou- 
sklérations sur le gouveniemeiit de Pologne et la reformě projettée. 1772. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



46 fiftCTHflKO* fiBPOntí. 

CKOĚ ^pifu npaBJíema, Cb OTAaMeio HcnojiHHfejibHofi aiacra HOBOicy 
yqpeas^eHiio, ^nocroaHHOMy coBÍry" (conseil permanent), cocxoa- 
n^eny hsi Ropo^fl u BuépaHHuxi cefiifOirB cenaTopoB^b h nuiflXTH- 
^eH. „nocTOflUHufi coKbTB^ BXOAHJTB eii^e Bi njiaHu ^piopucKHxi, 
HO npeawe npoTHsib nero Óujtb $phaphx'b n, Koxopiift TenepL, ao- 
ÓHBinHCb npHplBKH Ki CBoeň MOnapxÍH 6ojBmoro nycsa nojibCKofi 
TeppHTopÍH, y»e ne craBiurb 6oAÍe npenATCTBÍfi Tony, hto6u bi> 
P^HH riocno;iuTO& 6ujiH upoESBe^eHu H^KOTopufl yjyqmeHifl. KpoMt 
Toro, pyccKÍfi nocjiaHHHRi (QlTaKejikóepi^b), HanaBrnifi urpaib bi 
BapuiaB^ poJiB npoKoncyja, AyMajrb, ^to dro y^peac^eHÍe, no^oÓHO 
uiBeACKOMy rocyAapcTBeHHOMy coB^xy, Cujio 6u eeóeanoJieaHO h a^a 
nero caHoro. Upoeitrb óhjii yrBepa^eHi bx 1775 roAy, h nojuna 
HecoMH^HO nojyHUja en^e 6oAÍe pecnyÓJiRaHCEoe ycrpoftcTBO, 
Tasí RaB'b Bopojib npeBpaTHJicfl fb upocroro npesHAenTa no- 
CTOflHHaro coBbia, ho saTO ona BuepBue nocj^ bíro80& aHapxiu 
uM'&ia xenepb Hacroflo^ee npaBHTeJibCTBO. GoBpeiieHQue HcropaKti^ 
Mea&Ay upoMEUTb H noiibCRie, H Wh ux% miCJii h Tasie, boto* 
pue ne OAo6pflK)rb saBHCuMOCTb nocroflHHaro coB^xa otb Poccíh, 
npHďuaiorB, qxo 9to yMpea^eme 6ujio maroMx BnepeA'b, 'h tto oho 
coA'feficTBOBajio MHorHM^ yjiy^meHÍaMi, nponaBeAeHHUM^ bo Bnyrpea- 
HMXT> OTHOfflefliflxi P*MH IIocnojiHTOtt AO HCTupex^tTHaro ceftMa. 
3aT0 TOcreMHaa OTMtna liberum veto. npHHaxaa b^ EOHCTHxyipK) 
1768 r., He yAepaajiacb bi KOHCTHTyi^iH 1775. BaponeM-b, na 
ceftMaxT* 1778, 1780, 1782, 1784 h 1786 r., necMOTpa na to, 
HTO OHH He óiíJOí BOH^eAepupoBaHu, ouacHoe npaBO hh pasy ae 
6híA0 nymeHO bx xoa'b, noTOMy jih, íto axoro ne AonycBajrb pyc- 
cKÍtt nociiaHHHRi, KaK^b AyMaiorb, nanp., JlejieBeJb u RocTOMapoB'b, 
ujH HOTOMy, ^TO HOJbCBoe o6u^ecTBO BOo6n^e cxajio oÓHapyncHBaTb 
óojibme apijiocTH, — pimaib axo ne JierKO ^). 

Mastono, hto HapmajiKOM'b cefina, na EOTopoMi 6aAT> npoBe* 
AeHb nepBufi pasA^ji^, 6ujn> ÁAaMi IIoHHHCBitt, nojy^uBHiiS HspaA* 
nyio cyMMy Aenerb sa .lOBKOcxb, cb BaKOio owb orohhhji^ ctojis 
u^eROTJiiiBoe A'^0. XIopjiAO^HuB RyTHsa m RapieacHiiRi, npn cAy^arh 
B3flT0^HHR:b H ^yxb He HpocToft MouieuHURx, HO BM'toi^ Cb vkwb qe - 
jiOB^Ri na Bc6 P7Kh, ohi* oco6eHHO óujii Aoporb AepauiBaMi, 
A'&aHBmHirb llo^bmy, a noTOMy oh^, RpoMÍ^ Aenerb, HarpaAH.iu ero 
A0.i3CH0CTbH) Be.iuRaro HOACRaptííji RopoHHaro, x.-e. MHHHcrpa ^h- 
HancoBi^, ^!bwb ohx BOcnoJíbBOBaJCfl, <ito6ei oÓoraxHTb ceóa, MesAy 

npO?BMl>, H tfuBUIHMH iesyUTCRllMH HMŠHÍflMH, HaXOAHBHIHMHCfl ^aCTbiO 



*) Lekwel. Panowanie Stanislava Augusta, 100 -lOL KocmoMapoeh, 1, 265—256. 
Korzon. IV (1), 55. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



nOJIBCEIfl ?£<l»OPMU. 47 

I 

vh ero bíaomctbí. droTB-xo ^ejiOBÍBí h CA^bajicfl rjiaBHEOťB pe- 
^opuaTopoíTB Fb ceftuoBofi seierai^iH 1773 — 1775 rr. »íto npe 
laMxt BaHecTBaxi. — roBopHTb r. KopsoHi, — IIoHHHCsifi roxoBX 6uji% 
npe^araTb ajm noAA^psHBaxB BCAByio nepeflťi^Hy b'b ycrpoňcTB^ 
crpaHu, axo 6ujio otobh^ho. Ho He BcaBíň 6u Aora^ajicfl, ^to y 
dTDro noHBHCBaro 6ujH KaRÍfl-TO H^en o jiyqinHxi nopsA^axi, 
HesejiH crapono.ii>CKÍe, hto oh'b cbohm^ flcnmťb ynoMi cxBaTUBajti» 
manu rocyA&pcTBeHHUxi) pe^^op&rb. KoHe^HO, — npnÓaBJíflerB hobšu- 

not nOďBCBÍfi HCTOpHBl,— IIOHHHCRifi He SaXOl^l 6u HH COCraBJlflTL, 

HH nouepsHBaxB EaBOfi 6u to hh Óbijko npoesrs pa^ti oahofo 
5iara crpanu, ($63% jiH^Hoň Buro^u hjh ACtse BonpeBH jh^hoA 
BuroA^^ ho BecBMa nacro, BorAa ne tfiuo xaBofi bojlshsíh, ohl 
MOPb coAMcTBOBaTb upoBe^eHÍK) nporpeccHBHB]X'B npoeBTOBi^ 0« 
CaMUMi cnocoÓHUMi h o6pa30BaHHUM'B CTopoHHHROirB TaBHx^b npoeB- 
TOffB 6uAi> Ha cefiMŠ rH']I^HeHCBÍ& BoeBOAa ABrycn CyjiBOBCBÍ&, 
AliaBmiti HacTO noiesHua npeA^ios^enifl a jiibjíhEua saMŠ^aHÚi, ho 
E OHI 6111% na 2BajiOBaBBH y pyccRaro nocjiaHHHBa, h jsfiSie BiiAaBaji'B 
eiiy Bi HOJ^ienÍH A^nerB BBHTaH^iH ci npHJioseHieM^ poAOBOii ne- 
^TH. IIporeeryA npoTHBi A^fiCTBHTejibHO nejierajiBHOfi, caM03BaHH0& 
BjacTH noHHHCBaro, BaBi) cefiMOBaro iiapniajBa, ne AOBŽpflfl nja- 
Han BaBi ero canoro, TaB'B h Bckxi» ApyrHX'B jiMi^iy, cocrasjaB- 

mHTB Clb HHMl OAHy HapTÍK), H'ICBOJ[bBO COHaiOpOBl H HOCSOBl 

^aiH HocTOflHHyK) onno3Hi](ÍK> BCÍM'B Hx^ npeA^oseHÍAMi. 3to 
5uJiH jiOAH jiHTOO qecTHue, ho ne OTJiHqaBmieca hh cnocoÓHOcraMH, 
HH o6pa30BaHÍeMi», nacro ne 6uBmie bx coctojíhíh ho tojibbo Bpn- 
THíecBH oTHecTBCB Kh HpoeBTHpoBaHHUMi* pe(|»opMairB, HO Aase H 
noHjiTB Hxx; npeAcraBJíflfl coóoh), Bponi Toro, BaBi* 6u o6ui}& 
nnuxercBÍň BOHcepsaTHsiit, ohh cxapaiiHCB, xora h Óobhjioaho, 
o6epeqB HenpHBocHOBOHHUMi K9Ls&nu1k BaMOBB H3X paBpymoHHaro 

3AaHÍfl P^qH UoCHOJlHTOň. TaBHBfL OÓpaSOMl, ku BHAHMI* 3A'6CB, CB 

OAHoft dopoHu, pe^opnaTopoBi, A^ftCTByion^Hxi, OAnaao, vh hoji- 
BOĚ saBHCHHOCTH OTB Poccíh, cb Apyrofi — onno3HiíÍM) npoTHKB Poc- 
cíh, HMÍH)n^yH) HucTO BOHcepBaTHBtiufi xapaKTepi. ElAe pa3i pyc- 
CKoe npaBHTeiu»CTBO cxajio na cropoHy pe^^opMu b% P^qa Hocno- 
^iHTOĚ: OHO xenepB ocoóenHO acho bha']^o, qiH) npeAOxpaHHTB 
IIojiBmy OTB HOBaro pasA^a mosho 6um tojibbo hocpoactbomi 
ycrpanenúi aHapxiH, h hbiíjo ocoÓBift HHTepeci oÓ^b qhowl no3a6o- 
THTbCfl, TaBTB BaBTr rapaHTÍfl OTAaBaaa bch) ocTasmyiocfl otb pasA^a 
nojamy HOAt ero oneBy, Aa h nojissoBajiocB oho xenepB ycjiyraHH 
iK>Aeft, BOTopue ne neqxajiH, hoaoÓho ^apiopucBHMi, o óojťle 



') KoTMon. m, 137. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



48 MCTHflKl EBFOUU. 

caMOCTOflxeJbHoft nojímuKk; npHTOuťB h ^pHApHxi n, saBi 6huí0 
yace CBasano, nojy^HBi* CBoe, Ha^aji'B OTHOCHTbCfl paBHOAyniH']^ r'b 
Touy, vrb craio A^aTsca bi P^qe IIocnojrHTOfi. Tass ciarajBCb 
A^ji naibniH BHyrpeHHÍfl OTHomemfl h BBri^nmifl oócTOHreiBcrsa b^ 
nepioA'B MesAy nepsuMi pa3ji['&iOM'B r ^enipexjri^THHirB ceftMOM'B. 
Bi 8T0 BpeMfl nojbCKoe npaBHTejBCTBO, nojbsyflCB noAAep»ico& 
Poccíh, ho h HaxoAflCB OTB Hefl Bi^ saBHCHMOCTH, DOCTeneHHO pe* 
^pMHpoBajio ujiH nuTaJOCb pe^piraposaTb rocy^apcTBO, ho no* 
CTOflHHO Bcrp^qajio onnosHipH), ecm h ne npeHHMaBinyK) ocoÓeHHO 
rpo8Hux'b pa3ir6poB^, to Jinmb noTOMy, 4to ee 6ojťbe hjh uenibe 
nocToaHHO CAep»HBajia Pocdfl. dra onno3ui^ifl Hiikia xapasxepi 
ROHcepBaTHBHuft. IIporpeccHBHafl OHno3Hi^ifl npoTHBi npaBureibCTBa, 
meAUiafl b^ CBOurb njiaHaxi AaJibme nocji'6AHflro h BV!bcrk Ch Tbwh 
crpeMHBmaflCfl ocBo6o;^HTb Ilasbmy oirb Poccíh, c4K)pMiq)0BaJiacb TOJbKO 
B^ dnoxy qeTupexj']^THflro cefiHa, sacraBHBi EnaTepaHy CHosa, no 
npHM^py 1768 r., coeAHHHTbca Ch KOHcepBaxopaMH. 

UocjA nepBaro pa3A'£j[a nacrajio, naROHcm, Hacroan^ee speMH 
caMoro Bopo.w. BcrynHB^ Ha npecrojb b^ 1764 r., omb vb nep- 
Bue roABi CBoero n^apcTBOBamfl ne hopl Hrpaxb caMOcroflTejibHott 
poJiH, xaRi KaR^b A^AH craHOBH^iHCb eny nonepeRi Aoponi, saias 
AepataTb ero hoa^ CBoeft oneRoil. Bo3({y»AeHÍe AHCCH^eHTCRaro bo- 
npoca, pa^OMCRaa R0H4)eAepaiíia h ceftirb 1767 — 1768 r., HaRO- 
TopoMi rjiaBHyio pojib urpajii pyccRÍít nociaHHURb, ÓapcRaa roh- 
^^e^epai^ia h BussanHaa eio BoftHa, HacrynHBraift hotomi* pas^tjn*, — 
Bce dTO Rpafine ne ó.iaronpÍHTCTBOBajo npeoÓpasoBaTeJbHbiirb njia- 
HaMi CTaRHCJaBa-ÁBrycra. Ob 1775 r. nacrynHJio Óojite cnoRoit- 
Hoe BpeMa; ^nocroflflHuň cobítb**, xoia h OTHaBoriň y RopojeBCRoft 
BiacTH HiROTopua npeporaTHBu, npeAcraBJíflJi h31 ce6a y^peacAe- 
HÍe, ORasaBmeecfl AOBOJibHo yji,o6nuwb a^a BOSA^ttcTBÚi na crpaHy 
Bi u^flx^b pe^opMu; pyccRoe npasHTejibCTBO, o6e3neHUBi sa coóoio 
p^iHHTeJibHoe npeoÓJtaAaeie m» V^mi ITocnojiuTOfi, He craBHJio npeai- 
HHxi npenflTCTBift npeo6pa.soBaHÍaiťb h A^se CAepncHBajio onno3H- 
um npoTHBi Ropojui, renepb emfi "rtcHie npHMRHyBraaro Rrb Poc- 
cíh nocA^ Toro, RaRi 6apcRÍe R0H(|)eAepaTu o6i>aBHJitf ero hh3jio- 
xeHHUMi H Aaate ca^Jí^Jih nonuTRy ero noxHTHTb, — nonuTRy, Ra- 
RHM-b-TO HyAOirb TO.ibRO Hc jAaBHiyioca. IIpejKHie HCTopmtH, npH- 
AaBaamie ropasAO Óojboie dHa^ema ycHjiiafifb, A'^&BmuMca b^ npo- 
HLioiťb ctojítíh a^ ocBoóosAenía Ilojibmii otb Hnocrpannoft oneRH, 
Hemejiii crpeMJieHiH) yjíyqinHTb BHyrpeHHÍa OTHoraema bt> rocyAap- 
CTBŠ, xora 6u HMenno h npH coA'i^ftcTBÍH ^ep^RaBU-oneRynniu, otho- 
CHjHCb Rpaftne BpaaiAeÓHO r^ CTanHOiaBy-ABrycry, CHirraa ero ^yrs 
He FJiaBHbiicb BHHOBHHROirb HaAeHÍa Vi^M IIocnojiHTOtt: RaRib cto- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



UOJShCKlSl PE^OPHU. 49 

poHHHBTB PocdH, xoTfl ^aieRO ne Bcer^a HCBpeHHit, om> ]í,ojimewh 
6iijrb BU3UBaTB npoTHKb ce(5fl onno3Hi^ÍH) Bdxi nojuiKOB^, npes^e 
Bcero ji[yMaBiimxx o BOSBpa^eHÍH Ilojibini nojiHOň HesasHCiiMOCTH, 
a ero cja6ocTH h HpflMO rp^XH, Becbna sna^HrejiLHEie h MHoro- 
miCJieHHue, ciysHJiH onpaBAameirB TaRoro crporaro HcropHqecRaro 
eyxa. IlepBBifi hs^ bhahuxi hctophbofb, pinrarejrBHO BSflBinig 
Ha ee6sí 'san^ery nocsi^^HHro nojn^cRaro Bopojui, Óujvh kc. Ka- 
jHHsa, KOTopuft, He saspuBafl rjias^ na nperp^meHÚi CTaHHCJiaBa- 
Aarycra, crapajicfl BucraBETb ea bha^b, qxo HMeHHO coios^ cb Poc- 
det ÓHJTb TOK) ;(oporoK), no naRoň AOJisHa 6wi^ hath IIojiBina, h 
yKasuBajTb Bcer^a na ÓJiariji HaH^pemfl, Rmunsmn, nonuTRH h pe- 
^pMH 9Toro Ropojfl. MoiKHO CRasaTB, HTO qyTb JIH He Bi nepBufi 
pasB Wh coHHHeniflxi RajiHHRH BBicrynEJTB CTaHECiaBi-ÁBrycrL hotth 
TasHiTB, RaBuMi owh 6ujn> Ha caifOMx A^krb^ xaRi qxo xapaRTe- 
picTHRa Kopoifl, CA^aHHafl 8THM% HCTopHRoifB, 6um npHHflxa, RaR% 
o^pasifOBafl, AasRe co cropoHu rpbthrobi, coBepmeHHO ne pasA^- 
jflDu^Hxi ocHOBHoro Bsofl^a KajTHHRH na oóuífie sna^eHÍe, RaRoe 
Mor^a 6u HifbTs j^jui IIojiBniH ;]t^Tej[BHOCTB OraHHCJiaBa-ABrycTa, 
eciHÓH OTB nes o^HOfi BaBHCŠJO HanpaBJíeníe BH^nraeft h BHyrpeH- 
Hefi nojniTHRH Fina IIocnojraTofi. XapaRTepHCTHRa axa ocrajiacB 
He óeffb BjtíflHÍfl Ha to npeACTaBieme, RaRoe C03;(a;ii> ce5% o no- 
CrtAHeiTB nOJBCROlTB ROpOJlŠ H KocTOMapoBi ^). O^apeHRBit pasHO- 
oÓpasHUHH cnocoÓHOCTflHH H ycBOHBmift AOBOJiBHO pasHOCTopoHnee 
o6pa30BaHÍe, mhofo nyTemecTBOBaBorifi h mhofo BHA']&Bnrifi, xopomo 
3HaBniiĚ jnoAefi h cnocotínuft nxi o^apoBUBaxB jhhhbimi* oópan^e- 
mwhy BecBKa no^Bnacnofi n A^xeJBHufi npn Bcefi CBoeň crpacrn 

Vb leVKBWb YAOBOJIBCTBiflMl H HaCJaSAeHÍflMl SH3HH, CxanHCJiaBi- 

ABrycTE He hu&tb Aocraxo^no CHJiBHaro xapaRxepa, ne oÓMjsfiLjrh 
cnocoÓHOCTBH) HimoHHpoBaTB jnoAflMi, ne yM^§jrB nanpaBjjiTB qboio 
jd^irejnbHOCTB na oahh RpynHBifl li^a, oqenB ^acro pa3M^uHBaflCB 
Ha MejoHH. dia ero ÓesxapaRTepnocTB, neaBTopEreTHOCTB, MejiOH- 
HOCTB vh coeAHHenÍH ci Rpa&He orpannHenHoio BjracTBH), RaRoio 
noiBsoBaJCfl wb IIoJiBni^ BOpojiB, cb rbwh Henonyj[flpHEiM'B nanpaB- 
jeHÍeiTB ero hojhthrh, Roropoe nocjrkjíjisisi npHHHMajia vh CHJiy 
coiOBa ch Pocdefi, h b^ coeAHHeniH cb ero rpixaMH, cocroflBniHMH. 
rjaBHinrB oÓpasoirB, kb toitb, tto oh'b ne cruAHJiCfl nojiB30BaTBCH 
AeHeafflHMH no^aHRaMH on A^pH&aBi, ^ebutexi Mesj^yco^oio ero 
rocyj^apcTBO, — Bce 9X0 jAmaJo cMy c;^éJIaxBca nacxoamHirB pe^op- 
vaTopoiTB, o ^ewb HMenno owb MeTraj'B cb cascaro nanajia CBoei 
nojiBTHHecROfi RapBepu. „Po^oBniHCB cb niHpoRHirB h njaMeHHinfB 



M SoemoMapoe^. I, 90 sq. 
Towfc ra.~MAfi, 1889. 



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50 B«CTHHK'B KBPOnU. 

HecT0JH)6ieM%, roBopirrB owb cani o ce^, si CA^arB usib H^ett 
pe4M)pHBi, cjiaBu H nojiLdBi Moero ore^ecTBa RaB'B 6u RaHBy bc£xi> 
CBOHxx npoeRTOBi H BceS CBoefi 2KE3HH^. IlepBOio ero Mucjbie 6ujio 
yCHJiETB KopojieBCRyK) BJiacTb, HO OH'B cRopo ^oJiseHi* óhuvh orb 
dToro OTRasaTBCfl, Kor^a ero ocraBHJH jiftjRe coócTBeaHue ero a^A^ 
^piopucRÍe, n BOdBpaTHJicfl bi* CBoeiíy many jusmb nocj]& nepsaro 
pa3A&ia. IIpEM^pi mBCACKaro Bopojui TycraBa UI, osojeo tofo se 
BpeMeHu npoHSBeAinaro CBOfi rocy^apcTBeHnuft nepeBoporB, He Maio 
saHHMajirE BOo6paseHÍe CraHHCJiaBa-ABrycTa, h, qyBCTByfl Henpúia- 
HeHHoe Jffh ce&b OTHomeHÍe co cropoHu MarHaxcRHx^ ^^aHHJÍfi, oh^ 
crajTB OBpysaxb ce6fl jih)abmh neH^ SHaHHT&ibHaro npoHCxoxAeHifl, 
ho y Hero ne 6iuio cit&iocth hath ao Roni^a, h oh% jierRO npHxo- 
AHJii B^ ynunie h onycRajTB pyRH. IIpH TorAamHHxi o6cTOflTejL- 
CTBaxi CraHHCJiaBi-ABrycrB, RaR'B acho owb caici noHHMai^ axo, He 
MorB 6u y^epsaiscfl Ha npecTOJrik tfesi HHOcrpaHHOti homoh^h, ho 
E hhrto Apyroft na ero h^t6 ne y^epsKajica 6u co6cTBeHHUMu 
caiaifH; eny npHXOXHJOCb nodTOMy b^b CBoeK pe^puaTopcRoti flíbsL- 
TejiBHOCTH CTOTaTBCfl cb BOJieí nocaAHBHieft ero na npecTOJi'B pyc- 
CROft HMnepaxpHitu. Bi cbohxi nHCBMax'B ri nocjrikAHeň oh^b y(5tai- 
Aajii ee He npoTHBHTBCfl pe^opMaifB bi IIojbíh^, nan^e Bcero bob* 
Bpan^aacB kt> Bonpocy o liberum veto. Bi nepioA'B Hes^y cbohm^ 
BcrynjieHieMx na npecrojix h nepsuMi pasA&ioifB, noBjíeRuiHMi sa 
C060K) ycraHOBjeme Poccieft bx Uojihnrb hobbix^ nopa^ROBi, Cra- 
HHCJiaB'B-ABrycrB eme AyMajTB caMOcroaxejiBHofi hojhthr*, e^^e 
cranoBHJicfl na nyiB o^^03H^iH h en^e conpoxHBJífljcfl y^pes^eHiio 
„HOCTOflHHaro coB^Ta", Rx ROTopoMy AOJTKHa CBLia nepeSTH nocjrbA- 
Haa RopojieBCRaa npeporaxHBa — paa^aw AOJiKHócreft h MHjiocrei 
(rocyAapcTBeHHBixi Hifi^nifi); ho nocjrik pa3A^a, HayHeHHutt onu- 
TOMX, OHT* yae ne AyMajx o&b ooboCokachík cbocmx otb pyccRoi 
oneRH, a vb „nocToannoirB cobít]^" yBHAÍ^'B CRopo yqpesA^HÍe 
Aase BecBHa noJiesHaro CBoficTBa h ji.jisl ycHjema co6cTBeHHaro Bjia- 
HÍa m» npaBHxejiBCTBeHHoft A^Teji^HOCXH, h jím npoBeAenia m> 
cxpanb HeoóxoAHMuxi pe(|)opHi. „IIocxoaHHuň cob^tb" npe^cxas- 
AsiJUb ujb ce6a npaBHxejiBCXBO, vb RaROMi AaBHO nysAajiacB P^nb 
IIocnojiHxaa, xoxa h cjiHmRoirB MHoro^HCJiennoe (36 qjeHOB^B), h 
HeaaBHCHMoe otb Ropoja (H^ienu nasHanajiHCB cefiMOMi); BuroAnaa 
ate AJW CxaHHCJiaBa-ABrycxa cxopona 9xoro ynpeaAeHÍa saRJwqa- 
jiacB Bi xoMi, Hxo pasA^uieHO oho 6ujio na naxB AenapxaMeHxoB'B, 
H Hxo Hxi HJieHbi Ha3HaHa;iHCB xojbro na ABa roAa; cani owb Óuji^b 
eAUHCXBeHHuft hcjiobír^, 3aHHMaBniifica a^&mh bcíx'b AenapxaMeH- 
XOB^ u ne BUxoAHBmiĚ h3i» cocxaBa „nocxoaHHaro coB^xa^. K^b 
xoMy 7B,e ce&MOBOe óojibhihhcxbo vh roAu, CJiiAOBaBniie aa nepBBUťB 



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nOJBCRIfl PEsl^OPMIÍ. 51 

pas^^oiťB, 6uió noHTH Bcer;(a na ero cropOH^, a aro OTpasajiocB 
H Ha cocraBŠ j,nocToaHHaro coBÍTa", Tor^a rsí,k% onnosHBtia, xaftHO 
MeTrasmafl o HHaioxeHÍH CTasHCJiaBa-ÁBrycra h saHCKHBaBmaa no- 
aroMy y pyccsaro nocJiaHHHRa, ors ROioparo noiy^ajia xanse h 
fifiEhVBy CAepacHBajiacb b^ cbohxi iipoHCKax'B npoTHBi Kopojia py- 
soH) dToro canaro nociaHHHica. Bx 8th roAu aBTopHTerB CraHH- 
cjaBa-ÁBrycra HecoMH^HHO Bospacrajii, ero BJiiame ycmiHBaJiocB, 
BOSHHRajia HacTOiiii^afl „RopojieBCRafl^ naptia (npesHÍe ero npH* 
BepseHipi HH^ero ne sHaniiJiH 6e3^ ^apropucKiixx), h caMx oh'b 
Atiaercfl bi A^CTBHrejikHOCTu BopojiesfB-pe4K>pMaTopoMi. 

IIojioseHie nojiBCBaro Ropojifl*pe<}K)pMaTopa Óbuio, Bnpo^eBťB, aa- 
jeRO He TO, vb RaROiTB HaxoAHjHCB Apyrie MOHapxH-npeo6pa30BaTejiH 
Kb XYIU CTOJi%rÍH. Bo^nepBuxi, bto 6bijih HesaBHCHime rocy^apH, 
He HM^Binie Ha^oÓHOCTH orjiHAUBaTBCH na jtpynA nepsánu npu npoBe- 
AeHÍH pe(|K)pM'B vb co6cTBeHHux'B BJiaA^HÍHxi, Tor^a RaRi OraHHCJiaBi- 
ÁBrycTB jifi.i7eiewb 6ujn> npHMŠHHTBCfl R'b sseJiamEMi n BH^aarB npa- 
BHTejbCTBa, Hiťi^Bmaro npaBO HaÓJiOj^aTB sa bcšmi, mib tojibro hh 
npoHCXOAHJio FB Uojibnrby Bcer^^a ^ocraTO^HO CHJBHaro, mio6u a^tb 
no^yBCTBOBaTB CBOK) BOJK) cjiaóoft Pi^VH TIocnojiHToft, npHTOiifB y»e 
AORasaBinaro, RaRoe opyAie msi cbohx'b u^bjíét Ho;RerB oho hm^tb b'b 

HOJBCROĚ Onn03HI^ÍH. Bo-BTOpBIXX, flOJIBCRÍ& ROpO^IB He HM^^B IipaBa 

B BHyrpH crpaHu iipaRasuBaiB TaR^B, RaR^ npHRaauBajni aócojnor- 
Hue MOHapxH, ne BHA'&Binie orojio ce6fl hh cefiMOBi, hh „nocToan- 
HsrB coB^TOBi^, HH R0H4)eAepai^ifi, a HyTB FycraBa III niBeACRaro, 
ycHJiHBmaro cboh) BJiacTB nocpe;íCTBO»rB rocy^apCTBenHaro nepeBO- 
pora, ĎUA^b saRpBTTB jí^jisi HOJiBCRaro Ropojia, jihhho npHxoBCB ne 
OTjHMaBmarocfl cm^jioctbio pi^meHÍft: IIojíBma He oÓJiaAajia boScromi, 
na ROTopoe hopb 6u onepeiBca RopojiB, h HMenno yMHOseniio apidH 
Bcer^a wbm^w iiarnaTu h HLiaxTa; Apyrifl cociobía npn mhofo- 

HHCieHHOCTH HIJIflXTBI He MOFJIH TaRSe HOCJiySHTB OHOpOft JSfiS. MOHap* 

XH^ecRoft peBOjnoipH, niwb 6ojAe^ qxo cann oh% óblih HepasBHTu 
H HOAaBJěHu; naROHei^i, peBOJiioi^iH HecoMH^HHo Bcrp^THja 6hi 
auBHyio ROHTpi^-peBOJiioi^iH) cb HHOcrpaHHott noAA^p^Rofi. CraHH- 
ciaBy-ÁBrycTy npHXOAttaocB iíOBOJiBCTBOBaTBca Tbm> nojioatemeMi, 
RaRoe cosAaHO Óbuio b:b IIojrBnii nepBBon pa3A'&ioirB, ROHCiHryi^ieň 
1775 r. H BOBcranoBJíeHieMT* pyccRoft ^rapanriH** 1768 r.jHeMeqraa 

o BBeAeHÍH HOBOft npaBHTeJTBCTBeHHOfi 4^0pMBI, ÓUBHiefi FJiaBHBnrB 

npejmeroiTB bc6x'b crpeiiseHift ^apropucRuxi. P^hb IIocnoJiHTafl 
Hirbia TenepB xotb RaRyio-HH^y^B npaBHxejiiBCTBeHHyH) BJiacTB, ceĚMu 
Ůojrbe ne cpuBa^HCB, h jiioah^ BH^^Bmie, hto q)a3y HejiB3H CA^axB 
Rsi Pi^H nocno^HTofi He3aBHCHBfyio H Moryn](ecTBeHHyH) A^pxaBy, 
He hmíjh Ha;^o6HOCTH crpeííHrBca m> HOBOft nojiHTHqecRoft pe^^opMÍ, 



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52 B«CTHHR7» EBPOnU. 

TaKT> KEKi KOHCTHTyiíia 1775 r. H HHTepecB PocdH HeAonycKaxb 
vb Ilojiknrjb BosBpan^eHÍfl anapxÍH oóesne^Bajui B03M02BLHOCTb npe- 
o6pa80BaHÍft, HOBOBBeAeHÍ& h yjiy^meHifi bi ;q>yrHX'b oTHomeHÍJix^B. 
3a pasp^mesieifB nojiiiTH^ecBaro Bonpoca, xota AaieRO ee b^b tomx 
CMucjii, b^ BaKOMX sejaiH aroro ^propBiCRÍe h caMi OraHHCJiaFB- 
ÁBrycTB. BiicryiiHJiB Apyrie Bonpocu, h noje pe^^opm sHa^irrejikHO 
pacmnpHjiocB. P%n IIocnoJiHTafl b% OTHomeHiflxi- KyjiLTypnoMi, co- 
^iaJ[BHOlrb H dROHOMH^ecROMi ÓuM crpaHOK) BecBMa OTcrajiOH), h 
vh 3THXI c^epaxx Tenepb npoHCXo;^H;[a, rjaBHUMi o6pa30irb, npe- 
oÓpasoBaxejiBHafl paóora: ona-TO h nocraBua IlajiBiiiy bi hhcjio rocy- 
AapcTB^y HcnuniBaBímixi bo BByrpeenefi CBoett shshh BJÚflHÍe npo- 
CBiTHTeJBHEixi ujífiŘ XVIII B^Ra. CraHHCJiaBib-ABrycrB Úujn, hhh- 
i^iaxopoirb TaRoro HanpaBJíeHifl npaBHreJBCTBeHHOft ^(^TejikHOCTH: vh 
aroMi He OTRasHBaen. eny HOB^Ěmífi HcropHRi, xota B00(5ii^e BecBHa 
AypHO OTHOCfln^iftcfl rx neny, r. KopsoHi. 

OraHECiaBi-ABrycn, jih^ho mrlBrnifi BRyci rt. (|)hjoco({)íh, 
HayR]^, jHTepaTypi h HCRyccTBy, oónapysHjrB ocoóyio saÓOTy bi» 
jíjbÁ noAHflTÍH vb crpaH^ HapoAHaro oÓpasoBanifl, h bi droMi oTHome- 
híh nwb CA^aHO ÓBUio ne naio vb snoxy MeacAy nepBUMi pasA^JioiťL 
u qerupexjri^THHirB cefiMOHi, xota ROCHoe mjuixeTCRoe o6ii^ecTBO h 
crapuK ne^arorn^ecRÍft nepconajii mhofo TopnasiuH ycn^xi A^a. 
Bx TTojiBniš Bce o(5pa80BaHÍe Haxo^HJiocb npesA^ b'b pyRax^b MOHa- 
raecKHXi opAeHOBx, npeHMyn^ecTBeHHO b% pyRaxi ieayHTOBi, h no- 
Tpeónocih niROJibHOfi pe^pMBi qyBCTBOBajiacb yse cpejs^n caiiHx^b 
AyxoBHuxi BOcnuraTejeft lOHoraecTBa: vb cepe^HH^ XVIII b. Cra- 
HHCJiaBT) RoHapcRÍft npoHSBejTb pe4)opMy oóyHema y „niapoBi" 
(fratres scholarum piarnm), ycrpoHBi HOBue rohbhrtu h Bse^a 
3% nporpaMHy niapcRHxi mROjrb ecTecTBeHHUfl HayRH h HOBue 
fl3URH, qeny crajiH no^pasaTb A&2Re caMH iesynrBi. O^HaRO TOJibRo 
yHHiToaceme iesyBTCRaro opřena, coBnaBmee cb nepBuifb pasA^* 
jioiTb IIojtbinH, H BOSHHRHOBeHÍe ocotfott ,8AyRdI^Í0HH0fi rommhccíh'' , 
CBOero poAa MHHHcrepcTBa npocB^n^eHÍfl, 6um Hanasoirb Hacroa- 
n^Hxx HOBOBBeAemĚ vb c^ep^ HapoAHaro oÓpasOBanifl, ocoÓeHHo 
saHHMaBmaro CranHCiaBa-ABrycra, Roropufi HeMajiyio cjuuy co6- 
CTBeHHUxi Aenerb ynoTpeófurb na jinoÓHHoe CBoe A^THn^e, Ra^ercRÍft 
Ropnyci Bi BapmaB^. BooÓmie aro 6um nopa CHJiBHaro oasuBjeHia 
Bi> yHCTBeHHoft A&rrejiBHOCTH noiBCRott Ha^iII, cRasaBinarocfl h na 
TorAamneft JiHxepaTypt, Aa h y Ropojia »b bto speiífl 6hjio He Majio 

CTOpOHHlIROB'b H nOMOII](HHROB% BO BCAxi npeAnpíflTÍflrB, R.90HHB- 

mHxcfl Ri TOBfy, HTo6u noAHflTB yMCTBeHHHŽ ypoBeHb crpaHu. Jí^pj- 
roK) ÓJiaropoAHOH) Mucibio RopojiA-pe^^opnaTopa 6ujio yjiy^meme 6uTa 
HapoAHUXi Maccb, HaxoAHBmnxcfl b% nojmoirb pa6GTB'6 y cboex^b 



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nOlBCKlfl PE4^0PMU. 53 

nanoBTb, ho Tyrt eme TpyAHÍe 6ujio hto-jih6o cjííbjism>. Eme b-b 
caMOiTB Ha^aa'& csoero AapciBOBaHia (1764 r.) CraHHCJiaKb-ABrycTB 
nHcaji BeJiHiu)My Ranipepy KopoHHOMy ÁHApeio 3aM0ficK0My: „noKa 
BiaAÍieA'B npHCBOHBaerb ce6^ BjiacTB HaA^B jbh3hbh) h CMepTBio noA- 
jUiHHaro, noKa sa ueÓOJihm^jo cynny A^nerB mosho BUBynHTB yÓificTBO 
xjona, AO TkLT> nopx Ayma moa se MOserB 6uTb cnoKogea, ao 
TÍxb nopi^ He CM^JO ciumaTb orb HHOcrpaHi^eFk o HameirB eapoA^, 
EOTopufi MOSHO ynpoBaTL Bi nocTUAHofi noRynKi ÓesHaRasaHHOCTH'' . 
HdaícTHO, OAHaso, qio tojibbo BOHCTHryAui 1768 r., éuBmafl RaB^b 
pasrb pe3yjnbTaT0M'B HHOcrpaHHaro BM^maTeibCTBa, orirbHHja npaBO 
BaAB jKH3HbH) H CMepxbH) xjiona H ycraHOBiua HaBasame 3a yéificTBO 
xjoua, BUBynaBmeecfl npe^Ae A^nesHOfi neneft. 3a6oTii oéh o6pa- 
soBanÍH, o 6e3npaBHOM'b „noAAftHHOMi'' numxTu, xapaBxepudyiorB 
HOByio dnoxy bi Hcropin nojbCBHXi pe(|)opirb nponuaro B^Ba, 9Toro 
no caifOMy cyio^ecTBy CBoeify npocBŽTHrejbHaro h ocBOÓOAHTOJibHaro 
BÍRa. PflAOiTb cb yRaBaHHHMH 3a6oTaMH pe4K>pMHpoBaHHoe npaBH- 
TeibCTBO npoBOAHJio npeo6pa30BaHÍfl vb aAMHHHcrpai^iH, <{)HBaHcaxB 
H T. A- 9 HMŠBmifl HOMajioe SHaieme, saBB sto AOBaBUBaercfl h 
TpyAOH^ r. Kopsoea. 

EbopojiB pe^opMaTop'b fifijmewh éburb, OAHaBo, cwTaxbCfl cb ao- 
BOJbHO BHaHHTOJibHOĚ onnosHi^eft. OxjiasA6HÍe MesAy bbwb h ero 
AflA^MH Bce 6ojite h 6ojňe yciuHBajiocb, h xora oahhx hbi HHx^b 
BCBop^ uocjA nepBaro pasAi^ia yiiepx, a Apyroft nocjríkAHiH cevth 
xbrb CBoefi :rh8hh opoBaii wh coBepmeHHOifb yAajíeHÍH otb A'^'b, 
HXB HepacnojoseHÍe kt> CraHHCJiaBy-ABrycTy ynacitAOBajiH ocrajib- 

HUe HXl pOACTBeHHHBH H CTOpOHHHBH, ABOIOpOAHUft ÓpaPB BOpOJIfl 

BH. ÁAaiTb ^propucBÍfi, 3flTb nocjri&AHflro, bh. jIk)6ombpcbí&, cb cbo- 
jswb BflTOiťB HrnaTÍeMi noTOABfnrb, npHMBHyBniHirb b'b necrojiioÓHBOMy 
renaHy KcaBepÍK) BpaHHi^BOMy; btotb noc4rlAHÍ& HeHaBHA'kix HOBBie 
nopsAKH, TaB% BaBi npH h]ix'b reTMaHi» ee mofb HrpaxB npesneft 
pojH HesaBUCHicaro npeABOAHrejifl BofiCBa. Owb h cjííbJíAJLCsi rjiaBHbiiTB 
npoTHBHHBOMB Bopoifl. MeJísíe HHTepecu H seHCBifl HHTpHrn HrpaiH 
TEBsse HeMajyH) pojiB vb o6pa30BaHÍH dxofi onnosm^iH. Ea bojbah 
Ayiiajra b^ 1776 r. o6b oÓpaaoBaHÍH nponiFb sopojia BOH^^AepaipH, 
HO pyccBÍfi nocjiaHHHB'B He AonycTHJi^B ao aroro, h ceftMB 1776 r. 
6iiijn> BOH4{)eAepHpoBaHx caMHMX BopojEeM'B. CjrlAyK)iAÍe BaxiifB ceftMu 
1778, 1780, 1782, 1784 h 1786 r. 6oji*e ne Ron^eAepHpoBa- 

aHCB, H HHBTO HO ptmaJICfl HX^B CpUBaXB, XOTfl He BCb npaBHTejiB- 

CTBeHHHe npoeBTH h npeA^EiaraBrniflCfl na hhxb pe^pMu npHHHiia- 
jihcb: pflAOMB CB apHCTOBpaTH^ecBofi onnoBHi^iefi, HaopasjíeHnog, 
rjaBHHiTB o6pa30Mi>, npoTHKb caiforo Bopojifl, bb Uojbnd; cyiue- 
CTBOBajia eníe onnosHi^ia, TaB'b cBasaxb, oňmenuiaxercBaíí, cboahb- 



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54 B^0THUR1» EBPOUU 

maflCfl Bi HeAOBo;[BCTBy HOBOBBeAeniflMH, ROTopua saMimiJiflJiHCB k^e 
yn^epóy mjiflxercRHx^ npHBHJieri& n npHBUHeKi. CaifUMOb HHiepec- 

BUWh dllESOJSflU^ B^b HCTOpÍH yKa3aHHBiX'B CeftMOBl CB TOHEII Sp^HÍfl 

HCTopÍH pe<{)opMi» flBJífleTCfl nonuTKa cocraBjema HOBaro so^eRca 
saROHOBi. ^"Sjio 3T0 6uJio nopyneHO ea ceňMi 1776 r. AH;q[>eK) 
3aMo8cKOMy, óiiBraeMy kopohhhmx KaHipepOMi ji^o cettua 1767 — 
1768 r., KOFAa oetb cani cjioshjii cb ce6A cbok) ;i;ojukhoctb. C!o- 
craBJíeHHuft hitl npoeRTb óujiib npeAcraBjeH^b Ha ce&iťB 1778 r., 
HO pa3CM0Tp']^HÍe ero 6iuo oxjioKeHO ao cefina 1780 r., ROTopuft 
Ch HercAOBaineMi OTBepn npoeRTb, sanpeTHBi Ror^a 6u to hh 6wio 
BHOBb ero npeAcraBJíflTb, TaR'B RaR% ÁHApeft 3aM0ftcRÍfi BuroBapn* 
Bajii vh Hem H^ROTOpoe oójer^enie y^acrn RpecTbflHB. ,»3TorB 
ceňiTB, — roBopH-PE caRCOHCRÍS pesHAemrt 3cceffE,— AORasaji, wo 
rpoMa^a hojarob^ HHTaerB sBHoe OTBpan^enie ro Bceicy, irb tojbro 
OTsuBaeTCfl yjiyHmeHÍeirB h npaBOcyAÍeifB" . TaROBa ÓBua nuu- 
xercRafl nacca, ho cpe^H apHcroRpaTH^ecRoft onno3HipH Óiiih, Hao6o- 
poTB, jiH>AH, Me^raBniie o pe^^opiiaxi, — flBjeme, noHainoe npH xoft 
fijEHáROft CBfiSH, RaRaa cyn^ecTBOBaJia nesAy hoboS napríeft n crapofi 

„<{)aMHJlÍefi^. IIo CBOHMl P94>OpMaTOpCRHM% HJiaHairB OCO<$eHHO BII- 

ABHrajracB fb nefi 6paTBfl noTon;RÍe, ynoMAHyrtiil HrHaTifl h iLiaA*- 
miň CTaHHCJiaBi, o6a senaTue na AO^epjixi Roponnaro MapmajiRa 
JIioÓOMHpcRaro, ROTopsiA caiTB naxoAHJiCfl hoa^b chjibhumi BJiisHieirB 
CBoefi seHH, yposA^HHofi ^apTopucRoft. Ohh Me^xaiH o 6ojiše 
RopeHHOfi pe4)opiít XIojBniH, AynajH nocpoACTBOirB nea noAHflTB 

CBOH) (|)aMHJlÍH) H HaXOAHJIH CTOpOHHHROB'B He TOJIBRO Cpe^H MOJIO* 

AeaH, HOJiyTOBHieft BOCHHTaHÍe b-b RaAercROirB Ropnyci h npoHHic- 
meňcfl nporpeccHBHBíMH HAeflMH, ho h cpeAH npeAcraBHT&iefi crapofi. 
anapxH^ecROň UojiBniH, Ronx'B CBasuBajia es nporpeccEcraMH o6m»M 
HenaBECTB ri Ropojiio: laROBo^ 6£ui'b, rjiaBHHMi o6pa80irb, rernaHi^ 
EpaHHi(RÍ&. IIpH ToiTB BJniflHÍH, RaRoe BooCn^e ORasuBajiH na ce&MH- 
RyiOH^yH) HUflXTy MarnaTH, o^^03^^ioHBOĚ napTÍH .lerRO óujio nocu- 
jiaTB Ha ce&iTB hocjiobx, Bpa»A^HO nacrpoenniixi npoTHBi RopoJia. 
Ha cefiMt 1782 r. tojbro BMÍniaTejiBCTBO DlTaRejiBĎepra ne amo 
pa3urpaTBCfl ÓypnnMi a^enairB, nanpaBJíeHHfiiarB npoTHBi OraHH- 
czraBa-ABrycra: EpanHi^Riň RpH^ajix, hto npoTHBX crpeMjema Ropojia 
Ri A^cnoTRSMy mjflxii npHAeTca CRopo na^aTB paóory ne asbirom^, 
a ca6jieH); nojiBHBift renraHX CeBepnHi PateBycRift nanOMHHajPB Cxa- 
HHCjaBy-ABrycTy o cyABÍt aHTJiittcRaro Ropojia Kapja I h t. n. 
CefiifB 1784 r. npomejrB tfjiaronojiy^HO, djiaroAapa MÍpairB, npH- 
HaTHM^ IIlTaRejíBÓeproirB, ho Ropojio ne yAajocB, RaRi h na npes- 

HHX^B CeňMaX^B, CRJOHHTB nOCJTOBTB RX yBeJIH^eHÍH> HaioroKB H TbWh 

caMUMo^ R'B yMHoaLeniio BOfiCRa: nuiaxTa ne o^chb npEsinua njia- 



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nOJIBOBIfl PE^OPMU. 55 

TffTB, a 6oJiBinofi apirin npoAOJimaJia óoaTbca, BaK-B B6iii;n, Moryn^eĎ 
fíHTb onacHOH) ji^A noJiHTHqecKofi CB060AH. K'b ceĚMy 1786 r. cb 
oSíhxi cTopOH'B, T.-e. H RopojiesfB, H onno3iii;íe3, jíjkjisuiiích óojibiiiíh 
npHTOTOBJíeHifl, BaBi B'B reHepajiBHOMy cpajseHÍK); caMut ceŘwb 
OTítpHJica WTB He pyKonaniHOtt cxBaTKoft; tojibko lEÍTaKeJiBÓepry 
yiajocB ycrpoHTB aíjío laKi, tto ceňirB oKOHHiuicfl Ójaronojiy^HO, 
T.-e. He 6wn> copBaHi. TaRHM^B o(5pa30MX, ecra pe^opMa HcnojHH- 
TeJiBHOfi BjiacTH npHBeja b'b jiyqmeft A^xejiBHOCTH co^CTBeHHO npa- 
BRTejiBCTBa. TO ciapafl cefiHOBafl opraHHsaipfl no npesneiíy oéna- 
pyxBíBajia cboh ee^ocraTRH, h eio nojiBSOBajacB onnosHiiifl, ^0611 
nímaTE HOBEOfB pe(|)opMaMi. Bi aroirB OTHomenÍH IIojiBnia Hano- 
MHHajia ^paHiiiio nepeA'B peBOJnoipeĚ, ni npeoÓpasoBaTejiBHUfl no- 
nHTKH npaBBTaiBCTBa Bcriié^ajra conporiiBJíeHie co cropoHU napjia- 

leHTOFb. 

Hjtefl pe<f)opMii 6uAB. b'b IIojiBmi noBa AOcrofleieMi oahhxi^ 
apHCTOBpaTHqecBHX^B BepxoFB oÓn^ecTBa, xota yse Ha^HHaia npo- 

HHKaTB H B'B APyňe CJIOH, HTOÓBI BU3BaTB H XaHl ABffiKeHÍe. Bl 

anoxy, Boropyio loi tojibbo-hto pascMorpfciH, Bpoirt ctupohhhbob-b 
OraHHCsaBa-ABrycTa, noMoraBranx-B eiiy btb npaBiiTe.iBCTBeHHBíxi 
npeo6pa30BaHÍflX'B, h vkx% qjeHOBi> onno3Hi];m, BOTopue tojibbo en^e 
roTOBHJiHCB 6b[tb pe(|)opMaTopaMH, M02ELH0 yBasaTB en^e Ha h^bojib- 
RHXB narnaTOB^, xaBi hjih nnane Cubihhxx npEHacTHEUiH A^y 06- 
HOB.ieHÍfl Píhh HocnojiHTofi, — flBJíeHie, yBastiBaioníee na to, tto 
QojBma A'i3cTBHTejiBH0 na^HHajia buxo^^b h3% CBoero oi^ineH^nifl. 
djiíbcb MBT HirbeMi fb Bu^y (ne oco6eHHO, Bnpo^eirB; MHoro^HCseH- 
Hiie) csy^aH npeo6pa30BaHÍft fb Be^emn cejiBCBaro xo3flňcTBa fb 
HteoTopBixi MarHaTCBHX^B nu%HÍflX'B, CBOAHBmiecfl Bi otfjier?eHÍK) 
giiaHB^HSHBi^, T.-e. 6apn];HHU, HJEH xaa&eBi 3aM%H% ea „HHHoieifB^, 
T.-e. oÓpoBOMi (y AHApeir 3aMOftcBaro fb 1760 r., y bc. IlaBJía 
RcaBepifl BpsocTOBCBaro, pe^epeH^apúi Bej. bh. jiHTOBCBaro, b'b 
1769 r., y BopojieBCBaro njieMaHHHBa CTanncjiaBa HoHaTOBCRaro, 
erapocra BHHHHi^Baro, renepajťB-Jie&TeHaHTa BopoHHsixi BoňcRi, fb 
1777 r., y ^ejiHBca (m,eHCHaro) XIoroitBaro, b-b peryjrapoBaHÍH) 
OTHomemfi neaiAy naHCBHirB ^i^BopoMi h xjonaMH (y BHJiencBaro 
enicBona Hrnaiifl MaccajiBCBaro fb 1774 r., y bhafhhh Ahhu 
AfijioHOBCBofi FB 1786 r.), HHor^na b-b AapoBaniio BpecTBaHaMX 
jomiolk CBOÓo;^ (noABaHsiJiepoMi jehtobcbhitb loaxHMOBTB Xpenro- 
Bmewb FB ceMH^ecflTBixx ro^ax^B, a bx anoxy HeTEipexjr6THHro 
cefiMa MapmajiBOitx nocjríkAHflro pe^peH^apieirB OraHHCiiaBOifB Ma- 
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j^OIBCBHirB RpaCHHCBHMX, CTapOCTOH) OHHHOrOpCBHMX). CjyTOH 9TH 

taiPB ;^4ficTBHTejiBH0 neMHoro^iHCJieHHH, hto, coÓCTBenHO roBopa, mei 



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56 0«OTBHK'L EBPOnU. 

HX'B BC^ H nepewciHJH, a ncropHKy, cooóii^iiDiAeMy o hhx'b no- 

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iťlcTHTB na HHXi BecB HMŠion^iScfl noA'B ero pysaiíH iiaTeplajirB 
noAOÓHaro pojía O- PaAOMx ct dTHirb otmíthmi 6ojie iiHOroqH- 
CfeHHue eJiynaH, Kor^a MarHaiu h mjflxxa nycnaiHCb Ha nonpHn^e 
npoMumjieHHUXi npeAnpiflTÍfi, ocHOBUBaa (|)a6pHRH h saBO^a, 6ďxb- 
meH) HacTBH) TepnŠBmie Hey^any ^): rocnoACTBOBaBmee cociosie 
PŠHH IIocnojiHTOĚ Ha^HHajio OTBasuBaTbCfl OTb BdFJiflAa, no Boropony 
saHflTÍe npoMumjieHHOCTBH) yHHsaerE aoctohhctbo ÓJiaropOAHaro 
qeiOB^Ba, a „naTpioru^iecEafl'' cropoHa Tasux^b npe^iipúíTifi saRiio- 
qajiacB vb sejiaHÍH oÓoraTHXB IIo^Biny. Hsi MarHaiOB^b, ocofieHHo 
MHoro xj[onoTaBniHX'B h A^aBmnxi b'b btowl HanpaBjeHm, rjiaBHaii 
pojiB npHHaAJieaiajia THseHrayseHy hjui, no noJiBCBOMy npoesHomeHUO, 
Tuaenraysy, snaienie Roero, Bnpo^OM-B, 6mjio, KaaBtercfl, h^koako 
npeyB&iH^eHO nosAHŤfimHMH HcropHRaMH ^). THseHrayseni óeuii* 

OAHHM^B H31> CTOpOHHHKOBl BOpOJIfl H JífiSRQ TJiaBOH) erO napTÍH Wh 

JIhtbí, Txk eMy y^aJiocB neperanyrB na cbok) cropony Bna^HT&iBHyio 
^acTB ceňiiHRyion^eá mjiflXTu, h£m% oni h nasHJii ce6& Henajio 
BparoBi cpeAu ApyrHX'B MarsaTOBi, naxoAHBniHxcfl vh onnosiapH. 
Ora pe<j^pMaTopcBafl HHiui.iaTHBa ^aCTiiBix'B Jíms^ 6ujia o^HnirB hsi^ 
npH3HaR0Bi> BpeMeHH. TaBmfB se npHSHaBOirB 6ujio o6pa30BaHÍe 
onno3Hi^íoHHofi napTÍH ci 6ojL%e nporpeccHBHOio nporpaMMOK), nesesju 
xa, RaBOfi Aepsajicfl RopojiB-pe^opMaToprB. 

Onno3Hii;ifl npoTHB^ Ropojui, BUTeRaBmafl ÓOJiBnieH) nacTBio uarh 
HHCTO jiHHHux-B MOTHBOB^, xoTfl HO JiHmeHHafl H npHHi^HniaiBHaro 
3HaHeHÍfl, vh nocxlAHeM^B oTHomenÍH mišja ABoaRÍň xapaRTepx»: 
o^ny ea toctb mo»ho nasBaTB RoncepBaTHBHOH), Apyryio — nporpec- 
CHBHOH). 06^ OH^ oÓ^AHHfljuiCB Ha no^BŽ coBMto^Hoft 6opB6u npo- 
THBi CTanHCiaBa-ÁBrycTa, a CAepacHBajiacB axa onnosHi^ji — en^e paa^ 

nOBTOpaeifl — TOJLBRO pyCCRHM^B nOCJiaHHHROMl. Mu BVíJSÍhmj HTÓ Ha 

ceftM^ 1786 r. totobhjiocb fljBOíe renepajiBHoe cpasenie MesAy KsyMB 
jiarepaMH — RopojieBCRHMi h anrH-RopojieBCRHirB. „3totx ceňiii, — nu- 
csuvh Bi TOMx ate ro^y caRConcRÍft AEjuiOMňTtnecJíiŘ arenrE Bccent, — 
ocraBJíflerB 3apo;](Binii éojiBnioro Óposenia... Onno3Hii[ifl npespaTHJiacB 
B^B OTRpuiyH) (|)aRi4H), ?ero b'b IIojBm^ ne bha&ho hocj^ pas^^st. 
Bi Aannyio HHnyTy oHa cjAuo nofi^erB no yRa3aHÍflMi nnocrpaH- 
nevh"". TaR-B H cjiyHHJocB: Ror^a bx 1787 r. nanajiacB y Poccíh 
BTopaa Typei^Raa BofiHa, fb UojiBni^ bo3hhrjio Heo(5iiRHOBeHHoe 

O Cm. y Korison'aL I, 377—379, 389-B90, 402—406, 444—446. Cp. KocmoMa-^ 
poe^^ 1, 165—168; Limanowski, 27—30. 
») Rorzon. II, 214—259. 
«) i&irf., II, 235 sq. 



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nOJIBCRIfl P£4»0PM£I. 57 

BOJHeHÍe, TasB sasrb, noBHAHMOMy, Hacryn&io ČJiaronpíflTHoe BpeMfl 

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dMyva^a BocnojiLsoBaTLCfl onnosmý^ npoTHBi hojihthrh Eopojifl. npn- 
^en nporpeccBBHafl ea ^acTB BucryiiHjia Cb cbohmh pe(|K)pMaMH. Ce&M'B 
1788 r., HasBaHHíifi Bnoci^ACTBÍH qeTupex;iÍTHHM'L, xaicB Kasi 
padomeiai TOJbBO na lerBepiOMi ro^y (b'b 1792 r.), a oaho BpeM^ 

HaSBBaBUriiCfl ROBCTHTyipOHHinrBy BCJI^ACTBÍe BBeAeHHOfi UWb BOH- 

emryipH 3-ro Maa, (^"^ajicfl apenoio 6oph6u h^roj[bkhx'b napriň. 
drOTb cefiin» Cb caiiaro Hanáka ROH^eAepHpoB&iCfl: a^busomi co- 
exKHeHÍji Óujia HacroaTeibHafl, bc^mh cosHaBaBmaflCfl noipeOHOcrb 
roqfA&pcTBeHHofi peij^piui. IIpH pascHorpšaiH OTA^bHux'b Bonpo- 
cxarb BHÍiiraei h BHyrpeHHett nojiHTHRH o6Hapy»HJiocb pasjíHqie 
MBÍbsáŘ H npoqMtmrb vb híap&xx canoň onnoBHii[ÍH, pacnaBineácfl 
Toiepb Ha ooo6ufl naprÍH. 

YnOMAHyTiiiá yse Bsata Bume ^pHApHSb (f^OHi-CMHiTb, aBTopi 
covraemfl o CysopoB^ h na^enÍH IlaibinH, 6iiJi'b qyib jih ne 
nepBui HGTopHR^, ROTopbift 6e3i npeABSflTuxi Mucjieň pascMO- 
Tpbrb cocraBii h npeAcraBaii npHHi^Hnu napríft, óopoBniHXCfl bi 
?i^E nocnaraTofi bi anoxy qeTupexjrlTHaro cefina 0. HcropHR^ 
aasuBaerb hxi napTiflMH npomeAinaro, Hacroan^aro h Óy^yu^aro, h 

^0 HSBdteTHOfi CreneHH Blb 3T0M'b, AÍfi<^BHTeJbH09 3aRJIH)HaeTCfl HXl 

aBaneme. IlapTÚi npomeAinaro ébuia naprifl craparo nopsARa, Ror^a 
Maraami h Bucmie caeoBHHRH óbUH BceMoryme h HeorpaHuqeHbi. 
Bo rjmBŠ CTOfljii 3A^b ^asHRCi (lU^eHCBuft) IIoTOi^Rifi, pyccRiS 
BO^OAE H reHepaji'b-4>^jibAi^egxMeficTepx. KaR^b oht*, xaRi* h ero 
eAHH(muiiiJieHHHSH, 6ojibmeK) nacrbio crapue caHOBHHRH, A^psaiHCb 
PoedH, AyMafl, hto TOJbRO o^Ha ona bi coctoahíh Óy^erb hxi> 
BojuepzaTb. Vízvbcmui acoJiOAy sa lejOB^Ra Tynoro, RaRi fobo- 
{Hrrb HOB^mifi noJbCRÍft Hcropincrb, lU^eHCHuá-IIoTOi^Rifi „ci xene- 
flieirb BpeireHH CA'bJ[ajrb JiHinb laRÍe ycnšxa, hto yid^^b caM'b oHcaTb 
nBCbiia, xeaTHJio ero pas^b Ha i^'&jiyio pbnh wh ceňni, h cosAaJii oni> 
e&6b CBoero poAa nojBTH^ecRÍfi HAeaji'L nuiaxercROfi pecnyÓJHRH ({esi 
KopoLUi, eh npe3HAeHT0H'b, BuÓHpaeMUATb no onepeAH BoeBOACTBanH. 
Saaserai, OAHaRO, npH^aBJuien HCiopHRi, hto oh^ H3MÍHHjrb 6u 
noMy HAeaJiy, ecxaóu Horb cairb cbcth na npecroj['b, h6o coBpe* 
leBHHKH úuAti y6&RAeHu, HTO owh CA^ajicfl opyAÍeirb ERaiepHHu II 
» HaAeaRA'^ nojiy^xb Ropony*" *). Ob Hameft HM^epaTpH^eĚ bh- 
iftKfl 0Bi> BL 1787 r. Wh Kievb h ocrajicfl orb uesi wb Bocropri: 

») JFY. r. Smitt. Suworow nnd Polens Untergang. Leipzig und Heidelberg. 1858, 
li, 164 — 179. Cm. pycciifi DepeBo;^^b: CyBopoBi h ^a;^eHk• ncutrnii. Cii6. 1866—67. U, 
lfli~119. 

*) Karbon. IV (2), 222—223. 



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HUTB HSMŠHenii, HO AyHaBniHX'B TOJiBRO O ce6t; OHH ne plniajiHCB 
wpexoM^BTb Ha CTopoHy IlpyccÍH, oatH^aa Bcero on Poccíh, hjh, 

BfepH^, BBUKHAafl, KB ROMy 6nOCJl']&ACTBÍH BBTrOAHte Óy^eTB npH- 

MSHyTB. Bo rjaB* TaBHX'B jno^efi mu HaxoAHMi yse H^B^Haro HaM^B 
remana RcaBepifl Bpanni^Raro ^). TaRHxi jno^efi, RaRx 9th npe^- 
crasvreiH npexneá onno8Hi;ÍH, Bcer^a Úujio mhofo wb IIojBrnš, h 

Bl 9TOM1b OTHOmeniH HTB MOSHO HOCTaBHTB pA^OM^ Cb ^JieHaMH 

ciapo*injiflxeTCRofi napTÍn, r^í rjasHyio pojiB HrpajTB m,eHCHHfi-no- 
TOipdft. Aa OHH nosAH^e ti cohijihcb bm^^ct* bi oón^eirB jiíbjvky bi> 
laproBHipcoĚ ROH<|^AepaiitÍH; MapmaJiROM^B nocji^AHefi 6u^t> III,eHCHutt- 

IIOTOI^Bit, a OAHHMX H3% COB^TOHROBl — KcaBepíft BpaHHI^Rifi. »JÍBOp- 

csaji" napTÍii paBHUMi o^pasoMi (^BíJia tojibro npflMOft nac^AHu- 
ii,dk ^^aMHjriH**; kb coiobí cb Poccieft AyMaaa ona npoH3BecTH pas- 
HHH pe4>opMfii, Mea^y npoTOnrB, ycH.iHTB RopojieBCRyio BJiaciB, cxk- 
jftKB ee HacjŠACTBeHHoft h yrBop^iiHBi ee sa laRHirB aomom^, na 
lasoft yRa^eri ERaxepHHa 11, otmíhhtb líberum veto h yjiyqniHTb 
ynpaBJcenie, xota nporpaMMa Bxa (^cuia pacmEpena, RaR^B mu bh- 
jrfciH, 3a6oTaMH o napo^HOM^B npocBin^eHÍH h Koe-RaRHMH njanaMH 
OTHO^reaiBHO RpšnocTHuxi RpecTBAH^B. CoBctMi yse HOBoe flBJíe- 
me npeAcraBJíflja h3% ce6A „naipíoTH^ecRafl" naprÍH, u hoboctb 
sasjnoqajacB ne bx coiost ea cb Ilpycdeft, jihhib npuRHAUBaBnieŘcfl 
;(06poaRejiaTeaBHHi;eH) IIojiBmH, a b^b caMoň nporpaMM* napTÍH. dra 
nporpaMMa — paspymenie craparo s^naHÍi Píhh HocnojiHToft h BOSBe^e- 
oie Ha ero míct* cobcIm^ hoboS nocrpo&RH ne tojbro m> Ayx* 
^paHayBCRHxi H;(eň, ho h no (f^pani^yscROMy npiiM']^py, TaR'B RaR^ 
Bucrynjeme „naTpioTOB'B^ bi Ra^ecTB* pe^pMaTOpOB^ coBna;io no 
BpeMeHH ci 4^paHi^y8CRoft peBOJiK)ii[ie&, h bi B^amn, hmh sa^yMan- 
Hom, AOx&fLO 6u3LO HaftTHCB M^CTO A-^fl AByxx COCJIOBÍ^, HCRJIIOqaB- 
ihhxcsi npesA^ H3rB cocrasa miaxercRofi P^^h IIocnojrHTOtt; sncp* 
BHe „narpioTu*" ^eTupexJiiTHaro cefiMa hpohhrjihcb toS H^eeft, ^to 
Heo6xoAHMO 6hj[0 naRoneiirB noAHATB hb^ npeanaro yHHH&enifl ro- 
posaH^ H RpecTBflHx. TaR^ nocrenenno pacnrapfljíacB H^ea pe4)opMu 



*) 06* dToiTE panx^eBÍn na naprin cp. y EocmoMapoea — 1, 216—219, h y gří. dej^tr 
BfHtneHO^ crp. 217. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



60 FbCTHHKl EBPOIIH. 

FB nojBin*]^: HCKJoo^orrejiBHO nojiHTH^ecBafl h aAMHHHcrpaTHBHafl y 
crapuxi ^apTopucKHX'B, pe^^opiia fl jy^imie ro^u CTaHMCsaBa-ABry- 
cra Ha^HHaerL oxBaiuBaxB, spoMŠ Toro, yMCTBeHHyio h Maiepiaiib- 
HyH) atH3HB crpaHu, T.-e, napo^^noe npocB^n^eHie h HapoAHoe xo- 
3flňcTB0, He BacaflCb, o^^eaRO, canaro crpofl oÓn^ecTBa, b tojebko vb 
dnoxy HeTupexJT&THflro cettMa ona pknaercfl aaosHyrB vb odiacn 
co^iaJIBHux'b OTHOmeHÍfi. napajuiejiBHO pocrerB hhcio npnBepseH- 
i^eBi pe^opiffii: BiimeAniH H3i> riteHaro npyra apHcroEpaTHqecRofl 
' 9<{)aMHjriH'' , OHa Ki> BOHi^y dnoxH HM^fa sa ce6fl jmjifiŘ iiai> oón^e" 
CTBeHHaro BJiacca, paHbme ne HrpaBmaro fe Ilojibni^ nojranraecBofi 
pojH. Bo BpeMfl MerupexjiŠTHflro ceina iipo6yAiiiocb k'b sh3hb 
HMeHHO ropoACRoe cooíOBie, TaBi-HasuBaeMoe „M^n^iHCTBO^. OceHBio 
1789 r., npesH^íeHrB BapraaBCKaro ropoACRoro coBŽxa ^eKepn^ 
CTOflBmifi Kb <)jiH3BHX'b OTHomeHiAXi B'b FyroHy Kojjionraio, sa^y- 
Maji'b AO^HTbCfl HOBuxi iipaBi ]í;isi Mtn^aHCTBa, cosBaBi bi BapiliaB] 
jenyraTOBi ora pasHHxx ropojíOBi Pš^h nocnojraroS, cocraBHBi 
Bwbcrk ch HMMH „aBrb coe^HHeHifl ropcAOBi"" (24-ro HOflCpa) i 
TopsecTBeHHO BpyHHFb no aBseMiuiflpy 8Toro AOKyHeHxa Bopojnoj 
cefiHOBOMy MapmajiRy h Ranipepy. Hsbíctho, qro bi MÍii^aHax'B xj^ 
Hamja ROHCTHxyi^ifl 3-ro Maa, 6iiBinafl a^omi cefiMOBtix'b „narpio^ 

TOBl"" , CaMUXl HCRpeHHHXl CB0HX1» ílpHBepiReHI^eBl, h60 H81 Bd&Xl 

cocsoBÍfi Vimu nocnojHTO&j naH^OJbinyio Buro^y dra ROHCTBryAÍj 
npeAcraBJíflJia HMeHHo jí^sl iá^iafl,Bi». „naipíoTEHecRaa'' naprifl i 
6ujra TaRHMi» o6pa30irb uocjAjijsmFh ciobomi vb pasBHTÍH H^eii pe 
<í)opMu Bt nojbm^. Ilocjii ea ney^ara, T.-e. nocirfe no&bm cra 
páro nopsAKa bi joiasik TaproBH^aHi^ h BToporo pa3A'&ia, mu bh^^iimi 
TOJibEO OAHoro qejiOB^Ra, Roropíiá ^ynaerb en^e oahoh) pe4K>pM0ii 
cnacTH nojibiny: to úiuia KocnomRO h ero luraHX no^HATb RpecrbflHi 

BMGHeM^b CBO6OAH. 

EcjíH He CHHxaTb ROHcepBaTHBHiix'b H aHapxH?ecRHX'b ajieMeH 
TOBi nerupexjiŠTHflro ceSifa, — a fb IIojiBni^ ROHcepBaxHSMi ctoajii 
sa aHapxÍH), — to ceŘwb btotb npeACTaBJíajii co6oh), coOcTBeHHO roj 
Bopa, sp^HH^e 6opB6ii AByx'B napTÍfi — ^ABopcRoft** h „naTpioxH 
qecRoft^, RaR'B hxi HasuBajiH, lum npyccRoft h pyccRoS, RaRi hxi 
HHorAa o6o3Ha?aK>rB TenepB; cb ojiHofi cropOHu, ctohjio npaBHxejiB 
CTBO, Me^TaBmee b% cok)3^ cb Pocciefi C03AaTB 60^ npoYHyii 
noHBy AJía nocreneHHuxx pe^^opiTB úojvbe yMÍpennaro CBOftCTBa; ci 
Apyrofi, naxoAHJiacB onnosm^fl, crpeiieBinaflCfl vh coiosi cb npy<^ 
cieft npoH3BecTH éucrpiia h paAHRajTBHHfl npeotípasoBama b^ paa 
pymaBmeMCfl slanin P^^h IIocnojHTofi. Ci 9to& onnosHi^ieil bo BceM*^ 
mh ROJie6ajio npaBHTeiBCTBO, totobu Óujivi coeAHHHTBca npeAcraBi^ 
TejiH eraparo nopa^RA n nepeaiRBaBine^ ero anapxin; ona jro aojukhj 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



nOJlBCRIfl PE^OPHU. 61 

6uja c^^ijiaTBCfl Becbna nonyjuipHofi, BCJi^ACTBie spa^Ae^naro otho- 
mem CBoero si Poccíh, Ha soropyio nojiflRH CMOTp^^ Raní Ha 
riaBHyH) BHHOBHHiiy CBOHxi 6^^*^; saHflBx BCsŠACTBÍe dToro BecbMa 
BuroxHoe nojioseHie, ona Morja CB;jiOHHTb, HaROHei^'B, na cboh> cto- 
poHj canoro Bopoja, TaBx KaKi H^ROTopua nacTH nporpaMHu o&k' 
Hn pe^pMaTopcKHXx naprifi Óílih oónúa. KpoM^ Toro, ona bu- 
erasiLia hšckojibbo TajiaHTJHBUx^b ^'^Tejiefi, san^Hn^aBmnx^b h npo- 
iiaraHAiipOBaBmHx^b ea npHHi](Hnu wh ne^aTH, h Cbyir&aa npHBjíe^b 
fla CBOH) CTopoHy ropoACBoe cocJiOBÍe, ycn^Bmee, BaB'B aro yiBep- 
mesbno mo3e;ho CKasaTB nocjii H8CS']&A0BaHÍfi r. KopsoHa, noA- 
eaTBCfl H3i Toro ynnseHÍfl, vb BaBOMi oho samo ao nepBaro pas- 

Bpeufl, Henoq>eACTBeHHO npeAmecTBOBaBmee na^ajiy ceSna 
1788 r., fisLio BpeMeneirB Heo6iiKHOBeHHaro osHBJíeHifl vb Ilojikni^, 
H;(yii^ux) OTHacTH bi cpaBnenie cl noci^AHHMH idkai^aMH nepeA'B 
co^AHieiTb reHepajiBHiix'B mraiOBi 1789 r. bo ^aH^iH, pasy- 
iri^ěrcji, Cb tí^i rjiaBHUMi pa3Jiii^eM'B, ^T0 bi u(Hijrkjí,neM% rocy- 
ju^pcTB^ ABHseHÍe oxBaxHJio BCM) HaiÚK), Tor^a saB'B vh P'6hh IIoc- 
nojffiTOfi OHO He Buxomjio H3% niJUixeTCBHX'B BpyroB'L. Mu en^e 
yBBABirL, KaKi osHBHJiacB Bi 9Ty anoxy noJiBCBafl nojiHTHqecBaa 
nensLiby orpasHBHiafl na ce&k rjLaBHUM'B oiSpasoMi mh^hía nporpec- 
CHBHOĚ qacTH oÓH^ecTBa. Ob Apyroft cropoHu, MarnaTu, Bcer^a npH- 
HKM aBmie A^i^sreJiBHoe y^acrie wb oón^OMx xojíik npeAce&HOBuxi ceft- 

MflKOBli yABOHJIH CBOH CTapaHÍfl, HT06u AOÓHTBCfl BElÓOpa HOAXO^HB' 

niHxi^ Kb Hxi BHAaifi nocjOBi H cocraBJíeHifl HHcrpyRiilifi ji^a. no- 

cA^BETb Bl TOMl HJIH APyrOlTB HanpaBJieHÍH. Ha BTOrB pa3l I^BH) 

annaipH Óujio yRasaTB na BasHOCXb MOMeHxa, nepesHBaeMaro 
PiuH) IIocnojmTofi: HyxHO 6ujío ptmaib Bonpoci o6a^ OTHomeniH 
nonniH m> ApyrHMx AepaiaBaM'^, rjiaBHfinťb o6pa80H'B ri Poccíh, 
KOTopaH npHrjamajia ee npHcrynHTB b^b CBoeny coiosy cb ÁBcrpieS 
npoTHBi TypipH, HO OTB ROTopoft OTBiieRajTH 66 Apyrífl rocyAapcTBa, 
qjifl efi HesaBRCHMOCTb; saRofi Óu nyrb hh H36pajia Ilojibnia, nysno 

(HUJO yMHOaBHTb BOftCBO, TaB% BaB'b n6pBu& pa3A'i^'b HOBasaJTb, BO 

Tií> o6omjiocb rocy^apcTBy orcyrcTBÍe apMÍH; HyasHO 6um BtiftrH 
lasi HJíH HHa^e m^b TarocTnaro nojo^^enifl, noHHMaBmarocfl, Bnpo- 
Hem, pasjTHHHO jhoabmh pasnuxx naprifi, a AJifl axoro cefiny npeji- 

dOUO COBepmHTb pflA'B BeJIHBHXl n6p6M^Hl. Ha C6&MHBaX%, OAHaBO, 

fittiH nymienu vb xoa% crapufl cpoACTBa: bosah napTÍft, óoraxBie nanu, 

npHB03HJH na Ce&MHBH MaCCy 6ÍAH0fi H H6BtoeCTB6HH0& nUflXTU, 
K0pHH.1H 66 H nOUJIH, H HOTOMy p^meHÍfl npHHHMaJIHCb TaBÍfl, BaBÍfl 

ypoAHu 6ujiH ;,naHaMx-Ao6poA'feaM'b*'. He MyApeno noaiOMy, wo bi> 
KHcrpyBpiH nocjaMi nonaAajH ipedoBania, BnoarfeACTBin ocynte- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



62 B^CTHilKb eUFOUbl. 

CTBUBmiacfl vb CEJiy pimeHÍd cedMa, Ror^a Ha eeirB Bosoójra^ajia 
nporpeccHBHaji naprk. Ecjh b'b oóiacTH lorAamneS nydiHj^HCTHSH 
„nporpaHHoft A^gcTBÍfi ce^Ma"", KaR^b ocHOBaTesbHO 3aM'&qaen» Ro- 
CTOMapoB^b O9 ^Ki^u BumeAmifl sa ABa M^tefli^a xo ero Ha^aja 
„nHCBMa^ aHOHHura kl óy^yn^eMy MapmaJiRy cefiHa, to cpe^H cel- 
MHROBux^ HHcrpyRi^ifi 3HaqeHÍe, RaR^ BBipasaercfl RajHEsa '), 
„nojiHTHqecRO& nporpaMMU, bi snamTejihnoŘ nacTu BunoíHeHEoK 
Ha ceŘKÍb^y npMHaAJesaJO HncrpyRi^iH jnaÓJiHHCRaro BoeBOXCTBa, no- 
cJiaMu Roero Óuae CTanHCiaBi^ IIotoi^rííí h A^ani ^apiopucRÍfi. 
IloBTOMy Ha pe^opMU qeTupcx;i']&THflro ce^Ma mu aojishu CMOTpiTb 
RaKi Ha ocyn^ecTBJíeHie MHorHX'B H^efi, Ha^HnaBmexi BucRasuBaTbCfl 
paHbme, ne^RejH ci>']^xajiHCb xenyiaTu, seifCRie nociiii, rohmi cys^^Ho 
6ujio npoHSBecTH nojíHuft nepeBopon bo BH^mHHX'b h BnyTpeHHuxii 
OTHomeHÍflxi ílojibmii. Ob caMaro nanajia ce&MOB£ix'b sac^A^nifi cx^^ 
AsuiRCb o^eBHAHOH) HeB03M0£H0CTb coiOBa Cb Poccíeft Bx BH^y aa- 
MaHqHBux'b npe^JKmeHÍfi IIpyccÍH, na^aBmeft yBJíeRaTb ua cbok 
CTOpony Bce ÓbJíbmee h úbjíbmee ROJH^ecTBO hogiobi: Ilpyccis 
upaMo yRasuBajia na CBoe sejianie noMOHb „u86aBjieHÍK> cďaBHoi 
nojibCROfi Ha^iH orb BcaRaro HHOseMHaro rnera''. Cefiirb pbnrajii 
npeacAe Bcero yBejiH^iiTb BoeHHbia cujiu crpanu ao cra TucflH'L qe 
jiobíri, sari^Hx nanajiHCb coBŠu^anifl 06b yBejiflqeHÍH najioroBX 
Hy:RH0 ÚhijLO C03AaTb MaxepiaibHyK) ocnoBy Óy^yn^efi HeBaBoCHMOcm 
CaMoe ocBo6osA^HÍe orb „HHoaeMHaro rnera" naqajiocb cb nocre 
neHHoS OTM^^HU rapaHTHpoBaHHux'b Pocciefi yqpesRAeHii: aepBC 
Hana^enie CA^bJíano 6ujio na BXOAHBmlĚ bi cocraBx „nocroflHHai 
coBiiTa'' BO^CROBoft A^napiaHeHrb, Roropufi pšmeHo tfbLio said 
HMTb ApyruMi yqpesAeflieiťb, a H'k;R0JibR0 speMenn CHycra CAl^a^ 
TO me caMoe u Cb Apyrniťb A^napTaMeHTOirb, B^A^BniHirb HHOcrpal 
Hufl A'^a. Biíňcrk Cb 8tumi> 6ujvb noeraBJíeHb Bonpocb o caMC 
„rapaHTÍu^ 1775 r.: ona 6uia oó^b^BJíena HeAMcTBUTe;ibHO& ajia say* 
peHHHxx jijkjLT, rocyAapCTBa, h bx fiHBapi 1789 r. 6ujrb yHHTri 
aieH^b H caMbifi „nocroflHHuK coB^rb''. PaspuBi Cb Poccíefi 6bij 
nojiHLid, Cb IIpyccieH) :Ke 3aRJioqeHx Óujub oóopoHHTe^bHufi cok>í 
(BecHoft 1790 r.), Fb cnuiy Roero, aieatAy npoHHMX, „hhrto ne ao 
senx óujTb BM^mEBaTbca bo BByrpennifl a^& GLo.ibniff'', h e& 
CTopoHu IIpyccÍH oóiníajiocb BOopyaeHHoe coaMctbíb npoTHB^ bc 
Raro BM-iniaTejibCTBa. OcTaBajiocb AaTb *PiqH UocnojiHTot aoBi 
yqpe»AeHÍfl: oceHbH) 1789 r. tfbua HasHaqena oco6afl rohcthi 
^ioHHafl Aenyrai^úi (T.-e. rommhccía ^2 BHpaÓOTRH npoeRTa ro 



M KocmoMapoe^. I, 226. 
') KcUinka. 1, 137. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



nojubCKia P£^OPMU. 63 

cmryi^H), a vb kohiíí tofo ase ro^a — Apyraa ^enyrai^ia, jd^jui pi- 
fflefiifl ropoACsoro sonpoca, BOsoysA^HHaro, KaK'B 6uzo ynoMAHyro, 
npocBÓOK) caMHXi ropoAOB^b. Ob cepe^HHii se AeKaÓpa 1789 r. 
Ha^&aocB oócysxeHÍe npoeRxa ROHCTHTyipoHHO& AenyraAÍH, h Tyro 
SBOňcs, BonpocB o Haci*ACTBeHHOCTH npecTOJia, o tom-l tocto cob4- 
u^umcB y ceiHOBaro MapmajBa h y HrnaTÍfl IIoTOiputro, no He 
pimajiHCs pacnpocrpaHflTBCfl vb nocojiBCRofi Hsdt. BpaHHipú& BUCKa* 
3iiBajiCfl npoTHBi, a III,eHCHu&-noTOi:(KÍft flflx,e ocraBHji^B BapmaBy, 
Tro6ti amropoBaTB bi caMoft cxpaeš npoTHBi ^cyKi^ecdH^. ^pyroft 
BOiipocby eA^&^aBini&cfl npeAMeroifB necorjiacift, Úhui^h Bonpoci o 
npeAeraBHTejiBCTBi on ropo»aHi^ na ceftM^: nporpeccnBHaH napTia 
Ao6HBaJiacB h laBoro H3if^HeHÍfl KOHCTHTyi](ÍH, iTOÓu He OAHa mjiflXTa 
Hirkia npaBO BuciuiaTB nocJOBi na cefinx. Ob BOHi^a 1790 r. 
ceHM'B dSAAjíMi> yxe Cb jifiOŘEuwh ^nicjíowb nociOBi, no ceiMHKií, 
npHCJiaBiiiie hobkixi nocJOBi, cnaÓAHJiu hxi uHcrpyKi^úíMH, a^^RO 

He COOTBfoCTBOBaBmHMH SeJaHÍAMB UporpeCCHCTOB'B: nOTTH Bcb Boe- 

BOACTBa xpedoBaďH coxpaneHifl 3ÍHHi^fci mjiflxercBoft bojibhocth — h36h- 
parejiBHaro npecrojia. OnnosHi^iA, BaRofi MorjiH ď^AaxB npoTHB^B cbohx'b 
uaHOBi ^naTpioTu^, b sacraBHjia hx'b, RaB'B hbbíctho, wb eanajii 
Hafl cj^Ayiomaro roAa iipHÓtrnyrB jvh rocyAapcTBeHHOMy nepeBO- 
pory AJfl BBeAeHk hoboK ROHCTHTyi](iii, nasBanHoň BnocJir&ACTBiH 
^ycraBOMi 3-ro Maa". 

Bra BOHCTHTyi^ifl, paBHO r».r^ h bcí Apyria pe^opMu qerupex- 
.r&THjiro cefiMa, ei npeAmecTBOBaBinia h sa neio cjiiAOBaBraia, ne 
yAepsajiHCB: Poccíh ne npHSHajia nepesopora; npyccRifi ROpoJiB oRa- 
sajicfl C0H>3HiiR0M'B BecBMa HeHaAe2CHUM'B; BHyTpH caMOŘ nojBinH npo- 

THBl HOBOfi ROHCTtlTyi^H OÓpaSOBasaCB ROH^eAepai^ifl, H8B']^Hafl 

mxh HadBameiTB TaproBHARoň. TaproBH^ane nocraBHJiH CBoeio njk^bio 
BoseraHOBHTB vb P^qH nocno;iiTTOii crapue nopsA^H npu noMon^H 
PocdH, a B'B cocraBi aroro coiosa Bonuiu jioah, OTHOCHBmiecfl 
npesAe BecBiia pasjíHqHO r% pyccROMy upaBHxejiBCTBy: MapmaiROM-B 
KOB^AepaiUH 6t>urB m^eBCHuS-IIoTOi^Rifi, pacuojioseHHuá ri Poccíh 
emie ao nanajia qerupexjŠTHaro ceŽMa; bi> hjiuí cob^thhkobi mu 
HaxoAHiTB KcaBepifl BpaHHi^Raro, Roropuá totobi ÓhiJib npHMReyTB 
KO BCflRofi CTopoHi, cyjraBffleft eMy BBiroAH; cpeAH caMHXi. A*a- 
T&iBHuxi* ROH^eAepaioBi HaxoABJíHCs crapue spáru Poccíh, RaR'B 
CraepRHi> PatCBycRÍH, ajiecroBaHnuS Píuhhhhmb b^b 1767 r. h 
cocjiaHHufi b-b Kajiyry, u CyxopsReBCRÍfi, oahhi h3i HanÓojiie 
pbflHuxi npoTHBHHROBi. PoccÍH Ha HeTupexjiiTHeMi. ceŘnA. 3a hcrjiio- 
leHÍeuB BpaHffi^Raro, OAo6pflBinaro ROHCiHryi^K) 3-ro naa, RorAa 

310 6I1LIO HyaSHO, H HÍCROJBRHX^B ApyrHXB HOAOtfHUXl JHIÍX, 60JIB- 

niHHCTBO laproBH^affB, noAo6HO CBoeny MapmajiRy, bha^jio kb roh- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



64 roOTHHB'B EBPOIOI. 

CTHTYi^m „MorHjy bojibhocth^. Ho TaproBHi^icafl ROH^A^pa^i^ b^ 
1792 r. 6uja, xaKse KaRi h pa^oiccRafl ROH(|)eAepai^ifl 1767 r., 
jiinnL cpeACTBOiTb vh pyRax'L Poccíh, corjamaBme&Cfl na BHyrpeHHÍfl 
nepeM^Hu vh P^hh nocnojraxott tojbro noxh ycjoeieifb r&CHaro 
coiosa nocjňjs^neŘ ch co6oh). Pe(|)opMa (5e3x eorjiacúi Poccíh, RaR^E 
H npejKAe, ÓEua pe(|)opMofi npcTHEx Poccíh: xaRi AynajiH RopoiB 
H ero naprifl. „IlaipioTu^ HMeHHO eraBEjni Ha nepBuĚ njiaHi oceo- 
6o»AeHÍe IIojiiiniH ot% HEOsenHoft oneRH, e yse tí^m^b camiirB onpe- 
A^ifl^cfl aHTH-pyccRÍfi xapaRxepi hxi pe^^opMn: RaROBa 6u ona hh 
fiuiia, OHa jiBJíHjacB buboboitb no a^pecy UerepÓypra. PyccBaa 
napTÚi pe4K)pMu oRasajiacB AaJiBHOBE^^n^, xoxa, ROHeuo, xpyAHO 
CRasaTB, ht6 npoHdonuio 6uj ecjmóa osa o^epsaia Bepx'B, ho 
ea rjiaBa, RopojiB, ORasajiCfl AaJieRO ne Ha bbicotí CBoero npHSBa- 
hía: ero A'^TejiBHoe ynacTie vb naftcROirB nepesopor^ 6ujío HBirbeoft 
Poccíh, a ero npHCoeAHHenie R'b TaprosHn^Rofi Ron^e^epaiýH óujio 

MBAd^HOfi ROHCTHTyi^iH, ROTOpyiO OH'B JlftJmeWb tfBUTB SaH^HH^aTB, ROF^a 

cefiM^B, pacxoAflCB, nopy?Hj['B eMy ho^th ^HRTaTopcRyio BJiacTB. Menlie 
AajiBHOBHAHBíMH ORasajiHCB „HaipíoTu'': HXi pasc^eTu Ha IIpyccÍH> 
He onpaB^ajiHCB; omn^Roft cx hxx CTopoHU óujio h to, tto TanoMy 
HeJiOBÍRy, RaRi CTaHHCJiaBX-ABrycTB, ohh nopy^ain A^iao, Tpe6o- 
BaBmee BecBMa BHa^HrejBHOft dneprÍH. En^e 6ojrbe HeAaiBHOBHA* 
HUMM 6ujm TaproBH^ane: yHHHTOseme RoncTHryi^ÍH 3-ro Maa oo- 
BepmHJOCB HyreifB Hnocrpannaro Bir&maTejiBCTBa, npHBeAmaro r'b 
HOBOMy pa8A'i^ H eníe ÓóJBraeMy noA^HeniH) UojiBniH. PpoAnen- 
ckíěí ceftiTB, „nooíŠAHifi cefiirB P4ra HocnojiHToft*' (1793 r.), bm- 
ByaLAeHi 6ujn> CA^aTB hobua seMejBHUfl ycrynRH Poccíh h Ilpyc* 

CÍH H npH3HaTB ]S^ OCiaiRa nOJIBniH C0K)3l CB nepBOH) H3l dTHXn^ 

Aepa».Bi», paBHOCHjiBHBi& HOCTynjeHÍH) P^HH IIocnojiHToft 3% Bac- 

CaJIBHyH) OTl Hen SaBHCHMOCTB. 

Jl^iejiH 3-ro Mafl nocjrít HHcnpoBepseHÍa BBeAeHHofi hmh roh- 
CTHTyipH yAaiHHHCB sa rpaHHi];y h BucrynHJiH na nyTB saroBopa, 
pesyjiBTaTOMX Roero 6wio BOdcrame EocnomRH bi 1794 r., no- 
BJieRmee sa co6oft iperit pa3A'krB u ^Kouen^b IIojiBmH^. Bi. 
BTOTB nepioA^ i](%j[bh) hojbcrhxx naTpíoTOBi* He MorjiH yace 6iitk 
pe^opMu: BonpocB CBOAHJica np^MO R'b ocboóosa^hííd IIojbhih. 
HcTopífl pe(|)opirB vb P4^h IIocnoJHTOi Ron^aerca na roh- 
CTHTyi^iH 3-ro naa, xoxa OAHOMy aRTy AHKTaxopa, HMenno MaHH- 

<{)eCTy, OCBOÓOSAABHieMy RpeCTBAH^B OT'B Rp^nOCTHOfi SaBHCHMOCTH, 

H MOSHO OTBecTH M^^TO B% dTO& HCTopÍH. BoscTaHÍe 1794 r. no 

CBOHMl H^MWb 6hUlO nOBTOpeHÍeiTB tfapCROfi ROH^^OAepai^ÍH, HO, 

cpaBHHBafl o6a ABHseHÍa fb Apyrnxi OTHomeHÍflX'B, mu naxoAHiTB, 
TTo IIojiBaia Bi aocjíijs,mŘ roA'B CBoero cyniiecTBOBama 6iuia jíjbuuíKíO 
ne Ta^ RaROBO ona flBJíflercfl sa "lerBepxB B'6Ra nepeA^ t&tb. Eap— 

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nojiBCRm PEOOPMU. 65 

CEaa KOH^^epai^m 6ujia npOAyKTOMX cTapo-nuiaxercKaro, cociob- 
Haro H B^poucnoB^AHaro ROHcepeaiHaMa; b% BOacraBÍH RocrioniRH 
OTcraHBajiocb a*Jío, fb KOTopoirB noiepnÍJiH Hey^any nporpeccHCTH 
íCTupexjrifeTHflro ceSMa, — h bx neMi npHHfljH y^acxie „MÍmane**,, ca*- 
jaBmie nepBuá marb na He^ocrynnoMi jí^jui hhxx jiflTOjň noitiTH- 
qecEOiTL nonpHiiJi']^ Hesa^ojiro nepeA'B t6m%, Kor^a HMeHHO es^y- 
MaiH HanoMHHTL qeTupexji']&THeMy cefiny o cbohxIi npaBax'B. Hsi 
ropoACBoro cocaobía Bumjio h wkcROJihKo bhahuxi> A'&flTej[eft b'b 
nocjt^HeS nonuTK* cnacm P4^ IIocnoJiHTyK). KpoMt Toro, h Ha 
lerupexjifeHeMi ceftM*, h na coÓHxiax-B 1794 r., qyBCTByerca ;^o- 
BOibHO CHJBHoe BjdfiHÍe ^paHi^yscBofi peBOJiH)i(ÍQ. TaproBH^ane nep- 
Bue saroBopHJiH o „aEOÓHHHSMi* Bx IIojiBiirfe; na 9totb „akoÓh- 
HBSMi" crajH cciLiaTbCfl u cod^;](HÍfl npaBirrejrbCTBa, 6oflBmiflCfl pac- 
npocrpaHeHÍfl „sapasu^ ffb codcTBeHHbixi. BmjijbBiaTb. Kx 'ťbwb 
MOTHBaiTB, BaRÍe yse 6ujie ajisí npoTHBOAMcTBÍfl pe(|>opMaM'B vb 
PJb^H IIocnojiHToS, npHÓaBHJicfl hobuB — ccu^Ra Ha ^paHi^yscRyio 
peBoiioi^iio. BjiaroAapa ndCJiij!fiBdmsifí'h HOBMmHX'L hctophrob^, 

BHOJIH^ BUflCHHJIHCb BSaHMHUfl OTHOmeHÍfl (|)paHI^y3CKtIXX H HOJIb- 

CKHxi js,ijn, vb MeatjíyflapoAHoft nojiHTHRt EBponti wh 1789 — 
1795 rr., ho ao chxi nopB Majio HscjrfcAOBaHO BJiianie (|)paH- 
iiyacROĚ peBOjioi^H na BnyrpenHÍa A*Ja IIojiBniH % K^ ^HCJiy Ta- 
KflXT> HeHSCjriAOBaHHuxi* asjíemfi dnoxH oiHOCHTca h ynoMaHymfi 
^nojbCRÍfi aRO^HHHBMi^ . He HpuAaBaa eny HMenno tofo BHa^enia, 
sasoe eMy upmiHCbiBaJiH hpothbhhrh hobuxi nopaAROBi b'b P^qH 
IIocnaiiiToi, MU vb ABHacemn, npoHCxoAHBmeMi cpeAH hojibcrhxx 
jtWkmjaiWb^ ^ m» umsuA nocji^AHaro Aecsuujvbňsi npomjiaro B%Ra, ne 
nošeni He BHA*TB OTTOJiocRa (í)paH^y3CRHX'B coňíirifl na ho^ib* co- 
BepmeHHO hobiix^b BHyTpeHHHXT> OTHoraemS, cosAanHHxx bi Ilojftnrib 
anoxot pe^opMi: b'b mjaxeTCROMi rocyAapcTB']^ bi nocjriAHÍe roAcr 
ero cyn^ecTBOBama saposAaJíiacb A^MORpaTÍa h Ha^Hnajia HrpaiB pojiB 
JFb HCTopÍH HOJtHTH^ecRHx-B napxift, HpHCJiyniHBaacB R^ rpoMy, AO- 
xoAHBmeMy ao Hea hsi orAajiennoft $paHi][ÍH. 

TaBOBa Bi otin^HX'B qepTax'B Hcropia hojibcrhxi nojiHTHqecRHX'B 
napni h BH'l^niHHX'B ycjiOBifi, cb RaRHMH npHXOAHJOCB c^HraTBca 
pe^pMaTopairB P^qa IIocnojiHToft bi nocjiiAHia AecaTOjAria npeA- 
mecTByion^aro siRa. HepettAGMi TenepB r-b pascMorpiniio BHyr- 
peHHHXB OTHomenifi noiíBCRaro oÓQ^ecTBa u rocyAapcTBa b^b Ty ace 
anoxy. 

H. Kapíebi. 



') Limanoíoski pascMaTpHBaerB stoti Bonpocb, ho pimaerb ero hhcto bhíoihhmi* 
n. 

Tom ILL-Mifi, 1889. 5 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MHPAM 



POMAH-B Bl HETUPBZl KHHrAXK 



KHHrA TPETta. 
XXXIX *). 

FojiyÓHHi, npoTHBX o6BiBHOBeHÍfl, HaHflJTB jiomaAe& vb ropoA^, h 
noTOMy AOMa ee saajiH, BorAa ifMeHHO sa^tb ero. Owo tojbeo 
lyBCTBO npHJiH^ífl npHHysAAJio ero jífmBjsfiiTbcsi ssjli^istul cbšsASt, 
a He yApaxB xoicofi h^bojibbhmh ahamh paHbme. Bcš ocraBajtuGb, 
Bcb SHJiH B^ ropoA^, BcnoMHHafl cb TOCBofi — sasadiocb eny — CBOH 
AOMainHÚi A^a h crapaxejbHO CBpuBafl aro ort apf^^*^- 

KaBi:b TOibRO MHmeiB yc&icfl vb lapaHiacL, htoÓu txaTb b% 
CBoe rHÉSAO, bi Sajricbe, bi Máni, — ohii cefiiacB se nepecTaji'b 

nOHHMaTB TO, TTÍ) ÓIUIO B^ TOpOA^, BCt CBOH COÓCTBeHHUe nOCTySKH 

H om,yii^eHÍfl. H ^ero paAH noHecno ero Ha btotb cbisjí,i>? cb Basott 
craTH OHI BApyrB npHHflj['B ójihsbo bi cepwy BBi6opu?! MHmejiB 
ÓiuFb nopaseHi coÓCTBeHHEOťb ocjir&QjieHÍeMi u coBepmenno 3a6iui> 

o TOMl npiflTHOM^ B036y2BA6HÍHy C!b BaBHMX OWb BUpB&ICfl ]I3*B 

xepeBeHCBaro saTHniBfl h jBviwjrb ceóa „na juoahx^'', nonyBCTBo- 
Baj[i» ce6fl OTAiJBHiDrb BHHXHBOiťB 6ojíbmoŘ icamEHii, Boropafl aojub^sl 
CKbswib BaBoe-TO cepBesHoe, cioibho oÓcraaieHHoe a^o. Oh^b saóujirb, 
BaB^b paAOBaJCfl CTapBiM'L Bcrp^nairB h hobumi 3HaB0iccrBairB, KaRrb 

JUOÓVUrb BCtxi dTHXl „MHJr6&inHX'B, ^eCTH^ftniHX^k h ÓesBopucTHÍfi- 

nnojb^ jiOAeft. E:b bohi^ hga^^ ohx noHHMajTB, tto sioÚiiTb crbHirB 
pasBŽ AByx'B, rpexii, a& h cb vbrni offB npocTHJCfl coBcbwb paBHOAyniHo. 



*) Cm. BHme: anp., 484 exp. 



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MHPASH. 67 

Elfy A^aJiocb CM&nHO ea canoro ce6a 3a to ycep^ie h ynopcrsp, 
um offb o6Hapy»HBajrB B^ a^Iíj m> soTOpoMy 6wí% coBepmeHHO 
paBHOAymeffE Tenepi». B^a^ hope ase oh^b npecepsesHO pasurpn* 
Baib Kove^iH), y.su6aT&Cfl h JioóesHH^aTb Cb tímh, soro h30 bgÍx'b 
cHJi crapajLCfl ^opoBa^iiTB"! Orapaicfl ^epsaiBca saRx mosho 
o^BipajBHite H ^^urLine orb cbohxi*, cl R'6irE noroirb croBapneaics 

H CQBilI^aJICfl Sa Cl^HOň. Pa3BŠ OHP OÓMaHHBaJIH Roro-HHÓyAB, eCJH 

neb nycBajiH kl xoa'b oahh h t6 se npieMu?.. 3Toro Tpe6yH)TB 
npHjHqíji; Tor^a ovb bm^tš Ob ApyrflMH óhuuh yBŽpeHi, hto HHa^e 

HeJL3fl. Owb HCDUTUBaJIl BCt BOJIHeHÚl COCTASaHÍfl, a HO^IU y 

cefifl Bi HyMepš misT&ji% ahh, Ror^a, BaROHei](^, BupBercfl aomoS, u 
;^Barb ce^ cjiobo, tto bi noai^AHÍň pasi Bnyraica b^l 8th npo- 
s^TUfl oÓn^ecTBeHflUfl ?íbm, ji^isi Roropuxx y Hero wkrb HHRaRoro 
npessaHÚi. PiinHxeibHO HHRaRoro! o^ho CMyrHoe craAHoe nyBCTBO... 
eiapaa BoeHHaa npHBu^Ra r^b orpoio h juicufmjLnwb. 

Mamejib ycran^, HcnopxHJi^ cetf^ nun^eBapeme R.iy6H0& crpan- 
Heft H orpoMHUiTB ROjnniecTBOMi Bíumraro BHHa, Hanrpajicfl jífi 

TOniHOTU Vb BHHTl H He TOJIkRO HCTpaXHJl JSfl R0n'6ftRE BC£ JSfiEbm^ 

npiiBeseHHUfl h3x A^>eBHH, ho h en^e samurb y snaROMaro Rym^a, 
Tro6u He BepnyTLca aomo& ci nycruMH pyRaMH. 

»BoTb Te&k H Becb Capumt!* — Ay^ajTE oh'b cepAHTO, no- 
rpysaflCB Bce rjijóxe Cb Ras^ofi MHHyxoft vb Hacrofln^ifl cboh a'^^, 

UpOHARaflCB CBOHMH HCTHHBUMH B033pÍHÍflMH H OT^aJUlflCB BCe ÓOJIBme 

OTB cjywiHiixi Bne^aiJi^Hiň, MBiCJiefi h nocrysROBi axHXx A^CfliH 
weS. 

KaRTB-TO SAyn* ero AOMa?.. cocRy?HjiHCB! Oh^b BHA'kirB cfíbvjíuŘ 

BdOprB MaHH, BOCXHTHTeJBHUfl flMOHRH Ha pOBOBUX^B BD^eRaXl, MHrRÍfl 

GbMMSL pyRH, o6BHBaK>nvflCfl h^sho BOHpypB ero men. B^b Ayni^ 
fle yi(tAjio H cjAfif^ otb Toro or^ysAemfl, RaRoe ocraBHJio nocjA 
ce6i fieosHAaHHoe crojtRHOBeme HBi-aa cuna, a Mesxy t£mx, ne 
6yAB dToro cTO^RHOBenifl, MmnejiB B^ponTHO BOBCe ne no'6xas'B 6u 
KB ropoA^y Aft H MaHfl He craia 6u coB^xoBaTB eiiy 6pocHTB xo3a&CTBO 
fl OffLTb nh-wbTefřb A^HBrH. Ho MEniaiB ne AynajrB o&b dtom^b. 
Ohi AyMajrB o sen^ cb ropfl^efi h^hoctbh) — h o a^taxi, wb oco- 
éeHHOCTH o BojiOA^, ROToparo — eny RasajiocB lorAa — ohi ne MOserB 
^oiBoie JSOÓíĚTb HO npesneify. 

Bb Sax&CBi ne sHaiH o npiisA']^ Mnniejifl; xotb eny h Rasa- 
JOCB, HTO ROJORO^iB^HRi, HaÓHBmid OMy yniH, ÓyAHTB BCH) ORpeci- 
noca H npoHHRaeTB BCiOAy, AO nocíŠAHflro yrjia, BOSB^n^uaL paAOCTB 
B08i^a](eHÍfl xodflHHa. Oh'b eABa cha^j^b wb Tapanrael, c:b Toft 
MHHfm, iULK% ycaAb5a*BBirjuiHyjia H3'B-3a jrlca; Bce sar^flAHBajrB 

5* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



68 tS^CTHHKl £BPOIIH. 

BnepcA^B, He 6%ryrb jm jsjkm eny ea BCT{y6^, h c^acTJHBafl yjii^Ka 
»apaHŠe npoBpaAUBajacB na jmi^o. 

OAHaKoacB, ero hhkto He BcrpfrriijrB; F&poflTHO sByra kojio- 

ROJIB^HBa QTHOCHJO B^TpOM'B. Rafil» 6u TO HH 6lL(0, O HeiTB, CTaJlO 

6uTB, He^yMasH, He npHCJcyniHBajiHCB h HeBurjflAUBaan!.. MemeiB 
Óhurb pasowpoBaHB; owb 6u npe^no^ejix, qxotfi h co6aRH hb hoa- 
HHMajra CBOHifb jaeMi sanosA&saro nepenojioxa, h oh'b iiorB 6u 
cobc£mi» HeosHAaHHO noxRaTHTB ki spiurbi^y. 

MapB*! IlaBJíOBHi npHGtauuH cBasaTB bi c^hh, vjsib ona cop- 
THpoBajia UTOfifA jí^is BapeHBfl. Uocjrb 6ypHaro o5iflCHeHÚi cb ÁHHoft 
MaHfl BApyrE npHHfljiacB ycepAHO sa xosflfiCTBO h jsjbjíue ahh xo- 
AHJia osaÓOHeHHaa h sanaiafl. Ona Óujia ne bi Ayx%, pasApaaRa- 
jacB BCflRHMH nycTflBaiiH; jífiSBue a^taicb nepena^aJH okphbh h 
cobc£m% HeosHAaHHue 0TBa3ii. 

MHmeJiB Bepnyjicfl!.. Bx nepByio MHHyry Mana ne no^yecTBO- 
Basa HH^ero, Eponi Hcnyra. Ho Ror^a ona BuCšsa^a HaKpiiJiBi^o 
H ysM^ajia ero, eme b^ Tapaniact OKpyaceHHaro ^íítbmh — ea cepwe 
paAOCTHO saÓHjiocL, H crpaxi* pasc^jicfl nepe^^B crapofi h^shoctbio, 
BApyrB BHpBaBraeftca hsi rjiyÓHHH AyniH. Ona BOBce ne ^yBCTBO- 
BaJia BToft H^HOCTH, iipoBOsafl Mysa h3% AOMy, noA'B BHenaTjr!^- 
HÍeMi oÓHAHofi pasMOJiBRH; OHa He MyHHJiacB oDÓCTBeHHBnrB noBe- 
;i;eHÍeiťB, jífl t^xi nop^B, noRa BM^maTeJiBCTBO Ahhu ne npiiA&io 
eny cepBesnaro BHa^enia. Ho bi aiy MHHyry, vmrs^ jssjvb MHmejiB 
BUJiissuvb H3'B TapaHTaca, sHaROMuira TasejiUMH ABHSRemflicH nopBi- 

BaflCB RX Hefi H CBfl3aHHUfi A^TBMH — Vh 9Ty MHHyry MaHfl ropBRo 

noHyBCTBOBajia cbok) Bnny... n BMtoi cb t^wl CBoe ocBOÓoanA^Hie! 
Bce BTO B3Aopx, H HH^cro Baatnaro 6htb ne MoaerB!.. „HH^ero 
en^e ne CJiy^HJiocB, nn^ero!'' — nponeciocB MOJinieft bi yM'b mojioaoS 
acenn^HHH, h ona pa^ocrao có-lsasa cb RpELiBi^a. 

^OM^ nanoJHHJicfl myMOMi h cyeroft. Bi* ctojioboS H&cRopc 
coÓHpajíEH oGbjs,i>. Mana jerajia no AOMy cb niuaion^HM^ jtHi^oMf 
H ciflfon^HMH rjasaMH; npn Ras^OM^B y^o^noiTB ciy^aš ona osasu^ 
BajíacB Bi mnpoRHXii oóiaiiflxx MHmejfl h BBipuBaJiacB en^e 6ojiBin< 
pasrop^BHiaflCfl otb ero noi^yeBi. Mnjiuft, rpoMRÍft, c^acraHBul 
roJOCB nanojíHHJix co6oh) bocb aom^, HsroHfla to, míb Tanjuocb b1 
thhihhí h nycTorfe bthxx ^ecsm j^neft, míb creperjio h onyniBajK 
ee vb jiyHHHfl hoto... Mana RaRi 6yAT0 npocunaJiacB ote tomh 
TeJiBHaro cna. 

Jífl,\ HO HT& CA^JiaoT^ Anna?!.. Mana BHA'&sa, nao ocboÓosa^hí^ 
TOJiBRo Rasyn^eeca: 9thxx jí^ecsm jíflei neiBsa Bu^epRHyrs 03^ 
SH3HH HO CBoeft BOJi%. Ona TaR% H ne yenasa, js^jiíl nero Ahhí 



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* MHPASH. 69 

^pia vb ropoA^B, H TOJiBRo ci npišsAOiTB Myssa ea rjiaBHEii CTpax'B 
pasd^ca: MnineJk He BHAajiCfl Ch cecrpofi. 

3a ÁHHofi nocaasH bi nasEJbOHi^. Ea bhai* b^ nepsyio mh- 
Hyiy eiE^e ÓoiBine CMyxHJii MapBK) IlaBJíOBHy; ho ÁHHa oÓŠaBHJia, 
%ro coBciiTB 6ojBHa ceroAHfl, h opniiLia tojbko BsrjflHyrb Ha 6paTa. 
Vepe3i nojraaca ona A^&ciBHTejiBHO BepHyjiack Ri ceti^; MEHiejib 

OrOpHHJICfl, HO ÓHJTb CáHEIEOMl C^iaCTJIHBl, ^106u He 3a6UTb dTOFO 

Tyn ae. 

GpeAH xjouoTB, pascRasoHB, BOs^ysA^HÍfl h BOcroproBi j;'lTeft, 
;i'&iRBniHXi» myMHO npHBeBeHHue oti^om'b no^apEH, Mana ycn&ia 
HácRopo cocraBHTB 6sBXJSsAmVk njani A^fiCTBifl. ^yBCTBO canoco- 
xp&HeHÍ2 — caiíuĚ naxoA^HBijJl h ycep^HBifi cob^t^hbi. Ona ho snaia, 
aaxoqerb jra Anna non^a^HTL ee, hjth coTren CBoefi oÓflsaHHOCTLK) 
sOTKpuTB rjiaaa" 6paTy. CTawi ceóa Ha ea m4cto, Mana cra- 
mia (LiaropasyMHUifB npHHflTB RaRÍfl-*HH6yAB M^pu npe^ocTopos- 
Hocni. 

Sor^a vh jisnA Bce yjerjocB, h cynpyrH ocrajiHCB cb rjasy na 
riasik, MapB'6 IlasjíOBH^ ne ctohjio tíojBnioro xpy^a ofipaiHTB bhh- 
vame iiysa na cboh> osaÓo^ieHHOCTB. HtcROJiBRO pasi yse b'b Tepe- 
me AHa MHmejiB cnpanraBajii: ^Tu ^tď laRaa crpannaa? o neifB 
TU AyMaeniB?^ TenepB se ona u ne xor&ra 6oj[Bnie CRpBiBaTBca. 

— Mana, ^a th mhš tohho ne pa^a?! hjth pano Bepnyjica? — 
noiDyTHjrB Fo^y^HHi, ne B^pa, pasyM^exca, ceÓCTBenHUMi caoBaiTB. 

Oh^b, nanpoTHBi, cb Ras^ofi MHHyrofi pa^OBajica Bce CHJBH^e. 
Obi He xoT6jrB hh o «ieMi AyMaxB, hh^^mi* uHrepecoBaTBca, RpoM^ 
Toro, HTO OHX ^oMa, co CBoefi npejecrnoft atOHRoft, Roropyio ne 
Bi^^ajB — myTRa jih! — iííjihxx ^ecaiB jíneft! EMy HHRorAa e^^e ne 
erpiajiocB y^^sasaTB xifiowb hbi AOMy TaR'B na^ojiro. Ho sena 
yuoHajiacB on ero nlsHocrefi h BacraBJíajia npoxHBi bojih AynaxB o 
TOiTB, HTÍ> ee osaCoHHBaJio... 

TaR% owh ne BH^ajica ci Annofi vh ropojn;^?! Jl^a-ci, ona ^^HJia 
BTB ropoA'B HeHSB^HO sa^Mi H ^ase ch HHBTB He HOBH^ajiacB! Ob 
BeH> ^AHiTB OrpooBi. 3a6oTHHB cjiyqafiHO HaRpEUťB HXB na napo- 
xoxi. Ho H STO en^e ne Bce: Anna npoAOJisaerB h lenepB xoahtb 
R Beiiy noTHXOHBRy bo ^.rareJíB. 

MinnejB oTRaBUBajca b^phtb. PasB^ ohh ne mooh Bcrp^THTBca 
aa iiapoxoA'^ cjiynafino? rto bha^^tb Anny bo ^Jinreji^? RaRB Máni 
He CTUAHO nycRaiBca bi noAo6HHe pasroBopu cb npHCiryroK! MHmejiB 
ooe^aiHjica. EMy ne xotíjiocb vb bth nepBHa MHHyTU oropqaTBca 
^éKh 6ii 10 HH 6buo, Bcero se MeHBme xot&tb ohb ocysA^TB 
CMn Manio. 

— Ay^a ^oa, npaBO, Anna BOBce ne nysA^^ca bb nameK 



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70 BfiOTHHS^b EiM^onu. 

oneKŠ, — nporoBopHJTB ohx npocirreJEBHo: — Anna ne mokctb nocry- 
HHTB jypHO. 

— Te6a ne y^ks^^iorb ;i;aa&e ^bth? 

— SI SHaio, ^0 ona o&hSLCwsrh vx^b mhš, ecjra sl ee cnpomy. 
JboAH, yBasaion^ie ApyrB Apyra, npesAe Bcero aojishh vbpwth. 
?ero pa^H My^HTBCfl noAOspi^HiflMH, Bor^a mojkho npocro cnpocHTk? 
YcnoKoftca, a Bce axo pasiacHio. 

MaHfl, KpacH^fl, Eycajia ceú^k 17611. 

— Bh TyrB, fl BH»y, otohb ;íypHO BeM ceóa 6e3i m^a! — 
crapajicfl pasBecejiHTB ee MemejiB: — ÁHHa 6ojrBHa, tei noxyA&ia h 
craia Baicafl-TO cepBesHafl... Kasercfl, x o^hhi pa;i(yiocB CBoeicy bos- 
Bpan^eHÍK)... KaRx? bei ;i;a»e u He san^mi^aeTecb, cyxapuHfl!?. 

Ohx no&Maji^B ea pyKH h crapajicfl nacHJiBHO sarjuiHyTB ett b% 
rjiasa. 

— ^a yju6HHCB ae, HaBOHei]^!), 9to CKyrao!.. 

— 9to crpaHHO, MnraejiB... SI roBopio Ch TOÓoft o^chb cepsesHO, 
a TH... 

— A a xoTf oTJioacHTB B<A cepBesHue pasroBopu ao saBrpa! 
Bce paBHO, a xenepB oneHB njioxo coo6pa»aH). SI oropHaH>CB ropasAO 
6ojiBnie TBoeft xojio;(hoctbh), nfbwb BaBHMH-TO o6BHHeHÍaMH, bsbo- 
AHKUMH Ha ÁHHy... A 3HaeniB? mojoaoS OjiexHHi aceHHTca. Ybbi, 
HHTTO He B&HHO noAi» JiyHOK)! Bu cjrmnEOMi p^^KO noBasuBaeTecb 
vh ropoA'^^ MOfl BpacaBHi^a! a cosHaftca xotb pasi — AOca^HO ne- 

MH03KB0? 

MHHiejiB CMOTp'&i'B Ha Hee yji£i6aH)ii^HMHCfl rjasaMH, Bce en^e 
EdkjsjbsíCh, HTO ona nofiiierB CBoe HeÓjaropasyitíe h nepecraneTB hr^ 
XO^AATB eMy CKyHHUMH pasroBopaMH. 

— HanpoTHBi, SL o^em> pa^a, — OTBi^THJia Mana cyxo: — Ha- 
jiibíocby HTO H y naci CBopo Cy^erB CBaAB6a. 

— Ranaa CBa^BÓa?! 

— MHmejib, TU napojme npHTBopaeniBca! mu fobophm^b í 
OrpoeB* H o&b Ahh4. 

yjiuÓRa nponajia, naKonei^x, Cb jusufi, FoJiyCHna. 

— Tu, Kaaerca, saAaJiacB h$.tbh) pascrponrB Měna cero;íHa 
Jífl& Mwb HO Kpafinefi vfbpb BucnaTBca cnoBoftno. 

— O^ieHB acaiB, ho a js^ojukeb, óujia npe;íynpe;íHTB xeCa. IIo 
qeiťB a 3Haio, MOsen 6utb 3aBTpa me Cxpoesi aBHTca B'b Te<y 
Cb npe^^ioaceHieiťB! 

Htra, ona ne myrorB, h lenepB HH^ero 6ojiBme ne ocraBs^ 
jQíOCB} saKi* OTJOSHTB FB CTopoHy co6cTBeHHoe HacTpoeflie H npi^ 
cjrymaTBca cepBesHO bi ea cjOBam. 



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MHPAaCH. 71 

— íaci OTB ^acy ne Jier^e! — naxMypBjícfl FaiyÓHffB: — omyw 
7 Te6fl 8TH CB%;i;eHÍfl? E^Ba m caiia Aroa craHerB roBopuTB. 

— nOMHJiyt BOFB, co MHOt-TO?!. JífiL HamH OTHOmeHÍfl TOJLKO 

eraHOBureH xyase h xyse cb BasAUH^E AHeifLÍ & njumo OTBasu- 
vuocb ocraBaTBCfl ci AheoK 6e3% Te6fl, xora 6u o;qiy HeA'£jK>. 
Ha rjiasaxx Mann BUCTynuH ciesH; rytfu saiposaiH npn 
BOcnoHHEamH o nepeaurroĚ o6h;i;^. 

— Bii noccopHJiHCB 6e3i> Mesa? — cnpocHJix MninejB Mpa^no. 

jl^a, 0H% nOCOOpEIHCB. 3t0 XOJISHO K0rAa-HH6yAB ROH^HTBCfl; 

OHH Cy^íyTB TOJEBBO Tor^a c^acTjraBH, Ror^a Anny BUflaAyn sa- 
Myx%. £ft HpaBirrcfl Orpoesi — aro ea a^o! 

HHKorAa noAotfHKifl mucjih ne npExo^^iuiH b^ rojOBy FojiyÓHHy. 
Kam* Morb oh'b bhaítb kb Cípoesi xeflHxa, Bor^a He^^asHO e^e 
Bd 8a6oTii ero h Ahhu Óbtjih HanpaBjfeHEi exHHCTBeHHO na to, 
iwůíi jiejifbaTb ero, saRi 6ojiBHoro? MsmejiB noHTH npiiHajrB ero 
3a noH^maHHaro bo Bpeiffl noeiŠAHflro pasroBopa bo ^^^^reji^. 
droTB pasroBopB nponejiBRHyji^B kb ero iiaMflTH'*€TpaHHoe, dKsaJiB- 
THposaHHoe Hacrpoenie SEJBi^a, fb ^eM'B, HyasHO cosHaTBCH, ohi 
Hmero ne noBXJTB. Gepxi^e Minnejui saHBiJio, sa^B npH b^^cth 
o BH^anHofi onacHOCTH. Owh jnoónjpb OrpoeBa, ho ne eny, Birhy 
He eiiy mjí,fun> úu oh'b ci jerBHifB cepmewb oboid MHJiyH) Anny. 

— Ha HeiTB se tu ocHOBUBaemB cboh npeAnojiosemfl, MaHfl? — 

CnpOCBJrB Om> THXO, BSM^HHBinHMCfl rOi[OCOM'B. 

— £L TOJBKO He CHHTaio Anny coBepmeHHO 6e3HpaBCTBeHHofi, a 
TDO«[t> Apyra 6e8^ecTHinrB HeJOB^KOUi. Kaserca, nopa^OHmie jnoAn 
He pHCKyiarB penyraiveft x^BymBH Óesi cepBesHuxi Haif^pemS? 
jíl,BopHfl roBopHTB o&h dTofi CBa;^64&, BOJiH mejiaemB snaTBl 

— Ho HTĎ se cjiyHHjiocB b^ bth AecflTB AHei? He^ero CEasaTB, 
B6-Bpeiifl wb bq BimpoBasBHBajni Měna hsi Aony! 

MaHfl HamyjiacB, ^toÓh obpbitb lepacsy, neBOJiBHO BcnuxHyB- 
myio Ha ea jnii^. 

— YjpsBJunoch^ TH saRTB 6y;i;T0 nexoBOJieHx?.. Th TarB jtio- 
6nssh OrpoeBa! — onpasHJiacB ona cď^acB se. 

— JboÓJiB), 6e8!B coMHJteia — ho Ahhí a sejiaa) eoBciifB jq>yroro. 
OrpoeBi ueMMOKb h cjramBoirB yas^B mhofo oepesHjrB. Ohtb... a& 
hítb!— 9TOTBOa4>aHTa8Ía, Mana, h HiRero 6ojiBme... Ohi bobcch 
He AyxsierB seHHTBca bo BTopofi pasi, Aa h AHBa ne nofi^eTi sa 
Hero. BorB snaera, XJ^a ^ero tojibro th nyraemB nena. 

— Boto yBHAHiiiB! En^e B^epa nosxno BeqepoirB Opecro HaB* 
josím HaTKHyjica Ha hx'b OBH^ame b^b jehoboA aue£. 

— OrpaHHo, oxHasosi, hto OpecrB HaBJíOBHHi Bcer^a no^- 
BepmiBaeTca Bas^B pasi btb nysnyio MHHyTy! H th nojiaraemBca 



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72 BtCtHHiBfb BBPOnU. 

Ha AOHOCU peBHHBi^a? Hsi cjiyiaftHOtt Bcrp^TO Hnero ne ctoetb 
CA^axB iioÓOBHoe CBHAaHÍe. 

— JíflKio^ A&BHO yai ňojbrae ne peBHyera Anny! — OTBŠToia 
MaHfl sanaj&^HBo: — ohi, ROHe^rao, ne CAluiaiCfl h efl ApyroMi, ho 
Tkwh xyace, mhí Basercfl. Ecxn Anna ne coÓHpaercfl sanyss sa 
Cxpoesa, TaKi A^a qero ace ona Be^erB ce6fl xa^b HenosBOJmieibHO? 

Mapb']^ IlaBJíOBHi He npHmjiocB 6u norpaTiiTb crojbRO .niniHHrb 
AOBOxoB^y ecm&b ^OKTopb óiui bhojihí OTKpoBeKHi H no^mcfl 
Ob HeH) npH3HaHÍeirb Ahhu. Ho Opecrb HaBJOBHHi He xot&tb 
B^pHTb B^ BOSMosHOCTb dTOFO ópaica, HO xoT&Tb pasciaibcs Ch 
Bajeatsoň, hto Anna emfi o^ynaerca Bb-Bpeiia. Csopie OH'b fotob^ 
6ujn> AonycTflTb, hto ^BymKa TOJbKO Ch aocim^ h bt> uaKj eny 
HasBaia ceÚsL HeB^crott, — na canoMi se jsjbjň Bonpocb ho Úujrh 
ptoeHT> fiesnoBopoTHO. Bo BCflROirb ciy^a^^ owb ho nanšpeHib 6wrh 
HOMOraTb Crpoesy paBiJiamemeirb homojubke^ ecsa ona h coctoa- 
jiacb Mes;^ hhmh. 

Memejib yniuo ciynnurb MaHH). H bi caMOirb xhiA^ ne 3Haemb, 
HaKOHei^x, "fero xejaTb h Tr6 xyse! 

UotticaBi ero TAsemfi bsaox^^ Mann npHHflxacb ocroposHO, 
HCHOAOBOJib AOKasuBaTb, ^TO 9T0 coBCÍiTB ysTb HO Tasafl Aypnafl 
naprúi. .JKoHUBniHCb, CTpoeB'B ooflib nocrynHTb Ky;(a-HH6yAb Ha 
CJ[ys6y h noROH^Hrb co CB0HK'b necwcTHuiťB npomjHMi. V nero 
ecTb cocTOflHÍe, ^a y Ahhh h CBoero xoBOJbHO. HeMOJiOA^b? — 
BasHO TO, ^TO Ahh^ owb HpaBHTCfl. Sa^a^a ne jencaa yro^Hib na 
efl BRycb!.. ORasaTbCfl pasÓop^niBofi neBŠcroi coBcbwh ne xasi 
MyApeno, RaRi o6uRHOBeHHO Rasercfl. Eě yfl;'b h Tenepb ABa^AaTb- 
TpH ro^a. 

Myaii cj[yniaji'b iioji^a, hobšca roJOBy. Ero Mana pascysAft^r^ 
BecbMa SApaBO h pesoHHO — ho y nero to^ho o6opBajiocb qTO-ro »b 
cepAi^, H ocraiacb HenpepHBnaa HOton^aji Óojih, 

— Cana th ero lepnÍTb ne Moatemb, a xenepi- yB^paemb, ^ro 
dTO npeRpacHuň seHHXi ajul Ahhh! — saM^THjrb ohi^ ch rope^bK). 

ripH HOMX Tyrb efl MHŽHÍe? Kasercfl, Anna HHRorxa hh bi rponrb 
ne craBHJia 8to MH^nie! Ona caiia ne nonuia 6u 3a CrpooBa — ho sto 
ace RorAa-HHÓyAb pasHfljrb ee Cb Annofi? Jí^si Heo6b[RHOBeHHHX'b Jio^eft 
H 3aR0H% He HHcaHi! flfi, ona aieiaoTb, ttoóu sto ciynHJiocb h 
RaRi M03RH0 CRop^. Ona ycrajna jia^Hib h ne bhahti HHRaRafi 
R^s&jí,u BUHOCHTb B^HHuS paa9ax'b. KasAHft flCHBerb RaRi juierh; 
HO Anna cjtehirom^ Bj[acT0JH)6HBa h qepe3i*Tfpi ex% CTJ^HfleT'^. 
Hsi-sa Hefl npHxoprrcfl vbnEO RonoBaTb hbi A^peBHH wb ropojsib^ — 
FHÓejib jDiniHHx^b pacxoAOBi, na^o o6j[H»aTbCfl cb jiiOAbicH, ROTopue 
Hirb BOBce He HyacHu, pacxoAHTbcs cb t^h, rto hmi> upúrren^B. 



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uMPÁSssí. 73 

y Esai> cBOfl cevhB, h 3a6oTa huštb fb j^oirl BspocJiyH) 6apEiinHH) 
en^e snepe^H. Ohh Moryrb sehts a^ ce(5fl^ noKa mojio^^u. 

BasKHoe OTRpuiie sBHJiocb Hepesi^qypí BHesaiiHiiHi h pšsbhmi* 
;(Hcc<maHcoirř kb pa;(0CTH0Mx HacrpoemH MHineia. Bi cyiii,BOCTK, 
en^e Hiraero ne ciy«iBjiocb, ho rto BaB% ne ÁHHa M^majia eny 
vb drrj MEHyry HacjiaAHTBCfl CBHAameirb ch ceMBett? Kto oxBJíeBajii 
OTB Hero MucjiH MaHH, jsíkjiBLJVh ee pascšflHHOft h cepAHTofi? Kto 
orop^HJTE, oĎHAijrb ero seny bx ero oicyíCTBie — kto KaKi ho 
ÁHHa? Ona A^CTBHrejiBBO ctohtb iiesAy hhmh, h q^^irb AftJii>nie, 
Tbrs 9T0 A&iaeTCfl HyBCTBHxejiBH^, norony hto Mami BUHOcarb bto 
Boe HerepnŠJHBŠe. Bon oahhi 3HaerL, ao ^ero, HaROHei^'B, sto Aofi- 
xerb. CeMe&Haro nepa ho Momerb 6iiTb laiťb, vjíib ho Jia^ATi abí sen- 
npHH. KaBi 6ii hh jk)6hj[^ oetb cecrpy, ohi hc Moseirb oiBasaTb 
xenik Bi efl npaBt ycrpoHTb cboh) AO]£ainHH)K> acHSHb no csoeny 
Biycy. GeifeftHoe ciacríe ne laRaa npo^Hafl Ben^b, hto6u 6jaro- 
pasyMHO Óiuo no^BepraTb ero eseMHHyrHuirb HdmTamjiBrb. 

MHmejib vb pasAyMb^ CMOTp&i'b na seay. Ona pasc&iHHO abh- 
raaacb no BOMHaTb, pasucKEsafl BaRÍfl-TO Ben^H. Hotomi ona Haqajia 
pacHecHBaTb na ho% cbok) BejraKOJinHyio Kocy, ho to-h-a'^o ony- 
csajia pyBH h BaAyMiiBajiacb. Ohi Morb coaepi^aTb ee Bce bi tom^ me 
eoq^AOTOHeHHO-HexoBOJibHOK^b H cepbesHOifb BupaseHÍH na ape- 
ipacHOH'b jsajíby Koropoe ohi Fb cbohxi Me^xaxi bha^i h^tsho 
yxHÓaion^HMCfl u cúíioii^hmi jiiH>6oBbK>... Escy saiib pascraibCA Cb 
3T0Ě MeTTofi — ne xonerca aoMHpHTbCfl cb rbwb, hto cnacrie ot- 
paBjeHo; eiiy xo^erca yriniHTbCfl bo hto 6u to hh crajio. 

— Oaho pasBÍ: MoaerbCiiTb, Ceprifeft óy^erb HMfob na Anny 
cepbesHoe BJiiame, Banoro a ho yn&rb npio(5ptcTH, — BuroBopnjii* 
FojiyÓHffb HepinraxejibHO. 

Mana BcrpeneHyjacb. IIo ea mhíhík), OrpoeBx tíy^TO HapoHHo 
eos^aHi A^fl aroro! ÁHHa HacrojibRo Bume h yMH^e ÓojibmuHCTBa 
Gxpumewb, vro sahana axa AaJieRO He JierRaa. Snaerb jh owb evafi 
Koro-HH6yAb, npo soro 6u mosho 6ujío CRasaTb to sie caMoe? 

MHmejib noj[bUíeH'b aTofi noxBajioň cecrpdb. R^ xoMy »e, He 
eiiy vbJ^, h npeAcroHTb pimaTb poBOBott Bonpocb! Anna csHHiROBrb 
canocTOflTejibHa, ^To6bi pyBOBOACTBOBaTbca ero MH^nieMi b% Buóopb 
Myza. 3to co3HaHÍe ceftqacb »e npioóoApHJio ero h orornajio 
TpeBOXHbifl mucsh. Hdi-sa HHX'b BucrynHJO Cb hobo& cajioŘ on^y- 
Q^^e co6cTBeHHaro Cjiaronojiydfl — ocoiSennoe, aroHCTHqecKoe caiio- 
AOBoyibCTBO ji]o6fln^aro cyn],ecTBa: nycrb Cy^en qrb óy^en — a 
JDfijoo Teóa H TU co MHott! Jífiy OHH — csou. Hx^ HHKTO He pa3- 
X^bniTb — HH fljBOie Anna, KOTopoň ohi* HHBorAa ne yif&ii homo^l. 



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74 B^CTHim EBPOHEI. 

MaHfl sanjiejia, naKOHei^T^, cboh) Bocy h BcrplTHjia bi sepsaji^ 

CB^TfllIJlifiCfl B8rJUiA'B M7»a. 

— TaBi saB^b se, MHinejiB? tu ne éy^emb oTroBapHBaTB 
Anny? 

Oh'b cb HeyAOBOJbCTBÍeMi nojí^suica co cryjia. 

— OcraBB TH 9T0j HaKOHei^i, Mana! IIpH^erb npeicjr, jífiBOJOMO 
ójjífiTh BCflRHxi pasfOBOpoKB. En^e He saBipa noA% BŠHei](^, cjiaBa 
Bory. 

HanpacHaa Ha^esAft- eicy ne TaBTB jierso hosbojiate ořBHJBHyrB. 
jThi^o MaHH onflTb upHHHHaeTs xojiOAHOe BnpaseHÍe, 17611 csh- 
MaiOTCfl B% HH^ero ne od^^asoo^yio, ynopnyio MHHy. H^^, ona 
xoHeri, ^To6u owb Tenepb se a£ui'b eft cboo cjobo. B^b cepbesHux^B 
Ben^axi na^o TsepAO 3HaTs, wro íepjKaTBca. Oea tojtbko-^to xoRa- 
sajia eMy, ^to bx bhowl cwcTBe utl h canofi Ahhu. Ona... 

HeysejiH Mana co6iipaeTCfl Ha^aTb CHa^aira? H^tb, oh'b hc b% 
cocTOflHÍH en^e pasi ocnapHBaTB bcI es ÓJiaropasyMHue aobo^^, 
npoTHB^ BOTopHX'B CMyTHO iipoTecTyeTB ero cepwe. MHmejB seno- 
MHHaeTB, RaR'B nosAHO, BaK^B OHI ycrajTB cb Aoponi h xo^ei-B 
cnaTB. 

— MaHfl, fl He Mory se h ApenaTB, h pimaTB Taiúe Bonpocti! 
^B-bnaAi^aTuft ^acB, ^ynia moa. H sasrpa a^hb óy^en. 

íero OffB 6oHTca?.. 9to HenonaTHo! CrbarB ony touibro ho 
OTTOBapnBaTB Anny h He no^aBaTB BH^a Crpoesy, tto owb uevisjrh 
o neiTB-TO jiy^meiTB ajk CBoeft cecrpu. 

MaHfl HOBopaHHBaerca CHHHOfi rx sepRajiy. Cb^t^ otb CB^qefi 
na^aoTB csa^H h orjiBBaerB aTjracHiiiťB jocroitb na ea nuniHEix^b 
njieHax'B. Ha me^ ójiecmrh TOHRaa, RaRi* HHTO^Ra, sojioxaa a^nonsa 
CB cuHHM'B dMajieBBUfB RpécTHRoiTB, ROTopyH) Ha Hee Ha;i;i>JH B^ 
AeHB Hxi> CBa^BÓii. Mana cmotphtb na Mysa cb HanpaseHHBíM^E 
HeTepn^HÍeifB. Ona He^oyiflBaei-B, RaRi MOserB owh ROjeCaTEca, 
RaRTB HOserB OTRasuBaTB efi bi laROirB Bsj^op^, on ROToparo btb 
9Ty MHHyry aaBHCHTB ea cnoROftCTBÍe h... h tíitb 6h ROH^EjracK 
no Rpa&Hefi wbpib dra yroMHrejiBHaa cílena. Bca ^^^^TP^ ManH bii- 
pasaerB oaho osH^^anie, — cocpe^oroHennoe osH^anie, ne AonycRaio- 

^MH^HÍa. 

f»y HH^ero óojiBnie ne ocraerca, RaRx npoHSHecTH aro ciobo, 
ro ona AOÓHBaerca. He ero BOja, a nocToponnaa CHJia sa- 
^fub Mamejia, m, rohi^^ rohi^orb, otí^n^aTB TopsecTBeHHo^ 
[% nwAwh He óy^erB npoTHBo;^ficTBOBaTB 6paRy Ahhh co 

llJWh. 

HaROHei^-B-To!! tbi yBH;^Hnn> caifB, RaRX 3to Óy^erB oř- 
— BOCRjnmaeTB pa^ocrno Mana, h ea ciaiomiS BsopB cefi^acB 



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HEPAsn. 75 

se npHHHMaerB to Bupasseme, KOToparo Memejib ter^ AOJiro js,o6iS' 
Baics HanpacHO. 



XL. 

yTOHJieHHafl no^AKofi bi ropoAi*, BSBOJiHOBannafl oÓ^EflCHenieMi 
eo OrpceBinrb h HeosHAaHHBiin» CTOJKHOBemeMi* ch OpecroMi 
naBJíOBHHeiťb, ÁHHa npoBejia My^HxeJiBHyK) hohb. Ona saceyjia He 
CBopo, H ee npecjiŠAOBajiH ysRacnue chh. Bch) hoib ona sa^axa- 
jacL OTB BOsiiyn^eHifl^ om crpaxa h oúnm, BUAepasKBaa BaKyio- 
TO TfxoBHn^HyK) ci^eHy^ vjrb Bcb noJtynenEUfl ane^aTj^HÚi nepe- 
nyrajHCb bi o;i;ho. To ona sanaA^aBO CBO^HJia c^eru cb Mapseil 
DaBJíoBHofi, BucBasuBafl efi fb raasa HeBOSMOSHUfl Ben^H h bu- 
ciynnHBafl ote Hea CesnoniiaAHBifl oÓBHHemfl bi» caifHxi coRpoBee- 
HHTB noÓysAeHÍflxi* H noMHCJiaxi, — ^^"b Towbj ^ero ne iáom,evb 
SHaTB HH OAHa aiHBafl Aynia, ^t5 tojibro nepe^i* co(krrBeHHOft co- 
bíctbk) mu craBEiTB ceů^b na c^erb. To ona xoJiSHa 6ujQ[a cnacaibCA 
OTb npecj^AOBanifi AORTopa, yrpoauiBinaro eft ^£irb-TO yxacHiiMi^. 
Ona y($^rajm otb nero, saxjonuBafl ;^BepH, wb Roropiixi ne A^ft- 
CTBOBaiH 3aMRn, 6pocaflCb bhh3% no Ji^crnni^airb, vjííb noA^iaMu- 
BajiHCb cryneHH, h npHonyniHBajiacb cx CMepreJbHUMi ymacoMx, 
saiTb owh HacTHrajirb ee. Úo HenocresHMofi cbash, Roropafl bo €6*^ 
saseTCfl, OAHaROsx, coBepmeHHO jiorHHHofi, bcjAjí,i> 3a diiiMi Ansa 
OKasuBajracb yse seHoĚ CjpoeBa. 3a;iuxaflCb on cjiearb h oón^bi, 
ona ynpexaja ero bi> oÓMae^, vb tohx, hto ohi bobco ne jnoúiíjvb 
ee, Ror^a sacraBHjrB or^aTb ce6i ea auisHb... 

ÁHHa npocHyjiacb pasČHrafl, cl sairapaiDii^Hirb cepAi^eifb HTy- 
HaBHoS rojiOBoS. Bi nepByio MHHyTy ee oxBaTHia pa^ocrb, hto Bce 

8T0 COBPb - HO O^eHb CROpO AÍĚCTBHTeJIbHOCTb npeACiaJia, BO MHO- 

ron cxoxHaa Cb 6e8o6pa8HinrB RonncapoMi*. OÓiflCHeme vb jrano- 
wA auiefi BOCRpecJO bt> naMJiTH. Ob TOMHxejibHUM^ ^bctbomi ne- 
HSB^&CTHOCTH ÁHHa BUHyjia Hsi-HOA^ HO^ymRH aejieHyk) RHnry .. 
ropHmraafl ^ama a^bho nocrnrjia sHa^eHÍe MiirpeHH b% dRcrpen- 

HHTb eJíY^SLBTb SKOSEE CBOOtt ČapUHIHH; H HOTOMy OHa flBHJiaCb B'b 

naBBJibOffb ne paHbme RSLKb cb oÓ^aomi. Ona HHMajio He yAHBHJiacb, 
mí ee BnycTHJH jiHnib uocjrb HerBepTH ^aca osH^amfl na jilscmnník, 
n 6ujia 3apaH%e yB^pena, ^to Hafi^en 6ojibHyK) na noraxi, ne 
BHHOCfln^yio HH MHHyru nocTopoHHflro npHcyrcTBÍfl. JI^^gcTBHTejibHO, 
ee He nycTEjni ^aibme nopora; Anna Bsajia y nea h3i pyRi cyjiRH 
I CfByjia Hxi* Ha 6jiHsa&nrífi ctojtl, vfijb ohh h npocroflJiH ne- 

npHROCHOBeHHO JSfi CJli^yiOH^O AHfl- 



1 



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76 B^kcmasTb bbpoiisi. 

Ilosse noTpe6oBajiacB HOBaa HexBepTB qaca neperoBopoBi "lepesi 
saMKHyTyK) ABepb, hto6u BpasyMHXb Ahej, tto MnineiB Bepejjccs 
H3i ropoAa, H ee npocflTb npE^TH bi crojOByio. 

— SI fíojiBHa coBCŠMx! a ne Mory! Heys&iH^ Jl^araa, tu jíjo 
CHxi nopi He Morjia HayHHTbca diOMy neMHoroMy: orpaAHTB Hofi 
noKoft, Kor^a Hy»HO?! 

Bapunrafl nyTB He luaRajia, ho ,9^aina BOBce ne sacjysHBaja 
TaRHxs HanaAORi*; ona cooópascajia, tto Ahhš Bja;^HMÍpoBHÍ Jierqe 
c6traTb Ha MHHyTO«iRy na MBisy, ^iwh Aoa^H^aTbCfl, ttoÓu ÓapHHt 
„uocjA Aoponi caMH no6e3noROHJiHCB^ HaBto^HTB ee bi nasEjBOH^. 

— CRasH, TTO fl yMOJflK) ne ÓesnoROHTBCfl! Bce paBHO, a ne 
Mory ceroAHfl pasroBapHBaTB! — ynpaMHjacB Anna, cb 6oj[Š3HeHHOi 
pasj^pasHTejBHOCTBH) nepBHaro ^leJiOB^Ra, HaxoAfln^arocfl Bcei^^o 
BO BjacTH cBOHXi BDe^aiJitHift, crpa^aion^aro cihuiromi MyHHreiBHO 
orb Rasjtaro AHCCOHanca. 

— a He Mory... a ne •Mory!.. 3aBTpa!— noBTopajia ona Óes- 
pascyAHO, RaR% peóenoR^, ne yifi^ioii^ift hohatb pesona. 

— KaRT» BajTB yroj^HO, 5ap£imHfl. Tojibro xaRi ysx h saht^ 
TenepB, wro qepea^ nojraaca ^K^aHJTB BjiaAHMipoBHTB (mím nosa- 
jiy¥)Th Kb BaiTB, — npHrposHjra ^ama pimHrejiBHO, h, Tonaa Hapoqno 
RaRi Morjia rpome, ona crajia Me^JienHo cnycRaTBca no jrbcmmí^. 

Tor^a Anna OTRpujia ABepB h RpHRHyjia eŘ B^oroHRy: 

— Hy, xopomo ymi... HecHOCHaa icyHHTejiBHHi^a! CRasH xairb, 
^TO fl ceímskCb cana npuAy ^t> hhitb. 

Ho Anna ^ojro e^e coÓHpajiacB cb CHjaHH, npes^e nl^wb 
6um Bi> cocTOflHÍH OTopBaxBCfl (yrb nysoK xhshh, norJOTHBmefi 
Bcb esL ^yBCTBa. IlepefliHTafl OrpoeBUMi co BC&ifB Hanpflsemeirb, 
co BceK) CTpacTHOCTBH) BHepBue HpocHpniarocfl cosHam^, bu- 
jHBmaflCfl MyHHTejcBHBtiTB AynieBHBiiirB rphroitb na crpaHHi^Ei sejtenoft 
RHHFH, —ara sh3Hb Bonjioiii,ajiacB bi apRÍe h xoBue oÓpasH bi Tsop^e- 
CROiťB BOo6paseHÍH Ahhu. 06pa3Bi tíucrpo nepepocrajiH npex^Ju 6esi- 
HCRyccTBeHHoft H cÓHB^HBoň jicnowkjsjíi, Ohh ciHBajiHCB vb i^Bifl xa- 

paRTepHCTHRH, CIOSHUfl H TOHRÍfl, H ROTOpBEfl SaXBaTUBaJH He TOJBRO 

OTAaHHoe na es cyA'B — ho, no neyMOJHMEiirB xpeCoBaniflirB lorHRH, 
npoHHRajiH h vb éy^yn^ee, ROTopoe jífiJíXEO craTB othuhš ea cy^B- 
6ofi. Anna mhofo pasi npEHys^ena ÓBua ÓpocaiB TerpaxB, Ror^a 
RHnyqaji paóora mucjih ^oxo^Kia ao TaRoro CMflTema, hto M&naia 
efi noHHMaTb acho to, ht6 ona qHT&ia. Hanpacno CTapajiacB ona 
CAep»uiTB ce6fl, He nopBiBaTBca, ne npe^p^maTB ^^aRTOBx: to-h- 
A^o, JiOBHJia ce6fl na saAHOM'B noAPJCflA^BamH BnepeA'B, ao noci^A* 
HHxi, .saRJiio^raTejiBHuxi crpaHHqeRi. Ho OTpuBO^nua ^psau Maio 
yacHfljH, a tojibro BOJinoBaiH ee Bce CHJBHie. 



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MUPASH. 77 

Oaa sai&ia CrpoeBa, xoMHJiacB crpaxoiťb, Raici» toiihtca qyx- 
idĚ spHTejiB sa repoa saxBaTBiBaioiEiefi ap&mu; ho bt> to se Bpeiia 
vb efl KYJsrb coBepmajiacB caMOcroflTejiBHaji rjyxaa paóora, em.e 
HeAOCTyiraafl cosHamio. Tojibko ota^bhuo npoÓJiecRH ne^ibRaJiH 
MHHyTaMH, BX BUfík ROHowaro pimeHÍfl, ptoema yse roTonaro, 
npes^e ^^i ona ycn&ia AO^HraTb ao ROHi^a. He ysacHO ae bto?! 
He secTOBO jh, ne HecnpaeeAJHBO jih — ysHaTB sto p^oienie TaKHMi 
nyreiTB! RaKi npo3p'bHÍe, BaRi* npex^yBcnsie, noroMy Hifeneo He- 
noGi^HMoe e oCesopysHBaion^ee, — hto nepeA'BHHirE 6e3CHJbH&i bcI 
AOBOAH pascyABa. 

„Bce BOHHeHO — sto CBume cajn> tbohxx!** — HamenTUBaerB npe*- 
qyBCTBÍe, ROToparo ona ne xonerb, BOToparo He xoJUBHa , snaTB. 
OÓpasi necHacTHofi seHH, no neMHoreMi cRyAHUMX HaneBaMi, 
ciaraercfl fb SHByio <))Hrypy, pasra^anHyio ao caMux^B 3aBtTHUX'B 
mní6owb: 3to — Jiioóan^ee cep^e, HcreEaiomee BpoBBio hobhahmo 

J(Jfl TOrO, BT0 CTOflJ^ pjIAOBTB, 3aHflTCltt BCeníjlO C060H), BTO 

H xenepB npoAOJsajix coMH^BaTBca; ropAaa sepTBa, moji% ycrpa- 
HHBmaflCfl Cb ero nyTH, ne ynusHB^ ce6fl ÓesnjiOAHofi sajoÓoS; 
xojOAHafl seHH^HHa, „cb Boropofi jierKo ^aAHTB^ — A«ifl nero; rjiy5oBO 
fiecnacTHafl a^a cbohxi, fl,ňa Ójihsbhxi, otl Boro TpyAHO hto-hh- 

6yAB CBpHTB... 

marh AaJBme ^nrajia Anna, vbwb 6ojihme 3tot% sencBÍtt 
o(pa3i Buerynajii* Ha nepBuS njiaffB h OBJiaA']&Ba;i'B nojiosBeHÍeiix. 
H BOTB, na Hee hotth yise ne npoH3BOAHJia sne^aTJi^Hia rjiaBHaa 
ApaMa HcnoB^AH: nocrenenHiifi nyTB nposp^Hia h pasoÓjaHenifl 
caiforo ce(5a, — nyrB rJiyCoBo ^ecrnaro noBaaHÍa bhjotb ao poBOBoro, 
^TsqecBH HH na leifB ne ocHOBannaro noA03pÍHÍfl... 9to hphhh* 
Maercfl cypoBO, Ba^B AOJSHoe. CrpoeBX cpaaenB, yHHrroaefli hoba- 
HHifi oTBpKrrieirB... Ad. pasFl Morjio 6u 6uTh Hna^e!? Vnsvb ero 
MysH — He npocrafl otiasaHnocTB nopaAOwaro HeJOB-lsa? ropBRaa 

06fl3aHHO€TB, BOTOpafl He HCnpaBHTl pOBOBEIXl OmH60B'B, He HCBy* 

nHTB qysHXi crpaAaHÍfi h ho sepnerB 3ary5jieHHO& mojoaoě shshu!.. 

HaÁHHy HeA'^aK)TB BneHaTJi']kHÍa OTqaflHHue nopuBu GrpoeBa 
noBOJ[e5aTB otisHnenie, ao6pobojibho BSBeAOHHoe na co(5cTBeHHyK> 
raaoBy, ero poÓBÚi HanoMaHania, hto b*ai> 9to oaho noA03p*HÍe — 
He Ůojihmel Ee ne Tporaei-B h nocji'lAHflfl naAO^Aa ero na nee, Ha 
eg 6e8npHCTpacTHii& npnroBopi. BojiBnie Toro, — 9Ta naAeatAa saA*- 
Baen ee, saB^B coMH^nie wb cbo6oaí h HenOABynnocTH ea cy»Ae- 
HÚ. Ero noAOsp^nia, ero onacenifl npeBpaTasHCB ceft^aci se vb 
xojOAHyK) H cypoByH) yB^peHHocTB Bt qyaoft bhh6. 

B^Tbj ne ona orroHHTB iiyHHTeJiBHuií npespaBi, ne ona pa3- 
deTB Tflsejoe ooMHlme, BOToparo wbn bo3moshocth bbuíchhtb 



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78 B«CTHHB'i» £BF0I11>L 

He OHa Hape^ert to ÓpaiCKoe npomeme, Koropoe rpesHJOCB Crpoesy 
Ha pydesi) HOBoň jkhshh. Ohh cjmmviowb AOJiro h njiaifeHHO B^paia 
Bi> ero óesyiipeiHOCTb. Ea npeAcraBiieHifl o ero nponuoirB 6ujih 

CJHniBOlťb BUCOKO npHnOAHflTLI HaA'B X^&CTBHTeJIBHOCTbH). B^ 8T01irb 

HOBOMi 4eďOBŠR'&, BKipocTaBnieM*b xenepb nepe^i ea rjiasaiiH, eS 
Bce 6ujio eesHavoMO, Óujio Bce HeoaiHA&HHo. Ero AOcroencTBa 
rjyóse, HCKjno^HTejibH^, — ho dxo ne t6, soropufl npioÓp&iH eiiy 
efl cHMnaTÍH). Ero crpa^ania bo cto Rparb aocto&h^ co^yBCTBia, — 
HO ne OHH noAKynHJiH ea cepxi^e, ne ohh OT^ajiH eMy bcio ea 
áLajiocTb, npesAe Aaxe, wbwb ona ysnajia ero. Ero óy^yn^ee Morjo 
HopaaHTB, OHO cnoco6HO yBiieqb, — ho aro ne xa Óesoipa^naji aoja, bx 
KOTopyH) efl JioÓOBk ^ojsna ÓLLia BnecTH CBtrb h CHacríe. 

Anna noxepfljiacb. PyBOBOAfln^aa HHTb BUCSOiibSHyja hsi pyK'B, 
u coécTBeHHUfl HyBCTBa ne noBHHOBajincb eft 6ojibnie. CepAi^e, AaBuo 
^asAaBuree ooboÍSosa^hía, onoj^iHJiocb, HaROHei;'b, npoTHBi» nea. 

To^HO BO cwb Anna noónBajia na musí, hocjií xoro BaRi> 
^ama bo BTopofi pass npH6šrajia SBaib ee. Ona ne ciuxaia, htí) 
pa3CKa3UBajrb Mnmejib; BHA^a TOJibKo ero ciaioiEiee ciacrieM^ jomfi 
H noHHMa^a ornaflHHUfl ycujiifl ManH RaaaTbCfl ÓessaÓOTHofi. Bob 
KaiRAOiii* csoBt MOiOAoS 'fKeHntHHU efi cimnajHCb Jiosb u npHXBop- 
cxBO, — OAHO 9X0 Anna saní^ajia, ho ne Morjia 6h noBxopnxb hh cíobsl 
Hsi xoro, qxó roBopHjiocb h A^Jiajiocb BOKpyrb nea. lípa dxoMi. 
cana oaa ocxaBajacb cxpaaHO xojioaho& h pasHO^yniHot. Ona ca- 
Horo xox^a: ocxaxbca HaeAHH'1 cx tImi, mib ae Morjo SA^xb. 

— IIocMorpa noaumyficxa, boxi oaa Bce apena xaai Me^exca! 
MoacHO HOAyMaxb, ^xo wb jífiwk hh oahofo lejiOB^Ra npaaiyrH 
He ocxajiocb, hxoÓu naKopMHXb iiena oóijsfiwb ÓesTb ea homoh^; — 
roBopajix Mamejib Ch tíjiaaleHHUMi* cm'Ixom%, jiiDÓyacb BJiiOÓJieHHijiftH 
rjasaMH, BaBi Mana cyexajiacb okojio 5y4>exa. 

B^AHaa Mana noRpaca^a hoa^ aojifhmi, saAyMHHBiiDťb B3rjia- 
AOMi Ahhu. 

HaROHeiTB, ee oxnycxujia na bojk). MameJb Aoaej^b ee ao na* 
BHJibOHa, o(ÍHaHB H'kRHO 3a HJieHa, cxapaacb baxh aaRi mo2rho 
xame a poBH^ a npeA^araa oaho sa ApyraMi BceBOsiiosHua 
cpeACXBa npoxHBi* Marpeaa. . 

Ecáa Bc£ Mysba xaRi se icajio npoaaii^axejibHU, xo js,Jia aceau 
ne xpyAHO, vb CJiy^ai nysAu, saxaaxb coBepmeHHO CBOfi Bnyrpenaitt 
Mípi. Ona MOsexi» nepesaxb i^'&iyH) AP&My AynieBHyK), Moa&er-B 
CBecxH CBofi nocjAfifiiŘ c^erb ci» sasabio, 6e3% xoro qxofiu Ranaa- 
HaÓyAb AoraARa cnyxajia caMOAOBo;ibHyK) Ayniy. A xoxi, rxo bch) 
SH3Hb cxoajii* ocoÓHaRoiTb, ne HysAaacb aoBce vb nysoĚ oxRpoBOH- 
Hocxa, RXO npaBURi AOBOACTBOBaxbca canaMi coÓoft, — ciioco6^ni 



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MHPAJOH. 79 

JI TOTi> noHHMaxb HJH xoTfl 6ti TOJEBRO senaTB HCTHHHott cepxe?- 
HOi (SjrasocTH, 6e3i Roropoft f,JiB nen neBOSMOSHO cnacrie? Kaisafl 
oiBpoBeHHOCTb BOSHOSHa TenepB Me»LAy Heio h CrpoesuMi? Ona 
HHKorAa He csaserB eny Bcero, ht6 npexo^iuo efi na yMi> naA^B 
ero xHeBHHEoifB. Hxi oómiafl sh3hb HanHerca cb Toro, hto ona 
stmssThj ESJffb (TByM^rB jy^me, cboh coBpoaeHHiifl on^yn^emfl. 

jpCSiOBTE He HyacHO^, — CBasajcE OrpoeBi. 

CHOBa ÁHHa sanepjiacB fe naBUBOH^i h, yse ho orpuBajiCB, 
AOHHTaia AHeBHflKi AO soHi^k. Ona ocraBajiacb xaiOAHO& n nepeA'B 
po^KHMH, CAepautHHUHH npHBHaHÍflMH. Ero jmÚOBb crymeBUBaAacb 
ne^pexh BucoRHirb H^easoMi hoboí 3SH8hh^ nepeA'B rpaHAiosHofi 
ÓopBÓoi co crapiiHH ByMHpaBíH, noBepseHHUMH vb npaxi. OrpacTHaa 
ssoóoBh ÓAffAjiA nepeA'B HAeefi HCBynjieHifl, nepeA'B cosHameMi 
EpaBCTB^Haro ocBOÓosAemfl, — nepeA^B Byju»TOifB sío6«si ^ejkovk^e" 
CKoi, npociniaBinefica bt> cyxoM^B, aroHCTH^ecBOMi cepAi^i' 

^a, aron neAOvbvh nepepocB npeAcraBjeme Ahhu o newb; — 
HO FA^ se efl mícto bi dioft shshh? Ee yBienajia ÓJiaropoAnaa 
pojB cnacHTeiiBHHi^i, — HO cnacaTB 6ojiBine ne HyasHO. Ohi ho nys- 
AaefCfl vb eu HpaBcraeHHOfi noAAepsB]^; fb JSAs&ffiWb cjiovk ero 
cxsnnaiacB rjy6oKaa, cocpeAoro^eHHafl CHJia. HaAO, HanpoTUBrb, 

CaMOfi HOAHflTBCfl AO HOFO H HpOHHBHyTBCfl TiiyÓOEHMB, O^OÓn^HOn^HMl 
BBFJUiAOlfB Ha SH8HB, BaSOK He Aft^TCfl A&pOMnb Bl> ABaAi](aTB jAvh. 

H&AO Cb HHMi Blitou npoHHRHyTbCJi AyxoMB cMupeHHaro yHHqH- 
senia, bi BoropoMi owb Hn^erB OHiora npoTHBB CBoefi cjiOMJieflHO& 
ropAOCTH, en^e xasB HOAaBHO i^kpHBnie& Bjacrno vb ji^ymb. Bi co- 
SHaflÓH BHHu HaAO yiiÍTB HaflTH yAOBieTBopeme — anejiannyH) TO^sy 
npuMHpeHÍa cb jidabiih, — Bifikro xoro ysaca, BOTopufi HcnuTUBajia 
(ffia. Jlift, Bce dno uyoHmo, h cb dTHMi-TO HenocuJBHuirB, hobos- 
MOSHuiTB ona CBflB&sa ceófl cioboitb! 

IIoAHflBmiftcfl Ha Bucory, croflBnrifi bh£ ynpeBa, CrpooBi nepecrajiB 

6iITb TblTb íeiOB^^BOMl, Cb KOTOpUMB OHa FOTOBa 61USL HOA^HTBCfl 

fioraTCTBOiTB CBOHXB CHJ[B. Ofii qecTHO pacnaxnyjii nepoA^ neio 
CBOK) Ayniy, ho bthmb caMUMi jójuu* BeJiHKOAyniHuft nopuBi, oř- 
AaBaBmď ee eny. „Bce Aa očpaiHTca npoTBBi nero^,— nanncajn 
OffB wb CBoeifB AHeBHHs^, HO HOAOsp^Bafl, BOHeHHo, HTO dTO — ropB" 
Boe npopoHecTBo. HeAapoMi ohi nopuBajica cse^B poBOByio lerpaAB^ 
HCAmpom ejiy ctohjio TaROfi tasboS 6opB6u cb caMHMi co6oh) ne- 
pe^aTB ee bi* pyBH jH)6iiM0g A^ByniBH... 

OreMff&io. ÁHHa ho paasHnajia ÓOJiBnie ciobb, a^ h R^b neny?! 
Cfioibso 6u pa8i» HH nepe^HTUBaJia ona aiux^ BsaoJHOBaHHuxi* 
cípft&Hiti, efl Bne^aiJitme He mofjio mwbaisTbca. ^acro mu bobco 
■e ooBsaeiTB Toro nyrn, BOTopuft HSÓHpaexB naniB yirB, qioóii nafiTH 



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80 BfiCTHHBTB KBPOUM. 

se^aHHu& Buxo;^. Mu ne BaM^«iaeM% HaiAseRi, yjiOBORi b npE- 
crpacTÍft, noMoraiomHxx hami nepeóparbca nepesx 6e3AHy, — npojio- 
3KHTS HecymeCTByiomift nyrt Bnepe^^ hjih orcrynHTb ct necTBio 
Ha3aA%. ÁHHa ynopno Ay^ajia o&b ynepmeft sení CrpoeBa, sara- 
AO^HyK) GiíepTb BOTopoĚ He 6ujío Ha^esAti pasNCHHTb. Ona boo6- 
pasajra cetíib bxi ceMeiHyio shshb ;i;eHB sa a^hb, h cos^aníe €o6- 
CTBeHHoK 4^aHTa3ÍH BXOAHJO BX efl co3HaHÍe T^B^ npo^HO, qro no- 
TOMi osa He Morjia ysé OToraaTB ero. 

IIcqajikHafl SH3HB 6e3'B jnoÓBíiy 6em, jiacBH h aob^ía, — 6e8i 
ea&eMHHyTHOfi pa^ocni shtb bi ApyroMi cyn^ecTB^, 6iJTb saHarofi 
ero MuCdUQiH n ^BCTBaMu, óojihme ^hx cboumh coÓCTBeHHUMH. 
BsB^nrasaTb pa^H nero cboh Mejb^aSinie nocrynRH, o^peraTb cboh 

nOMUCIU H BCe-TaBH He HaXO^HTb HXl AOCTaXOHHO qHCTUMH H AO- 

cTOĚHiiMH ero j[k>6bh. TaKOH) AOJisna 6u 6uTh shshb AByxi cy- 
u^ecTBi, comeAHiHxcfl na rope h paxocTb. Ho boi-b n^wb ona 6y- 
jí,eTb AJfl Hefl: Mpa^HUH^b, xojiOAHUirb SHjmqeMi, vjíik TOJbRO-iro co- 
BepmHjiocb qxo-TO 3JiOBÍmee, — r^íb npHraaaacb Tafina,— r^í BHraiOTb 
npHspaRH, ROTopux^b Hejib3fl HH 3a6biTb, HH pasorHaTb! Pa3BŠ He 
fíyAerb ona RasAuft A^Hb AynaTb o&b dTofi Apyrofi, ;SHBniefi TyrB 
paHbme nea, — Roropafl BucrpaAajia Becb," ao noci^AHefi RanjH, sa- 
naci CBOHXi CHjii*, a TOTb, RTO pasónji FopAoe cepAAe, rae^x 6e3- 
saóoTHo CBoeft Aoporoft, paAyncb, qio ceMeúHos ofcuauh maK6 mom 
cmfbCHumeÁhHal,. Pa3B^ ne ÓyAen efi Mepe^HTbca yrpo3a wb EasR- 
AOMi cjiy^a&HOMx HeAopasyM^HÍH, fb MOJi^anÍH — o, bi MOjraaHÍH 
Bcero CRop^!? PasBt ne cranen ona npoBOAHTb napaJuejiH, HCRarb 
cxoACTBa, HOAOspŠBaTb, npoB^^pflTb?! 9to 6yAeTB necROH^aeMaa mjksl^ 
BMÍ^CTO c^acTBfl, O ROTopoMi* OHa Me^ajia: cqacrbfl nojinaro a^a 
Hero H... HeMHoro Cescrpacrnaro, ho nyAnaro bi» CBoeft BOSBumeH- 
Hoft HHCTort — A-ia Hea. Bon RáRx pasjíexaioTca MeTra! botb ^rr6 

SHa^HTB COBAaBaTb CBOH) CyABÓy C06CTBeHHIiIMH pyRaMH! 

— Bce ROHHeno, 8to CBume cajn> mohxii! — npoHBHecJia AHHa 
cosnaiejibHO vb caMua cJiOBa^ Roxopufl aabho ya&e HamenniBajrb ett 
BHyrpeHHift rojiocb. 

„CBHHie CHJIl"... 9T0 MOSHO CRasaXB Ce(í*, HO ít6 eft A*^aTB? 

Ona AaJia oiobo. H'lrb, 6ojbnie Toro: ona AOÓHBa^Lacb ero j[K)5bh, 
ona npeA^arajia eify cbok). „IIoci^ Bamero npHSHamfl a OTRasci* 
Baiocb " , — cRa»eTB ona Tenepb. — » fl ne Mory npocTHTb BaMX nponuaro, 
ROTopoe AO MOHA HO RacaeTCfl H ROToparo bbi ne aojurhu Óujlk 
pacRpuBaTB nepoAO mhok)''. ^a! ohx AOJia&eHB Óujtb CRpuTB, noxo- 

POHHTB Vb COÓCTBeHHOlTB COpAI^ CBOM COMHŠHÍfl, a HO HCRaTb odier- 

HeHÍfl vb 6e3yMHO& noHErraš CBaiHXb poROBoe Ópeiifl na nysis 
nje^H. Hh nepeAi ršicb mu ne pacRpoeifB CBoeft AyinH ao oa 



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MHPASir. 81 

nocfl^AHHxi issraóovh. HeJB3fl BiicRasaTB cORpoBenHaro, „ueJOBn, 
Hensfl!!^ — TsepAHJia Anna, nopasenHaa HeosHAaHHOCTSH). Ona ne 
coMHŠB&aacB vb npaBOT^ CBoero ^pcraa: pascBasoBaTb Bcero Hej[B3fl! 
MesAT npHCTpacrieMi* h HecnpaBe;^HBOCTBH) bi ce6^ wbvh cepe^HHEi. 
?epe3% upocrpaHCTBO híckoibbhxi jAtb, h^bojbbhxi M^i^eB'B, 
wse He^ijB — HaniH nocryiiKH jme ne 6jfl,yTh crporo b^phei iipaBít, 
6jjí,ym BupBaHH hsi i^'lnH Tkx% eeyjOBHifuxi^ nejo^eft, BOTopna co- 
craBUHyrb shshb h bjúíiotb HesaM^xHO na Bce, ht6 mbi fljbsAewhy 
7r6 MU qyBCTByeiťB. H ona b^ab He pascBaserB GrpoeBy Bcero, mih 
OHa Bserpa^aia, ne nepe^acTB eny, Bas^ A&bho yse efl caMOHaAtflHBaa 
xe^Ta npHHWMajía nocreneHHO cypoBijft oÓ^imcB ^ojira, a bi cepAi^^ 
He HaxoAHJOCB oTBJíHBa Ha npHsuBi. Ona ne Mosers CBasaTB eny, 
no ero diaropoAHas hceob^ab BEisBajia ne uponteme^ Ha BOTopoe 
owb Ha^iajicH, a xo-io^noe ocyaíenie. Upocmumb — o, 9to ne laBi 
npocTO, BaB^B BasBercfl! IIpocTHTB, — wsoóm ÓOJíbme HHSorAa ne Ay- 
MaTB, HTo6u He BOBBpamaTBca Bi crapoBiy, — »htb tsíkl, BaBi Óy^ro 
HH^ero 8Toro ne 6íijio. Ho BÍflBwa«2 h ohx ne npocTHTB ce6i.., 
o, Bone^HO, hítb! Ohi He saÓyAerx naBor^a aeHn^HHy, nepe^^B bo- 
wpoŘ cosHajix ce5fl rjiyÓOBO BUHOBaiBurB. HoBaa mucjib nopasH^a 
ÁHHy: H^h*B, OHI ne sady^erB! Tojibbo Tenepb BnepBue, dra sena 
KHTepecyeTB ero h npHBOBUBaerB jffb ce&b. Mes^y hhitb h líepTBott 
iíhbio saBpŠHJieHa B^nnafl cbasb, BOTopofi hh^to ne bi CHJiaxi 
nopBaTB. Ero 6yAyn^ee Óy^eTB tojbro HCBynj[eHÍeM'B bhhu nepeA'B 
Hes). Jl^se Bi j[H)6bh CBoefi bi Apyroft meHo^HHi ohi Óy^erB 
HcsaTB onpaBAaHifl. EseMHHyTHo ohi Óy^erB cocrnsaiBCJi cb t&mi 
dpytum^ — Cysera npepejRReHHO ocropoaeHi, cjimnKOWh npo3opjiHBx, 
OHB óy^erB BejiHBOAymeHi, TepnijHBi, Aofipx ao... ao neBOSMOs- 
HOCTH BUHOCHTB TaByK) 2^3hb! Majo-HO-MajTy Hsi Hefl HC^esnerB 
Bcssafl HCBpeHHOCTB, BCHBafl HpaB^a HenocpeACTBeHHaa! Hc«ie3HerB, 
TO)6ii ycrynHTB m^cto npaBAi npeABsaxoft, TOMy tíescrpacTHOMy 
o^pmeHCTBy, Boropoe chocoóho AOBecrn ao ornaama, Boropoe 
HRBOMy ne san^HHirB shbofo TfBCXBa, co bc£mh ero sadiysA^HÍflioi, 
yBie^enijuíH h onraÓBaMH!.. 

Mhcih Ahhu nyrajiHCB. Onacenifl h yrposu poHjracB vb yn^ 
Ch crpanraofl fiucrporoft. Ona ne Morja yse 6oj[Bme OTJH^aTB bob- 
xosHaro h B^poarnaro otb dBsajiBTai^iH. EftBce BasajocB bobmos- 
HmrB. KasaiocB, naBonei^, qro bo BceM^B ÓyAyn^eifB CrpoeBa ne 
íyAerB HH^ero, BpoHi BToro nponuiaro, Boxopoe npoHHBnerB bc4 
OT) noHHcau H o^^y^^eHia, ĎyAerB AHBTOBaiB ero nocrynBH, 6yAeTB 
ciaBHTB npHTOBopn. n ona, senn^Hna, OTBasEBrnaacA BanarB ony- 
etbsmee hšcto, — ona ^^^^ajiBHO, nensÓ^^SHO noAnaAerB Tose noAi» 
ary miacxB. 

Ton HL^MAtt, 1889. 6 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



82 B^CTHHRli B^Omi. 

KaK'B cnacTHCb? míb A^aTb?.. 

Bu^HBinHCk H3i CHJTB, ÁHHa CTapajuu^ He AyMaTs; ona saspH- 
Baja rjiasa h CTHCBHBajia pynaMH niuaioii^yK) rojiOBy. Tor^a eft 
flBCTseHHO cjluinajicfl 3HaB0Muft vyjvb rojiocoBi sa orbomi. Tairs 
cyAH.facb ea HSM^&Ha. TaMi* Bck ea meicih h on^yntem npeAcraBajH 
pa8o6jia^eHHUfl, laMii noHBHajiocb HeAOCRaaaHHoe, yraAusajiocb ee- 
yBJíaAUBaioiueeca bi cjiOBa... Bypufl lyw hebko noiaiH na^i na- 

BHJIBOHOMl. IIopfilBHCTllfi B^Tept nOTpflCaTb A^pOBb)!, BCBHAUBaS 
B^TBH piteKHMH, yrpOlHaiOII^HlíH B3HaxaMH. FoJDíOCa TO BOBBUmaiOTCfl, TO 

na^aiarB. SeJOHiie AyxH sanepaiorb na nojycjiOBt, npHCiyinHBaflCb 
B^b efl AyMaiťb, htoÚu bi cxb^yion^ifi MHr& o^pymarbca na nee 
Cb HOBiiMi osecTo^eHieMi. BcO) ?t& Mejbicaerb Fb ea ciiaTeHHOirb 
jufb, sa ORHOiTb paspoeraercfl vb i^ua RaprHHEi, vjsfb oea bhahti 
ce6a A^fiCTByioii(Hirb jrai^oirb. 

3aBTpa OrpooB^b npHAerb 3a otbítomx. IIofiMerb jm ovb Bce, 
3arjiflHyBi» wb ea jhi^o — bi ea npncTbUReHHoe jihi^o! — hjih se caa 
AOJiacHa 6yAerb roBopHTb? Kasia aro 6yAyrb ciOBa? JI^ocTaHerb jh 
Ayxy noAHaTb na nero r^iasa u 6CTp'lTHTbca Cb ero Bsopoifb; rxk 
CBfoHJiacb npesAe potiBaa Ha^esAft, — ^a* fiyAerb ciaTb Tenepb wy- 
ÓORaa B^pa npocB^TJieHHofi cobšcth, onameHRoft noRaaHÍeirb?.. He- 
AapoM^ MÍpí npHSHajii ero TaHHCTBOifb. H'£tb ÓpeiieHH, Boropoe Óh 
He cnajio ci Aymu, ne pacronHJOCb 6u wb ero HiaMeHHOBfb ropHHJÍ. 

Anna npeAcraBJíaja ce6^ TaRyK) MHHyTy: ero marH no RaHeHHOft 

xbCeEKb... 3HaR0MU& CTyR'b Vb ABOpb. Offb BXOAHTb. Offb nOAXOAHTb 

RTb seHn^HH*]^, o($%n].aBnieft jiiotiHTb ero, ROTopofi ohi AORasajii cbok) 

J[K)50Bb T^lfb, TTĎ SOBeTCa HpaBCTBeHHUirb HOABHrOMl) Ha aSHR^ 

Bcixi* cnpaBeAAHBuxi jiOAefi. Ohi MOJ^a (naB^pnoe, MOjraa!) iSAerb 
ea nepBaro cjOBa. 

— SI Cbyna coftAy!.. — BbipBa^iocb ctohomi hsi rpyAH A^ByniBH. 
Ona penyjiacb cb CBoero Biicra^ Raní 6u cnacaacb, h RaRi ho cnaceTca 
saBTpa. O, HeysejiH ace h^ti?! Ona na Bce roToaa, Ha ace co- 
rjiacHa, hto6u tojibro Hd6&RaTb aToro CBHAama! 

ÁHHa npHscaiacb ropa^HMi ji6owb wb Rpyrjoiiy creRjy h Óes- 
cosnaTejibHO BCMaTpaaajacb bx ABHsynpeca CHjydTu, pacoBaBrnieča 
CMyTHO Ba TOMHOMi He&k. Kasa;rocb, ohh TOJinn^HCb Bce rbcHĎe, 
T^CHie, Bce Ójraate h ÓJSLxe noACTynajíEH B'b naBEibony. Ohh b8<$%- 
rajH BBopxii B8ib 6e8AHbi, a Taiíi, n rjiy^HHi; RonomHJOcb en^e mhofo, 
MHoro, — h eníe ropasAO 6ojibnie! Bdb pByTca r^ Rpyraott 6aniH^, 
neperonaa Apyn Apyra. H HOAapoMx: ohh tto-to TaepAarb, no- 
BTopaiOTb OAHO h to se Bcb vb rojoci; ottofo-to osa bo Mosenb 
pasodpaTb aToro ciOBa bi otfn^eifb ryji^. Ho OBa noBHMaen^!-^ 
noBHMaerb a&ecrb, oahbi h totb jRe y Bclx'b, BfiipasHTOJibHiifi secrb^ 



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Google 






MHPAJBH. 83 

KOTopufi mjiiorB efi h rb^ hbh pyRH noHTH BacaiOTCfl spyrjaro ORHa, 
H t6, Koro oaa tojileo yraAueaeTb e^ajTH. Osh ee MaHATB npoHB 
H3i efl TiopbMBi. O, BTOTB secTb! BaRi Morja OHa ae noHATB ero 
qmsy?! TenepB oaa cjumHTB h canoe ciobo; oaa jobhtb ero ch 
TpeneroiTB, cb BoeroproirB, ROTopuĚ ^aercfl tojbro saesanatiirB 
ocBoGosAeaieiTB. 

„BteaTB,— (M&KaTi ! — (í4»aTB! * 

Aaaa apastajia o6t pyRH rt> csoeiiy cepAAy^ eniie onacaflCB nosi- 
piTB, HTO CJOBO BafiA^ao: yšxaTB vb nerepCypre sasipa cb nep- 
BuiTB napoxoAOiTB. BisaTB?! IlycTB TaRi ecm b^tb ;ipyroro Biixo^a. 
EÍHRoro ae bea^tb, — RaRoe c^acTÍe! BupBaiBCfl pasoiTB aa CBo6oAy 
Hdi TeaerB, bi Roropiixi oaa aesairi^TBO daayr&sacB... 

PeaRi^ifl aacryna^a saT^irB Mraoseaao. Aaaa 6iiJ[a ae b'b CHjraxx 
Óoibme pascysAaTb, htoOu bsb^chtb cnoROfiao CBoe pimeaie. Oaa 
TERi cjT&iaerB. — xopomo 9to hjeh aypho, — efi Bce paBBO, jhbib 6u 
ToiBRO saaTB, TTO poROBOFO CBEAaBÍfl ae ÓyAen. Bce paBao TaRse, 
wtb no^iyBCTByeTB npa dioiTB OrpoeBa^, RáRí Hcayraercfl MamejiB... 

ECTB MHayTBI, ROFAa BH OAHBl HeJOB^R^B Be MOSCTB AyHai% BH O ROMl, 

spoiii cetffl caMoro — aro h 6um mm Abbu noAOÓaafl MHayra. 

Aaaa paaucRaja cna^RH h saasrjia CB^^y, htoÓbi aanacaTB ai- 
CBOiBRO crpoRi OrpoeBy a 6paTy. Ho aepo Aposajio vb ea pyR^, 
a Bi rojiOBt Bir6cT0 Mciciefi 6ujn> tojbro (JescajiBaiifi n CMyTaufi 
xaocB ipedMŠpaaro aepBaaro HCTonteaifl. 

Jlyqme otjoshtb ao yrpa, RorAa ri aefi Bepayrcfl RaRÍfl-aaÓyAB 
auni. Aaaa norymajia CE&qy a, ae pasA^BaacB, ÓpocajiacB aa aocreJB... 



6* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



84 B^CTHHRl EBPOim. 

KHHrA ÍETBEPTAfl. 
XLI. 

...3a ctíhoBí HanpaBO HaHrpwBaiorB KaKOft-TO nyBCTBHTejiBHHft 
pOMaHCB Ha pasÓHTOiťb iii>jíhhho. 3a crbnoŘ HajŠBO noAHHMaercfl 
Bce crescendo Kpyiraoe ofixacHeme AByxi rojiocoBi — MyaitcKoro h 
seHCRaro. IIo RoppHAopy CHyiOTb Bsa^i* v Bnepe^^ ocoÓeHHOft, rnioi- 
raionieg noxo^Kot OTejiBHOfi npncJiyrH. 

ÁHHa CHAHTB y ce6fl 8a sasrpaKOH^, Boropufi efi Raacerca oř- 
BpaTHTejBHKDTB. Ona HHKorxa paHBme ne sBBa:ia vh rocrsHHHi^ax^; efi 
nocTOflHHO npeAcraBjflercfl, ^ro hbh-to crpeMHrejiBHiie marn HanpaB- 
jifliOTCfl npflMexoHBRO Wh esL BOMHaTy; to ona HaTOHaerB npHCjyniH- 
BaTBCfl TpeBOSHO Bi ccop'6 3a ABepBH), 3acTaBJieHHofl mBa4>oirB, to 
HeBOJiBHO Mamenajn^HO npnÓHpaerB ooBa b-b HOTUBy, Boropuft efi 
qTO-TO HanoMHHaeTB. ÁHHa npHBUBJía rtb thidhhí, h b% TOny se 
Hanyrana: 3to yse BTopafl rocTHHHBi^a, b'b Boropofi ona noceJiHercfl. 
Hsib nepBot npiinr-iocB eft ceftnacB ate BiifeaiB, noroMy vto y eea ne 
0Ba3aj[0CB CB C060K) Heo6xoABHaro BH^a na acHiejiBCTBo. Cx HaHB- 
HOCTBK) 6apEiinHH, HHBOFAa He acHBaBinefi caifOcroflTejiBHO, ona yšxa^a 

H3'B 3ajrlCB£, SaXBaTHBl TOJIBBO CaVBIfl HeOÓXOAHMBIfl BeiE(H H j^eHBPH; 

OHa óujia nopasena, Bor^a na efl sa^BjeHie, ^^to bhai (y^erB bbi- 
ciaHi H3% flepeBHH, eft otbíthjih TpeÓOBaeieirB otocthtb Hynepi. H 
3AÍCB TOJBBO ci BejHTOftiiiHMX TpyAOMx corjiacH.iHCB ee nycTHTB, no^-L 
ycJOBieMi, mo6u ona npejicraBEja pyqaTejiBCTBO BaBoro-HH(5yAB h3- 
BicTHaro jnma. AnHanasBajia o^Horo nncaTCw — AjrifeeBa, ;ípyra no- 
BofiHaro FojiyÓHHa, h TenepB, ch^h sa cbohmx npocruBniBMi saBrpa- 
BOMi, ona roTOBHJiacB hath HMeHHO Kh HeMy. 

En^e wb BaroH'i Aji^eBi BcnOMHHjicfl eft npesA^ bcíxi Apyrux^. 
Ho MÍp* Toro, BaB'!» no43A'B yHOCHJTB ee Bnepe^B, — wb AynrS Bce 
apqe, Bce aiHBÍe B0CBpeca.iH Aoporia BOcnoiraHama. 9epe3i» h4- 
cBOJiBBO ^acoBx, na pascroanin Bcero hícbojibbhxx ^ecaTEOBi BepcTB, 
AHHa y»e HyBCTBOBaja ce6a oropBanHOft nascería otb xoro, htí) 
Aepsajo ee bi> CBoeft RsacTH B^epa, h sasi Ha napoxo^í^, bo 
BpeMfl nocjrlAHeft no^s^BH b^ ropoAX, ee onBanajo ABEsenie. Jl^aoiBiue, 
AajiBrae — botb bx tcmx cnaceme!.. ítí) 6u mi jiikíAJíOCh no3a;(H, 
TaM^, OTByjía OHa BupBa.iacB, ona Bce-xaBH Cy^exB atHXB, HCBaxB, 
6yAerB CHacT.iHBa BorAa-HH(5yíB. Ona Bce xa me MOjro^aa, npespac- 
Haa, yMHaa h bcímh jiH)6HMaa Anna. B% 9xoifB HeBOJBHOifB oii^y- 
m^emH 6hjio hto-xo nofiÍAOHOCHoe h ÓesawurocxHoe b-b t^itb, Hsi-sa 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ICHPAJRH. 85 

Boro OHa xaKx ucspenHO Tepsasacs: Kb CrpoeBy cb ero pas^HTiiMH 
HíuesA&MH, Bi MHmeiLiD cb ero oÓMaHHHBBUďB CHacxieifx h 6escwihB0Ř 
H&KHOCTbK> Kb Heft. Ofla cxapa^acb ne AynaTB o TOiťB, BaKx nepe* 
SHBaH)TB jBi 3ajišcb^ BTOTb ACHB. Hn^ero ohh ne nofinyrB hsi 
ea HHceifB, Epourfe loro, ?to OHa 6pociaa hxi*. 

ÁHHa yse npHeaA^eaBa^a Bcei^ŠJio Óy^yn^eify, xony, ht5 sa^jio ee 
BoepexH. A BnepeAH noHeBOiri pHCOBaiocB tojibro (rrapoe, snaROMoe. Ho 
coócTBeHHUfl BOcnoMHHaHifl BApyrB nepecT&sH y^OBJíexBopaTB ee. Ona 
CHjbHo BOBiiysajia sa ABa roAa, nposHTue bi ceMB*]^ ópaxa, nociaB- 

JeHHafl Cb SHSHBH) 6j[H3B0 JlHItOATB R'B JDBI^y; npeSHÍfl A^TCBH-BOC- 

TopseHHUfl xapaKTepHCTHBu npHnoMHHajJiHCB TeaepB cb HeBaiBHUM'B 
HeAOBÍpieifB. OAHHrB Aji'£eB'B ctoajtb bh^ cohh^hííI. Ohi Bcer^a 
6ELrb aBTOpHTeroifB h jí^h FojiyÓHHa, — iiocjAjifieŘ HHcraHiúefiy r^^ 
TOTB corjiamaiícA npoBtpATB cboh cy^A^nifl — ?ejiOBÍBa, EsÓajsoBaH- 
naro yciriteoiii. Aesa noimEiia ropa^e cnopu AByxi ;Q)y3efi, 
cnopH, TMÍk csasuBajiHCB pasmifl to^rh 3p'6HÍfl, npecyniifl, 6utb mo- 

ZeTB, paSJIEHEBIMlt OTpaCJIflMX HCRyCCTBa ÓOJIBme, ^'bWb CaMHMl JOO- 

jViiťB, CRa3UBaJiacB HŠsoropaa pasHHi^a aíti^j ho bi to ase Bpena 
SBynaJíO HeHSMŠHHO o6oK)XHoe yBasenie h HCTHHHaa 6jih30Ctb jhi^i, 
cioan^ix^B na gahoitb ypoBH^. Anna noBíHHJia HCRpeHHee ropě 
Ajtesa, ero Ójecran^yio h TporaxeaBHyio p^hb, npoHSHeceHHyio 
HaxB HpesA^BpeMeHHoň MorajoS xy^osHERa. IlHcaTejiB xjonoTajii 
H B03HJicfl, TOHHO po^Hofi, HOMorafl Memejuo vb ne^ajiBHOM^B pa3- 
rpoMi, ROTopuft ociaBjfleTB noci^ ce6fl BcaRaa Bnedannaa enepxB. 
Otth ropflHO sairí^ h yiimajii Anny h npid^xajix npoBOsaxB ee vb 
Boxsan. 

— „JlexHTe BucoRO, HenpeMÍHHO bhcoro! noMHure Bcer^a, ^xo 
BH ero Mysa!** — HanyxcxBOBaJi^ Aji-ieBX A^ByniRy wb nocjrhAHiOK) 
MHHyTy, yse vb Baroni. 

OoHeiiy HMeHHO dTHMH csoBaMH? %b npo^ejEi OHI xor^a na Ao6po- 
xyniHoifB xaaíb MHinejra? RaRÍfl onacoHÚi npoifejnbRHyjH fb ero jwk 
3a 6yAymyK) cy^BÓy lonaro cymecxsa, ocHporÉBraaro BxopHHHO bx 
cavyK) oňacHyio nopy aRU8HH?.. 

Iloxib/lssafl Kb neTepóypry, Anna pimejia npesA^ Bcero hoěxh 
sa oosibiOMb Kb A^eBy; saxpyAHOHk cb nacnopxoMi c^bjíojui dxo 
HeofixoxmiiDťB. 

YxpoiťB nocBuiBHBiĚ npHHecB aApecB mb dRcneAni^iH: a^pecB 
6wfb npesHÍft, Roxopuft Anna noMHHJia. 



i^aafie mseii^pi b^b aouí 6ujib xoxi ace canuft h cefinacB se 
ysHaťB Fojry^EHy, Roxopoft cjyqajiocB ÓHBaxB cb A^A^fi y A^iioBa 
Ba iinepaTypHHX!B Hxefliaxi. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



86 BfbCTHSai% EBPOim. 

Cep^we CHJbHO (5Eiocb vh rpyxH ÁBnEEu. Upoiiuo MeHBme Tpex^B 
jiŠTB, HO OHa noAXOAHJia K'b dTOĚ ABepH BaKi qysaa, HeysipeHHafl 
Bi npieM^^ soTopufi sRj^efirb ee. PaHbme HHRaRoe coMHŠme ne npH- 
xoAHJio vb rojiOBj, a ryrB Hanaa^E CMyivutt crpaxi: ^xb, ecra ee 

BCrpiTATB XOJOAHOy yAHBJíeHHO? 

JtaRefi BOBce OTRasiiBaicA BnycTHTB ee. rocnoAHH'B Ajiiewh o^eHB 
saHflTi, ne npHHHMaeTB HHBoro vb dron nacib. BneoBarB msefii^ap^: 
eify flCHO CRasaHO, htoÓu bcími OTBasiiBaTB. CeroAHfl, btb ocoCeH- 
HOCTH, oieHB cn^maTB, HapoHEO Ch AAV npišxajra... ÁHHa na- 
npacHO noBTopflJia CBoe hmx h npcciua aojkmkhtb. Jlanefi ne sesji^ 
HHRaRoro FojiyÓHHa h coB^^BajTB npHATH saBrpa nopaHBme, a oh^b 
AOJiosirrB, RorAa mosho Óy^erB boěth b*b RaÓHHerB. 

ÁHHa pimHJiacb HanHcaiB h^rojibro cjokb h norpeÓOBaia ($y- 
Main. Bit TO BpeMfl, saKi OHa nncajia, hbi saÓHHera pasjíajicfl npo- 
AOUKHTeJBHBift BBOHOKB. JEaBeĚ SHHyjCfl Ha nero co bcšx'b Hon. 

Anna 6pocHJia BanHCRy h npncJiyniHBaJiacB: luioca, mara no* 
CD'bmHBie. 3a6nFB Bce, ona nonua na Bcrp^ny. 

— Bo»e Moft... Mysa?! rojyÓHHa! KasHMH cyABtfaMB?? 

„Hy, XA9 Tasí H AOJSHO 6eitb, H ne Morao ÓHTBHHaHe!'' Anna 
CB yasacosTB HyBCTBOBajia, hto ea yjBiSBa ;(poaLHTB, 8acTHjaK)TB rjada 
FJiynHfl, ÓescHJiBHUfl cjlqseí^ BoropuiiH b% MHHyry cnacTJiHBaro hc- 
xoxa paspimaercfl noxasjíennoe BOJneme. 

— KaRi nonajfl bh jňmowb wh nerepÓyppB? — roBopon 02Bhb- 
jieHHO AjrleBi: — h hto 3a cnacTJHBafl ciynattHOCTb npesejia Bací 
RO ueí HMeHHO ceroAHfl! b^ab fl SKbcb na RopoTRoe BpeMfl, no f/bxj. 
HHRyxa HBiBBHe ne mopb BupBaTBca xo oceen, ÓesnpeciaHHO npHHys- 
]ífiwb HafeauiTB Hd^B IlaBJíOBCRa. IIpocTHre, hto 8totb AypaRi ne 
nycRaji Bac* — y Měna na btotb wera óojiBmifl crporocTH. Ho ne- 
Boxb: HEane bobmoshocth hštb ca&uitb HT0-Hu6yAB... Ho RaR!B se 
Bu nepeii^HHjiHCB! h a BairB cRasy — A^P^BOHCRofi sHTejiBHHi](š ci^- 
AOBajo 6u CMorplTB SAopoB^e. YaR^B bu Cojibhbi ne 6iuni jol? 

H*TB??... 

Anfben ycaAHJTB rociBK) btb CBoem RaÓHHeii. Owh caicB ne 
caAHJCfl H roBopHJii 6e9b yitojiRy, hto6u a^tb eft spěna ycnoROiTBCJi. 
Anna CMorp&ia na nero cb BOspacraiomHifB yAHBJíeHÍeifB: ona BHajEut 
H B% TO se BpeMji RaRi 6yAT0 ne yseaBajia ero. noneicy se eft Rasa* 
JOCB BcerAa, hto owb crapHRi? 

IIpaBAa, rycTue bojiocu 6ojBnie, híitb HanoiOBHHy, cbj^ue^ ho 
dTO yAHBHTejBHO HAen ri ftiaropoAHOMy, cierRa no&ieRnieMy jnn^y. 
Hsi^-noA^ p63RHX'B HepHHxi 6poBeft &iecTflTi nojHEie shshh, npo- 
HHSHBaionue rjiasa. IIojiosHTejBHO, ona ero nioxo noiiHua! Snajia 
H JODÓEM ero poMaHu, hohhejui Bcero ÓojiBQie ero 6ih80Ctb vh 



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MUPÁ»H. 87 

Asaí, ho camaa jíh^hoctb ciiyrHO pHCOBasacs CRBOSb npiiSMy nep- 
BOi lOHOCTH, TaKi n^e^po pacToqaH>ii],eft fi,muio^u na crapocTB. 

— O Heirt 8T0 Bhi sa^yManHCb? — cnpocHJi^ Ajiiesi jiacKOBO, 
Kor^a ÁHHa ne pascjcimajia BaBoro-io Bonpoca. 

— HpeACTaBbTe... a ycn'bj[a Bacx nosaÓHTb, mhí o^eHb co- 
bíctho! Ji BOO(ipasa;ia noneiiy-TO, hto bei crapHKi, BaB% h a^aq- 

— A-a! — pascM&iJiCfl AjiieBx: — ho b^ab 9to tojibko bu chh- 
TaiH ero crapHROiTB; eiiy úujio Bcero nflTBAecflrb jAtlI PoAHTejKH 
H tí, sto Hxi saMÍHflerB, nairb Bcer^a Rasyrca crapHRaMH. Ho 
CRaacHTe, aa ^t6 se pacnpocrpaHflTB 9to h na moha? 

Owb myTHiTB OHeHB xpjm,ecKE h c&9'b (te neio pujifiwb. Ho 
ÁHHa nepeciajia yjuOaTBCfl h nyBCTBOBajia ce6fl pasonapoBansoft. 
Bhtb MoaKeTB, ona h ne OTsasiiJiacb 6u bobco BopBaxBCfl ciOAa xaKi 
BHesauHO, eciH6:B paHBme BcrpŠTEJia cjiyqafiHO ÁJiieBa na yjiHi^. 
Ona nocn^niHJia pascRasaTB saipy^Henifl cb nacnoproH^B, ho h lyrh 
CMyxoiacB, ho snaji, RaB'B o^achhtb kb Asyxi cjiOBaxi CBoe crpan- 
Hoe (iircTBO hsi AOiiy. 

Asbevh CAymajix, BHHMaTCJiBHO BsrjiflxuBafl na Hee. E^Ba yio- 
BHMoe BBipaseHÍe ero ry6rB, npHKpuTun oahhmh ycanH, Óes- 
OTHerao BOJtHOBajio Anny. Ona AyM^^} ^o cežnaci se Bce pas- 
CMUBerB ony, hto bto Óy^era cobcšmi jierBO h ecrecTBeHHO. Hítb, 
HeBOSMOSHo aaroBopHTB cpasy 061 HCTHHHofi npHHHH^ 0TB'£3Aa. Ona 
^ryBciBOBajia, qio RpacH^eirB, a oh'b mosotb hohatb aro BorB sHaerB 

KáKB... 

O, saHÍMi OHa npHmjia!.. Rasoe peÓa^ecTBO Me^TaTB, wio 
s^icB yi^šj&io qro-HHÓyAB npesnee, rb crapue kP^^m, ROTopne 
noKpoBHTejiBCTBOBajiH ero a^bo^b^, h c% kotophmh ona qyBCTBOBajia 

Cefil SaiTB Cb pOAHUMH! 

— Bbi noccopHJiHCB CTb CpaiOM-B? — cnpocHJi^B npocTO Aji-ieBi, 
He riflAfl Ha nee. 

— O, wbvhj wbrbll to-octb, ^a, noccopHjiacB cb ero senoft... 
2 HanHcaJia, mhš buhlsdtb nacnopTi na ahaxi. 

— flfi? Fm... Bu ne onraĎaerecB na btotb chctb? — hocmot- 
pifB saAymHBO AjišeBi. 

— KaK% oniH6aH)CB?! SI coBepnieHHOJ[']&THflfl. 

— Ho 3T0 caMBift jyqmifi chocoÓ-b sacraBHTB BacB BepnyTBCfl. 
He ^aio, He snaK), eoho^ho! Bo bcaboiicb cjiywik, npottA^i^ nt- 
CKoiBso BpeneHH. PasyMŠercfl, a CB^sy wb Bamy rocxHHHHi^y n 
BosBMy BaeB, TaBx CBasaTB^ Ha nopyBH. Tojibbo ht6 se bu CTa- 
Here fikmuh vh Hereptíypri jiítowb? 

Asbewh Bcras^B h no hphbutoí aaABHrajicfl vh pasxyMBi no 
BQMHari. 



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88 BftCTHHŠ^ EBPOnU. 

— npocTHTe, S9i6wn> Bame hma! Bací Bcer^a Bcb snajiH My3oft. 

— Měna HHKorAa hotoitb TaKx ne seaiH, HHKorAa 6aibine! — 
BupBajiocB cb rope^BH) y Ahhu. 

Kor;^a Ajiíesy ciyqajocb noHeMy-HH(5y;íL BcnoMEHaiB o npeiecr- 
Hofi MajeHbKoft Mys*, hm 6y;íymH0CTb cocTaBjfaJia saBÍTHyio sa- 
6oTy ero (5i;íHaro Apyra, cepwe ero Kam^HĚpasi csHirajiocB 6e3- 
OT^exHOft aajiocTBH). Tenept ae oht* ne coBra^Baica óoJiBme, ^to 
OHa flíftcTBHxejiBHO HecTOCTHa H He o;íHa ccopa cb HeBÍCTKoft sa- 
craBHJia ee &kaí&Th n^ Aouj. IlepeA^B hhmi chaíjisí seHii^HHa, 
sHBmafl ee oah^mh Me^TaMH, ne npessHflfl jr^BO^Ka, rpyóo Biipsan- 
Hafl H3^ npeBpacHaro, noarH^ecBaro Mipa, BOTopyio yBosEJii sa co- 
6oK) pacTOjrcrlBniifi noM^n^HBi. MnineJis noRasajicfl Tor^a jurrepaTopy 
o^eHb orpaHBHeHHUHi h Tocsy HaBOAfln^Hirb. 

— TaK-b KaK^ »e mhí ssaTb sací? — noj^omejrb Ajrbevh ex 
Ahh* Ch TaBoft HCBpeHHefi, noABynaioiiied .lacROĚ, hto Ky^Hre^bHaa 
OTiyaiíeHHOCTb na mhfb Hcnesja. 

— 3oBHTe, KaKi npeaR^e — aa^irb saM-b Moe hme? 

— Xopomo. Ho fl H roBopHTb óy^y KaK^ ch npesnefi My- 
30fi! SI cnporay: mtb CAÍiajia ona sa 3th ^^Ba cjiHmEOifb ro;ia? 

— OqeHb MHoro AypHoro! — aacarifeajacb ÁHHa nepBHO, h eft 
noKasajiocb, ito ero Hcnbrryiomift Bsopi npHHHMaeri crporoe bh- 
paa^Hie. — Ha^ero TaKoro ne c^^Jajia, o qeirB 6h ctomo roBO- 
pHTb, — npHÓaBHjia ona cepbesHO. 

— noHOMy »e laB^? 

— Jl^-a-a! 9T0 — Bonpocb!.. HiiKOjaft HHKOJiaeBHq^b, vk]íj> a ne w 
poMTb npHmjia K-b BaMx cero^na. JíafiTe mhí coBÍrb! Y KoroaeMB* 
npocHTb ero, ecra ne y Bacb?! He TOJibKO bo hma Apya^H K-b jifijíjh 
— ffferb, no ^ejiOBinecTBy, norony hto bu h3% tíxx, Koropue npH- 
SBaHH pasiflCHflTb H yqnrb. 

— Hy, 3T0 yaťb cJiHniKOMi> MHOro! — yciffanyjica Ajrbewh 
CHHcxoAHTejibHo: — na poja y^areM a OTHio^b He nperenj^yio. Ho 
Bani, jik>6hmhi^ Moero ^opororo ^pyra, ^bohk'6, BiipocraBmeft na 
MOHX^ raaaaxx, — Bairb, kohotoo, ji pa^^x ÓHTb nojieaHLiMx Moeft 
onuTHOCTbK), ecjiH TOJibKO Mory. O^HaKO Bani Hyaseffb coBÍTb, ko- 
Toparo ne Morb A&xb caifb Bamx Óparb? 

— Moft 6paTb Měna niatHO JiioÓHTb, mh o^enb ípyatHBi, ho 
OH-b ne xo^eTB OTnycTHTb Měna ^oópoBOJibHO, a a ne b-b CHjiaxi 
aiHTb TaM^b jifijibme. 

— SI HOHHMaK). Bu Bce Bpena shjeh bi a^P^bh*? 

— Hirb, He Bce Bpena. Bh ne jíyMaere jh, tto a CKyqajia xairb? 

— A, nírb! 3to cjiobo rjiynoe, h a npHBHKi npHMÍnaTb ero 



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MHPASH. 89 

losbw Kh nycTHiťB jnoflflwb. TaRaa A'bByinRa, Raní bíi, Besxh nafi- 
ACTi ce(H& sÍjo. 

— Ki CTH;(y MoeMy, a ne nanua! — BuroBopn^a ÁHHa thxo, 
aciOHflfl HesoJiBHO TeHHyK) rojiOBRy. 

PasBŽ OHa saT^M^ npHnuia cfOffiL^ hto^u HCnoB^AOBaTBOi? Tanafl 
norpe^HOCTB nponajuL y Hea cb toS MHHyTU, RaR^B ona yBH^ajia nepexb 
C06010 He no^TeHHaro CTapHRá, RaRHMi ona BOo6pafluuia ce<$^ 
AiieBa, a ^ejiOBŠRa no BHjo^y HeMHOrim^b erapme CxpoeBa. Hítb! eft 
HyxHo OTE Hero oaho tojibro onpeA^eHHoe HH^HÍe, HH^ero óojfBme. 

— Si coBctifB H ne HCRaja ^yroro x^a, noMHHO Toro, rb ro- 
TopoMy roTOBHJiacB, — BBiroBopHjia OHa. 

— O^HaRoat^B, OHO He y^íOBJíeiBopnenb BacB? 

— Rto CRasajiTB?! Hštb, hštb! bu pasB^ 8a($uJiH? b^ab a ne 
Aoy^oHjgiacB; a aojíxbb. yiHTBCfl, ^oJisna pa6oTaTB ne TaMi, ne OAHa! 

Ji COGCTBeHHBIX^B CHJTB e^c He dflaH). 

AjrieBi HH^ero ne roBopHJi'B. Ero npHcrajiBHiift b8tjlíijs,t> RaRi 
6jjijo HpoHHRaj['B vb canyH) Ayniy h BiiiarEBaji nai nea cjosa, 
Bce 6ojrite H Cojťie cÓHB^nEmufl h BSBOJTHOBanniifl. 

— Ji sartiTB H upHHuia R^ BaM'B, *— roBopHJia Anna: — bu 
SHaiH MeHfl petieHROiTB, BHAajrn moh pa6oTii. . . Bbi ^ojurhh domhhtb 
vbíMsl h 0T3BIBH ^fl^; BHaeie, Mosera 6utb, h mRifl, RoropurB 
laá offB He BUCRaBHBajTB. Bii Momere pšmHTB, ecTB m y nens 
HacTOfl^^fi TasaHTB, Roropony 6u ctohjo hocbathtb bcI cboh cejeht. 

— Si ne Mory aroro piniHTB, h ne xy^oaRHERi! — OTHfrrHJTB 

AlieFB, OTXO^fl TpeBOSHO Aft^Hie R^B CTOJiy. 

— Bce paBHO — en^e noaMuiyĚ Jiyraie ;íaaBe! Bu tfoJCBmoft sna- 

TORB Vh SHBOnnCH, fl SHaH). y BaCB HesaBHCHMUfi B3rjflA^, HO 

riaBHoe, — wasnoe, bh xaRi xopomo anaere TO.iOBÍ^ecRyio Aymy! 

A^iewb SRBBO noBepnyjicfl r% neft: RaRoe, o^naRO, BÍpnoe, 
spbioe cysAeme! JIhi^o Ahhu nujiajio o6wmuwh újrbjí.BJEiwh py- 
MflEi^eiTB. IIpejiecTHEifi jioÓTí nepepiisaja JierRaa iiopn^HHRa; vy^H- 
TeiBHoe, HanpflseHHoe Biipasenie Bce pasropajrocB bi ii0TeMH'6B- 
ineiTB B3op6. Ona csRHHajia na roji^haxi pyRH h CHA&ia, bhta- 
HyBmHCB Bcefi erpofinofi ^erypoĚ, to^ho sx^a on nero cíh) mh- 
Hyry éesnoBopoTHaro np^roBopa. 

Ai^B^B npoBeJTB pyROio no BOJOcairB. 

— 9to ohchb cepBeBHHĚ BonpocB, — bhfobophjtb ohb thxo. 

H owh MOAJenHO Ba^BErajica no ROMHari, yme ne rja^s na 
AfiHy, BrjuiAUBaHCB vb OTBjreneHHEift o($pa8^, cnaraBrnifica vh ero 
^^affra3ÍH... Efiícxpora mucjih Hnor^a nopasHTeJiBHa. KaR% crapiifi 
Maerepi-xyAOSHHRB Ha6pac£iBaeTB ÓHcrpiiMH h p^nxHraiBHiíMH nrrpH- 
laMH BecB njiaHi Óy^yn^eĚ RapTHHBr, noJiBByflCB npH stoitb des- 



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90 MCTHI1B'& EBPOmi. 

cosHaTejbHO nponuuiťB omiroirb, RaB% OffB no^bsyercs rbwb na* 
crepcTBOMi TexHHKH, Ha KOTopoe noTpaTHJi KorAa-TO fiesAHvync^ 
Haro TpjAa h dHeprÍH, htoÓu HHBorAa 6ojbine He BcnoMEHaib o&h 
dTOiTB, a jmmh buboa'b — óuxb MOserB, MejuBift h HHHTOaLHutt — cjso- 
ssMTb 6epesH0 b^ oCn^yio cospoBHii^HHi^y, — xaR^ h onHTHufi xy- 
AOSHHinb cjĎBa naxoAHTb bi ce(^ roroBfiarB Bce xo^ htď eicy HysHO, 
mH> mtb co6paHOy uoflMfb^eno h yra^ano sa i^^yio shshb. Haxo- 
KBTh oiTB BupaÓoraHHfiíMH AO TOHBOCTH n^iuA cTopoHu xapasTepoBi 
H OTA^^HUfl Meibuftmifl Hepni, Bce, ht6 snaerB ne owb o^hh^b, a 
BasAuft HeiOBÍBí, HÓ ht6 toibbo nenoHATHUMi h HeyjfOBHuorB 
HanpflseHieM^B ero AyniH Mosers cauTBCfl bi rapMOHE^ecRÍi o^pa^B. 
HxoTBOÓpasB, no npeHMyn^eciBy^ ÓyAerB a&HBUMi, óyAerB acHiurB 

AJIfl BC&Ll, EOTOpufi COSAaH^B OAHHlfB APySHUHl nOpHBOlTB AyXOB- 

Huxi coiTB. Ohi saTMHTB Apyrpo, CTapaxeiBHo o6AyMaHHyH> h npo- 

HOTJDIBO CBOMÓHHHpOBaHHyK) 4^Hrypy, BOTOpott ne nOCHaCTJHBHJlOCB 

flBHTBca na cb^tb bi APysHHXi H MOH^Hux^B ooTyraxi TBopnecTBa. 
RasAufi xyAOSHHBi 3to nyBCTByen. KasAiift snaeirB CBimxi re- 

pOeB%, pOAHBHIHXCfl KB yCOpOHB'^''. 

II Ai^BB HyBCTBOBajTB, HTO TĎ, HTÍ) ciaraiocB Tenepb fb ero 
yifb, 611L10 6e8oniHtfoHHo: crpanHiift, oraie^ennuft ABottHHBi xhbcA 
seHQtHHu, CHA^Bmefi KB ero BaÓnnerb h Ópocasmefi na nero xpe- 
BoaBHue BsrjiHAfii. Mucih, poHBmiflCJi bi yM^, Óujm cnacrjiHBHfl mucih; 
OHÍ BcnjUBajiH roTOBUfl H flCHua Hsi TafiHHBOBi, rflib HAOTB sara- 
AOHHaa paóora, HeAOcrynHaa cosHaHÍK), ESBicTHaa eny tojbbo no 
oco6eHHOMy, hh na hto Apyroe HenoxoaBeiiy on^yn^emio. 

Ha MHHyry ohi ocranoBHicfl nepeA^B ÁHHoft, nocMorp&TB na 
Hee BaBi-TO coBcbwb HHa?e, xojioaho 6jecrlBiiiHMH rjasanH, h 

CA&iaJl fliCBOJIBBO OTpiIBOHHBIX'B BOIipOCOB^: 

— Bei Bce dTO Bpeiffl ne 6pocajiH sHBonHCH? . 

— H'&'rBy He Ópocaaa. 

— H BBI HOAOBOJIBHU TÍITB, HT6 CA&UtHO? 

— HeAOBOJiBHa. 

— BaMi HHHTO ne M&najio pafioxaTB? 

— HanpoTHBX, bcí yAOÓCTBa! y moha TfAnaa HacrepcBaa. 
Mimajo pasB^ to, ht6 BcerAa iriniaeTB... shshb... Eibrb, yHHTBca 
mhí HaAO Heo6xoAHMo! — npEtfaBHia Anna xpeBOSHO, yse Ha^Hnaa 
CMyTHO o6opoHflTBCfl HpOTHKB TOFO, Hero OH^ He CBasaJiTB en^e. 

AjtIoBI npHCJlOHEJICfl CHHHOft Bl OrpOMHOMy BHHSHOMy HiBa^^y, 

CB BEicoTu BOToparo CMOxp&Ji ero 6poH30Bufi ÓíoCThy qpesBBnaftHO 

HOXOaKÍft. 

— Ha BameMi vicrb a 6u ocraBHJi^B ary meica, — saroBopHXB 
OHI; TOHHO B% pa3AyMB'&: — noBŽpBTe, xa-iaHrB HHBorAa ne HrpaerB 



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MHPASH. 91 

Cl BaMH BX npflTRH TESl AOJTO! dHaHHTB, BII COMH^BaeTeCB, eCJIH 

mfifte OTB^Ta y Apyroro; dxo h ecTb totb OTstob, Boropiitt 
Bam Hy£eH'B. A ne zyaoshhki^ ho bc£ HCsyccTBa paBHu wh 
aioiTb OTHomeHÍH... nisojia, bu AyHaere?.. 3to He xasi mhofo, 
weh BaiTb sasercfl. nisojia iipii6aBirrB Eoe*HTO, ho ona ne mo- 
aterB cos^aTB xoro, nero wbrh. O, ^a, a^! — y BacB ecTi> naBipHoe 
HfeoTopufl cnocoÓHOCTH, H dTO BH 3HaeTe caMH, HO MeHfl Bu cnpamE- 
Baere ne o6i droMi, ne upásla jih? BuBaiOTB chocoChocth, boto- 
pHfl BHSHBaiOTCfl Ha cbštb HCByccTBeHHO, o6cTaHOBBOft H Bcer^a 
rjoxHyrE npn MaJio-MaiBCBH HeÓJiaronpiflTHuxi ycJiOBÚix'B. Ecihóu 
Bací ne saxB&iHJH cinmRoifB cb nepBBix'b marOKB, ecjnsúu ne 
rnaiH HCKyccTBenno^ RaR^B opansepegnoe pacreme „na naparb^, 
a npocro saeraBHJiH 6u npožTH CBoeBpeneHHO xopomyK) mROJiy... 
Wíy BipoflTHo, JĚSTb Bacib BinnejTB 6u SEBonncei^x hjih CRyjnnropi 
cpexHflro ypOBHfl. Ho ais tofo ^opcapoBannaro nyrH, ROTopuirb 
BacB BejiH, HysHO 6BIJ0 RpyoHoe h caMOÓurnoe A^pOBanie. O, 
6jfí,Te noKOfiHu, TaRÚi AapoBanifl ho rjoxHyrb! Bi hhxi ho comhí^- 
BaDTCfl, a ^yBCTByiOTb vb ce6ib emfi Torxa, sorAa h rhcth xep- 
an KB pyBaxi ne yMŠH)TB: Ror^a MajiioiOTrB yrojiBROirB na ct^h- 

UTB HJH MŠJSOMl Ha OHpORHHyTBIXl ÓOHRaXl!.. 

Aj^btb CMorp^i Vb npocrpancTBO h ho BH^arB, RaRi (5ji^- 
Hiia ero caymaiejiBHHiía. Ohi nporoBopHJTB nocs'bAHÍH ciOBa ci 
ropflUM'B, uporectyion^HirB meetowb: 

— HcRyccTBO TOJiBRO Ha HdBŠCTHoft CTyneHE HiffierB npaBO 
craxB A^OM'B SH8BH. 3x0 Moe rjiyÓORoe y6&RAeHÍe, h a jíftjasBBi^ 
iHCKasaTB ero, €Cjih ys^ bu cnpocHJiH iioero mh^híji. Bu, Mysa 
Qerpa FojiyÓHHa, ne vb npaB& hhbboahtb ero ffkio cb noAOÓaio- 
m,dk BucoTu h hath na romhpomhccu. dro ne snaHHrB, pasyirleTcs, 
HTofiu BU ne Bwbm npaBa saHHiiaTBCfl shbohhcbb)! Ho ajia Ah- 
lerraHTRH, yRpamaion^eft eio cboid shshb kb nacii Aocyra, bu 
sHaere coBepmenno AOcraxo^HO h ne HysAaerecB vb aRaAeiiiH. He 
■Xire AUBine sroro, h Bann lajiaHTB npenecerB Bani OAHy pa- 
IOCtb; HO nonpotfyfire ,,no<^aTHTB Bcb cboh cejiu"", RaRi bu ro- 
Bopvre, H BacB SAyrB BnepeAH canua yasacnua iiyRH: iiyRH 6eH' 
ouk. BacB noiyÓHTB HMenno to, ht6 btb BacB octb jiyqoiaro — 
ittnrB HSOH^peHHuJI BRyci h RpHTflqecRÍft B8rjiflA'B. Bu ne MOMeme 

XOBOJBCTBOBaTBCfl OOCpeACTBeHHOCTBK), BU HeCHOCOÓHU 6UTB CRpOM* 

wA TpjxenmífiŘ... bu... bu orpasjíeHu oiaBOft, a dro onacHuft 
i|>, HOBipBTe MH^!.. He BOSBpan^attxecB Ao6poBOJBHO na stotb 
nyTB, ecxH cana cyAB6a CBeja BacB Cb nero. 

OffB 6ucTpo noAomeix ki> Ahh'6. Ona ooiynBK), OABa paaiH^aa 
op^AMeru, HCRajia pyRofi no OTTOMaHR']^ cbok> nuuiny. 



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92 B^CTHUKl EBPOnU. 

— SI BacB o^opTOJI^? bu BOSHeHaBHAHTe Mera?.. E mofb 

OTBÍ|THTB TOJIBRO leCTHO Ha Bain'B BOnpOCB. 

— Efbvh^ HŠTb... Bce CBflTafl npaBAa. 3. SHajia caifa, AaBHO, — 
npoHBHecia ona BHesanHO oxpHnmHMi rojioeoHi. 

— EpocBTe mjany, a ne nyu^y BacB! PaaBf6 bu toibro sa 
axiiirb npsmjiH ro mhÍ? 

— TojiBBo 3a dTHMi: ycjiEimaTB hsi nyatHxi ycn — ne naio- 
AymecTByfi nocniAHO, ne saBpuBafi rjiasi cosHaTejiBHo! Bbi npaBU 
— aTo ysacHO, jífi EaBoU crenesH bbi opasu! ILioxie apTEcru hh 
Ha TTO ne nysHu. 

— Si nory omBÓaTBCfl. & ne BHAajrb Bamuxii oocjíahhxi 
pa6oTb. 

— Si BaiTb csadajia yse, hto ohž hjioxh. CnacH^o BaM:B, Hh- 
BOiafi HHBOJiaeBH^x; ropbRyio npaB^y roBopHXb ne JierRO, a. bto 
noHHMaio. 

Ona onn^ajracb. Aji^b^ ho^th saČHBajTB o neft, pa3BHBafl ch 
yBJíeHemeiTB cbok> mucib, Boropafl o^enb saHHMaja ero. TenepB 
owh CMorp^^ na Anny h sfo6oBajica. neBOJiBHO BiipaseníeM^ rjy- 
6oROfi neqajni, TyManraniHirE es. ^epru, RaRi 6yAT0 orpaaceHÍeirB 
CTapoft, naÓojrj&Bmeg MyRH, ho ne oiflTeHieirB BHesanHaro, ome- 
jioiuflion^aro y^apa. 

Jifiky AjT&eB^ ne CRasajrB Ahhí Hsqero Hosaro, ho tto-to Cb 
SHBoft 6o;iBK> oóopBaiocB Bi ea cepAici^. GCbehatb ce6fl caMony 
HJiH ycjiumaTB totb se npHroBopi hbi lysHxi ycn — ne oaho h 
TO se. 

Anna na^^a nuianRy h noAH&iacb na hoiu ycramirB xBHse- 
HÍeHx. Ajňevb RaRi ($yATO TenepB tojlbro jBmKbjn> jícho CBofi no- 
crynoR^. Oh-b ohatb BBipasHJii na^esAy, ^'to ona ne upsA^cri^ 
p^maiDm^ro SHaneHifl ero mh^hík>; hooóxoahmo npiiBesTH hbx ajč^ 
peBHH efl BapTHHH H OTAaTB Hxi Ha cyA'B npncflSHux'B xyxos- 

HHROB^B. 

— IIoBpeMeHHTe neiíHoro! — nunajcfl ohi yjepsaTB cboio 
rocTBK): — HeysejH bbi AOBOJiBCTByerecB TaRHin. OTpHi^aTeiBHuirB 
peByjiBTaTOMi? Ho ho& cob^ti aa^^ro ne TaRTB ÓesnjioAeHi, BajKB 
BaiTB RasoTCfll & HOBTopH) en^e pasi: a^ TaRHx^B seniiprai, Bas^B 
BBI, A^o BcerAa nafiA^cfl* 

Ho Anna tojbro ycM^XHyjiacB na aro cb xaRHirB ropBBHicB 
capRasHOMi, HTO ero ptsHyjíO no cepAiíy... 

Aji^btb nošxajTB bm^ctí Ch neu> vh rocTHHHHi^y h 6ea^ 6ojib- 
moro TpyAa yjiaAHJTb a'^o cb nponHCROĚ ao bbiceuíre hsi AopeBHs 
saBOHHaro bha&- 



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MHPAďlH. 93 



XLH. 



BiiBaerL, hto mu BHesanHO notAreirB cmhcjtb sasoro-HHÓyAB 
BHpasemfl, Koropoe ynoTpeÓJifljiH bch> cboh> sh3hb, ne sa^yMiiBaflCB 

HaffB HHITB. TOTB, KTO nepBHft CSasaJIl, ^TO HITb OBJa^ÍJIO XOAOd- 

Hoe (mHcMHtey Han&pHoe HcnnTUBaji^ laRofi ase OTBpaxHTeiiBHbifi, 
ýH3iraecRÍfi xojiOAi, RaRofi ^BCxBOBajia ÁHea fb npeJiecTHiie aBry- 
CTOBCEÍe AHH, Wh ^^ymHOMi Hynepi rocTETHHHi^u. Ohi npoHHSBiBaji^ 
ee BCH), sacraBMJix cepwe ÓHTBca cjiafiie, mhcjib — meBejiHiBca wh 
ii03ry CB My^HTejiBHinrB ycHJiieirB. ÁHHa i^'&![£imh ^lacaMH jieacajra 
Ha spoBaTH FB Tflsejiofi anaTÍH, sejaji oahofo: KaRi-HHÓyAB co- 
rpkBCfl. HysHO oÓ^ynaTB CBoe no;[0»eHÍe, ne xepflfl BpeMeHn, 
HpHHUTB RaBoe-HHÓyAB p^meHÍe. Bce pasjíeT^ocB vh jipeóesrH bo- 
KpyrB Hefl, ÓJiarúr HairipeHÍfl h saB^THUfl iie^TH... Ee npnxjionHyjio 
TOHHO rpoÓOBOĚ BpBimBott óesnoqaAHoe cjiobo, BUCBasaHHoe A.i^- 
BHiTB CB npHMOTOĚ MEicjiHTejifl; A^psaioii^aro npoHSHecTH npaBAH- 
ByK) xapaRTepHCTHBy. Ona ocrajiacB Ha pacnyTE'& h ne Moria 
TpoHyiBca HH BnepeA'B, hh nasa^^-B. He Morja BepnyTBCfl no^i KpoB^ 
MapBH IlaBJíOBHEi, BOTopofi jí,u9, cjiOBO yšxaTB, HO Be SHajia TaRse, 
fflSL nero efi shtb o;^ho@ fb Herep^ypí^. Ona BanperB naBHJUBOHi^ 

I He BOSBMCTB HBl HerO HH O^íHOft BeHÍH. Co«KeTB BC4 CBOH HO- 

jOTBa, pasoÓBero nincii, UHRor^a bi shbhh ne BOSBMeTB wh pyRH 
Eicrei... 

Anna ^ynajia xojioaho h choroůho o CrpoeFi, oCflymiBafl to, 
mib HannnieT^ eny; na^ajia js^xe hhcbmo, ho efi xpy^HO Óeijo hh- 
caTB, h ona ptmHJia, hto aoroh^htb ero noHCMHory, ne ToponacB. 
Ona ne cranerB o6MaH£iBaTB, CRaserB Bce, Hrb ecTB, Ona ne jih)- 
ůvn ero, ho ecJH oh-b xohotb — ona noHHTaercfl coB^aiB ji^is hhxi 
CHOCHyK) SH3HB. Ohh o6a HHBajrnAu h c^yn^iOTB OTHecrncB ($e- 
pesHo spyrB rx Apyry. Mhcjib no crapofi naifflTH BOSBpan^ajiacB 
Ki Hjany, na nojiOBHHy ocyn^ecTBJíeHHOMy, h Roropiifi ipeÓOBajTB 
noaroMy on nea Bcero neHBrae ycHJiift. „He Bce jih pasno!" — ro- 
BopHJia ona ce^ ÓesnpecraHHO... 

ÁHHa npoBejia TaR^B ^Ba ^hh, ne c^nrafl ytf^raBíHHXi ^acoFB h 
He BsfiAfl hh pa3y na y^Hi^y. 3a crlHoft no npesneify no yrpam 
pasy^HBajiH poMaHCu, a BenepoirB nIjiH istb ROicy-TO onenB CRBepno. 
FcMoca cocixefi cji^Ba cjiumajiHCB pl»e. HaRonei^i^ na rperifi abhb 
n Ahhí nocry^aiHCB, ho, bit^cto ÁjriteBa, o RoropoMi ona noxy- 
Maxa cefi^aci se, bi nyMepi Bomejii Osornn^. 

— EaR'B Bu pasucRajiH Měna?! Kto BaifB nosBOJiHJii?! — Bcrp*- 
Tua ero Anna HenpiflSHeHHO. 



t. ,- 



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^4 BWTBEKh BBPOnH. 

Xjjifis&WBKh ysHaii fb 3aji'6cb% h npHBesi efi iracbMO otb 
MHmeJUi. HamejTB ee^ paaucKHBafl noo^epe^HO bo BckTh éojrBiiraxi 
rocTBHHBi^axi. IIoBa ÁHHa ^HTaia nHCbMO, OsorsHi croajrB y 
OKHa, crapaflCL cosjraxaTB cb cbohmx BOjrHeeieirB. £ro nopasiu^B 

HeCWCTHUfi BHAX AhHU. 

— H BII He csasajiH MHinejíK), hto a BepnyrbCA se Mory?!.. 
?T0 owb (5yAerL tojibro HanpacHO xepsaTb ce5fl h uensi noAoCHínm 
iiHCLMaMH?.. Bu jí,0JL7BiBu 6u^ DO RpafiHefi Bftp^, BHaTb 3To! — nociu* 
majcfl sa ero cnHHofi THxift, norepaBinifi bck) ssy^HocTb, rojocb 
Ahhh. 

— MflxaHJii BsaAHMÍpoBHH^ BnojsHÍ yB^peHi, ^to bu eepee- 
Tecb. FocnoAHH^ Ctpocbb yB^peni bi dxoMi enie 6oJihme. 

ÁHHa MOJí^ajia, noHHBHyffb rojiOBOi na pyny. 

— SI ne SHaH), mib npoHsomjo: MH'b CBadan, (JyATO bgi ne- 
B^cra Crpoesa... IIpaB^a aro?? Si ne noB^pejb! Bu npHBejiH b^ 
HcnojraeHÍe CBoe xasHimiHee seiaHÍe h iipi'6xaj[E cioia y^HTECfl, 
He npaBAa jih, Anna? KaBx 6u a. hh óhjix BHBOBaTb aepeA'B saiiH, 
BO HMfl npomjiaro, bo hmb HameĚ crapoft Apys6u, x xony h 
HM^K) npaBO snaTb bck) npaBAy!! 

Anna noAHBJía rojOBy h h^kojibbo ceByHA^B CMOTpiJia eaty vb 
mufl Ch HeBupasHMO-ropbRod ycMŠnrBofi. Ohi SHajrb Bd ea Meqru! 
Oh% ropflHO noMepsBBajTB bi nefi CJiaj^RyK) HjijnD3ÍK), xoTopyK) 
Mor^a pa8(5HTb paBHOAymHO h ÓesnoBopoTHO ^rojibBO nysaji pyna. 

— Bce KOH^eno, OzRorHHi. yHHTbca neneMy; a HHKorxa 
6oxhme ne Bosbiiy RHcreft vb pyRH. ^aK) bi aioifb ^ecTHoe csobo... 
nepe^^B isaMB, — ciymaĚTe Měna xoporaeHbRo! 

— KoHei^?.. RaRoft ROHei^b?! KaRi oho mofjo ROH^smcH, 
He HaqaBHiBCb?.. Bu bi RaRoirb-TO crpaHHOirB Hacrpoemn... 

— Ji^a! Bi oHeHb crpaHHOirb! ch bbmji HaRor^a ne oiy^ajiocB, 

TTOÓU RTO^HHÓy^b BUCRasadlX BCJiyXli CBOH MUCIH o BaCB, H BH 6u 

yciumajm vb dtowb non-wb-no^b to caMoe, ht6 ;iaBHO cosHasajEH, 
HO TOXbRO MajiOAyniHO orranEBajiH? 

— OrRyjia Bsajca TaRoft opaRyjrb?! 

— O, AOcraTO^HO aBTopHTerHuft, Mosere Óun horoíhh he 
aion CHerb! OcraBHirb bto pasi HaBcer^a! ne cnpamHBaftre uena^ 
HHROFAa... HHRorAa!.. Boffb na crojrb aesBTb nawroe nHcuio. 
OrpoeBi He omaóca. ToibRO a ne Bepnycb tfojbme vb 3ajr6cBe. 

Anna OTRHHyjia rojiOBy na cnHHRy x^Bana h desfb BOspasseHift, 
Tepn&iHBO cjiymajia Bce, Trb xyxosHBR^ roBopEjrb efi, posHyac^^ 
Buxoxa B3i ce6a. Ona h OrpoeBi! — MonierB jih 7ro-HH($y7(K 6utí\ 
6e8yMH'&e aroro?! ELih ona en^e ne snaerB ce6a, ne noHiiMaei-& 
Tio ne et shtb <5e9B paxocTH, 6e3i csira h diecsa?.. ^rb cxa 



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MHPAlBn. 95 

jocB ch HeH> sa oaho jfíto — ne shshh cb 9thmi ^^eJOB^ROBTB, a 

TOIBBO yCHjift CdlHSHTBCfl CB HHMl!.. H paSB^ MOFJO 6UTB HHa^e! 

Ohi h TenepB msJberb bhat* Basoro-TO flCHOBHAfliQAro, npcdpisaio* 
maro Bi óyíymee, bbi4cto Toro, hto6h npocro, no-^ejOBiqecKH 
noTepjiTB rojiOBy on OTnasHÍfl. H^tb, hí^t^! Ett Hyseni shbo& 

leiOBÍKly co CTpaCTBH) H B^^pofi, CB SH3HBK>, BOTOpafl RHnHTB Bne* 

^tj^^híamh. Ona ryÓHTB ce6fl h3i BejiHKOAymífl, ho 3to poBosafl 
oiiiH($sa: OHa ne CA'kiaerB ero ciacTJiHBUBrB, ecjiH Óy^erB HecnacTHa 
Okna... 

XyAOSHBR^ pasBepeAHjrx Bce, nib oc-íjio tojibbo-hto Ha ah4 AyniH 
noA rHeroiTB Tfla^ejroŠ anaTÍn. B% nanaTH Ahhei npoifejBBHyja 

nOCiiAHflfl HOHB B^ naBEJBOHŠ, H OHa CHOBa nO^yBCTBOBaJia TOTB 

y3sacB, KOTopufi OBjaA^'B eio lor^a npn oahoě mbicíth o Bcrpb^ 
co OrpoeBEni^. Ona BCRO^BJía cb CBoero ^icm, uevojsjfomfiíSí. 

— JI^OBOJBHO! Sa^llfB BU npHHIJIH HyHETB MOHA?! RtO BBaJIl 

Bací? He BaiťB y^epaiaTB Menfl. 

— Bbi (5u paBHOAyniHO BBicJiymajiH moh ciOBa, ecJiEÓu bi 
HHii ne Óujio npaBAu! — nepeÓHJix ee Osofhhb, saAQxaflCB. - 

Ohh Bcrp^msHCB rjiasaME, h o6a BU^epsuBara hícrojibro ce- 

KyH^l, TOHHO MŠpflflCB CHJiaMH. 

— Bce paBHo! — ycMfenyjacB xojoího Anna: — mh4 Hnqero 
6oAme He ocraiocB, h a Bufa^y 3a OrpoeBa. 

— H 8T0 roBopHTe BH, BH, ÁHHa!— BCHjecHyji^ pyRaMH xy- 
XOSHHRi. — nocjiy magie... ecjiH BairB Bce paBHO... eciiH bei ne jio- 
(Svre OrpoeBa, RaR'B ne jnoóume hhrofo Apyroro, — BaniirB beióh- 
paere bu HMenno ero?.. IIosBOJiBTe, A^fire mh% CRasaTB! ?t6 BairB 
eiOHTB BuciymaTB moh cJiOBa, ^ase ecjin ohh h ÓesyMHEi? Si B%q- 
HHt MajiB^HR^B vb BaHiHxi TJiaBaxi. Bu ne saMinaere, crojibro h 
nepesKi-B, — ne saiť^^iaore noTOicy, tto sto cx^aiH bu. IIycn> 
TaKi! Eqe hícrojibro jištb, h 9Toti» caMufl HajrBHHRi 6yAeTB hs- 
Bicreni — h botb oaho, ^Tb mofjio 6u yAOBjrexBopHTB Bací! Jía, ohb 
(řyjCTB, 6Y^eTb HSB-krreH^B. Ohi mosctb ;íaTB BairB Bce to, wtb 

BaiTB HySHO, OWb BaCB SOBOTB Ha HOB^pnClfi, HO yBJrOBaTeJIBHBEtt, 

Ha CBflTOft nyTB aprHcra! IlycTB Aaace BanrB coÓCTseHHíit TajanrB ne 

J^OBOIBHO CHJOHB — HTÓ Sa &b}l,H,? Vh OÓH^eiTB, Vh HameiTB OÓH^eifB 

X&ii, Anna, h ohx Bce-xaRH Oy^en sna^aTB mhofoI HeyxejiH bu 
He ^jBCTByere caMH, hto a npaBX?? Mu Bcero AOCTHraeMi B^^BoeMi. 
Ba OHflTB ÓyAere MysoK, RaR^B npe^^e. SL bch) moh) shshb Óy^y 
otfozaTB BacB OAHy... Anna!! %ó h c;^ajii, ttoÓu bu 6buh 
iBirB riyxH vh uomwb M0.iB6a]rB?? 

Anna crofljia h ciymajia, sasaBi rjsíasa oaho& pyROfi. 

BpOBB SBeH&ia bi ymax^B Osornna, ECRpu nejiBRajiH rb rjia- 



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96 BftCTHHR^B EBPOmi. 

saxi. BnepBBie vh btotb mhtb eny iieibRHyjia Ha^esA^ h, EaR'B bhho^ 
y^apoia bi rojiOBy. 

— ÁHHal pasBŽ fl jih)6hjix sací ne paHbme, pasBi juoÓmjo ne 
tfojiBine HX'b Bd^xi?.! 

— 3aiio.iqHTe!! — onoMHioacb. HaBoneií-B, ;iÍByniKa. — Bce npaBxa, 
^b BH roBopHxe, ao nocjr^AHflro cJOBa! ^a, tojbro Tasas »i3hb, 
BaByK) Bu pEcyere, A^uia 6u uak nojHoe cnacrbe, ho b^ab a ne 
jmÓAío BacB, ÓsorHHi. O, saqšifB a hc Mory uojméwth Bacb!.. 
BaM^B, apTHcry, HeoÓxoxHMa HCTHEHaa jho^obb. Y BacB HačTOfluúft 
Ta.iaHrb. ÓoshuioŘ; Bact nory(JirrB — aboShoB rplx^b! H4tb, aroro a 
ne BOSBMy na cboh) xyniy* «S ne j[io6jik) BacB. yxo^Hie TenepB, 
JI^MHipit JI^HTpHTB, yxo^HTe CEoplbe! HaMi tfojiBme nenero cBasaTB 
ApyrB Apyry. 

Oh'b Óuji^ 6jAjsfin%^ a rjnasa. Basi ^sa yrjrfl, ropŠJiH na ero 
HCxyxajiOM^B joasib. 

— Henero? hítb, a CKaiEy eme oaho— nocjri&Anee. SI totobi 
SAaTB Bameft jho^bh, cbojbbo bu noTpeÓyere. Mu 6jjs,ewh xoBapH- 
n^aMH jLo Tofi MHHpEi, Kor^a Bu yBHAHxe BO MHŠ ne najiBHHBa, 
ROToparo BaiťB xasi xpy^no 3a($uTB, — yBn^^Te apiHcra, oi^eH- 
Haro js^ipYTEME. Tor^a bh Měna nojioÍHTe! 3to Óy^en, — « oto 
HyBCTByro. Byjen! . fl Óy^y ajaiB, Anna... 

— Bh comjH ch yMa! bu bx Koneitx pexHyjiHCB! 3a Koro, HaKO- 
nen'by BU iceHA npHHSMaeTe?!.. IIpon^aĚTe, Osopehi; a xpe^yio^ 

HT06u BU OCraBHJH MeHA. 

Ohi ymeji'B. Anna ocraxacB, norpAcennaA xo rjy6HHU AyinH. 
FA HHBorAa h sa yM'B He npHxoAHJo bha^tb bt> moioaomx xy^os- 
hhkí seHHxa; ho Ta KapxHHa, Roropyio owb fla6poca2i» nepe^^B Heio 
H^CROJiBRHMH ÓednopA^OHEUMH ApRHMH mrpHxaMH — 3Ta RapTHHa 3 a* 
TpoHyia Bcb $H5pu eA js,jum„, 

E Ror^a AHHa noAonma Ri crojiy, htoÓu aorohhhtb CRop^ 
nncBMO Ri CrpoeBy^ ona noHyBCTBOB&ia, ^rro to no^aBJíeHHoe co- 
CTOAHÍe, B% ROTopoBťB OHa Ha^aia nHcaTB ero, rohihjiocb h ne nep- 
HexcA tfOdiBme. 

Ona Mex^enHO pasopBa^a HanaToe nncBMO. 



XLm. 

Ha Apyrofi AGHb Anny sa^J^ hobhA ciopiipHsi: xoRTopi 3a- 
6oTHH^ TaR»e abhjca wb IIeTep6yprB pasucRHBaTB ee. 

no6uBaBi vh 3ajiicBÍ, BuciyniaBi HeroAyK)n^i& pa3CRa3i MapBH 
IlaBJOBHU H Óesna^esHUA d&TOBamA MemejiA, ^to Anna ne Bep- 



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HHPASH. 97 

Hercfl AOMOfi, noTOMy hto mhopo pas^ yse rposHja yixaTB óeorb 
ero corjacifl, OpecTB IlaEioBHHi npe^^osEJii OTnpaBETbca napjia- 
jf^repoiťb óojAe saxesHUM^, ^itb noTepABrnift rojiOBy OacorHHx. 
OpecTB IlaBJOBHq^B sHajKB Óojibme bcíxi. HecoMH'6HHO, ^to bto 
ÓBia Ta BpHTH^ecRafl MHHyxa bi sbbhh Ahhu, sorAa hh o^hh^b ^ejo- 
BfeKb He MOsen otb^wtb aa to, ?t6 ohi CA^aeTs. HeBtcra GTpoesa 
(%zadia! Bce ^laropasynie yHHaro AOBTopa nonuio npaxoirB. Owb 
He cKasajTE 6u, 3aH!lirb mceHEo oh'b 6pocaeTCfl sa neio ci^oscb, 
Kam CMyTHUA Ha^esAi^^ Basm sejiama bciuujih vh Aymi h sa- 

CIOHEIU CO6OK) BOe TO, ^TÍ> 0H1& SHaJIl TBOpAO O HeBOSMOSHOCTH 

no(opoTB aBTHnaTÍH) Ahau. OpecTi IlaBJíOBa^i BOBce ne pascys*^ 
xariy OHI npoero ne Morb ycHA*^ Ha irbcTJ^. HcTHEHiia crpacTH 

TfarB H OTJHiaiOTCfl, HTO Of6 He BHaiOrB HH JIOrHKH, HH OHeBHA- 
HOCTB. IIOAaBJíeHHUfl H yRpOH^eHHiiIfl yCHJliHMH BOJIH, OHŠ HOJIbSyiOTCH 

sasAoft on^OHiHOCTBH), nojEbsyiOTCfl najiiftniHiťb ociaÓ^senieirB 6ah* 
TeiBHOCTH, saxoe hphhochtb 3a co6ok> Bcaicafl HeosH^anHocTb, w& 
Toro, ^TotfH o6pocHTB ys^y h nepeBepHyxB nocBoeiiy mmesaz no- 
crpoenÍH sj^paBaro crnieia. JI^OBTOp^b roBopHJi ce6t, hto oh'b tojbko 
nocMorpHTB Ha Anny — bto jhoĎohutho... 

OsasaJOCL JH)(k)HiiTH6e, hími ohb AyHajTB. Opecri IlaBJíOBHqi 
He 3HajrB, cboibko CBonHJOCB wb js^ymb Ahhu paso^poBaniH vb ce6š 
H Bi ;(pyrHxi, ne BHajrb, Kasi dojito HaBHnaJiH vh nefi Bne?aTjrlHÍa, 
TO yflSBuionpfl H pasApasaion^ifl, to y^pynaionua, to B036yjBAaK>n^ifl. 
Offb He Mon» xyMaTb o AymeBHOifE paBnoBidn senn^HHii, Hsx-sa 
Koiopofi nuo OT^aflHHoe cocrasanie, ynopnoe xoMoraTejiBCTBO, to 

HpABCTBeHHOe HaCHlíe, BOTOpOe HH BO ^TO He CTaBHTCfl H He HOCHTE 

BOBce HMeHH CTOJb HpexocyjtHTejibHaro. Hhbto ne no^Boxerib ny- 
zHxi HToroFb. HHBoro He BacaoTCfl oón^ui cyiufa eiaraeiraxi, 

MeXXy BOTOpUMH OHI ^HFypHpyen Or^bHOfi BeJHHHHOft. 

OpecTB naBJOBHTb oacHAajii Ha&TH Anny orop^ennofi, ne^o- 
crynnoft, h 6ujrb npíflTHO y^HBJíeffb: vh efl oCpa^eniH Óujisl CTpan- 
Haa nepoBHOCTb, ho btb to se BpeMfl HeSuBajiaa TepnHMOCTb. Ha- 
^aja Anna cb Toro, ^ro na-OTpšsi OTBasajiacb npHH4S[Tb ero, ho 
o^eHb cRopo nepeifŠHHJia phneme. Ho RpaSnet M'lpi, ona ne 6yAeTi 
ojíHa H no-HOBOJrife oropBOTca xotb na BpoMH otb cbohxi 6e30TpaA- 
Hnx'B xjwbl JíflUTOipb Aepaumi ceófl secejo, jiK>(5e8HO h ne cn^- 
mejTB saTpoFHBaTB n^eKor^HBuxi BonpocoBi. 

„IIpaBO, OH^ yMHie hxi bcíx-b!" — no^ynaja Anna, Bor^a oh% 
pasa XBa BacraBHjrB ee HCRpenno pascMtflTBca. 

3a6oTHHa nopasnia Ayxora nynepa, Ha ROTopyio Anna AaBHO 
oepecraia o6pan^aTB BHHifame. %6, ecjiH&B ohh upoRaTEJHCB no 

ToMx ni.— Maí, 1889. 7 



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98 MCTEBJffh EBPOnU. 

ocrpoBaiTB? Oha cmotphtb o^eflB AypHO, h esisift Bos^yx^ ei 
CyAeTB nojiesesB. 

He Bce JIH paBHO, Rasi y($HTi» Bpeiui? Asst ($ujo npkTHO, «ito 
ee BUBOAfiUH H3% MyHHTejibHaro HenoABHSHaro cocroflHÍfl, hto A'b- 
jiaJTB dTO sa Bee bto-to xpyroi. IIoBaqHBaflCb na noAyniRax^B so* 
jflCBH, ona Hv o něm ne xynajia h pasctflHHO npHCJiyinHB&iacb si 
<$ojrTOBH'6 CBOero xaBajiepa. Oea n j[H>6oa£iTCTBO)rB npHrjjiAUBaJiacb 
RO BC^BfB BcrpÍTOUMi jHUtaiTB. BcTpšqajHCb Bce 6oxhme MOiOAue 
H Bcb BeceiLie. Cicojbko jkhbhh Bospyn!.. crojibbo shshe Bcn^ry, 
RyAa HH BsrjiflHeiiiB! Ona to^ho BOBce no6a($icia o&h BTOWb vh 
CBoeMi yrjiy. Ee oxBaTEiBajio HOBoe, Jiersoe, HeHHoro syrsoe nyBCTBO 
CBotioAu. Bnepe^H OTRpuBaerca HOBaa »si8hb, — ona HH^ero o Heft 
He BHaen, pinraiejEBHO Hiraero! aro ne sHaHHTB, pasyiri^ercfl, hto 
Bi Heft HH^ero h ne (Jy^era. 

YcaacEBaflCB bi soJiACsy, Anna CBasaia cefii, hto H'6Tb naAotf- 

HOCTU TOpOHHTbCfl CB nHCBMOM^B R-L OrpOeBy. KOF^a dRHnaaCl BH- 

ixBjn> na RaMennoocrpoBCRÍft npocneRTB, ona TaR'B se (SesnpH- 
HHHHO, q[)eAH coBepmesHO nocropoHHBXi loicieft, no^ynaja, hto 
HanHineTB HenpeM^HHO ceroAHfl se, RaR'B tojsbro Bepaercfl. Ha dron 
pasi yse HaB^Hoe, h iihci>mo totobo b^ ynt, xotb aaa ne snajia, 
Ror^a se HMenno ona o^^ynajia ero... H B^pyn crajo nycro^ to^ho 
ona ceftnacb noxopoHHja Roro-HH6y;íB. ^.To6u sarjymHTb bto omy- 
n^enie, AnHa npvciymajiacB BHnwaTejiBH'&e: ^lORiop^B xose roBopHji'B 
o OrpoeBt. OneHB ocroposHo. Ona BHx^a, r^t owb ne p^aerca 
H npotfyeTB ApysecRH-myTjiHBBift towl. Hy, pasB^aRe ne yKHm^a?! 
Ona TaR^ xopomo ero snajia, hto nOHHMajia BCARys) ero CHopoBRy 
H RaR'B ójji^TO Aaa^e jiio6oBajiacB. Owb cobcšm-b ne BOBMymiajrB ee 
6ojBine. Osa saciťifljiacB, Ror^a oh'b npHHflJiai laRi se myrjHBO 
^^osasuBaTB, wto Bcero 6u ywaie ona nocrynEJia, ecjia&h Bsajia vh 
MysBfl ero, 3a(5oTHHa. CrpoeBa ohi^ BHA'krB He^aBso, roBopHjťB 
Cb HHiťB ^(OBOJBHO AOJuro; OH^ 3aB'bpflerB ee CBoeio HecTBH) Epana, 

^0 HX'B SHJieií'B H^H CaSťB COft^i^eTB CB yMa, HJE H BTopyK) seHy 

CBOK) sacraBETB OTpaBHTBCfl — Ha 9Torh pasi yse HecoMH'6HHo 
;io6poBo;iBHo! OsorinrB HCRpenno jnotiHTB ee, ho 3to MHJiuft MajB- 
i(HR'B, He (to^iBme. 

— TojBRO a-TO ne ctok) 3Toro MajrBTORa! — nepeÓHja ero Anna 
CB BHe3anH0fi ropflHHOCiBH).— Y nero hcthhhuí Taiann, orpoMHaa 
Óy^ymnocTB, ero ryÓHTB a, Rone^no, ne crany! 

^^Fm... lyóumbl. MU, o^naRO, vb Hacrpoenin oqeHB u onenB onač- 
hoitb", — otmšthjTB ceírfe j^ORTopx. 

Ohi craji^B eme ocToposHte. Bi> ero oópamema noflBH.iacB Boace 



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MHPAXU, 99 

flecBoicTBesHafl eny Marsafl BBpaAHHBOCTB,— to^ho y KoniBH, npH* 
q>flTaBinefi Borra n npun^ypHBineft XHo^aue Bsopu. 

Bi BasAOBťL Bonpoci cjvbujerb bsbíchti* cosepmeHEO x^a^HO- 
spoBHO Bce — pro h contra. Eft nysna cooÓOAa bo hto 6u to hh 
<TUO — oeraercfl buSth saicysi. Éro npeHicyn^ecTBa ho tasí ys^ 
iiaiOBasHiii: Basi ^eJiOBto'B BnoJiHib HCRpeHHÍ&, owb n ovh ebsl ho 
norpeóyeTB jHi^eMipífl. H OffB noBHHaerB ea narypy, KaR'B hebto 
ApyroA. Ohi ÝHjioco(|)%y a bi shbhh 8to Bce! Ci tohbh spiHifl 
naTeplajiLHofi, ohi» dy^en hochts ee Ha pysax-L h yraji^uBaTb ea 
seiaaifl. Ohi* ho &bfi,ewb h HRBOrji^a ne Cbijtb eBya'B; ÓpocnT^ cjys6y, 
flepe^AOTb Bi nereptfyppB, ohh c%idAsivh 3a rpaHHi^y, ecjia efi yroAHO. 

0(Íl dTOITb CTOHTB HO^yMaTB. CípOOBl, Bl BOHI^'& BOHI^OB'B, HaA^HOTB 

na Hee Beporn u HOcaji(HTb na utbó^h h na BOAy. V Osornna b'b 
lapiiaH-b OAH^ Ha^esAU na „orpoMHyio Cy^y^HOcri*^. 

— Xoporao, xopomo! a oÓ-b dioM-B HenpeMÍHHO noAyMaio! — 
^aiiajKacb Anna. — A lenepE, OpecTB TlaBzoBUHi, nosa a eo^e npH- 
Bapesy, cjaBa Bory, ce&b caMOfi, npHBasHTe, Hoauuyflcra, synepy 
jiOBepsyrB. Ilopa o($^AftTE. 

Opecn naBJ[0BHH'B BOscrajrB. HeysejiH pa^a o6£a& ohh aoji»hii 
eepHyTBCfl bi rq[K>A'B? IIooÓiAaTb mo»ho BesA^. 

— Bi pecTOpani ci BaMH?.. S. ne sejiaia, — o6iflBHJia Anna 

<yTKpOBeHHO. 

— j!li'hi[aTi> Henero, 3a£AeM% TorAa bi» jiaBoqBy, BynHMi npoBH3ÍH 
a ymiHMi CBoft anneiHrB, ne buxoah Hd'B bojhcbh. !3to ÓyAeTB b^ 
BHCoBofi cxeneHH maavais genre, ho saio bhojhí óesonacHO. 

— Bii nojiaraere, ^to a c^iHTaio o&bxh cb BaicH onacHUMx? 

— B'B npoTHBHOiTB cjiyw^, HO^eMy se bei OTBasuBaerecb? 

— Xopomo. npHBasHTe eny ixatb; ta* 8to? 

Bce paBHO, ecjin aro h ne coBciin npHj[H4H0. HaAO npuBUBaTB 
BorAa-HH($yAB kt> caMOcroaTeiBHOCTH, ne ryBepnanTRy aie efi saBecTii 
te&b. 3a6oTflHi» Anny nojo»HTejBHO 3a6aBjiaji'B ceroAHa. CosHaHie 
«F0 jk)6bh ne crtcHaerB hhcbojbbo, xotb ona bi nefi h ne comhí- 
Baercfl. HecHacrnaro Osornna ona sa noojA^nee BpoMa ne Moa^erB 
bhaítb paBHOAyniHO, cepAi^e Óojihtb! O Orpoea^ ona ji^eoíe Ay^aiB 
&e vb cocTOflHÍH 6ojibme. 

„nepeA'B OTEMi HejibSfl 6utb BunoBaioft'', noAucsajia ona ciy- 
^fiHO otiiacHenie CBOOMy HacrpoenÍK)... 

KoHeHHO, Ahhí HHBOPAa paHBme ne csy^iajiocB GuBaiB TaB'B b^ 
aaropoAHuxx pecTopaHax'B. KorAa-io feAHJiH na TňSLCMBinuík naKHH* 
BOifi orpoMHOfi BOifnameft, pasa ABa, 6utb mosotb. Bu.io dio^ 
AOJisHO 6hiiby He SA^CB. Ona c% jiioGonuTCTBOMi) npncMaTpHBajacB: 
usseHHUfl BaHAejia6pBi, RorAa aa cnyiAeHHUMu rapAHHaMii eu^e 



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100 BlbCTHHKl BBPOnU. 

I^pHTB A^HS. HaRpHTHft CTOIl, BCfl K0lc4>0pTa6eJIBHafl 06CTaH0BKa 

yeAHHeHHofi ROMsaTu h oco6eHHoe, CAepsaHHO-BOdfiyasAeHHoe na- 
crpoeHie ea cnyTHHRa, Bce dxo 6ujio hobo h aaHHMajio ÁHHy. Opecrs- 
IlaBJíOBH^ EaK'B 6yAT0 noMaiOA'ÍA'B. IIpuBU^Haa cyxas yciťl^inKa hb 
pasy He noABjífljiacb sa ero Jiisni'^ oasa esfouHCb sa creRjraiai;. 

RaRÍfl-TO HOBUfl, CHHnaTHHHUfl HOTEI SBeH^JIH Vh VOMOk. 

„Oht» MOflierB ÓHXb xoponiHMi iipiaTejieirB! — noAyifajíOCb He- 
BOJBBO Abh']^. — He HysHO TOJiBRO Tpe6oBaTi» HeBOSMOSHaro, Roe CTB^ 
^ifB npHMHpHTBefl pasi HaBcerAa. Oh hhmi paspiiBaTB ne ui/ijeTh. 
Owb — Becejiuft; npHTOiTB HaAO ae, vro6u ocra^ca xotb RT0-HH6yAt- 
E9h npemHHX^b!" 

BÍpoflTHO H rjiaaa Ahhu rjiflA^H na nero iiacROB^ oÓhbho* 
BeHHaro. JI,ORTopB HBJíHjrL BHHa H nonpocHii ee HORsyrbca Cb hhitb. 

— HsBOJiBTe, — corjiacHJiacB ona ce&MacB aae. — 3a to, hto(5bl 
MU ocTasajiHCB BcerAa ApysBflMHÍ 

Oh'b nuTJiHBo CMOTp&ťB Ha Hee h iieAJKHJS^B CB tfoKajioiťB FB pys^. 

— A APysBfliťB BamHMi nojiaraiOTca jih RaRÍa-HHÓyAB npaaa? 

— EaRi?! BH TopryerecB? — OTBeJia cboh) pyRy Anna. — IIpaBa 
Apyseft Bc^i H3BtoHBi, jáwk Rasercfl. 

— Ho Bu nojiaraeTe, hto a 6yAy bi coctoíihíh BiinoíHHTB- 
TaRse Bdk oÓflsaHHOCTH? 

— O, ofiflsaHHOCTH ne o^eHB saTpyAHHTeiBHu! Hanš^aTB Hena 
HHorAa KB DeTep^ypri, ^to5h BcnoifHHaTB BM&n4 crapoe Saďšcbe! 
^Tb npomjo — t6 ĎyAerB mhjo. He a^^mi sto CRasaHO BejHRmrE. 

nOdTOM'B! 

Efl Bsopi* BaTyifaHHJiCfl. Cjobho Haasy, nponejiBRHyjia vb rjia- 
3ax'B Rpyrjiafl sajia, nycraa. OAHa Mysa BBiSHAaTeaBHO npHCiyniH- 
Baercfl, ne B03Bpan^aeTca jh nojioAaa xosafiRa. EecrpEift Rynoj[*B^ 
6pocaeTB TaBfiCTBeHHufi CB^n. HeyaRejiH HHRorAa 6oi[Bnie oea He 
yBHAHTB BToro? BoPB sHaoTB, HtiTB ROHHHTCfl y Hea CB MnmeJieir&y 
RaR'B BOcno^iBsyeTCfl 9thm'b MapBH HaKiOBHa. 

— H TOJiBRO?! — ycMixHyjica OpecrB HaBJíOBHTB na ea nepe- 
^HCjreme 0($a3aHH0creft. 

— TojiBRO, — HOBTopHJia AHHa cepBeBHO. — y Měna, Opecxn.. 
naBJ[OBH^'B, coBepmaerca renepajiBHaa iHRBHAai^a npomjaro, h hh- 
^0 He AOJisHO ocraBaTBca neBBiacHeHHuiťB. Snaere, a o^eHB 6jaro- 
Aapna, ^TO bu BuianiHJiH Hena ceroAHa: TaR'B ynunaTB neBOSMosHo^ 
KaB-B 6u TaMi hh 6hjio — Bce en^e BnepeAn! 

AHHa AaBHO He najia BHHa; ona cb nacJiaacAeHieirB HyBcrso- 
Baja BHyrpH npiaTHuft sapi, nporoHaBmifi nooj^AHÍe cji^au He- 
CHocnaro xojioAa, csHMaBmaro cepAAe TaR'B AOJiro. 

— BaMi, yHHBaTB! ne Mosere npeAcraBHTB ce6t, ao ^ero 



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MHPA2RH. 101 

<if4^iirao dTO CJrymaTb. IIpaB^a, hto bu Macrepni^a noprnTB ce6rb 
joiSHii, Hy, Aft BŠAB nopa se h OTLyniiTBes Borxa wnójjkhl 

y Hero BefTbscsí Ha a,%wA Bonpoci: Rasi ae Óy^erB co Cípoe^ 
Buwh? K&Kh OHa ptnnuia? Ho oetb Óoajicfl cnpocHib, aobojilhu&) 
^TO OHa OTHOCHTCJi Bi HCMy TaB^ HeosHAaHHo ApyseJioÓHO. ÁHHa 
^aAyMajacB. 

— Bh Bor^a Tenepb Cy^ere b-b SajAcs*, OpecrB IXasjOBHTB? 
MosHO ^aTB BaiTB MajeHBBoe ApysecBoe iiopyneHÍe? Biipo^eM^, mu 

vkXb XaBX H He qOBHyJHCB CB saHH! BU HO npHHBJIH M01IX'B yCJlOBÍftl 

AoBTOpi» onycTBJ'B fjiasa; owb ne HMterB npHBUHRn cnimHTB 
BB cepBesHuxi Bonpocaxi. 

— 3aT0 Ha MOH o6in^anifl Moaeo boo^h* nojaraxBca, — npH- 

^BOIl OHI^ SHaiBTejIBHO. 

— RaB'B xoTHTe, — OTB^iua ÁHHa paBHOAymHO. 

Ona AaBHo ne o&b]i,euí^ Cb laBHiťB anneraTOMi. Ea BaB&aepi, 
wnpoTHFB, TOJiBBO js^Jisi BH^y HaBia^uBaji^ BymaHBfl ce&b na ra- 
paiRy. 

Opecn IlaBJíOBBqa^ coBepmeHHO HCBpeHHO BejHqaerB cefis, 4>hjioco- 
4011B. Oh% sHaeTB, HTO CHicnaTÍH h aHTHnaTÍH HenponsBOJiBHU h 
HeHSM^HU, ho Ha sjLO Bceny, Hxb ohb sHaerB TaB'B TsepAO, BHyr- 
peBHflfl TpeBora Bce ycHJHBaercH. TenepB hjíh HBBorAa! Cb BasA^BC^ 
flOBUiTB rJEOTBOiTB BunHTaro BBHa crapue apryneHTu ójAji^bíjovl 
H yerynaiOTB uicro hobuitb, CMyrHuirB — ne Ha^esA^M^, o, hItb! 
— owh ne npHfipajii 6h HaBsaníJi ji^jiíl coĎCTBenHux^B o^y^enift, eejiE6i> 
florpeÓOBaiocB. 9to 6ujio HHBorAa HeHcnEiraHHoe CMATeme — a^, 
HKeHHO CMfirenie! nianci na yAany oahhi na tucahh, loro MenBme, 

HO H OABffB OWh nOTpflCB AO OCHOBaHÍfl BCe OFO XJiaAHOBpOBÍe. 

ÁHHa im Moposenoe. Ea jhi^o pasrop^ocB, ho b^ hoitb 
^)crajacB TBxaa rpycTB, A^ftBmafl ero en^e híshío h npejiecTH'6e. 
OpecTB IlaBJíOBHTB BcrajTB, (5ednoBO&HO noBpysBJíca no BOMnaii, 
HOTOM^ ocraHOBHJicfl 3a efl ciyjOM^B. 

— Hteb^, Anna BjiaAHMipoBHa, y BacB coBepmaexcfl „rene- 
pajBHaji J^[BBHAa^ia". Ona, bbahmo, emfi ne BaBOH^ena? 

^ — IIoqeMy BaMi laB^B Baaerca? HanpoTBBi, coBepmenno sa- 
BOHqena. R Buxosy hbi^ Hpomjiaro cb ohohb jierBBMi fiaraseiTB. 
Otb crapux^B naAesA^ — HB^ero! Otb MHoroTOCjieHHux'B Apyseft — 
HB OAHoro! HeAOcraen, qTo6u h ($paTB cepBOSHO orpesca otb Měna. 
^OBTopB CMOTptji Ha HuniHyK) nepnyio Bocy, na Hsan^Hoe 
JiajieHBBoe yxo, na TOHByio meiBy, h Cujtb paA^B, ?to Anna ne 

8HAHTB ero JHI^l. 

— Sa^lTB 3Be BU nOTOpOHHJraCB H MOHA HCBJIIOHBTB B3^ CHHCBa 

Banoixi Apysefi? — BuroBopHj['B oh^ MeA^ienno. 



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102 BftCTHHKl EBPOnU. 

— SSLTbWbj ÍTO BH KOjefijieTecB. 

— Bh BHaeie no^My. SI jí^oÓpocovbcmuŘ neAOvbKby Ahb» 
B.iiaAHHÍpoBHa, BaR'L 6u npeEpaiHO bu hh cjffuiE 060 uwb. SI ne 
xony 6paTB na ce6fl HeBuaojraBMaro. Hama xpjxúk BOdMO»Ha tojibro 
npH OAHOMX ycxoBÍH: ^ro bii Óy^ere Moefi seHofi. 

— HHRorAa He cjii^yen, ^íoktopb, noBTOpaxB oflHy h ly ase 
myrny ABa pasa. 

— Ox^ero ae? myrKH pa^H, BOotfpasHre ce<í*, hto bu nocjit- 
AOBajH MoeMy coBŠxy. 

Oh'b, BaROHei^i, ptoeicfl cšctb oeojo nes. HanpaseHHaa 
yc]i'linRa Apoaaja na ero ry6axi». 

— fl y»e CRasajíi BaM!B, ito co MHOft He noTpeÓyerca jwme-^ 
H^pniB: BU MeHfl xío6mh ne Mosere. Ho yHHue jm^n, npn se- 
jiaHÍH, MoryTB npeKpacHO ysHTBCfl Hes;(y co6ok). HasoHei^i, vími^ 
MU pHCfiyem? Mu irapno n 6jiaropoAHO pascraHeMca, KaR'B TOSbRO 
CTaHeMi HeBHHOCHMu Apyri Apyry! Hojararo, hto h a ycraHy, bx- 
KOHi]^]^ ROHi^OBi yrosAaxB cynpyrí... ctojib saTpyAHHTejBHOfi! 

ÁHHa CMorp^a na Hero c% rji[y6oRHH'B .9H>6onuTCTBOirb. 

— J^iftcTBHTejibHO, y Ba(?B ecTB OAHO npeHMymecTBo: nepeji^ 
Baiia Aaae HeiBSfl 6bitb BHHOBaTOfi! — noBTopnjia OHa cb BOBxyn^e- 
niewb CBOH) npesHioH) mucjib. 

— BoTb HMeHHo! — ycirixHyjca aecxRO SafioTHHi: — Měna „no* 
ryÓHTB*' se aajiB, ^a h MyApeneHBRO. 

— BonpocB HC?epnaH'B, HaAÍiocB? — noAHajiacB Anna ptniH- 
TejiBHO CB CBoero Mto'a. — Á npHHHHaio Barae HeotiAyMaHHoe npe^- 
jioaeHíe, pasopaio Bac7» vb ujtl h npax^B h 6pocaio ^epesi roA%. 
Bu ne HM'6eTe npaBa aajiOBaTBca, noTOMy ^ro sapae^ jífiím mb^. 
Ha 9T0 carte blanche. Bce 9T0 no hcthhí npeBocxoAHo! A noKa. 

IfU MOSeM^ AxaTB B'B rOpOA'B, Opecn HaBJIOBHTB. 

— Ho BU HcnojHHTe MOK) npocBÓy h ofi^yMaere ne myra moh> 
myTRy? DoB^pBTe, bm-Itb ^"^0 cb yMHUMi qeiOB^ROMi HHRorxa. 
ne CTpamHO, — noBTopHj['B oh^ emfi pasi nacTOftHHBo, noxaBaa AHH-fe. 
efl HaRHAKy. 

— He nocTHraK), RaR'B bosmoshu no^oÓBue pasroBopu, nocji^ 
Bcero, mb bh ^aBHO SHaere o mohx'b ^BCTBaxi?! 

„Tjsíh »e Te(5* hohatb! na^o wa 9Toro po^HXBca Mya.HHHoft*^ 
— noAyMaii obi osjíoCjieHHO. 

Ohh moju BOSBpan^ajiHCB b'b ropoA'B. 

„Ohu h mu— 8T0 ABÍ cobcImi pasOT^BUfl Bopojiu cyn^ecTKb!"' 
AyMajia ABsa, conocTaBjraa 9TorB pasroBopi h B^epanraioio ci^eHy 
CB MOJiOAUMi xyAOfiBHROMi. ^Ba qejOB'lRa OAHBaROBO 6e8pa3cy;^Ho 

rOTOBU 6UJH BOfiTB Ba BCb CA^&IRH; OBH paCTO^aJIH BeBOSMOSHHJl: 



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MHPAaRE. 103 

oóssaxencTBa, MEpiuncB cb BejiH^aimHMX phcbomi — h Bce dxo a^ji 
Toro, HTo6a OBia^^B seHmHHOň, EOTopas nďh ne jhoChti. SOnoma, 
no BpafiHeft irfcpi, yrBepa^Aft*!'^ eo^e: ^bbi nojuoÓHre mceji nocr&", — 

^HUOeO^KB-AORTOpB COSHaxeJIbHO MHpBLICfl CB TÍITB, MTO dTOFO HH* 

Korxa He Cy^en. 

„Ho B^AB AOJSHH se 6uTB H j HHX'B RaKÍfl-HH($yAB oopex^- 
leHHUfl npexcraBJíeHU o c?acTÍH? — Aynaja naHBHO A^ymsa. — Elo- 
lOsmrB, OsoFHffB o^enB moj[oa'b. flfiUTopb — esf^cthuS Maxepía- 
JHCTB. Hy, a CrpoeBi? EcjM ona HanninerB, hto He jhoCht-b ero, 
HO corjiacHa 6uTb ero seHoft, oiBaserca jol otb nesi Cxpoesi?.. 

ÁHHa He coMHŠBajiacB, tto CTpoeB'B corjacHTGfl. Eft c^iJiajiocB 
erpaioHo: oroBCio^y saxHUfl pyRH nporflrHBajiHCB bi nefi, sek ycra 
npOHSHOCHJH ciOBa jik>6bh. 

6i£io ysi Hepano h nannHaio (Sucrpo xeMH^xB, Bor^a ROj^CRa 
Biixaja FB ropoA'B. Koe-rA^ B'BOBHax'B MeiBRajin ys'B ofhh. ?yA- 
Hid ropox^B) Xopomo asHTB Tyn c^acxjiHBoK — CBo6oAHoft. He cero- 
XHfl-saBTpa MHmeJiB cairB abetca sa Heio, y(%AHBmHCB, ^to hh- 
saKÍe napiaMeHTepu ne noABHraiOTi A^a BnepeA'B. MHmeiB ÓJiys- 
X&erB no SastcBio yrnuBítt, Hec^aciHuK h BsxuxaerB ÓesnoMon^HO. 
Ha ero uíbcrb ona a^bho y2B'B 6wia 6u sjíibeb^ h a^o obohtojocb 
6ii AecroHafimeK ccopott. ďUuiB MnmejíJi, ho en\e CHJiBHie sajB 
ce(ifl. 

ÁHHa npocTHJiacB co cbohmi cnyrHHBOiTB y noA^B-^s^a. Ohh 
pascraiHCB xojioaho, ho — crpanno! o6a no^yBCTBOBajiH, hto npo- 
lojaseme BnepeAH. JI|oKTop'B 6pocHjrB Boporsift, ÓJieciAn^ifi B3rjuiA'B 
H He npoBoauLii Anny ao ea nynepa. Ona MeA^ienno noAHHifaiacB 
no jícthhi^š, crapaflCB pasoCpaiBCH vb co6cTBeHHux'B on;yn](eHÍflX'B. 
Oi^Hsa dToro HejiOBtea h to Bne^aTJŠHÍe, ROTopoe oh^b npoHSBO- 
WTb Ha nee, pinraTejiBHO ne BAsa^HCB nesAy coóoft. Honeiiy-TO 
eft ne xot^ocb OROHnaTejBHO nopsaTB SHaROMCiBa cb hhitb npn 
BceiTB efl AypnoifB MH'bHÍH o HeifB. KaRi pa3i> o6paTHoe 6huio 
co OrpoesoMi. 

FoiíOBa en^e ocraB&aacB oryMaHenHOiD jiflJiVEWb RaTaHBeiii, ycra- 

JOCTBK) H pH)MROfi BSHHTarO BHHa. MlICJIH BCHIUBaiH HeOSHAaHHO 
B SaRTB-TO 6e3BOJBHO, CaMH COéoft. 9tBXI AByX'B JIIOAeft HeJIB3fl Aft^Re 

cpasHHBaTB, HO, Rasercfl, bi rohi^í rohi]IOB'b, efi Jieme 6ujio 6u 
noftTH na ÓesyifHyio, 6e3HpaBCTBeHHyio CA^Ry, npeA^iosennyH) aor- 

TOpOMl, HeseJH BUnOJHETB C06CTBeHH0e OÓflSaieJIBCrBO OTHOCHieJIBHO 

Cípoesa, RaFB hh bcjihro oh yBasenie ri neify. dra mhcib npu- 
Beja Anny bi or^aame. Ona óucrpo pasA^jiacB h c&ia HHcaTB 
CBoe HORaflHHoe hhcbmo. 

Hhcbiio Binnjio o^enB neA^iHHHO. Anna ne nuxajiacB onpaBABi- 



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104 B£CTHHR'B EBfOnU. 

BaxbCfl, OHa, HanpoTiiBii^ crapajracB npHMHpirrB ero cb HeHstits- 
HEOťB paspuBOiTB, AOsasBiBafl BCflqecKR, Basi iiajio OHa AOcroiHa 
ero. Bi^ 9T0Wh nnchifš Bce Óujio HcspeHHO, He 6aJL0 hh cjiOBa jsh^ 
HO, o^Hasoan, vb newh ne xsaTajio rjiaBHaro: fe Heirs ne 6ujío 
npHSpaBa nornómefi seHii. fle 6uao toto OTB^xa, Boroparo Tpe6o- 
BaxB Cxpoesi, Bpyqaa eft saseHyio KHHry. Meac^T vbis% Anna sHajta, 
KaBi MywrejiBHO OffB iBxerB OTBŽTa; ona noHBMaia, tto aiOTb 0TBfer% 
;(ju[ Hero BasBH^e ^ase ea JH>ÓBe, no Kpateeft ifšpš bi^ ary mh- 
Hyry. „IIpoESHecHre BanrB cyA'^, bh o;íHa esi bcíx^ Jio^eft* , mo- 
jiHji^B GrpoeBi. Oea npoHSHOCHJia btotb cyA'B, yBJíOHfljiCB ote OTsfoa, 
roBopa miBBO o coÓCTBeHHíixi ^lyBcrsax^b n 06% exi HecocroxBmeMcs 
6paB']&. n aroro Majio^^iiiifl oea ne cnif^MCh. Ectb ciOBa, koto- 
pEDCB jyqme ne npoHSHOCHTB, ecjH ohh Moryrs 6uti» noHaTHU 6e3% 
dToro. B^B HHiix'B cjyHaax'B hítb orstia 6oj^ BpacHopinBaro, 
H^M^B MOiiHanie. 

ÁHHa luiaBaiia. Ona ceft^acb se sanewTaja nHCBMÓ, ne nepe- 
^HTUBaH ero, yBŠpeHHaa sapanie, tto ocraHeTCfl hitb nexoBOJibHa. 
He Bce JIH paBHO? KaKoe dHaneHÍe mtibeTb Ta kih Apyraa ýpasa, 
eciH Bce xy^mee oh'b BOHmeri caMi Mes^y crpoK^, h b% stoitb 
OHa ne CMtbemz he oÓManyTB, hh yiimaTB ero?! Anna nosBOHHjia 
H Beji&ia cík) líHHyry onycTHTb nncbico d% nonroBiit fln^HB'B. Ona 
HeHaBH^^a ce6£, HOHaBHA&ra 3BH3he. Ona ne snajia htó ei ^'k/iaTB 
H Ky^^a jiíkBBLTh ce6s. 



XLIV. 

Anna noAHfljiacB Ha xpyroil achb bi cnepreJEBEOft tock^, ho 
Buicrb CB oÓjerwio^HMi C03HaHÍeirB, ^to rjaBHoe BOH^eno 6e3- 
HOBopoTHO. „Si CBO(5oAHa!^ — noBTopfljra ona MUCseHHO, xotb 6£ua 
ne Men^ CBOÓOAna h B^epa. Birbj Bce ne to!.. A^jo vb toitb, 
HTO eft neiero í-iaaTB cb CBoeft CBOÓOAoft. IIpeaB^e Ciuni xotb hb- 
CBOHHaeMUfl B0Jie6aHÍfl, ycHJiia no6opoTB ceófl h nacHJiBHO bthchytb 
CBoe cyoj^ecTBOBaHÍe bi onpeA'i^eHHiui paifBH. Bujo BHyTpesnee^ 
Bcer^a npHcyn^ee cosHame, ?to eji jsftjm AOisna 6u Óutb coBd^m 
HHafl; 6uj[o BM^ert h ytíiasaion^ee, h paerpasjunan^ee cosHame 
co6cTBeHHaro npesocxo^CTBa. HeyaBejH Bce hofjio yHH^rosm^ca on 
OAHoro ciOBa Ajfiesa, on npocroro mh^húi nysoro neJiOB^Ba?! 
Anna b*b OTqaflHÍH niirajacB conpornBJUiTBCfl, h Tor^a nepej^ HeH>, 
BaB^B SHBaa, BcraBajia BejiHHaBafl <{)Hrypa nncaTe^ifl, ero BupasH- 
TejiBHoe jrai^o, ocB'3&n^eHHoe HanpflseHHOio mucjibh), bi BOiopofi caM% 
owh BBBx 6yAT0 TOJiBBO e^e npHCJiyniHBaeTCfl. Ona He oiuxajut, 



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M0PA2KH. 105 

HT06u BT0-HH<5yAB 6^6 FOBOpfU^ TEK^, K&Kb OWb. AjE^eB^, EOHe^HO, 

ee xoT&i'b oropHHTB ee. Owh ne mopb nocrymiTB jierKOMucieHHO, 

COSHEBafl BClO BaSHOCTb 62 IipOCbfilI — vbjS,h OWb CfCasaJ^B 8T0! Jífi 

H caiia OHa npHSHaja jih 6u HecnpaBexJiHBHfi npHroBopi», ecAnS^ 
TspvroBGpb dTOTB HC nonajFb eft npflMO vb cepjmfi? ÁHHa nyBCTBO- 
Baia eeÓsL tjljÓojlo Hec^acTHoft, saB'B HHBorAa paHBme. 

Ona HHCTHHKTHBHO ciapajiacB OTBJíe^b CBOH MUCMH. BeanojesHO 
nepeÓapaTb cu3H0Ba to, htď ptmeHO OROHnaTejibHO. Ha^o voArh iiyse* 
CEBO npeKioHHTbCfl nepex^ coCeTBeHHinrB pimeHÍeirB. Ho a^ka dToro 
rjaBHoe — He ocraHaBJíHBaTbCfl na oahoitb irifecrt; rjiaBHOe — Óutb fffea- 
TejoHOĚ HpimiiTejiLHOt — o, HenpeifiHHO pimHreJiBHoft! Xhshh HOJiBdfl 
pacDHcaTb HanepoA^B no iiporpaMM'6, ho Heo6xo;iHMO noROH^HTb TenepL 
se ch 6j[HsafiniHMH BonpocaicH. B^b aBa^eMiio ona ho nocrynHTi. 
Ona He craHenb ynnacaTB hmchh seJiHRaro FoJiyÓHHa, hhsboaa dTO 
HMfl Mfi sajisoft noq)eACTBeHHocTH, jsfl Ces^apHOCTH, MH£n](efi o ce(%... 
BO B*^ ona wuBe h ne icHHrBL. H*tb, h4tb — Ch bthbtb hoeoh- 
^eno pasi Hascerxa. Bepnerca jih ona fb 3a9'£cBe? ?tď csaserB 
OHa MHmeiH), Ror^a ohx cnpocHirB, noHeny se ona vb TaR0H'B cjiyna*]^ 
He xo^eTB SHTB FB ero Aoufb?.. 

BoTB ona Aonua jsfi Toro nyHRxa, Roroparo CouacB, h cb 
aepBofi MHHyTEi snajia, hto ^ofi^er^ AO nero HOMHnyeMO... Tojbro 
CB efl saifysecTBOiťB nojtosenie pacnyrajiocB 6u caiio co6oft. Tor^a 
He HysHO HH otiH2RaTB MflHiejui, HH nojq)iiBaTB ero cnacrjiHByio 

Bipy FB JUDÓOBB MaHH. MaHfl — H8'B T^Tb SeHHJ^HHl, FB ^heŘ SH3HH 

p6maK>[qyio pojiB nrpaeTB cjyTOft; ona ne ycTOHra nepex^B HCRy- 
meniejffB, ho e^Ba jh CTanerB caMa HCRaTB ero. Ee jierRO nory- 
611TB, HO onacHOCTB HC^esjía 6u cana co6oft, ecm6% Anna npnnfljia 
npe^Jioxeme 3a6oTHHa. 

JlIj^bBynnsa vb jnxopaAOHHoK TpeBort ABHrajiacB no ROMHaxš. 
OmiTB ee oxBaiuBajio snaROiioe, yBjeRaieJiBHoe BoineHie cméjiiixi 
pbnemft. Ho na stotb pasi ri noMy npHMÍniHBa;iHCB yciaJOCTb 
H HCRpennee paBHOAynrie. Et ne RasajiocB 6oj[Bme, hto ona sepx- 
ByerB qforB-TO jyiniHH^ Bnepe^H — eft 6hjio A^ftcTBHTejiBHO „Bce 
paBHo'' , AO TaRoft creneHH naxo bcžmi npeoÓjaAajio pasoiapoBame 
BB ceffb caMOft. H onaTB, RaR'B Bnepa, ea on]^yn];eHÍii abohihcb, 
Korjía ona ^ynajia o ^ORTopt. OffB eft ne 6ujn> npoxHBeH^B... ^to- 
to RaRi ($yATO A&a&o npaBHjocB fb hohi, Bcer^a npaBHJOCB, Hnané 
He TanyjocB 6u 8to TaR'B AOjiro. HeysejH nejiOBtB^ MOserB npa- 
BHTLca, ROFAa ero hhcrojbro ne yBasaeniB?! 9to napymajio Bcb 
ea A%BHHecRÍH leopin, BOSMy^aJio ee. B^b oCohxi c;iyqaBX'B 6ujío 
5d saHyasecTBO 6e8x jio6bh; pasHni^a xa, nro, ButíHpaa 3a6oTHHa, 
OHa HyBCTBOBaJia ce6fl HpaBciBeHHO CBO<5oAHoft, tohho noAnHcuBaja 



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106 BftCTHHB^B BBPOnU. 

soHTpaRTB, BOTOpuft Bcer^a uosHO HapyniHTB, yu^Tm^h ESBbcsísjío 
HeycToftKy, 

BpeMji H^eTB, ÁHHa Bce AJMaerb na Ty se xeMy. Majo-no-Majiy 
ona mmnsaj&rb saxoAHTb crpaHHyH), npHrarHBaiontyK) saHEMaxeiB* 
HOCTB Fb opHrHHaďBHocrn Tasoro nojiosenifl. E^e HeMHoro, h oea 
BHABVb ceóji co^HHJiiomeK) nHCLMO Bi MHineno. 9to npHBeJio ee 
FB yacacB. H^tb, vrbnl ona He npaHHMaJia HEBasoFO cepBesnaro 
p'l^meHÍji, a vbfí> araBi, nero Aotiparo, mosho HesaaťferHO npiyHHTb 
ce5fl Bx Heny! OaMoe rpmee, BuftiE na y^Hi^y h pasc&iTLca sasi^- 
HH6yAB. ÁHHa OA^acB h nonura ryjUTb. 

— Ky^a BII TaBi corfamiiTe, ÁHHa RiaxHMÍpoBHa? — pasAaicfl 
sa HeK> rojKMTB OsoraHa, e^sa OHa CA^ajia hšcbojíbbo maros^ 
no TpoTTyapy. 

3to He Ówuh ciy^afi: HecwciHHfi xyxoaBHHBib nacio d^xofM^rh 
FB 9Ty y;iHi](y, mo&b npo&TH mhmo noA^B^^a rocTHHHHipi. Oh^ 
ne ca^'B ABHTBCfl b'b ÁHHb nocii CBoero otf-BflCHeHiji cb neio 
H míTjiíb He naxoAHJTB uicm CBoeMy oxqaflmH); laBHiťB cnoco- 

(SOITB OHI HaA^<3Cfl ySHaTB HTO-HHÓy^B H BCrp^THTBCfl CB HOIO. 

Ohi BHjťJ^jii, BaB'B Anna noteajia BaiaTBea ci AOBxopoiťB, ho 
OsorHHi 2BAaJi'B H onacajcfl coBcbwb Apyroro; na bcíx'b AposBaxx, 
ocraHaBJíHBaBmHXCfl y noAX'&3AOBi, eicy MepeniiHiacB <|>Hrypa CrpoeBa. 
BoflCB BaB%-HH($yAB nporju[A'bTB cjy^aftno, xyAOSHHB'B h^bojíbko 
padl noxxoAHTB B'B BpELiBi^ ch HaM^peHÍeiTb cnpocHTB mBefti^ajMi. 
Ero yAepsHBajia ne npexocyAHTejiBHOCTB canoro nocrynBa, a e;(HH- 
CTBeHHO ÓOflSHB 6pocHTB t6hb Ha AHHy CBOHMH pascnpocaMH. 

Rorxa ÁHHa orjiflHyjmcB na rojioci, ee nopasEJii ero asajidft 
bha'b: dTO ÓHJia oxna t6hb ea npesnaro Apyra, H>HomecBH*]:](B^Ty- 
n^aro. He6pesH0 OA'ÍTBifi, crpamno Hcxy^ajiuft, ycrajiuft 4^H8n^ecBR 
H HCTepsaHHuK HpaBCTBeHHO, OHB CMOTpIjrB na Hee BocnajteHHBíMH 
TJiasaMH H crapajicfl yjiBiÓHyTBc:i; HenpiflTHo o6HaaKafl bcí syCu; 
dTH diecTfln^ie sy^Bi 6ojBme ne yspamajH ero, bbbi 6yAT0 ohh 
6BIJÍH Hepe3'B-<iypi» BejHRH, hjih hx'b 6ujio CJramBOirB MHOro. 

OSOFHHB HTO-TO 6e3CBfl3HO TOJIBOBaJl, CTapaflCB OtilflCHIITB U7CJ> 

Bcrpi^y. ÁHHa noHflja hbi aioro, hto ohx BHCjtoeBajTB ee. 3to 
HacHjie! HeJiBSfl TaRi expasifliB qysyio shshb cbohitb crpa^ameirB! 
Ona ero ne AOBOAHja ao btofo cosHaTeJiBHo h Hair6peHH0. Aapa 
He BHaJia 6o;iBnie, wb ^euT> saBiioqajiacB eji BHHa: ona xor^a tojbko^ 
HTo6u TenepB dxo npeBpaxHJiocB bo hto 6bi to hh ct&io. Ona ne ny- 
CTHTB ero ÓOJiBme b'b ce^^j^, ho BaB'B noMtmaTB eny TepsaTBCfl, nyrb 
ne AeaypHTB y noAifojía?! TaB-B jio^h cByna cxo^^tb, — h^h 
OHB HOBOe Bocnajenie cxBaTHro. Bose mo&, — h tjtb ocraerca oaho 



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MHPAaH. 107 

cpe^CTBo! PimnrejibHafl onepaAifl, nocjii Koxopott yifiipaiDrb hjih 
BU3AopaBJH6aK)Tb. Bi XBaAi^aTB-ABa vojí,bl He yMHpaiorB. 

EdHÓi OpecTB IlaEiOBHqo^ mofb noA03pŠBaTB, tto npeA^oseme 
ero pacnyTBBaJío pasoMi T9jffb mhopo saipy^HeHÍfi, oh'b ne npeini- 
Hyn 6ii noBecTE cbok) arraRy vb ^ipjrowb Towb. KaROBi 6u owh 
m 6ujn>^ owb oahh^ ne Tep8aj'B ee, oahfb ocraBJífljťB wb uokoí 
68 ;iymy. HaAO HSÓHpaTb toti bsixoa^b, Koropufi BO^uoTnewhl 

OsKoinH^ n ÁHBa nponuiH ji^o BOHi^a BecB HeBCRÍfi, bodijih bt> 
AjeKcaHxpoBCBÍĚ caA'^ n cjiíbjítLJiB wbcwshito jspytob%, exBa pasjíH^afl, 
rÁi OHH. ÁHHa OTB^^asa HayAany. IIoBHAHMOiiy, bea HecepAHzacb 
na Hero, ho KaB'B Óy^TO He cjiyma^a. ?to*to 03a6o?iiBajio ee, sce 
auLH^ CB BasAOfi MHHyrofi. A oh'b, HanpoTHBi, ne mofb mojí- 
^tb; HepBHO, cnimHO h o5hb^hbo owb pascBasuBajrB RaBÍfl-TO 

HCTOpÍH npO CBOHX'B TOBapHQ^eft-XyAOaSHHKOBl, nOBTOpflfl HHOrxaTOy 

wŇ> ÁHHa A&BHO ys'B cjumajia otb nero. HaBonei^i, oh^b Bcno- 
MHHJB H yxBaTHacfl, EaR'B ea Haxo^^y, sa 9<f)<|>€BTHB[ft poifaHi BaBoro- 
TO HHseHepa, KOTopuS passejTB nysyio seny h pasBejrca co ceoeil 
oo6cTBeHHO&, mo6u seHHTBCfl Ha Heft, a roA^ cnycTfl pasBejrca co 
BTopofi seHOfi H comejicfl cnosa cb nepBofi. 

— Bh coTOHaexe! — saHHTepecoBajiacB Bnesanno Anna: — sto 
CBasBH; BTO pascKasaJi BaM'B aio? 

Rto pascBasajii? Ohb He MorB Aaace npHuoMHHTB, cJiiima.i'B 

JI OHB dTO HeAaBHO OTB R0r0-HH6yAB HJIH HpOHHTaJIl* rA'Í^-HH6yAB. 

„Bon KaBi, o;(HaKO, jíioah hh nepe^x ifbwb He ocranaBJíHBaiOTCfl! 
— noAyMaJia Anna: — h HHiero cbhbmh onaioro ne craHerca, hh - 
saioe sjíeftMO na hhx'b ne Jiflsen. Ohh ne craHyrB hh xy^ne, hh 
HecTOCTHÍfee. Bi shshh Bce npexo^an^e, — Bce nonpaBHMO^. 

— Bh eme ne ycrajie? — cnpocHJii kb axy MHHyTv en cnyraHE-B. 
Ohi eABa ABHrajca otb ycraJOCTH. Anna npHcrajiBHO hocmot- 

p&ia Ha nero. JIhao ea Rasi 6yAT0 csajiocB, rjiasa npHHflJH cxpan* 
Hoe, xojo^^oe BupaseHie. 

— j!I,iftcTBHTejiBHO, 6y;i;eTB ryjflTB, — bh ycrajiH. Mu TyrB npo- 

CTHMCa, JlMHTpift ^MHTpHqx; — fl B03LMy HSBOmHRa, He MOpy ÓojiBrae 

BXTH. KcraTH, BaH'B BÍpHO HHTepecHO 3HaTB, RaRi fl pimojia?.. Bei 
(weHB yjHBHTecB... npeAynpeaAaio... 

spasil y HCfl crpaHHO oÓpuBa^ncB. Ohi BEjiíkn>, RaRi ona 6jía* 
Biia. 

— Ji Buxosy saiiysnb nesa CxpoeBa, a sa ^ORTopa 3a6oTHHa; 
dTOTB, no RpafiHefi M'lp^, ne cse^erB neHfl cb yua! CaMoe xy^niee, 
Trt) MOKeTB cjyTOTBca — mu cb HHMi pa30&AeMca "iepesTb nojiroAa. 
HiiHyrB He crpamno' cpaBHHTejiBHO ci tímh HcropiflHu, ROTopufl 
BH TOARo-HTO pascRasuBajiii. 



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108 BlOTHHKl EBPOnU. 

— niyTHTe? 

' — o, wbTb\ y MeHfl nponaja BCARaa cnocoÓHOCiB myniTB, — 
BCflKaa! ŠL pasc^HTUBaio, ^to OpecTB IlaBiOBHTB BOCRpecKn ee. 
Ohi TaROft Becejiufi! PasBŠ ne npaBAa?.. HsBontHRi, bii orsesere 
MeHfl na MexafijOBCRyK)... OrBepniiTecb otb Menii (Tb Hero^OBaHÍeMi, 
Oxjovuffhj BTO npHHeeeTB sairb nojBsy. Korxa-HHÓyAB, — xorw 
Bacb HSje^HTB HCByccTBO H BaoTb T&iaHTB, — BH oHATb npHj^ere 
BsrjiflHyTb, BaicB hh^ sHBercfl. Fopa ch ropofi ne ckoj^atca, ho 
jifOAH... íl se 6yAy Boe npo Bací snaTB — z npo BacB yciHmy! Bame 
HHJi npoBOsrjacHTB Bama cjiaBa — bx 9to a b^ph)! 

— ÁHHa Bjia^HiripoBHa!.. 

— H4tB, HÍTL-^He CMŠtre HATHSaMHOft! Bce xMCTBHTeJIBHO, 

coBcbKh BOHieHo. SI BaMi He nosBOJuiH) Bcrp^^aTbCfl co mhok>. 

ÁHHa cšjia Ha aposbh h yšxajia. 

XyA02KHEK'B, HomaTUBaflCb, Rasi nbanufi, no6pej'b ^epe8'b yjHi^y 
H HamHHajibHO saBepny^x na ToporoByE). Ohi ABHraJicfl, uoRa 
Hecjni HOPH. Cjy^a&HO rjiasa ocranoBHjracb na TpaRiepnofi biib^cr'6» 
H Tor^a TOJTbBO OH-b BcnoMHHJTb, TTO HHTCro He ijub Ch yTpa, Ohi 
BomeJi, ckvh sa nepBuft rpasnut ciojrb h noTpe6oBarb ceč% o&b^ 
H BOARH. He AOSH^aflCb, noRa npnnecyTb saRycRy, OH'b HajHJi'b cpasy 
nojiCTaRana h Bunn^i. 

OrpaHHafl paBHHi^a MesAy meiciamh h CJiOBaMH npoHSHeceHHUMH. 
BjracTH muc^efí mu ne npesnaeMi^ — ne noHHMaeMi Bcero ^an^e. 
TojibRO CJIOBO saRptnjífleirb hxi, craBHirb na Ha^Jiexan^ee Bťbcro. 

ÁHHa "Ixajia AOMOft RaR^b ($y;^ ycaoRoennafl h ne no^yMajia 
HH pasy, HTO en^e MOsen Bsarb nasa^^b coÓCTBeHHoe p^meme. 
Bce ROH^eno. Kasajiocb noTOMy-TO, ito Tenepb nyjRHO cniniHTB. 
Ona TopoHHJia nsBO^HRa, RaRib 6yAT0 npeA^yBCTBys, ^to ee^iAy^b. 

niBefii^api HOAajTb efi BESHrnyio Rapio^Ry Ajri^Ba. H B^epam- 
HÍfi AORTopi TaRme cnpaniHBajii ee XBa pasa; Tenepb offb aohui- 
Aaerca vh 6y4)eT4. IIpHRaseTb ona AOJOKOTb eMy, ^to ona Bep- 
nyjiacb? 

ÁHHa MeA^HJia na jícthhi^, ttoÓu OH'b Morb AornaTb ee. 
BoTb offb BóiraeTb JierRO no cryneHbRaMb; — Anna noBepnyjia ro- 
jiOBy H yBHAiJia AORTopa. 

— Bh ryMJiH? — cnpocHJii 3a6oTHHi. 

„Moserb Ójstb, HH^iero 6bi He 6um en^e, ecsHói ne nonua 
ryMTb. He BcrpiTHJiHCb 6h", — MeJibRnyjio b* en yM*. 

— JloRTopi, BipHTe BH vb cy^bóy?— CHpocHJia ÁHHa, pasH- 

CRHBan CBo&RJiH)Tb Ha^ocRt H 3a6BiBafl, TTO 3T0 — crpaHHoe m6cto 
Jím noAo6Haro Bonpoca. 



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MUPASH. 109 

— Bipio, — oTB-fexHJi-L OpecTx naMOBH^i, ceftnacB ae, KaKi 
(SyATO 9T0 6u«ao TO^abKO caiíoe otfuBHOBeHHoe iipiiff6TCTBÍe. Oh^b 
Bsan EAjowh Hdib efl pyKi» h bhaíai, hto ona ne sanŽTiLia dxoro. 
Hteb, soHe^HO, KB cyAbÓy ohi BOBce ne b^phti, ho saio f&- 
pBTL KB cjiyqafi, kb HacTpoeme iue bo ito-to Apyi*oe, ^Tb pyBo- 
BOAHTB HamHMH nocTynBaMH ropasAO na^e, ^ibm b2m% npifliHO 

AyíMtTB. 

— OneHB noxBajiBHO, wo bu ryjaeie. Ho bh yciajiH KaB'B 

ÓYATO? — OCBd^AOMBJíai Ji,OKTOipi> SaÓOTJIHBO. 

AfiHa CMxyrpbm na aero cb j!iH)6on£iTCTBOM'B. Oea npHC&ia, ho* 
CHHMaa nijumu; HaKHAsy oh'b cnaji^h cb Hea, ho ona ohatb ne sa- 

IfiTHJa, BaSTi OH^ CA'&9aJll» 8T0. 

— He Bc6 nporyjiRH óuBaiorB y^a^HH, — crpanno yCMixHyjiacB 
X^Bymsa. 

— ^a? TyjuiTB OAHOň js,ji3í MOJiOAoň xeHo^iiHu Booón^e ne 
yxoÓHO, oco6eHHO se ^1*11*011^. IlyÓJiHBa na yjiEQaxi CRBepnaa. 

ÁHHa HepBHO pa3CM'bfljiacB. 3a6oTnHi> tohho He 3aHÍ^aji'B. Oh'b 
OTKpBUTB OBHO, daRypHJii naHHpocy, nonpocHKB npeABapHieJibHO pas- 
pimeBÍfl. 

i^Cbojbko eny jiíti? Ha^o Óu cnpocHTB**, — pasnaAHBaja 
ero ÁHHa vbua se CTpaHHuifH rjiadaMH. 

— íxb »e cjiyHHJiocB cx BanH na nporyjiKi, Anna Bjia^H- 
MípoBHa? 9T0 He ceKpeTB? 

CeRperB! efi noBasaiocB laBi CMŠnmo, hto ona ohatb nacajiy 
yxepxaiíacb otb CMixa. Kohwtb caopte, HHa^e cobcíjcb pasroBa- 
proaTB HeBOBMOSHO. Ona nopuBHCTO neped^a na Apyroe m^cto. 

— OpecTB naBJOBHHx! — nanajia ona: — BejiHre, nosa&rycTa, ^aiB 
MHŠ craKaHi HaH>. IIocEople! 

3a6oTHH'B Biimeji^B. OrpaHHoe cos^aHÍe! IIoTOMy ona h o^apo- 
BaiejiBHa, hto nojna neoaHAaHHOcrefl, — hto-to b-b neň CpoAHU h 
HrpaerB, Kaní rasi bx bhhí. HHeRanpHsu dno — osa Hepe3i-Hypi» 
yima jsm BanpH80B'B. Botb b'b Mapbi IlaBJíOBHi Aase h HaMesa 
Ha 8T0 ne HM^ercfl; TaM'B Bce acho h mafijioHHo! 

— %o se lafl? — BcrpÉTHJia ero nerepnijaBO Anna. 

— HaAO AaTB BpeMfl saBapHTB ero, - nosajii oni njenaMH: — 
BH 6u CHflJiH mjiflnBy, Anna Bjia^HMÍpoBna, a to tohho coÓHpaerecB 

yZOAHTB. 

— HeKyxa mhí yfira. 

— Ob BaBHMi cosa;i'6HÍeM'B bu 9to roBopHTe! 

AHHa, ne BCTaBaa, cusulbl nuuinBy h nepeAajia eMy. Ohi npH- 
Bucfl pasrjijiAiuBaTB. Hap^AaMH ona bobco ne sannHaerca, hjih se 
yv^eTB A^^TB dno HesaM^THO. 3to cšpenBRoe njiaiBe owb ys'B 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



110 BMTHHBl EBPOIIBI. 

jiHoro padl BHA*^^ Ha Heft. TIpenecJiH ?afi; Opecn UasjíOBEH^B 
OTRasaJCfl. BeanpHHHHHafl TpeBora Majio-no*Majy cootfn^uiacB h ^íy; 
H±ui> MeHBme ohh pasroBapHBajiH, t^itl 6ucrýbe dra ipesora pocia. 
^jifl lero coécTBeHHO abajca oh'b cioxa uocjlí B^epamnaro pasro- 
Bopa? IIpocTO TflHyjsa Heo^ojiHMafl bj^ictb. Owb ne sHaen, ^t^ 
Morjio 6u yx^saxb ero, — ne ea sanpen^eflie, ROHe^Ho! OlaHCu ero 
yAHBHTej[BHO RSLivh BOspocJiH, ch vbx^ Hop^b RaE^B ÁHHa yixajia warh 
3uicu. H axo noTOMy tojiseo, tfo Eoro*TO Apyroro nocTHrao 
nojiHoe 6aHKpoTCTBo! TufiBa senocafl ncHxojiorifl. Kasi Óu hh 
tfiuo, a en^e HHBorAa na ero juojho se BimaAaJLO Tasí mhofo bhh* 
Manifl H CHHCxoAHTejiLHOCTH. OpecTb naBj<»m» xoahji no eom- 
HaTt u BCTp6^ajiCfl co BsrjAAOm Ahhu, 3aAyM>iiTB0 noiimiaBinHMCfl 
El Heny OTB crasaHa ci laeMi. OxHaRO... HeJibSfl ase odméítb 
yacB AapOHi nosBOJiAib nrpaTb co6oft TaKHHi oCpasoMi! flycroe — 
xpa($pocTE Ha ciOBaxi — vb}i,h ohi cHacrjiHffB h aTHMi! 

Jl^OBTopi npBC&ii HanpoTHBi Hefl El CTOJiy. Ohi CMOTpr&n-b 
Ha Hee TenepB laEi se, sasi B^epa bi pecTopani, h ÓescosHa- 
TeJHBHO Bu6HBajii. MOTHBi wftHofi jiose^Eoft HO Epaio 6jH>xe?sa. 

— UepecraHBTe ae cryTOTb! — noMopn^Hjiacs ÁHHa: — ttí) ctb 
BaicH ceroAHfl? 

— KaaceTCfl, Ha;^o Bací cnpocHU, mtb bu fljbjOí&te co MHOft. 

— Bu noMHHTe BaniH nocsŠAHifl cjiOBa BHepa? — nporoBopBjía 
ÁHpa, noMOJiiaBi h ne tasasí na nero. 

Bi nepBuft pasi bi shshh ji^OETopy nosasaiocb, hto y uero 
saEpysHJiacb roiOBa. Ohi nopuBHcro bcrohilu na nora h ocra- 
HOBHjQíCJi sa CBOHMi CTyjTOHi, csBMaii CHHHRy o&bsiMB pysaMH. 

— Ji npocHJi oé^ynaib o^ny moio mymy He myra, — otb*- 
Ham OHI ^epesi H']teEOJibEo ceRyn^i c^aBienHUMi rojocom: — ecjiH 
Bu Tenepb HaMipenaerecb myraib bi cboh) onepe^b, to npeAynpes- 

MH) BaCb, TTO 8T0... 

— OnacHO? — noACEasaja Anna: — hšti, AOETopi, mu Óy^eirB, 
eciH xoTHTe, o6cyiEAaTb samy myiEy coBepmenno cepbesHO. Ho, 
HaA'i^H)Cb, He Bi AP&Ma™^ecE0Mi cnuii — noMHBTe, bu oGin^ajut 

8T0! 

Ona Heptmajiacb BsrjiflHyrb na nero. Cjiimaia, sasi obi .^u- 
majii Tflsejio, sasi cryji, icipno pacEanuBaflCb, CEpHnšii noA'B 
ero pysaMH. Opecn IlaBJíOBHqi OTÓpocHJH ero, onHcajn saRie-xo 
aanyraHHue SHrsara no EOMHarl h Tor^a tojibso no^onieji^ ict» 
AKwk, Fjiasa ciflJH, ero Bcero ÓHja saiaoBHafl nepBnan AposB. 

— ^McTBirrejibHO, bu ho myrHre? — cnpocHJn ohi 6e3noMoii^Ho 

d M0.1b6ofi. 

— Opecn IlaBJíoBHHi, 3to npe^ojaeme BqepamHaro pasrosopa/ 



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MHPAXH. 111 

ne (kxsBme! — BOCSjrasHyjia HcnyraHHO ÁHHa, oroABiiraflCB <xrb Hero: 
ecjra BH eo^HpaeTecB nepexoAHTB na Apyryio noHsy, Tor^a — xorAa 
i myTHJia h HH^ero (kKiBine. H fiasipHoe TaB^B jy^me — ropas^o 
jyHme. 

KaKB joLyqnie?! He BOofipaauterK jih ona, hto ohi nosBOJUHrB 
TenepB bsatl HasaA'^ xotb o^Hy BpynHi^y?! Bi ^eM!h bhahtb ona 
xpaMaTHBiTB? ^a owh TaB'B 3Ke opraHiPiecKE HecnocotfeHi si Heiiy, 
xaicE Heciiooo6eHi npontTB vbpHO MOTHBi^xoTfl 6ii ^^uana'^! Om 
sasjnoHaTB CBO(k)AHiitt AoroBopi yiiBiixi- mxeff, noHHMaio^HX'^ 

Tpe8B0, HTb HMeHHO BITB HySHO; £ft HySHa CB060Xa. Elfy — JSM 

aero 9to eARHciBenBiift tmicfíCrb sepnyrb CBoe AynieBHoe pasnoB^e. 
Bci npeHiiyii^eerBa na ea cropoH^: npoHipuBaerB Bcer^ia totb, 
BOTopiift jao(kTh. JlíoÓOBh Bcerxa 6ujia h ÚjAerb neBOJieft, HacHJiieirB 
Hixi Bamefi HpaBCTBeHHOfi CBOÓojífiŘ. Oh'b — ^njioco^% — BunysAem 
coBHaTesBBO noAcraBJíflTb meio hoa^b apiio. A! nycTb ona nopa^yerca, 
?T0 ee MHHOBaia ^ama cíji! Tor^a nacrasib 6ii BOHeA'B h ea Aec- 
noTB^ecEOMy i^pcTBOBamio onapoBaTejiBHofi aseHn^HHu. ^Boe hh- 
Eor^a He jhoĎjitb o^MBaBOBO chjibho h OAHHasoBO AOJiro. Ho bi 
ZBSHH, Tbn^h He Men^, aobojibho saCaBearo, — Haxo tojibbo yM'6TB 
CMOTpÍTB na Ben^H fiesne^B^. 

— ^a, (JesneHHie! — noBxopHJia cjiobho bi saÓHTBi AHHa: — ho, 
rjaBHoe, HecTHO BsniojmHTB AoroBopx. Bu ne CBasere MHd^ HEBor^a, 
^To fl Bací o6MaHyjia, HHnpH BaBHX'B oÓCTOflTejiBCTBaxib. IXoMHHre, 

^TO TOJBBO paAH CB060AIiI fl p&HaiOCB BIltTH 3aMyS'B. 

Ohh cTOfljiH Apyn nepeA'B ApyroM'B no cepe^HHl BOMHaiu. 

— T^Mi ne Menie, b^ab sto saMysecTBO, ÁHHa Bja^HMÍpoBna! 
CaMoe noHflTie yse HcsjífOHaeTi... 

— He 6e3noEOÉTecB! — ne Aaja eny bohhhtb Hexepn&iHBO ABsa: 
a He cotiHpaiocB saBOAHTB o5osaTejie&, HOHHMaio CBOÓOAy ne b'b 
aroMi CMíiicjiiš. Ho a ocraBJíflH) sa co6ot npaBO „HHpHOpascraTBCfl^, 
no BameMy co6cTBeHH0My njiaHy. 

^OBTopB 6esM0i[BH0 CRJlOHHJii rojííOBy HepeA'B ea BŠpott wb 

CBaroCTB AOrOBOpOFB... 

9to BejHHaftinee óeapascyACTBO — to, htó ohi» A'feaaerB. Bce paBBO, 
ecjiH TOJiBKO o6i dTOM'B OABOiTB OHI H MeHTaeTB BOTB ysie BTopoÁ 
roAi! HflEorAa em^e HeHcnBiTaHHaa, 6e3yHHafl, TopsecTByion^afl pa- 
XOCTb oxBaTH^ia ero Bcero. Bi rojiOB*! niyM'kiio, BaK'B 6yAT0 obi 6biji'b 
HBflffB. „Bcb saAepsBBaioave i^eHTpu pacxjiflfiajBCB'' , — ^ynaii ohi, 

^yBCTByfl HOJrayH) HeB03M0»B0CTB BOBTpOJIHpOBaTB COÓCTBeflHUfl CJlOBa, 

TnpasjflTB ABEsenúiMH. HefijiaropasyMHO, a& h cosepmenHO ne fijisi 
^ero 6wkO BJiAcrbca Ahhš, ^to ona MOserB fjki&Th nsi aero Bce, 
^ eft B3AyMaeTca. TaBi» Cesynao, lasi r;iyno Mys^iHu jiíoÓATh 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



112 BI^GTOHIC^B BBPOnU. 

TOJEBBO rkCh SeHII^HH'B, BOTOpHfl B% HHHl paBHO^mHU. TOIBKO 

TEBafl crpacTb HHRorAa ne EhxojijsTh nojraaro y^OBJíerBopeHÍfl — 3a- 
Kowb 4>H3H^ecKÍ&! He 6% 8T0MT» JIH BCfl pasra^Ka neocEuiTHoň BJiacTB 
AypHBixi aiemEiHHi? Ysi, BOsenHO, He rjynu ase rb yiiHESH, ofípa-- 
dOBaHHue, yqeHue h lajaHTJiHBue, soTopue nep^AKo xpenemyrB ne- 
peA^B nojiHBíMi HH^TOsecTBOHi. He CesnpawHHO otb vbRa bíbob^ 
H^XH^&niúi seHU npojiHBaiOTL ciesu, — iioásimfSL jik>6obhhi](ii 6po- 
caioTCfl Ha nosopB, — He^apoirb ceMbH pacna^aioTCfl, npeBpacHMnne 
JK)AH xbjíBJOTb BejH^aňmiji hhsocth. ď^eHn^Hna ^acro Bu6[ipaeT]& 
qejiOBŽBa toibeo sa to, ^to oh^ ee judóetl. Em^e HHsorAa hh 
OAHH'B MyacHHHa 8Toro He cxk^hjvh; owb ynterB i^hhtb toubo to, mi> 
caMi HcnuTiiBaerb. OneBHAHO, oh^b b^^ho Oy^erB paóoifb Ahhh* 
Ho HaAO yui^ noHHMaTB! bc£ nomiTifl OTHOCHTejiBHii; pa6cTB0 
BOBce He Bi ero naTypi, yHHsaTBCfl nepex^ nex) owb ne HaM^pes^, 
BaB^ 6ii (SesyMHO hh oóoisajrL ohb ee. MesAy hhmh Bce acho... 

HaBonei^x, OpecTB UaBJíOBHH^B h^cbojibbo onoicHHJicfl, Bor^a 3a- 
iťJ^THjii, BaB^B cepBesHO ÁHHa cjiymajia ero. Ohi noHflj^B CMyrHO, 
^To eny CjcaropasyiiH^ yttrii reaepB n nae^HH^ cb caicHirB co6ok> 

OtfySAaTB B3PBIBU qyBCTB'B, TaBl* AOJirO, CHCTeMaTHHeCBH nOAaBJ[fleMHX'b. 

Ero BBiÓHJia H31 BOjeH BHesanHOCTB coÓEirífl. He Bcer^a jrerBO cpasy 

OCBOHTBCfl CB He02BHAaHH0ft y^B^eft. «A eCJH STO COHB?!^ — MeJIB- 

Baio MHHyTaiíH vb ero yM^ cobcíitb ysi no-A'^TCBn, bi^ sapy pas- 
roBopa. YfiTH Jiyqrae, ho bbb^-to ne xo^erca!.. 

OpecTB naBJíOBHqa^ ÓpocHJTB onacnyH) TeHy h 3aroBopHj['B o caMoft 
ÁHHb, o T0& BUAaioii^eficfl poJiH, BOTopyK) ona MOserB Hrpaxb b^ 
xsdóowb o6n^ecTBÍ, npH CBoefi BpacoTÍ, yiri^ h oCpasoBanÍH. y^OBJíe- 
TBopeHHoe To^ecJiaBie — ne nocjAjiMSisi Be^B!.. TenepB aBrycTB. Ohh 
en^e ycnÍH)Ti> nonyTemecTBOBaTB ocenBH) h BepnyrBca cio^a ki^ 
SHMHeMy cesoHy. Ohtb saBTpa se noAacTB panoprB o 6ojriteHH h 
BCJiÍA'B SBTbwb npomeHÍe 06% otctbbb^. 

E& Óujio ahbo cjiymaTB, ^to ero ciys6a mosotb BacaTBca es... 
H TBEoft téte-á-téte aOjisoh^ a-ihtbca bck) shbhb! (Ma HyscTBO- 
BBJíH, HTO iiwb Jiymne óujio 6u pascTaTBCfl b% axy Manýry. 



XLV. 

Ajrbevh npi'lx&9'B hsi IlaBJOBCBa h npesAe Bcero OTnpaeiucfl 
Bi rocTHHHHi^y Ha MHxafijíOBCBoft. EMy CBasaiH, hto FojytfHHa 
HeAasHO BUHura h HeH8BÍCTH0, BorAB BepneTCfl. 

AjišeBi MHoro AynaxB o6'b Ahh^ dTH ahh; esi nojoseme saóo- 
THJO ero. BiicjiajiH jh efi bha^b? ^.Tb npeAnpHMerB ona, Borxa noi 



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MHPA»H, 113 

sfiwTb ero?.. Hh fb KaKOirE cjiyia^fe oh^ ne co^HpajiCfl orpa- 

HHHHTBCH TOft CypOBOft pOJIbH), Ha KOTOpyíO erO BH3BaJIH COBCilTB 

BHesanHO. (ííbtb tfojtrae oh^ oÓAyMHBairL uocjA hx^ pasroBopi, 
tíite 6o;iBine pBep^sMCK vh miAhíh, tto HMenno xaK^ eMy h cat- 
AOBaio nocrynHTB Torja.) IIoaBJíeHie ;í'6ByinKH 6h;io coBepmenHO 
HeosHjaHHO, H ona ynura otb nero xaK^ nocntraHO, hto owh hh 
o newb ne ycn^JTB pascnpocHTB ee. AjpfeeB^ wa 3Toro, rjaBHBOfb 
o6pa30irB, h npíixaxB Cb jann, h onenb ;^ooa;^OBaJ'B, hto ne sa- 
cr&ďi ee Aona. 

EcreCTBeHHO, hto Anna Me^raerB 06^ apTHCTHqecKoft Kappsepi, 
TTO ona ne Morjia aaÓHXb cbohxi nepsHX^ ycnixoBx. Ho A.TÍeB^ 
BswflHy.ix Ha BonpocB ropa3;ío r.iyCae. Bmbho 6tuo synaTí., hto 
jK)6HMHi^a BejHKaro aprHcra oópe^ena hohojihhtb co(Íoh) pfljíii ne- 
yAaqHHROBTB. 3to 6ujih o^na hsi ero .hoÓhmiix^, nejiiaBHHxx H^efi: 
HCEyccTBO cJHniROATb Hpoij^aHHpyeTca, MejB^aerB, craHOBHTca qepe3%- 

MyiTB AOCryHHHlTB. KaKTb HH jA^KH HCTHHHIie TaJiaHTU, HeCOMH^BHO, 

íTo vrb KasAOMx qejOBi^R^ AOjschu 6utb BanaTRH tofo, mT> qero 
OHH posAAiOTCfl. drn sa^amn nnor^a mosho pasBHXB HCKyccTBeHHO 
H sa yniH BUTflHyTB na cb^t^b 6o3EÍfi 6j'6AHoe, qaxjioe j^apoBanie. 
9th-to TajaHTHKH, jTHHieHHHe sawTKOB^ ecxecTBeHHaro pocra, — 
KponaTe.fH 6esjifl,pmi ÓejjerpHCTHKH, npeAcraBHrejiH aiHBonHCH, 6e3- 
CHwiBHoft marnyrB ;íajřBnie tocto BHÍniHeft rexHHKH, MysLnta, b-b 
KOTopoft HHKTO, KpoM* caMHx^ aBTopoBTb, He ysTÍeTB pasHCKaxB ne- 
wra BjnoxHOBeHja, — botb ttí) HaBOjHaerB puHOKi, nonnsaerB BKycB 
ny&iHKH u no;q>iiBaei!B cepBesnoe sna^enie HCRyccTBa, HH3B0Afl ero 
ífi creneHH npocroro peMecjia. 

Ájri&eBTB ropa^o pasBHBaJii ary mbicjb npn RaHCAOiTB y^oÓHOM-B 
cxjnsA H, pasyM^Cfl, HaxHBajix ce6t nponacTB BparoBx. Ohb ne 
oópan^ajTB na 8to BHHManifl. Ero penyrai^ifl 6um a&bho CA']^aHa, 
MaTepiaďBHoe nojosenie bhojihí HesaBHCHMO. 

HxaKB, Ajňievb pas^HJi^ na^e^AU Ahhu co bcšmi x^ra^HORpo- 
Biem aapan^ otí^yMannux^ líH^mfi. Ho oht> hcrpchho CHMnaTHSH- 
poBaii^B eft caHOft h en^e naA^JiCfl Óeteb eft nojie3HBrifB b^ Óy^yn^earB. 
BepHyBHiHCB AOMOft, OHB cbJTh 3a paóory, naMipeBaacB eme pas^ 

CB^AHTB R'B FoJiyÓHHOft HOHOBKe. Ho RaRHb HapO^IHO B'B dTOTB A^HB 

pafiorajiocB RaRi-io ocoÓenHO y^a^no. BpoMa jertjio npeAaxejiBCRH 
fecrpo. HanpacHO A-iteB^B BsrjaAHBajrB osaňo^enno na tocu, ho- 
ioaeHHHe na bhahojtb m-íctí, n nerpnflwb ontyn^enieirB qejio- 
Bfea, ROToparo sacraBJíaiorB néxoTa oxopBaTBca otb A'6jia; oh^ Bce 
paBHO TyTB ase saÓHBaji to, ttí) bha^tb. „3% cyníHOcrn, Mory (rBÍ3- 
Vm» H BaBTpa**, — MejiBRaTO b^ yart, xotb hícrojibro BpeweHHTOMy 
aasaxi orcpoTOHHoe CBu^anie HCRpenno orop^HJio ero. 

Ton nt-Mii, 1889. 8 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



114 B^CTHHBl* EBPOUU. 

OraJio xeMH^TB. AjriteBi HeMHoro ycrajii, h, éjraro^apa 9T0My, 
R'B Heny BepHyaacb cnocotfHocTB oÓcyxHTB ÓediipncrpacTHO pacnojio- 
senie qacoBuxi crp&ioK^b. O, h AJMaTb nenero "^xaTB m> Ahhí 
ceroAHfl! Owb onosffijFh. TenepB eny crajio ^oca^Ho: st^HO sapa- 
óoraercfl h saÓyxerB Bcb coócTBeHHUfl HaMipemfl. H Ause He 3a- 
íy^eTB, a nepepšniHTB HácRopo, crapaflCB hh bo hto ne BEHRaib, — erb 
BOjmemeMrb, Roropoe HanoMHHaerB on^yn^emji ff^TCTBa — ^yBcrsa fem- 
HasHcra, yBJíeBinarocfl nrpofi h pimaioii^aro npeneÓpe^b ypoKoiTB: 
„cofi^en BaR'B-HH6yAB; saBxpa HaB^pnoe He cnpccarB*'. 

CpaBHeHÍe dro npHnuio vh rojiOBy h sanajio A^riteBa Ha wb- 
CBOJiBBO MHHyrb, saciaBHBi CHOBa nosaÓUTB Anny. IIoroirB owb 
piniHjrB, HTO nepeHO^yerB ceroAHfl vh ropoA^ h otbpujl Asepb, 
wioóu nosBaib Oe^opa. 61 npHxosefi cmmajcfl ryjrb rojocoex. 
OnflTb BT0*HH6yAb nuTaercfl BopBaxbCfl vb Heny HacHJibHO. ÁJiievh 
nocTOflHHO cjnunajii co bcžxb cropoHi Maccy asajoÓB, cor^amajcfl 
cb HHMH, HSBHHfljicfl, HO HO ceRpoTy OAOfipflJTb co6cTBeHHaro Jiasefl 
sa ero desnpHM^pHyio HeynojiHMOCTb. 

OeAop^b npH6íbsajii Ha ero sobi Becb spacHutt: BaKofi-ro, aojsho 
6uTbj HBflHuft HenpeM^HHO xoHerb bha^^ ero ciio MHHyry, pyraerca, 
Hyxb B% Apasy ne jrlserb. JífiSBOJLBTb owb BpHRHyrb ropoAOBoro? 

— OneHb nban^B? — ocBiAOMHJica AjriteBi. 

— Hšrb, ne laR^b qTo6i, aa pasB^ bi CBoeirb bha^ bosmosho 
xaRi CRaHAajiHTb bT) qysofi RBapTHpi? 9tosb, a npocHjrb ^ecrbH). 
OROJiOTOHHuft snaROMufi. ITpanyrHyrb tojbro. 

Aa^eKb oÓosBaAi ero AypaROifB h nomejrb cairb vb npHxosyio. 

OeAoprb He nycRaj^b aionojty^naro nocbTHrejfl AUbme naoH^a^RH 
H saMRHyjTb ABepb, y6^rafl na 30bi 6apHHa. OeAopi h i^^nb hobjio 
saBeJťb Ha coócTBeHHufi cnerb — ao TaROfi crenenH ohi BraHyjca btb 
CBOIO pojb. 

HaA^b yxoATb AjrbeBa or^aflHHO sajiHJicfl sbohokb. Ohi nocn%- 
niHJTB OTRpuTB ABepb: nepeA'B ABepBH) ctoajib Osofhhi. 

SanujicHHoe ujiaTbe, CMflToe 6^be, BsiepomeHnaa 6opoAa h 
BOcna^eHHoe jihi^o npHAaBaJiH eny bhab A0-HejiB3fl noAOdpureJBHijtt. 
Ohi> cefinacB se norflHyjii AsepB h npoTHcnyjiCfl wb RonnaTy, 6^- 
i^epeMOHHO npHsaB^b ri crbsí BucoRyio ^Hrypy AiteBa. 

— n03B0JIBTe, OAHaROSl, MEJIOCTHBUfi FOCyAapb! TaRl HB Bpii* 

6aH)TCfl BB qyaRÍe Aona! 

— ^ORJiaAHBaJTB BaMB, TTO He Vb CBOeiTB BHA*! — BOUBJTb 

OeAopB. 

— GRaa&HTe na mhjoctb, HHROJiafi HHROJiaHTb, RaRB dxo bsi 
Aepsnre nOAo6Haro naxajia? B^ai^ flft BacB AO^paiBca neBosMOSHo! 
A 6muŘ qacB^TyrB boioh). 



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MUPA^KH. 115 

— H coBepmeHHO HanpacHO-^Bce, míb Mory CRasaTB bom^. Ecsh 
y BacB ecTb ^"^0 ;^o mcha, bu mofjh 6u o(5paTUTbCfl imcbMOM^ hjih 
npHATH vb npieMHuft a^hb. SI npHHHMaH) no cpe^an^ yTpoBTb. 

— O^eHB 6jiaroAapeH7»! PasyirheTca, y nena ecrt ao Bac* a4jo, 
HO fl He Hory hh otjioshtb ao cpeABi, hh HaiaraiB ero b'b iihcbk^. 

Axbevb CHHCxoAHTejiBHO yjiuÓHyjiCfl. 

— Co6cTBeHHoe BpeMá — neoTBeMJieMoe Aocroanie BcaKaro. 
IIosBOJiflH) ceGib saBJEiowTB, HTO y BacB ero SHaHHreJBHo 6ojrBine, 
híiix y iieHfl. 

— O^eHB B^poflTHO, HO Bu MOseTe, OAHaRo, BuciymaTB Měna? 
J.a HeysTO ao chxi nopi bu Tasi-TaRH h He npHSHaere moha?! 
OsorHH'B, xyAOSHHR^B. y Ilerpa AjieRC^HHa FojyÓHHa Bcrp^HajmcB. 

— nosBOJíBTe — OmorzBh? IIopTpeTHCTi?.. 

— KaRofi noprpexHCTx! Hy — Bemni^a eme Moa BHcAia y nero 
Bi. safiHHeri — (SesA^JiKa — ohx bcím^ ee H0Ba3UBai'B, noMHHTe? 

Aji^eBi npHHOMHHj^B, HaROHei^i. Ho neysejiH dno 6ujn> totb 
caMufi ^BŽTy^^fi lOHoma, ROxopoMy Apyn» ero npeACRasuBajii ÓJie- 
CTfln^yio 6yAyn^H0CTB^ ROxopoMy noRpoBUTejBCTBOBajTS cb oreHecROH) 
hí^bhoctbh)? ÁJi^eB'B ch npHCRop^HmfB HeAoyH^HÍeifB pasr^iflA^* 
Baii rocTsi. 

— HdBHHHTe HOJKajiyficra, AftBneHBRO axo 6euio, a ffh Bamn 
roAu jaoKu chjbho wkBsiífytCA. 

— ^-Aa, MÍnaiOTCfl! — ycMixnyjica cb rope?BK) Os&orawh. — 
HanpacHO HSBHHflerecB; a h caiťB noHHMaH), mo AOJURen* um^tb 
BHA% wpTB snaerB RaRoft. Ob sapii hs^b Aona, vjíib yacB hh mjiajica... 

— Mhjiocth ppomy bx RaÓHHerB ro mhí. IIoTOJiRyeifB, — npn- 
rjacHJťB xosaHHi. 

BosóysAeme xyAOSHHRa na^aio ^Bicrpo naAaxB, RaRi tojibro 
^kib 6£um AOCTHrHyra. Bi fojeob^ samysiíjio CHJiBH^e, Honi hoa- 
móajiHCB, sisuKh xasejio Boponajca. Ohi cb HaaiasAeHÍeArB ony- 
CTHica HE MarRyH) orroMaHRy. Mucjh crpanno pa3($firajiHCB. Oh'b 
saÓUBaiTB, sa^iTB npHmejTB. Oh* Óhjtb nBani — b'b nepsuft pa3i bi 
CBceft slhbhh. 

— B-B cyn^HOCTH roBopa, Bcero RaRHx^-HHÓyAB xpH roAa npomjio, 
— THHyjrB offB na-pacn^Bi: — BairB, hoah, h nesaniTHO bobcc? JI^chb 
Ha AeHB He npHxoAHTca, roBopnrB nocaoBHiía. A Bnpo^eBfB, a Óelii 
ohbhb ÓojieHi, CHeprejiBHO Óojiewb. Bce ne Mory nonpaBHTBca no 
HacToan^eify. ^ORTopi roBopnrB — AymeBHoe cnoROícTBÍe... Komhrh, 
eft Bory! Oahh^b Moft TOBapnn^i — botb OAOjasHJTb! — MO^ere AyMaxB: 
ocraHOBKica draRfB nepeAO MHofi b'b nanoJieonoBCROft no3%, nacy- 
mm cBoft iLiaAeH^ecRiĚ jihri h HspeRi 6acoM*: „IIpeACRasuBaH) 
Te(%, ^HHrpift, TTo H3* cefi AynieBHO& BcrpěnRH ru BOcnpaHeniB 

8* 



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116 BfiCTHHBl EBPOnU. 

BeJIHRHMl apiHCTOMl! HCTHHHUfl A^pOBaHÍfl UJXSJOTb Wb HCIIUTa- 

HÍflxi^... Xa, xa, xa!.. dTaBHicB, 3HaeTe, A&BjeHHUBTb (SacoiTB h 
co CBoefi posefi rHMHasHcra!.. 

Ha rjiasaxi BucryiiHJiH ciesu otb cid&xa. Ajr]teB'b CMorp^x na 
Hero Cb cocrpa^ameirB. 

— A Bil caMH pasBi ne BŠpHxe b% sto? — cnpocnjrB owh otohb 
cepBesHO. 

— Bo TTO? flapoBanie-TO? Ona, bohi, TO«e npeACRasiisaerb 
BeJiEKifl H 6oraTUfl mhjocth... A a, sHaere, BHa&y... jierne oROjrferb 
npesAe, h^m^b AOÓpaTLOi ao coócTBeHHaro AStpoBaHm nepes^b pas- 
jHHHUfl HacjioeHifl! 

— ^R BH HanpacHO xaKx ne Óepeaterecb noci^ Óojtíshh. Tfib 
ate, OAHaKO, bh ctojbbo crpaHCTBOBajiH ceroAM? — HaBOAHJi octo- 

pOSHO XOSflHVB. 

— A? He noMHH), npaBO. Bmšctí 6ujie wb ca^y bib Baicoiirb-To. 
nosBOJTBTe, offisjiowbj bIa^ h He o6iflCHHjrB en^e Baifb, 3aq'fiMi 
coÓCTBeHHO npHmejTL? HejiBBfl jih CHanajfa boau craKaH^HEi aoÓutb 
y Bamero CBHpinaro i^ep6epa. 

— CHAHTe, CHAHTe, a cairb pacnopasycs! — y^epsaji ero 
AjrifeeBT*. — KypHTB ne xcraie jih? OxAOXHHTe. ycirifeeiTB eme nepe- 

rOBOpHTL. 

Ohi BBímejrb pacnopflAHTBCfl, ttoÓu Oexop^ CA'kiajrB nafi h 
HOAaJii caiBTepcROfi boau. 

„B^AHflra nonaji^B bt> nepeA&íBy KaKyio-To", — AyMajit Aji^bi 
CB sajiocTBH), HO BMŠCT^ CB saTacHHiiiTB jnoÓonuTCTBOiTB sutAHaro 
HaÓjnoAaTOJfl. 

OsorHHHb npoAOJisajTB roBopHXB cairB cb co5oft h saBHcrjiHBO 
KOCHJicfl Ha mojiBOBiifl HOAyniBH. TaEi h xflnyjio npnjieHB. AjriteBi 
sacraBHjrB ero bíihhtb ukjfjio 6yT£LiBy boabi h craRani Bpl^nqafi- 
maro ^aK>. 

— BuTpesBMere? — noAMHrnyjii Ao6poAynrao foctb. — IIpaB^y 
CBasaTB, ne homhid ysi, cbojbbo nporjroTHjB BcaBofi ap^hh. Hssora 
Bce BpeMfl My^Hja, lenepB nponiJio. npeAcrafiBTe^ hh Majr&fimaro 
BOH^yBa ne on^yn^aK) nepeA'B Bamett oco6ofi! IIbahi HHKorAa en^e 
ne 6ujL%j BooÓn^e ne hbio, a Tyi^... IIosBOJiBTe! bu uHcaTe^B? hchxo- 
jrorB? noHEMaeie jih, rocnoAHHi necaTeiB, tto HHorAa na^ero óoJiBnie 
ne ocraercfl, RaKi tojibbo HanHTBCfl?! $H3H^ecBafl norpefinocTb! BaKx 
coH^B, BaBi rojiOA'B. JI,a bii ne OTA'&iuBafiTecB, oxB^xBTe nonpocry: 
noHHMaere hjih h^ti? 

— IIOHRMaiO — H nOHHMaiD npHHHHy, — OTBtTHJTB CHOBOtHO 

Aji^bi. — Bbi coBepnieHHO npaBu: aio noipeÓHOCXB ^iisHTOCBaa. 
yraereHHue nepBH TpetíyiorB BOsÓyAirraifl — BaBOffB peaBsiin. 



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MHPAAH. 117 

— PeasipH? — noBTopHJi Ty no xy^íoatHHKt, — Botb! a mu mj- 
XESSL pyraeifb nBJíHHi^efi! 

— ^a, jsjň,... Bh xonrre, MoaRerB 6utb, BSApeMHyrb neMHoro? 
BpeMfl eCTb. 

— HŠTi, 3T0 cjunnsoMi! — BApyn noKpacfffcix OsoraFB. — 
Ejiaro^apio BacB^ HHSOJiafi HHROJiaHHi, bii... bii... o^enB Ao6pu!.. 

OffB diimaJCfl en^e óojiBme. IIo nocjiOBHi^ — nBAHOMy Mope 
no Eojriteio. BApyra owb cooÓpasiLii TenepB Bce. Ohi no^yBCiBO- 
BafB — HMeHHO no^BCTBOBajTB Ha cetíib no^epH^Bmifi, noxníift Bopor- 
HKR% pyóaxHKH, npomijeHHoe xuaiBe, piisie canoro, jranRÍfl pyBH 
H HenpiflTHuft cyxott sapi wb jonsib. Saxecajucfl bi aoitb Basnaro 
6apHHa! BHmB, npieMH nasHa^eHu. IlHcaTejíb mofi ^u, OAnaRO, h 
ne sa^aBaTB lasoro Tona. Ho xyrB se craio cobíctho. Botb owh 
HflHBíHTCfl se cb wswb Tepn^^jHiBO CROARO BpeMeHH, yxasHBaerx, 
(SojTOBHiD HBflHyH) ciymaeTi. 

Ho KaVB HH CHHCXOAHTeJBHO 61IJIO OtfpaB^eHÍe XOSflHHa, OSHB- 

ienie Óomme ne BOSBpa^&nocB btb rocno. BepnyjocB saxo nojmoe 
oosHaHÍe eiy^HBmarocfl, Toro^ míb sacraBHJio ero tfpocHTBCfl cio^ia b^b 
evyTHot Ha^esA^, ?to „nHcaTejiB^ MOserB noAaxB ynnuft cob^tb. 
Owh co3HaBaj!B ce6fl xaBHicB 6e3CHJiBH£nni nepeA'B ÁHHofi... Ona 
He nyenrrB ero rx ce6i na rjasa. Epan ASLJieiíO. Ájríevb }Sf>ji7Rewh 
novHHTB Mysy. 

OsorHHi cnpociurB AjríteBa, h nojyHHn bi> otbítb: 

— O, 6esfh BCflRaro comh^hís, a ee h ne sa^uBajrB! Ona 6iija 
y MeHfl Bcero h^rojbro ^neft TOiiy Hasa^i. CeroAna jí safesajii 
n Het, ^diy m> cosajiimio, ne sacrajii ee Aona. 

— Bh?? y BacB 6ujia? Ta, la, la! a Ha^nHaio, naROHei^, no- 

HHMaTB ROe-HTO!.. 

IIoHflTHO TenepB, rto totx „aBTopHrerHBit opaRyjTB**, neft upn- 
roBopB noaepPB Anny bi TaRoe OTnaame, Osorani* B;ípyrB no- 
KpacHiurB; RasajocB, bocb xicejiB CHOBa yxapHJTB eny vrb rojiOBy. 

— y Bací 6hUí2L?\ saníiTB ona ÓBUia y BacrB?? Bhjtb • npH 
dTOiTb RaROft-HHÓyxB cepBeBHufi pasroBopi, RacaionUfica... ny, oahhitb 
eiOBOiTB, SHBonncH pasroBopnb 6ujrb? <S ne h3i JooÓoiiuitrrBa, 
Ba ne jsjuaňre,.. Mhš HeoÓxoAHiio dTO asaTB... 

— 3to He ceRpen. ^a, A^ScTBHreJiBHO y nacTB Óbutb hoaoC- 
hhí pasroBopi, — otbíthjtb Ájňevíb xojoaho, ne noHHMaa, wnb 

(mSÍTb CB HHITB CTaSOCB. 

— H BH cRaaajin, tto ona ^ojsna 6pocHTB shbohhcb, tto y 
Hefl EÍTb Tajianra!! bh bto CRasain, He upaB^a jih? bii — jijeas^ ne 
xyxosHHBi! bu BSfljni na ce6fl... 

~ HoFO^HTe! — noAHflJTB pyRy AjriteFB: — ecan bh sejaere 



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118 BfiCTHinťB EBPOmi. 

oé^BflCHHTbCfl CO MHOfi, TO yM^pBTe BaTITb nuji. Si 6e3% comh^hííi 
3HaH>. W£b HMeHHO fl Ce6£ nOSBOJHJI^b. 

— Ho BII He SHaere, ao ^iero ee BTiswb Aoeejra! CsasajiH, RaR^B 
OTp^&sajQi. 

— CKaaajix CBoe MiAme, ne 6ojibine, — tí), míb ^yMaio, h, crajo 
6uTb^ oÓas&wb CBa3aTb, ecaa ueua cnpamHBaiorB. Ho 2 He na^aas- 
HHB^ aBa;i;eMÍH, otb Roroparo saBHCHTB npHHJiTB hjih He npHHflTb ee. 

AjAevh pascep^íHJica. ynpeR'B xy^oatniiRa saTponyjTB ciiyTHoe 
onaceme, npHTaHBraeeca y Hero na cep^i^i, ho btb ROTopoe owh 
crapajicfl He BHHRaTb, bhojih^ aobojebruK TeoperiraecRH cbohitb 
nocrynROMTb. 

— fí. BOBCe He COB^TOBaJX 6pOCHTb SHBOHECB, RaRl BU BH- 

paaaerecb, — npHÓaBHJix OHt hcaobojilho: — ne peROMen^OBajit xojibBO 
A&(aTb H3i Hefl jííbjío sif3HH, TaR'b RaRi A^fl dToro a npesHaio He- 
o6xoAHMOft H3BÍCTHyK), HepBORJiaccHyK) creneHb xaiaHia. Y Fojy- 
ÓHHOfi H^TL TaRoro TajaHia, dro Moe ytíto^eme. Bu^ Bnpo^eMT*, 
AOjasHH HOHHHaTb 9X0 jy^Hie iieHfl. 

— He mh4 h He Banx ptraaTb dto! — ropa^rajca xyAOSHHKi>: 

— HSB^kTHO, RaR^b 6j[H30pyRH BCflRÍH HpOpO^eCTBa, RaRl OHH pi^ARO 

onpaBAHBaH>TCfl na jiíkAl Bu ne nanajibHHRx aRa^eMÍH, ho AHHa 
Bjia^HMÍpoBHa BaM'b b^prtb — jí^jisí nes dTo Bcero BasH^. 

— a ee npocHJTb ne npH^aBaTb it6hu MOOBiy mhíhíh), ho a 
HHRor^^a ne no3BOJiflK> ce6i RpHBHTb js^jmoŘ bb hoao^hhxb cjy- 
^aflXB. Mh^ o^eHb sajib, ecnn sl noBeprb ee bx cepbesHoe yHHHÍe. 

0^ Ror;i;a 6u dno 6ujio TOJibRO ynume! Owb ne snaerb^ he ^t6 
ona p^mHJiacb: oÓB^H^aTbCfl ch ^eJiOBJ^ROMi, Roroparo ne jnoúwrh 
H ne yBasaerb. 3to caMoy6iňcTBo! 

OxjOTum, pascRasajiB Bce, nrb snajrb: RaRi Anna TOCROBajia, 
TflroTHJiacb a£H8HbH) Fb ceifb^ Ópaia a BpasAOBaiia cb ero senofi; 
RaRi oTb TOCRH, OTb HOTpeÓHOCTH HaftTH u^bjíh CBOCMy cymecTBo- 
BanÍH), ona BJootÍHJiacb vb CípooBa, A^a eiiy cjiobo, ho nocji^ aroro 
BHessniHO yixajia mi> 3dLJvbchs. Tenepb ona OTRasa^a ptmerejEHO 
CrpoeBy h coÓHpaercfl Bufirn 3a AORxopa SaÓOTnna. Xy^osEniKrb 
^ajTb caMyK) 6e3noiiíaAHyH> xapaRTepHCTHRy oÓohxb a&eHHXOBi. QpH- 
SHaJCfl jífix^j cRBOsb orqaflHHbift cmíxb, ?to h ohb npe^JiarajTE 
Ahhí ce6a, noroMy hto, Cesi coMnima, ohi no^xo^Hrb Kh Heft 
6oJibme Bcixi) u aabho jqoÓhti ee Óesyímo... 

Aji^eBB 6uji% Becb BHHMame. Owh ncRycno rpynnapoBarb orpu- 
BO^HUfl AaHHUfl, cooón^aeifbifl xyAOSHHROMi vb noroRaxi lyBcnrei 

OSJIOÓJieHHblXB; peBHHBUXB HJTH BOCTOpseUHHXB. HSB 9111X1 A^HHlIXlb 

Kb ero H30Hq)eHHofi ^anrasÍH csarasacb njhjieLSí apRafl Rapnraa. OffB 
B^iC&ai HyTRoe MOJiOAoe cy^ecTBO, TOium^eecfl Óesi^&ibHocTbio 



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lOIPASK. 119 

nycTOTOfi 2M3HH jí,eEh 3a ACHB H dTUTb Tpext rocnoAi, crpacTHO 
ociiapHBaioiiíHX'B ee Apyirh y Apyra. Ohi H')kROJiBRo pa3x BHHMa* 
TejBHO BOSBpan^ajiCfl rt» TparH^ecKoft Giorpa^^ÍH Crpoesa. Uobatho, 
noveny ÁHHa ysjíeRJiacb hitb, — ho ^t6 Bussajio ne^xy hhmh laEoft 
p4§3BÍtt paspHBi?.. 

Hh^fo He snafl, ne BH^^aBi miBorAa OrpoeBa, poManHCTB no- 
HfljTB ero jra^iHOCTB H yra^ajTL ero OTHomemfl ki Ahh^ ropasAO 
vbpwbey HÍbwh xyAOSHHRi. TOpsaeMufi pobhoctbe) h cjAho ÓJiaro- 
roB^BHiiK nepe;(i Annott. Ho htď 6u hh npoHsonuo bt» Saj^bi, 
Hejbsfl Tenepb ^^onycTHXB jsjbBymvY pacnops^iHTbCfl CBoeK cyAb6oft xaRi 
((espaBcyxHO, — dxo óhjio ajia nero coBepmenno acho. Ohi AOJuseH^ 
cnacTu ee, h oh^ Moserb dTO CA$JiaTb. IlepeA^b hhitb ona He sa- 
npen XBeps, RaRib nepeA'B dTHiii d^AHuirB BjnaÓJieHHinrB lOHomett. 
AJrbeBi Óucrpo pl^mHJiCfl h crapaicfl ycnoROHTb Osorana; owh 
xaeTB eiíy CBoe oíobo, hto ara CBaAb6a ne coctohtcí. 

— Řb TOiTB ciy^aš, pasyMŠercfl, ecm bu kb cbok) onepeAB 
aTBiqaere sa cboh cjiOBa, — ecjni HeHaBHCTHufi BaifB sennx^ ne ORa* 
sercfl, na?e ^aamfl, npeRpacHŠfimnMi HOJiOBtROirB, ROToparo nama 
Mysa HCRpeHHO jiidÓhtb! 

— Hna^e roBops, eciH BanrB noRopn^Hiift cjyra en^e ne 
BOBoe pexHyjca ci-nBaHa? ecjiH oh^ ne Haxo^HTCfl fb oooTOflHÍH 
íHcrik&niaro delirium tremens?— nporoBopHJTB upa^HO xyxosHHRi. 

— PeBHocTB oryMaHHBaerib ne xyse BHna. 3to sl cRasajrB na 
BCflRÍfi CJiy^aft TOJBRO. Hmík) npHBUHRy He tfpocaxB cbohx^b ciobi 
Ha Birep^: a HeÓoiBmofi oxothhr^ pasurpuBaTB no nysoft mh- 
JOCTH RomraecRÍfl pojiH. Bii nosaJiyficra ne ofiHsattrecB, MOfi mh- 
j&ftmiĚ. 

Ha 9T0MI ohh paacrajiHCB. 



XLVI. 

Anna npocHyjaa» nošeno h naca ABa RaRi npo^ojisajia jieaiaTB 
ffB noereiH, He o^BaflCB. Bon snaerB, wb RoropoMi nacy ona 3acHyjia 
Bqepa, aa h B006n^e cnajia jih... H'6'rB, dxo éiu^ ne coh7». Co- 
BchrB oco6eHHoe, OTBpaTHrejBHoe cocroanie ciaÓocTH, nojnaro 
ynaARa. Tohho paaoM^ jionnyjiH bcš crpynu, HCRyccTBenHO naTany- 
THi. B^pyrb pacnajiocB sanyrannoe nojosenie, r;^ pŠHB nua o 
lyxoft cyAb6^, o cuoro&ctbíh hícroarhxi SHSHefi. Cero^nfl ao 
Hea HHHTO ÓOJBHie ne Racaerca, Rponi oxnoro: Rpoiié ^eJiOB^i^Ra, 
soTopufi B^epa crpacrno i^&iOBajrB ea pyRH, npomaacB, — h ne no- 
SBoujTB OTHflTB Bxi, ii&EOBaJix fio nposy, AHHa en^e ^CTBOBajm 



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120 BI&CTHHKl EBPOnU. 

STH noi^^yH — 3a hhxi-to, a^, Raa^eroi, tto HifeHHO sa hhxi, ona 
no4TH HeHaBHAHTB ero ceroAHfl. 

Bnepa FB dTO caMoe spěna ona xoAHJia no KOMHaii h pascys- 
Aaja, ^TO 3a6oTHHx eK HpaBHTCfl. Cero^^Hfl ne xsaTajo dHepiÍH 
HOAHflTBCfl Ha HorH. HH^ero ee HysHO, HHHero ona He .xo^iers. 
%H3HB noTepflja no(^AHH)io i^iny... Bose, ht6 xaKoe ona na- 
;^'iJIaJIa?!.. 

...IIoRasajiocB efi, hto tojbko sa aToro rocnoAHHa 6ea^ yrpuseBán 

COB-J^CTH MOKHO BUftTH, He JlíOÓB. Ho KSlV.1, MOFJa OHa AyMaXB TOJIBRO 

o Huxz?? EaRi Morjia saÓUTB ceóa canoe, pa^H RaRoro-TO npnspaRa 
cbo6o;íh?! CBOĎo^a — h ^cjiobíei, Koxopuft HMien npaBO ^tIO- 
BaxB ee! 

ÁHHa Wh OT^aflHÍn npflxajia jihqo B'b noAyniKH. Focnoj^! b^ab 
He peSenoK^B ona — OT^ero laE^ paBHOAyniHO ^yMaira o&h 9tomi eme 
B^epa?? „Xoqerca ckbo3b seMJio npoBajHTBCfl** — botb kb RaKÍa mh- 
HyTu Momno 3to CRasaTB... Ctbiaho... o, RaRiHecrepnHMOCTUAHo!!.. 
Bi oahh'b a^hb pimHJia... Ror^a se ona axo pimejia? HeyaKejra vb 
Ty MHHyry, Kor^a bx ca^y oóxflBHja OaorHHy? He ÓHBaerB jRe 
MUHyraaro noMimaTejiBCTBa, ROTOpoe 6u npoxoAHJio 6e3Ci^AHO... 
HaAO cnpocHTB ;i;0RT0pa... a!., eto se caMoro h cnpocnTB... 

ÁHHa noAHflJiacB-óuJO na nocrejni, ^o6u HanaiB OA'£BaTBCfl, h 
OHflTB 6e3CHjiBH0 HOBaiHJiacB wb HO^ymKE. PyRH noArnÓaiHCB caitH 
coóoň... ?t6 6u CA^axB? RanejiB HepBHHXi npnHflTB, m vflík oea 
BOSBMerB Hx-B TenepB? SacHyxB 6u... o, ecjai6u sacHyrBl.. 

Ho npHmjiOCB BcraiB. ŤopnE^Haa vh xperifi pas^B yse cryna- 
jiacB Kb Hefi Bi ABepB; xenepB ona HacxoflxeJBHO xpeéoBajia, ttoÓbi 
eň oTBopiLSH. ÁHHa, RaRi 6ujia, jifltíikRSJíB, AO ABepH H noBepHyjia 
Rj[K)q'B, co6npaflCB ceň^acB se ohaxb cnpaxaxBCfl bi> nocxejiB. HiienHo 
cnpHmamhCH — s^tcB ne Aocxanyx^... 

FopHHqHafl BHecia óojBmofi &bjiuŘ 6yRerB h o^BUJia erb 
cíflH)n^HM'B Biijiowb: noRa 6apuniHfl cnajia, rocnoAHH'B ^ORXop^B npi- 
fesajH xpn pasa. Cefi^iacx npocHjiH pasÓyAHXB h noAaxB 6yRen. 
BesnoROflxca, qxo xaRi hosaho cnsTb. Beji&iu CRasaxB, tto nwb 
neoÓxoAHMO 6bitb bi oahoh^ mícxí ao AByx^B ^acoKB, a nocjrk 
AByxx caMH npiiAyn. 

AHHa Mojnia, JHxopaAOHHO OA^BajiacB, rjioxafl ciesBí... Ey^a 
nocxaBHXB? Bce paBHO, na cxojii Roxopuft-HHÓyAB... Hy, a^, ko- 
He^HO, naAO vb BOAy... ByRexB eft noRasaicfl orpoMHuifB, Ror^a 
OHa MejiBROifB yBHAaia ero b^b Asepflxi... Owb to^ho jsfisnAb ee, 
M^maji^B A^maxB... Ohi nanojiHfljrB co6ok> bck) ROMHaxy sa ea 
njne^aMH... 

TopEH^Hafl xox^a-6HJio noKO?B efi oa^xbca, ho ^JiaropasyiiHo 



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MSPASH. 121 

OTCryiiHjacB, sau^TEBi, ^to TBopnica tto-to nejaAHoe. ByKerB Ka- 
loi xoporofi, H rocnoxHHi BeceJiufi, AO<$piifi, xpH pyójra no;iiapBJi'B, 
a OHft 3aiHBaeTCfl csesaMH, jm^oirB bi ctIhbí nOBepHyBniHCB. 6i 
BOoépaseHÍH óuBajofi CTOJin^Hod npHCiyrH cet^acB se npoMejiBRHyja 
oooTBÍTCTByH)iitafl HMiipoBHsaAÍJi: SEsmiTh, CMaHHBaen, — to-to h 
iBi ffiMj nacaopra ne iiLiiDT'b! Boramfi aojisho tíuTb; He6ocs ne 
uaKaxa Óu^ Ba5u Jixy&b 6ujub, 

— Hy yai h tíyEeniKTb ate! Aa h óapHH^-TO MOiOAeiíx, tm- 
jtíts jio5o! — npoHSHecia ona cb nopora BasEMi-To crpaHHiiirb, 
yjtaium TOHOifB, aseiafl oóoaphtb HeonHTHyio A^K>TaHTBy. 

ÁHHa HeBOiBHO noAHflja roJOBy h nocMOxp&ia efi bc^a^b. 

...?Tb ecjiHÓu yfiiH? Jl^, a^, pasBt ona ne MOserB noixaTb 
iyxa-HH6yAi> BOb Mara3HHu? RcraTH nepnaiBEr ny^HO BynHTb. He- 
yjteiH OsoFHffB OMTB CTopoaHTTb ce y noAtfe^a? Hy, Troai, ci 

HHtfL H notxaTB. FOBOpETB OHa HC nOSBOJHirB HH CJIOBa. A SMy 

HejBSfl 6ojBine ne nosBOjniTB. Anna en^e saxopoiiHJiacB. Ornero axo 
moi rpesBOHi?.. otí^AHfl, B^pno^ soHHSJíacB. HeymaiH yse oronuia 
(ňíffls? Bose MOĚ, BaRoe ropě! bi i^epBOBb na^o Óbuio no&TH — 
opoBajuuacB bi nocrejm cbojibbo qacoB'B! Moser^ 6uTb, ne boh^h- 
Jaa en^e? CnpociiTb. 

ÁBHa noAomjia bi BBOHBy. H^tb! oiiatb ara npoTHBHafl rop- 
HiTiHafl jtBHTCfl co CBOHMH raABHMH yjiiióo^BaííH. Obsl 3a(5BLia, — 
yirv HeBOSHOSHo: bš^b ogtb npeAynpeAn;i'B, hto óy^eirB b% ^Ba 
^aea. HeBOSMOSHO... 

ropHHHHaa flBosacB H 6e8i soBa. npoBopno y6pajia BOMHary h 
no^aia Bo4>e. Oea ymjia, h Anna oiiatb ocrajracB o^na cb &bjíhiwb 
iyseroiťB. 3anax^ jmmiík h posi Aocinraji^ jifl AHBaea. Ona ao 
ci^NiCTH jnoÓHJia i:(f]&tu. UpeiecTHBifi o(5£i?afi — jiioóis^olk jseHii^HH^ 
qBku. B'B poiiaHaxi 6yBerB seHHxa i^ŠJiyiorB cb BocroproirB. 
BfxerB MUJiaro! ^a, aojubho 6iitb ero mosho i^&iOBaTB... Oea ne 
ooiynaja rb CBoeS shbhh TaBoro óysera, a ee rasi mhofo jiio- 
5iai! He 3to cwcríe. CaMOfi jih)6htb. He óy^erB aioro HRBor^a, 
EcjH xe He jioÓhtb, lasi h ne sajri&TB ysi — BaBofi cmbkui? Cet- 
wi npiŠAerB... ítifB »e om-xo BHHOBarB??.. 

ÁHHa CMx&m, CTHcnyBí pyBH na bojišhaxi, CMOTp&sa na i^b^tu 
I Bttsajia. Bi TaBOMi cocroflmH ee saciajii Aji^bib. 

Ajůevh He pasi CBasajrB MucaeHHO cnacHÓo OsorHHy 3a 
m BiepaniHioH) ucnoffiAB. TenepB owb snajii, BaBi eiiy AepsaxB 

Ced; OHB He npHHHHHTB HEIipaCHOt 6OJIH 6ÍbjSflOŘ fljbBOHKby H 6e3i 

im ]H»fepflBniefi rojosy. Ajvkewb 3a6oTjniBO oÓAyMUBajTB sapavbe 
np^xeiatemee o&bsicaeme^ ho npH o^homi bstmji^ na Anny owh 



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122 racTHuKi EBPOim. 

noHflj^b, ^TO HHRam npesioAin HeHpsHU. Ecjih Mácsa ne saspu- 
Baerob esL jrai^a, saRoft cmucjte caMOMy HaA'9^TB ee? 

Uocjvb úepBuxi npHB^i^TCTBiň h H3BHHeHÍĚ, qro owh paHbine ne 
Mor^b co6paTBCfl HaBicTHTB ee, Ajr&eBi npflMO o&hsiBEjn> Ahhí, hto 
Bqepa owb Bcrp^THjiCfl ci OacorHHuirB h y3Hai'B orb Hero naaLHyia 
hoboctb: OHa bhxoahtl sanysi? 

— Ohi> BaM'B CRasajTB?!.. bu pasBt ssaBOMH ci OsorHHuiťb? 
xa, A&! npeAcraBBTe, a coBcbwb sb6ujísl... Kone^mo, b^ BcrpbHajni 
ero y HacB... IIoMHHTe, KaB'B jí^jifl ero jhoÓbutl?.. O, 3to TfAecHul, 
^y^ecHiift MajíB^Bi!.. Oh^ cepABTca, ho a Tasí npHBUKja c^h- 
TaTB ero MajiB^HBoirb... 

AHHa BCRO^HJia npH nepBHXx cnoBaxx, dotoitb tfeacosDaTejiBHO 
onycTHJiacB onaTB na npesnee m4cto. 

— Owb mh4 ne noRasaica BOBce TaKHM-B jsrb lOHuirb, — 
OTBŠTHJix AjišeBi: — óiíTb Moaserb noxoMy, ^to 6wlt> rjiyfioBO 
oropTCHx. 

— Orop^eH^?— noBTopaia Anna ManmnaiBEO. 

— H oropTOjacB Měna. B-b rop* jdo^h Bcer^a HCBpeHHH, Anna 
BjiaAHiripoBHa. Banrb Apyr% ompoBeHEO BucKasajTB CBoe MHÍnie. 

AHHa MOJraaia. Ai£eB'B novejí^nurb^ npoxoAfl mhmo ^yRera, nroúu 
c&CTB noAJ* nea. 

Ona He AOJmuB, cepAHTBca. Bijí,h owb CTapHBi h Apyn A^A^* 
Owb BsajFB ee sa pyny, h ciesu cefinaci »e 6p£i3HyjH onaTŠ hsi 
TJíBffb Ahhu. 

— SI HirifeiD npaBO roBopHTB noroMy yae, hto bu njia«ieTe. 
CnacTJHBua neB^Bi ne njanyn. 

— ÍTÍ) BaiTB CKasajTB OaorHffB? He oacH^aia sroro otb Hero. 
^OBTopB SaÓOTHH^B ^Ba Fo^a AOÓHBaercfl Moed pyBH. Oh^b onenB 
jooúnrb Měna. 

— B^B TaKia MHHyTH ne roBopara sa xpyroro, — noauurb mie- 

qaMH pOMaHHCTB. — B4flB 9T0 OffB j^OfiHBaeTCa SeHHTBCfl, nOTOMy HTO 

o^eHB jm6isTb BacB, — ho bh, icaaRerca, ne roBopere, oto bh bhxo- 
AHTe sa Hero no jih)6bh? Bu tfu, BŠpHO, cb dxoro HanaiH, ecMn&b 
OHO Taai 6ujio. 

O, 9T0 CIHHIROBfB! ToHepB e^O H BTOTB qyaROtt aBEICa My^fflTB 

ee. Bi Heft en^e shbo 6euio BneHaTjime vrh nepBaro CBHA&HÍa. 
Hh pa3y CB Tkx^h nopi Anna ne BOSBpam^ajíaCB éojiBnie ri Toicy, 
mib nepe^ynajia, no^-Bfeaaa k% HerepCypry, 061 yqacriH, noRpo- 
BHTejiBCTB* H ^pysUS* AjrheBa. 

— Bh npHmjiH Měna HcnoB^^OBaTB? — nporoBopHjra ona spas- 
;te6H0. 

— A pasB* ne bh cáMu ^aJiH mh* npaBO na 9to? — OTBferajrB ohx. 



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MHPÁflUi. 123 

— HcnoBÍ;i;£> HHiero He hsmíohtb, a Bepejsjuth pasa — osm^kwb? 
Hn H 6ea^ Toro cjramROMT^ mhofo. 

— £[ H 9T0 3HaH), — noTTH menHyjix oht». 
ÁHHa nocMOTp^^ HcnyraHHO. 

— Koe-TTO, KOHe^HO. Cntnrajii cio^ía ;im Toro, ^to6h bh 

paSTBaCHEJIH MHŠ. .S HM^H) O^Hy CiaÓOCTb: nOHEMaTB TO, HTĎ BHlSy. 

Bh coÓHpaerecB saifysT* 3a AByx'L jiiOA^fi bi Te^enie wbcKOJibKvix^h 
jpaiefi. Bóra pa^H, npHSHaftTecb mh^, BaRaa ymacHaa RpafiHocrb npH- 
Hys^aerB Bací r^b droMy?? 

(heHB npocrafl — HH^iero Apyroro OHa He jwiert iipH^yMaTb. 
Satb vh jsfiiMÍk Ópaia ona ho MOsen 6ojBine, no H'ÍROTop£iirb 
cepbesHuirB npHiHHairB. IIocejiHTBCfl vb nerepóypri o^Hofi eítb 
iipe;^ora, laRi RaRx ona He nocrynaerL bx aRaxeMÍio. Bdb bob- 
CNíXTb npoTHBi aroro — OHt bhahtb, — ež ne BHCHjraioTB óyMarb. 
He Bcer^a se jioah cxo^atca tojibro no jiio6bh. Ona naxoAHrb, 
TTO jooÓOBb qepesi-^ypí RanpHBHa — 6uTh MomerB, jih)6bh BSAy- 
Maercfl uocíthtb ee, Ror^a eň MKnexi copoRi JFbvbl 

ÁHHa, roBOpfl Bce sto, Hepsno CM^jacB — dxo jiy^me, niíí^b 

OiUUUtTb. 

— 3, BaiTB OTRpoH) coRperB: jik>6obb HysHO sa^tb repn^HBO. 
Jlfixe H AyMaTb o Heft cjrbfljerb no bo3moshocth Mensme. Ona, 
lasi eBaHrejn>CRift aeHHxi,— ho vbcre hh aha hh qaca... 

— Xopomo, ecJiH mo»ho ne flyMaib! Bh ne noBŠpHxe, — ho a 
HHHero Apyroro xaRi ho »ejiajia 6u bi> Hacroan^yio MEnyxy! 

AjrbeBTB tohho Bxpyrb npomjn» BecB h nopuBHcro npoTflnyjTB 
Vb Ee& o&b pyRH. 

— KaRi fl pa^i dTO CJinnaTb! SI laRx h 6uji'b yBŠpeffb! Guo 
HHHyTy fl o&bSLCBio BaiTB, noveny bii laRi HecHacTHu. BaM'b aro 
AHso, TTO fl coÓHpaiocB otíiflCHflTB Bame coÓCTBeHHoe nojiosenie? 

Ho eft He noRasajiocB ahrhitb— TaRoe HenoAA'i^BHoe yB^enenie 
sasBy^aJO vb ero rojioc^. PjEasa crajiH en^e apne. Owb BcrajTB h 
BsmpflMHACfl nCmswby anepniqHBUfB ABHseHÍeMi>. 

— BacTB tíescoBicTHO HCROBepRajH, ^HTa Moe! SaBepr^i* h 
noTaii]lHJi'B 3a co6oft ÓypHuft h MyTHufi hotori ^ysHX^B crpacreft. 

6u nVb ^TRH, XaRl OTSBIBHHBtJ, ^TO BU BC&H'B CepAqeMl BOnLSH 

vh nysifl bojihobíjí, ne npaBAa Jh? Bbi xepsajiHCB, ne jnoóa — Aa? 
Ba paso^apoBUBajmcB, yTpa?HBajiH lonomecRoe neF^A^Hie u CB']bsecTB 
— ee auiBfl! J[k)6obb — crpaciB — peBHOCTB, Bam Raserca, mo bh 
Bce 9T0 npeapacHO noHHMaere h snaere, noTOMy qTO raRi imoro 
Hax:B dTHiTB pesoHHpoBajiH H nacMOTp&iHCB Ha Apyrnxi. IIpaBi a? 
UH saHomycB qepe3i-Hypi? 3to mhí xoate npHBu^no, 

AHHa, OTRHHyBx rojOBy, CHorp&ia Ha nero pacmHpeHHHMn 



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124 ncTWOffh EBPOUH. 

rjiasaMH. Fobopetb — to^ho ne^raerB. Bxopofi pas^ ona 9to bhxíjui, 
HO xenepB ero ciobe ne iiphboahjíh ee kb or^aame. Ona jiOBHJia 
Hxi cb CBiyTHoft Ha^eaB^oĚ Ha tto-to. 

— Bu Aase ynajiH js,jxowh\ — npoxoiauurs AjiieBi HacMim- 
JHBO. — BaiTB KaKeTca, hto HH^ero Hosaro h ne Óy^erB, oto bh 
caicH HEKor^a hhkopo ne nojuoÓHie. BairB ocraerca tojbro bu6h- 
paTB H3% Toro, HTĎ ecTB, He laB^b JH? Bu&TH sanysi — HasHaneme 
seHn^HHu, B^AB Bacb EoFB codxajTb jsfis, aroro. HesaifysHflfl sen- 
n^HHa HHSOMy ne Hyama, nesoMy ne MHja, ona Asxe df^nma. 
Bh npHCjymHBaerecB Kb h36hto& hích^ h Ópex^re sa TOjmoft. Bu 
corjiamaerecB cb tíitb, ^to senn^Hna cos^ana tojibko js^b roro, 
qroéu CJiysHTB yrtxoft h cjyroft ;ípyroMy, no^oÓHony ate cjmfi- 
cihjy H Bame neiOBi^qecBoe aoctohhctbo ne BOSMyn^tercfl npoTHBi 
dToro! Ha^ABiTe MysHHHy, RoropBit 6u csasaJTL, tto ero nasHa- 
Heme — xeHHXbCfl. 

— He CJiyasHTB yrixofi! — Bcnuxnyja Anna: — ocqacTdíHBHTB 
Koro-HHfiyAb, — HOJioaHTB Ronei^i crpa^aHÚnrb, ROTopufl a npnqH- 
HflK). Bu xyMaere, JierBO mh6 6ujo bctp^thtb OsorHHa?! To^ho 
B%pHa:i co6aBa pun^erB okojo ABepefi, no^tcreperaerx ciy^ai xotb 
He^aflHHO BcrpŠTHTBca co MHOft. 9to — jid6obb. o, a ee nenaBesy — 
HenaBHsy!! 

— MpH). IIoxBiinHTe en^e Tojsjsjsrb arofi , afrifoc^pofi, h bu kb 
BOHei^^b norutínere, KaBi> bu sapasHrecB, ecra nocejiHrecB bi> 60JIB- 
hhaí. OrpacTB — ÓOiifeHB. CrpacTauiH HeJiBSfl siitb, jsss% 6u owb 
HH úujoL BucoBH. H BejEHKO^ymieiTB, H caMOOTBepacemeiTB^ na ro- 
Topoe BH ynoBaere, Tose HejiB3fl. ďliHTB mosho tojibro ecrecTBeH- 

HOK>, 3A0p060I0 SHSHBK). Bil C03HaeTe Ce6fl BHHOBaTOfi? — fl He 3HaH)y 

npo vib BU roBopHxe, ho b'b oahoitb bu npecrynnu: bi hohutr^ 
oÓin^aTB ce6A Rony 6u to hh tíuio 6e3i jhoÓbh. A noroicy Bce 
H cjiaraercfl laRx npHCRopóno, — noroMy jhoah nyrB ne btb ^BaxiiaTB 
jri^TB yase yjiuÓaiOTCfl CRenTH^ecRH npH uovb CHOcmiel KaRi bei 
xoTHTe, HTOÓu MU B^pEJH vb Hero, ecjiH níuiSLSL noJOBHHa pow 
HejiOB^HecRaro Bupanpmaercfl h BOCHHTUBaercfl bi dioicB oahocto- 
poHHeiTB BsrjiflA^ na shshb? CBo6o;(Hafl jhoÓobb CBodo^saro cyn^ecTBa 
— j^a 9T0 Bucmee h eAHHCiBeHHoe ÓjaaReHCTBO Ha 3eMjrí^! Ho ciy- 
Hafinafl jiio6obb ÓapuniHH, Roropaa cb nflTHajm,aTH jištb pasucRH- 
Baerx, Ry;i;a 6u npHcrpoHTB cboh h&rhua nyBCTBa^ — aro ne 6oj6e, 
RaRi pa^i MHpa»efi h hctohhhri neHC^iHCiHMHXib 30x1. To se, 
na TTÍ) BU p^maerecB— npocTO (JesnpaBCTBenHOCTB, cmíid yB*pHTL 

BaCTB Vb dTOlTB. BpaRl — BOHpOCB CeHBH, ÁHHa B^a^HMÍpoBHa, a 

ceHBH He MoacerB 6utb 6e3i jooÓbh... 

— Ho BU ne 3HaeTe, — OpecTB HaBJíoBHHi BOBce ne ss^erB otb 



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MHPA2KH. 125 

MeHfl .hoÓbh; noroMy toibbo a h BUÓpajia ero. A ne Morjia BunojraHTB 
(j&ímflmsij AaHHaro Cípoesy — to 6ujio HpaBCTaeHHoe otíasaTejibCTBO, 
HacHiyioii^ee Aymy. droro a ne nory! Sjíibch se a HH^ero ne oó^n^aio. 
Ohi 8T0 SHaerB. UojboÓobeuř AoroBopB, h tojibko! mu nonpoóyeici 
yasHTBefl h pasoftABMca MnpHO Kb cjrynai Hey^a^H. O, si sHaio cana, 
mucL aro raAso!!' 

Áxbevb cjymajiT), CMorp&ii Ha Hee h Banaji ysopHSHeHHo 
rosoBOft. 

— HeAypHO npHxyHaHo! Hy-ci, MHJiafl Mysa, — nojnoóoBHHe 
AoroBopti, He CRpimesHue Ha^Jiesaii^eft nenaTbH), paspuBaiOTCfl 
Tamb se JierBO, RaKi> jhctb ÓyMátH. Mu coBcřifB 6aiLine h fobo- 
piriB Aase oOh dnowb ne CTaneMi. TenepB a npocTO-Ha-npocro He 
Aonyn^y Bact ao TaKoro Óespascy^CTBa. IIpocTHTe, — ho 8to Bs^opi h 
HH^ero ÓojiBHie! HesaBECHMOCTB bu ^o^y^ere ce&b h Óesi no^oó- 
naro ypoA-iBsaro saiiysecTBa, caMH. AoCy^ere, a ne hsi nysHxi 
pysi. y BacB, CROJihEO a snaio, CBoe coÓCTBeHHoe cocroame. h bu 
BOBce He saBHCHTe otb Ópaxa MaTepiajiBHO? — YcrpoHrB cboh) shshb 
npH TaRHXi ycioBiflxi Kasi nejiBdfl 6ojAe jierBO. IIoB^pBie, BaMi 
HysHO TOJiERo ycHOROHTBCfl, paBotipaxBCfl Bi' BTOWb xaocb H — oaB- 
Hoe — ne bh^ítb niKoropoe BpeMa HHKoro h3i HHrepecHux^b crpa- 
KBLSLhnewb. 3to ohh, — ne npaB^a m? — yBÍpara BacB, hto bu xaK^B 
c^amHO BHHOBHu: Bu HX^b jiiOBejiH AO OTHaflHifl — sacraBEJiH ceófl 
nojnofiHTB H np. h np. II^Hfl HSBicTHaa! bcšxi xoponmx^b sen- 
n^HHB JOBflTB Ha 9Ty yAO^By. 

ÁHHa MamHHajiBHo npoBOAHJia no BOJOcaurB Aposan^efi pyROft. 
TpeBOra, u pa^ocrnafl, h MyqBiejBHafl, noAHHiiajiacB bx ^ynii. Bne- 
pexH MejiBRaiH npotfjecRH ocBOÓosA^HÍfl, ho ceftnaci se saBOJiaRH- 

B&nCB MpaROMX. 

— JlerRO BaMi roBopniB. 9to Óujtb 6u Boniiomift oÓMan^! 
9Toro 0H% HH^icB He sacjysHJii. Ohi... ohb jíflxjd ne pascHHTu- 
Baj'B Ha Moe cor.iacie, — AoroBopHjia ona cb ycHJdeirB, h RpacRa 
3ajiHia efi jssnfl. 

— O^eHB sajn>, fiesx comh&hía. Ho Bamx ^ORTopi ne laRx 
H HeBHHeHi, RaRx BaMi Rasercfl, — yjiuónyjica tohro AjiieBx: — 
B^XB He csynafino se om> noABepnyjicfl Bani no^x pyRy bi jEHxyio 
MHHyry? IIoAcrepeHB y^ofinuft MOMenrB — 8to xa se jiOByniRa. Cjiy- 
^aercfl, ^to sa dTO h HJiaTflTCfl. 

JIoByniRa! — yxBarajiacB ceft^acB se Anna: — Aa, fla! jja íero 
KB caHOMi fiibjFb 3a6oTHHy nonaAOÓHJOCb npEJiertiB kb nerepSyprB, 
BeprtrbCH orojio nea h myrHTB cboh onacHua rayrRH? %í> cb neft 
cx&flaaocb Torxa? Or^iero aTo Rasajiocb yMHO, sanHMaTejiBHO h jierRo 
— -H TaR-B crpaniHO, laRx cthaho xenepB? Ctuaho nepeA^ qysHMX, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



126 racTHUKii EBPonu. 

KOToputt SHaerB ec Maio, ho ji^jMeun o&b eefi xopomo. Oh^b eiqe 
noMHHJn npeacHiOK) MOJiOAeHBRyio Mysy, TaRyio HMCTyio h nr&ibHyio. 
OcT&iocb JIH xoTb qro-HHtíyAB Hei'poHyTUirB h nenoMíiTUMi? — xotb 
CAHO npeACraMeme, ao Roroparo 6u ne AorporHBaiHCB, nuraflCB 
upnnyAHTB ee h AyMaxB, h ^BCTBOsaTB no CBoeny?! Ohi yra^aji 
Bce 9T0 — BorB oho, HOHHMaHÍe cepAAa qeJoeiqecKaro! JI,jia nero 
OHa He Ta Anna, BOTopofi hštb paBHofi, — ona tojibko MOJio^aa 
A^BymRa wb ^annux^ ycaoBÍflx^B. Ohi qiiTaerB bi ea cepw^ saK^ 

B'B OTRpUTOtt RHHrb. 

ÁHHa HyBCTBOBajia ce6fl npHHHsienHofi, yMajieHHOfi. Rasi Hama- 
.iHBmyiD A^BO^Ry, ee bsajiu 3a pyRy TBepxott n chílbhoB pyRoft, 
roTOBflCb BUBecTH H3X HaryÓHaro JiaÓopHHTa, — ee, Roropafl npiiBURjia 
pi^maTB qyacifl cy^^du h ynpasjíflTB noRopHUMH cepACiaMH! 

Aji^eBi He M^majťB efi OAynaTBca h cjňfljuii, asAajH. Kor^a »e 
ona OHJiTB na^ajia njiaRaTB, ropiRO, HeyiiniHO — oni no^omeJB 
ómme h cnpocHjTB: RaRi se ona plniHJia? 

— HHRaRB! — HerepnŠJiHBO oiBt^ajia Anna. — ň ne Mory mí- 
HflTB CBOHxi pímeHÍK RasAufi ACHB. EcJiH Moe pímeHÍe laRi 
6e3yMHO, RaRi bu roBopHxe, to bto BUflCHUTca caMo coóoň. Si evofi 
ne saBTpa BÍnqaiocB. 

— Bu npeAHOHHTaeTe, ctejio 6utb, oÓManyTB jecaTB pasi 
BMbcTO OAHoro? ByAerB jih Jierne Bani oÓohmx otb Toro, ^to npn- 
AeTCfl CHHTaTBCfl ne ch OAHHifB AHeMi, a cb i^oit HeA'&ieft hjh 
ÓOJiBHie? 

Anna MOJinajia, pacTepflHHaa. 

— & BH»y éyReTB, — npoAOJURaJTB AjiieBi: — bu nojiy^HJH 
ero ceroAHfl? BipoflTHO, CRopo abhtca h caMi. Ohi» h^a^tb Bameft 
6jiaroAapHOCTu... MejioHH? — ho B^A^ďiHSHB CRJiaAUBaeTCfl vm TaRHxi 
Mejoqefi! H 9TorB ĎyRen 6yAerB jHnraett neTJieft vh ysjíi. Bu 
OTcpo»iHTe yAapB ceroAHa h3i qyBCTBa npH3HaTejiBH0CTH, sasrpa — h3b 
BejiHROAymHOft saaocTH, — a TaMi, rjflAHniB, yse h no neoÓxoAH- 

MOCTH. 

— o, Aa, Aft! — a otmtoo snaio, RaK^ judam sanyniBaiOTca; 
aToro BBi MoaieTe h ne oCi^achatb mhí!— BupBajiocB ch rope^H) y 
Abhu. 

B'B 3Ty HHHyry 3a CTÍHoá } coc^A^ft ^acu MeAJieHHO npoÓHjH 
ABa Haca. Anna BCRO^nia, RaRi ysajiennafl. 

— ^Ba laca! ciio MHHyTy abutca... y']k3sa&Te, HuROJiafi Hhro- 
jiaeBHqi, a BacB yMOJiaio! ByAeri eme TpyAnie npn BacB... 

— Otí^BflCHflTBCH, hjh tfjiaroAapHTB? 
Ona OTBepnyjiacB ' BpasAeÓHO. 

— JI,oporafl Myaa, ÓojibhoK 3y6B Bcero Jier^e BtipsaTB q^asy. 



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MJSFAWl. 127 

— 9to ase a Mory CA'feJiaTb?! Hy, roBopMTe, ecjH bh sHaere! 

QO ROppHAOpy RTO*TO llflfiTb. E(MH CÍK) MUHyxy OTBOpUTCfl ABCpB... 
OlBOpHTCfl HJni H^rB?.. 

— CaMH-TO Bu He sHaere!! — EpHKHyjia Anna npespuTeitHO. 

— He npHHHHaftre ero. 

— HeBOBMOSHO! 

— Hy, TaKb o^ÍBafirecb csopie — yš^eMi noKa xotb ko mhí. 
Offb He SHaerB Moero a;i;peca? 

3a6oTflHi eABa jih sHajTB Aase^ hto ohh snaROMu. Anna, ory- 
lOHeHHaa necrepHHMofi xpeBorofi, ho^th óescosHaxeJiBHO nerajiack 
no KOMHaii. Bu^^BHraJia ROMMOAHue ah^hrb h ohatb sa^Bitrajia hx%^ 
HH^ero ne BUHyB'b. Ona npHcsyniHBajiacb, ne csBímno jih maroBi, 
H He oópan^ajia BHHMaHm na yroBapHBanifl ÁJi^sa He TepaiB no- 
nycry q>eMeHH. HaRonei^^, Aji^bi p&niHTejiBHO no^Beji^ ee wh 
enuy, camb paBucsaJii) jihctoki ho^toboS ÓynarH h nojoa^HJi^B 
nepeA'B neio. HanncaiB Bcero ABa aiOBa p^mHrejiBHO h ÓesHOBopoiHO; 
Bce ocraJiBHoe ne Ba»HO. Hotoitb, xotb cero^HA se, ona MOserB 
noeiaTB eny ujbAy^ nodny pacRaamn, yrpusenift — qero xonerB; 
TenepB BasíHO toIabko, hto6u ohi ne aacraii ee a^icB. 

Anna HH^ero ne b% coctoahíh ÓBUia oÓcys^aTB. O^Ha mucjib 
noiq>ujia co6oh) Bce: ctóhtb BĎ-BpeMJi BbicROJiBBHyTB hsi dxofi rom- 
Hani—H ona CBOÓOAHa!.. AjiieFB ctohjii sa cryjioirB h tojibro otb 
BpeMeHu AO BpeMeHu noBTopajii HacroflTejiBHo: »A6a naca! — y»ob 
m Haca!^ 

Anna hopbibhcto HsopBaJia nanaTBifi jihctori h cb xpy^oin 
pasBLCEajia noBufi... 

3,...3to CBume chjii mouxi —HpocTHre, ecjiH Mosere! Bnay cjiHin- 
EMi noBAHO — ne Mory, ne JiK)6fl. 3a^Mi» bu snymajiH uwk aio 
larB ynopno?? By^BTe necTHU, BOSBMHre aojik) bhhbi ti na ceóa. 
CqacTBH ne 6hUL0 6n, bu dxo cjihhiromi xopomo snaere. .SKaji^TB 
He o ^eiTB. Ho a Bce laRH nenpocTHTejiBHO npecTynna nepe^i 
saMH, fl npomy CHHpeHHo: npocTHTe — npocxHTe MeHa!** 

Ajri^BTB óesi^epeHOHHO npoHHTaji'B sanucRy ^epesi njieTO Ahhu. 

— &ro nocjr6AHee cobcími JiHninee, — saMiTHJTB ohtb cyxo. — 
BanrB AORTopi AOJijReHi npocHTB npon^ema y Bací. JKen^Hna ne 
AmB, HTo6u sa neK) ronaiBca cb TaRHMi ynopcTBOMi. BjiaroAapnre 
CBOD narypy; aro ona bo Biopofi paBi cnacaeri* BacB. RoneiHO, 
BH 6u nopnaJiH h 6e3% nena, ho, ho RpaSnefi M^p^, lenepB bg^stb 
TepsamaiTB Ronei^i. SI nocMOTpio, RaRi ohh% pasun^yrB BacB, ecjiH 
i, B03BHycB BacB cnpaTaxB! 

y Ahhu oaho CToajio vh yni: htí) ecjH SaéoTHH^B ciio Manýry 
»AAen H sacraHen ee TaR'B?! Aji^bi pJ^mnrejiBHO B3surb ee 



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1 28 fiftCTHKKl EB1H)IIU. 

nofli pyKy h fiucrpo noBeJTB Kt Biaxo^y. Ha Manýry oex npíocra- 
HOBHJCH Blb RoppHAopi H pacnopflAHJCH, HTOóu ropEH^Hafl co6pajia 
Bck sen^H rocno»H FojiyÓHHOfi, — owb upumjieTh sa hemh Be^epoirB. 
EMy noHTHTeJbHO KJiaHfljiHCb... 

OpecTB IlaBJíOBHqi Morb 6u yseaTb cboh) HeBŠery Ha Apos* 
Baxi, en^e ne yciriBniHX^b saBepnyrB 3a npoTHBonojKmHut yroji 
yjiHi^u, ecjiHÓu eMy npHmjio wb rojOBy npHrjuixtiBaTBCfl ri qeiiy- 
HHÓyAb. ^OKTopi cocso^HJi Ha MOCTOByio, npesxe h^wl aposeh 
ycn'6jiH ocraHOBHTbCfl; oht* cyHy.rB ;^eHbrH H3Bon](fiBy h BjreT&i*B na 
uojs.i^Ai^y 6epesH0 npnAepi&HBafl naproHRy es 6oH($OHbepRoB hsi 
4^ap(|)opoBEix'E i^ff&TOBi. Owb cÓpocHJTB oaJibTo Ha pyRH niBeti^apa, 
ne BCJiyniHBaflCby ^Tb tovl AORJiaAUBajrb eMy. 

— Xopomo, xopomo! — otbíthjii ohi nay^a^ h no6&Rajb 

BBepxi HO jrbCTHHI^. 

Ho niBefii^api nornajca sa HHM^b cji^aomi, h OpecTB ITaRio- 
Bum, npHHysAeHi Óbijii npiocraHOBHTbca. 

— KaR"B AOMa HÍTb?! tu, Moacero óuTb, nepenyrajrb ^^hjiíio 
HJH He Torb HyMepi ROMHaTu?.. 

IIlBefiii^api B^b Tperífi pasi apHHfljica onncBiBaib Hapy?RH0CTb 
ebflftvo rocnoAHHa, conpoBOSAaBmaro Óapumnio. RpnÓš^ajii tojo- 
B^Ri, SHaBEiitt AjiieBa no (|)aMHjiÍH. F-hx Ajr]§eB^ h paHbme npi' 
"iBsaji^b vh rocTHHHHi^y o&bsiCEííThcsí cb ynpaBjíflion^iiMi. HpHRasa^iH 
nperoTOBHTb ri se^py bcoíh f-kh FojiyCHnofl. 

OpecTb IlaBJíOBH^^b cjlymwby He B^pa coócTBeHHUMi ymairb. 
YtaaTb RaRi paax bi ABa qaca! — naporao?? OreyAa BSflJica Ajtícb^, 
ROFAa Anna nosnaROMHJiacb cb hhm^?.. 

^ORTopi BApyn noóarpoB&ii h naRHHyjicfl na npncjiyiy: ixxibRo 
BT* pyccRHX'b ^ocTHHHH^ax'b HHiero ne snaioTb, Bce nyraRyrb, hh- 
^ero He yMÍBorb nepeAaib toarobo! Focnoma FojyÓHna ne Morjia — 
HOHHMaKXTb JIH OHH? — OHa He Moua y^xaTb, ne BejribBi nepeAaTB 
eMy, ROFAa ona Bepnerca! 3to ne nopflAORi, a ?oprb snaerb qrb! 
— nepBORJiaccnaa rocTHHHHi;a!! Aenbrw Apaxb yMÍiorb, a nopflARa 
CTOJibRo Ke, RaR^ H wb xap^eBH^ RaRofi-HHÓyAb!.. 

inBefii^ap'b^ nojiy^HBmifi HaRanyH^ TpnpyÓJia, pacrepHHHO too* 
xajicfl na u'bcÁ h Rjajica, hto eMy HHqero ne npHRasuBajiH. JlaReft^ 
HH^ero en^e ne uojiyiHBmift^ bshjích yRpoTHTb ne bi M%py pasóy- 
meBaBmarocfl Óapuna. He yroAHO jih rocnoAnny AORTopy npoBxH b^ 
ROHTopy h saaBHTb CBOH npexensiH? Ha jitcxHHi^t myMÍib hc ao- 
SBOJiaercfl, ňeanoROfiCTBO nocroajibi^aMi. 

OpecTb HaaiOBH^^b njiioHyji^ na 6apxaTHbift ROBep^ h nomej^b 
Aajibme. IlycTb eMy oxRpoiOTb HyMepi — 6uTb Moserb, sanncRy sa- 
óujiH nepeAaib mserii^apy. 

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MHPASH. 129 

Oetb jBBjsfiLjrb ee BirarE Ha cyRH^ erojia, h RpoBB nojiHďacB 
CBo6oAH^ Wh aHJiax-B. KaKoft-TO óescosHaxeJiBHHft cxpaxi OTy- 
MaHHJi ero. Ohi ct AOcaAOtt cyHyjii na ctojíx BaproHKy (ctohjio 
xjonoraTB, niBiipaTB jteHBFH ó^j^menufl!). Grojibro 6u he HSBHHflJiacB 
Ama KB aroiTB hhcbm* — 9to ra^RO, HenpocTHTejTBHO ra^RO yixaTB 
wph Bi nepBufi ae schb, (tb nepBKiirB bctpíhhhm-b!.. Oh^ pa3- 
dbíHHO pasopBaai Ronsepr^ h pasBepny^n nncBMO, norjion^eHHufi 

CBOBHE MUCflflMH... 

OpecTB IlaBJOBHTB pacxoxoxajicfl. TopniraHaa h jiaReS, jhoóo- 
nffTHO BeprbBiiiiecfl orojio ABepn, ocTanoBEjmcB, npnrBaaAeHHBie 

dTHlTB Clrí^OlfB... 

PacRpKíB^ sanHCRy o&kimn pyRaMH, noanaBi ee wb ypoBeHB 
CB jiin^eM'B, daóoTHHi ?HTaji'B rpoMBo, CRB03B CHHJiufi, npepBTBaK)- 
miĚca xoxoTi. TaRi ohi nepeqHrajix ee jí,b2l — ipn pasa, noRa ne 
Haqaio HecrepnHHO ca^HRTB ropjo h bo pry nepecoxjio. Torjía ohi 
ÓpocKirB nHCBMO Ha hoitb, r;^ yae BajuijiacB ero najRa, h crajrB 
rjasaiiH pasncKHBaTB BO^y. 

rpa^^HHB CToajTB nycToft, paaoitb cb ero óyReroMi. Ohi cxBa- 
THJTB i^b^^ BceK) ropcTBH), HpflMO 3a cepeAHHy, h OTmBupnyjii Ha 
ipyroi ROHei^B RoifnaTu. Bi csaTOMi RyjiaR^b ocraiHCB oropsan- 
Hue, TOJCTue RaR'B Rosa, jmcTBfl RpacaBHi](u-JuiJdE, h u^ut nowb 

HÍ2KHUXI, MflFRHX^B pOBOBBlX^B JieneCTROBX. Owh CB OTBpan^eHÍeiTB 

Tpflxnyji pyRoft, h ohh, to^dbío ú^kius nepumRH, paaier^^CB no nojry. 
Mesxy rbm npHCJiyra 3a ABepBH) coBin^aiacB monoTOMi — 

BXOj(HTB HJIH H^TB? ŤopEH^Hafl CMOTp^a Bl> 3aH0?HyK) CRBaSHHy: 

6aTH)niRH cvbrbj — óyRen! b^ab Ch nea cnpocara! icajio jih m:b 

mfi OWb ROJIOTHTB HpEMeTCfl, RTO OTB^qaTB^TO JlflJlSReWb? ^OJIOSHTB 

ynpaBJíaionteMy. Mopb 6u HBaH% HBaHUTB Biipy^niB ee — BoftrH, 

SBOCB HOCOBŠerHTCfl. 

— KaR^B se! nocoB^terHTCfl! xa^B-TO vh ABepB BumBupHerB, 
wo juo6o-Aoporo. BHAHicoe aíjio, ne b^ CBoeif^ yiirife qejiOB^Ri — 
nraniRa ynopxHyjia! Bb xaROifB paši r% rocno^aMi jiyqme ne cyftcfl, 
wm ji^bjrb 6htb xoneniB. 

Ho OpecTB IIaBj[0BHH% HHHero ne CTajrB rojothtb. Oh^b, ne 

TOpOHflCB, HOAHflJTB CBOIO^HaJIRy, CyHyJTB B^B RapMaHB CROMRaHHOe 

HHCBMO Ahhu, Hai^HHjrB!^*Ha najiei^ RaproHRy h, Bu&jí,a h3% ny- 

vepa, HanpaBHJiCfl r:b BBixoAy orejia. nisefii^api, npoBOAH ero, ní" 

CKOARO pasi HOBToparB eify js,m qero-TO, hto ohu nošxajiH Ha* 
jfeo. Oh% T0»e noBepHyjTB iianiHHajiBHO — Haji'6B0. 

O. niAHEPl. 
Tom in.~MAft. 1889. 9 



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MfflMAa coiíiojorm 



I. 

BiiposLTuOj oqeHB HeMHorie snaiorB y hecb nox^HHHyio hcio- 

pÍH) B03HHRH0BeHÍfl H IipOI](F6TaHÍfl pjCCROfi COIUOIOrÍH. dlft JIO60- 

nuTHafl HCTopifl pascRasaHa RpaTRO, ho BupadarejBHO, ojs^ewl Bj^h 
tíjsHsažnmxx y^acTHHKOFB jtHrepaTypnoft anoneH, nojiosHEineft ocho- 
BaHÍe Hameft saM^^aieJiBHoft coiUojiorH^ecBoft mBOJorb. 

Bi BOHi^ mecTEAecflTux'B roAOB'B cx^aHO óiuo y Hacb OTEpu- 
TÍe, TFO jhoah h oÓmficiBA HM^iorB h cosHaiorb cboh u^bm h se- 
jiamfl, Tor^a Karb vh npoi^eccax^b npepo^Bi noAOÓHux^b q&iefi ne 
OKasuBaercfl. ^Mvb usnuskjifljaLTh T0MyHa3aA'B, — pascRasusaerb yno- 
Manyraft BHme jsjksiTexb pyccROft coi^iojorm, — mh* npiiBeJiocL y^a- 
CTBoaaTB Vh AOBOJiBHO ropflHefi nojeiiHRŠ no Bonpocy o SHa^enÍH 
atoro 4^asTa, dxoro noABJíeHifl i^eft vh upouficdk sasHH. Torxaa 
crapajicfl otrjiohhtb H^Boropue MeTOAOJioniqecBie buboau, Roropue 
OTCK>Aa A'^ajiHCB nHcaiejuiMH, oóqee MÍpocosepi^aHie BOTopux'B 
MH% 6tuo BnojiH^ CHMnaTH^HO. H xenepB; ROHeHHO, a noBTopio to se 
caMoe, ocoÓeHHO o(h> oahobtb h8i mohxi onnoHeHTOKB, o H. R. 
MHxafijOBCROirB, HMenHO cb Roropmii, OAHaso, mhš h npHmjocs 
Tor^a BecTH ($eeÍAy o i^&uqtb, Basi cyn^ecTBennofi ooo6eHHOCTB 
otfn^ecTBeHHofi shbhh u npErann^, npeAnncBiBaioiiteft a^a coi^ioJoríH 
MeroA^ cy^BeBTHBHuft. Ob tIxi nopi» mhofo boah yxeiuo. Mesxy 
npoHHMi, H no Bonpocy, nacB xorAa pasA^flBmeMy, nponsonuo fb 
pyccBoft JEiepaTypi ne najio nHiepecnaro. Taní, B. B. JleceBHTB 
FB CBOHxi „IlHCBMaxi O Hay^Hoft 4^hjioco^íh' nonpoÓOBajTB HaftTH 
o6n^yH> noHBy a^ npHMHpema naniHxi pasnopi^. F. Jl^e^OACEift 
FB CBoeiTB noes^AHeiTB dTn^ecROiTB TpasTaii nocrynHjx Hna^e: om^ 
npflMO ycoMHHJiai bi npímaAJesHOCTB r. MHxafijOBCsaro e% cy6ieK- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



MHHHAJi coi^ojona. 1 3 1 

THBHOi mSOil^ H OTOCiaJTE efO Vh 06%eRTHBHyK), FA^ fl, KOHeHHO, 

nq)Buft ero HETypajiHsoBaai 6u, ec/ieóii Biipo^eMi ne r. FpoTB, 
EOTopuft OTCHJiaeTL Měna, Hao6k>po'rB, bi cytíieKTHBHyio niKOjy, 
ocraBjflfl BiipoHeiTB Tasrs h r. MHxa&JiOBCRaro. 3aM^inajiHCB b'b 
ary nojieMHBy u rr. KapleBi, KaÓjrai^^ etc.; ho h ynoMAHyTaro 
;iocTaTOHHO, tto^h npHsaAyMaTBca na^x rjiryĎHHOH) pasHorjiacia, Haei» 
pa3^(&iflBniaro bi oho BpeMfl, h, ocraBHBi nojieniRecRie ne^H pauk- 

BrfrrL Bl» HOaCHaXTB, H3^ ROTOpUX^B OHH HaMH HC BUHHMaJHCB yse 

nflTHa^iiiaTB ji^^tb, ne neperpflxaxb crapiixi* cnopoB^, ne Hapymaio* 
n^HX^ oónieft h HecoMH^HHoft cojHAapHOCTH pa6ori>. 3th cnopu vb 
CBoe Bpeiui cnoco^CTBOBaiH yacHemK) Bonpoca o i^ecoo6pa3HOCTH 

B% 2BH8HH'', H T. Jí,. 

EsTb dToro opHrHHaiBHaro onHcamH motrho bhj^tb, hto ABa qejo* 
B*Ka uoxbmjiii Me»;íy co6ok) pyccRyio co^ioJIO^iK): oahfb Bja^íten 
cyfiieRTHBHOK) mROJioH), a Apyroft — otfxeRTHBHOio; nocropoHHie hscjií- 
AOsaTejH, saHflTue, 6yAT0 6u, H3yqeHÍeifB pasHop^^ o6ohx^ asio* 

P0B1» H nOUHTRaHH npHMHpeHÍfl HX^b, 3aA)MK[BaK)TCfl HaA'B rJiy6HH0H> 

pasBor.iacifl, pa3A^iflioii^aro hxx, h BM^rnuBaiOTCfl bx daTHxmyio 
noieimcy dTHX'b Asyxi i^eHrpa.iBHuxi ^^Hrypx. CaMH TBopi^u h 
ABHraTejra pyecROfi coi^iojioriH p^mujíHCB „ocraBHTB nojeMH^ecRÍe 
lew psaB^TB FB HoacHaxx, hbi Roropiix^b ohh (uemu) ne BBíHHMa* 
.racB yase nflTHawaxB jtítb, h ne neperpaxaxB crapwxx cnopoBx", 

ETE BHJ^y „06ll^efi H HeCOHH^HHOft COJIHAapHOCTH pa^OTB^* , ROTOpHfl, 

pasyiišercfl, ABHraion HayRy BnepeA^B Gh Ha^JiesRaiUHBťB ycni^xoMi. 
Mu HMŠJiH yate cnyTOft paso^paiB ;í*ttcTBHTeJiBHyK) cymnocTB 
9T(m) jio6onuTHaro cnopa, Roropony oahhi hbi yHacTHincoBi ero 
npHxaerB xaRoe BasHoe sHaqeme a^h Hcropin pyccRott cot^Iojiofíh. 
Mu BB]íibxa, HTO jsíbjío nuio o RaRHX^B-TO Hefíusajiux^B HayHHBix'B 
leroAax^ — cyfiieRTHBHOMi h oÓxeRTHBHOMx, — h tto no64;ía ocrajiacB, 
ncmiiAHMOMy, sa imcamJieMX, oÓHapysHBmHicB vh dTowb cjiyqaí 
s{HdHioK> nyraHHi^y noHATÍS ^). Ho ecrecTBenHO AsjaeTCfl Bonpoci: 
orcy^a bb^jihcb 9th HetiuB&aue MeroAu, o ROTopiix'B xaRTB ropano 
cnopiUH ffh Hamefi sypHajiHCTHRŠ? O hhx'b fobophjtb ivkjih ne omwh 
iQiBRo aBTopx craTefi o nporpecc* vh oahoitb mi> atypna^iOBi xoro 

BpaieHH. Pa31>flCHRB1& BTO 0(JCTOíITeJÍBCTBO, MU JíOftAeMTb ff) Ropfla 

Tin He^opasyM^Hifi, na ROTopuxi* nocrpoenu HamH BOoÓpaacaeHua 
ON(kiiorH?ecRÍfl niROJu. 

PaBra^Ra ORasuBaercfl ropaBAO npo^e, wkwh mo»ho Óujio 6u 

KpBKlb: fíbsO 0($lflCHfleTCfl OniH604HUMH CBÍ^A^HÍAMH o 4^0J[OCO<f)CRnX'B 

fpyj(ax'B OriccTa KoAxa, ROTopuira saHHxepecoBajiHCB xor^a bi Hamefi 



i 



^ Ol. iSBe: „BicTHHn EsponH^, Maprt, CTp. 275 h cjAa- 

9* 

Digitized by 



Goufile 



132 fiftOTHHKl EBPOnU. 

jiHTepaTypt. Kohtb nocraBHJii ce5£ h HcnoíHHjrB no-CBoeMy ab^ 
rpaHAÍosHHfl sa^a^H: BO-nepsuxi, owh BupaÓorajTB ocHOBanhi co- 
^íoJIO^ÍH, saRi TeoperuqecRofi HayRH, wh eBoeifB „Rypci nosHTHB- 
HOft ^^ejoco^íh'^ , H, BO-BTopfiixi, OHI nuTajiCfl npHirbHHTb nojtyqeH- 
Hue HiťB BUBOAu Kx npaBTBí^ecROMy ycrpoficTBy neJiOBŠHecRHxi 
oÓmfiCTN^ H npeAJioaBHJTB luairb hoboA opraHHsai^iH qejOBŠqecTBa, 
B'B CBoeft vCHcreirb nosHTHBHoft nojrarHBH^. Bib nepBOirb Tpy;^ owb 
mi^bjrh níbsbjo otiieRTiiBHoe Hsy^eme h aHajiH3rb, npH noMO^H crpo- 
nixi npieMOBX HayqHOft JorHRn; bo BTopoMi — owb nepexo^tm 
Ha no^y nj[)aBTH^ecRofi HayBH--nojiHTHKH, r^ pasBHBaerB yseci 
nojiHuiTb npaBOMi cboh cy(^eKTHBHiie BsrjflA^ h H^eaiH. HacKOJbso 
flCHO H TOHHO pasrpaHHHeHu 0^ dSLjsfimvi y Ronra, bi dToirb uorb 
yCÍAHTbca BCflBÍfi, ETO ^HTajn. RorAa-HsÓyAB ero lerupexTOMHyio 
„Systéme de politique positive*. OpHranajiBHOCTb aioro TpasraTa 
Kacaercfl jmHEuxi^ H^eaiOBi h B03ap^HÍft asropa, ho ne ero ochob- 
HiiTB BsrjiflAOFB Ha Hay^Hue MeroAU h na cnoco6u HSCi^AOBaHitt h 
o6o6mfiEÍtL vh coiUojioriH. Kohtb, cl CBoefi cropoHu, cxbjisjn> Bce, 
qT6 HysHO 6ujo, htoÓu ne AftBaxB noBO^a cifiniHBaTb ero „hobh- 
THBHyio noAumuKy*^ cb „coipajiBHOK) ^^hsheoh)'' hjh covÁojunieio: 
nepBafl AOJxna BiireRaTB Hsib nocjrí^AHefi h ooHpaTbCfl na nee, savb 
npHRjiaAHafl Hayna onHpaercfl Ha xeopeTH^ecRyH). Kohtb noApoÓHO 
06'BflCHfle'rB, ^TO 06a ero BejDTKiH TBopenia achojihaiotb ce($fl BsaHimo, 
qro co3AaHÍe coip&ibHOfi nayRH ecib a'^o „cyniecTBeHHO yiiCTBeH- 
Hoe", essentiellement mentale, a nocrpoenie coi^iajibHO& hojihthrh — 
sahana »Henoq[)eACTBeHHO coi^iajiBHafl'', directement sociále. IIooio- 
BaMi» EoHTa, vh uewh jih^ho „cocpeAOTO^nuHCB CTpeMJienifl AByxi 
Raxeropifi — Hayqnufl h nojiHTH^ecBifl^: ^peajiBHafl naysa AOJisna 
6uj[a npesA^ npHBecrn sx sApaBofi {^hjioco^íh, cnocotínofi ocHOBaTb 
HOTOiTL HCTHHHoe HÍpoco3epi^aHÍe (religion); nosHTHBHaa nojiHTHRa, 
,Heo6xoAHMO ocHOBannafl" na TeoperHHecBOfi coipojione, craHO- 
BHTCa ^rjiaBHUMX cosAanieirB" Konra. „06a TpaBTaxa — npoAOJ- 
ataerB 3HaMeHHTtrt ^^hjoco^^i — pasHATca MeatAy co6ok) cyn^ecTBeHHo: 
vh OAHOifft rocnoACTByen ym, vh ApyroiťB — cepAi^e. FjiyóoBoe 
jiorH^ecsoe pasjuraie cocraB^uien rJiaBHuň HHTexseRTyajiBHHft roh- 
TpacTB MesAy AByHfl tbopohíjihh, cooTB^TCTBeHHO Hxi npEpoA'% H 
Ha3HaHeHÍK). Bi nepsoirb, vjs^ nysno Óbijo AOBecre nayHHoe oóiac* 
Henie ao nocjriAHflro pesyjiBTaTa, Heo6xoAHMO 611JO bx tohhocth 
cjri&AOBaTb o6xeRTHBHOMy cjiocotíy, Roropufi oahhi cooTBŠTCTByerL 
xapaRTepy 8T0fi rpoMaAHofi npeABapHrejiLHofi paóoni, AOxoAfln^eft 
OTB Mipa Ri» nejiOB^Ry... „Ho canutt ycnlx^B aroft npeABapHrejBHot 
pa6oTu, npHBeAmefi Mesa ri> HCTHHHO-yHHBepc&ibHoft tohbš sp^niji, 
AOJiiBeHx 3A'lteb {vh no3HTHBHO& DOJiHTHR^) AOCTaBHTb npeo(>jiaAaHÍe 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



MHHMAfl coi^ioiorifl. 133 

cyfíieKTHBHOMy Mero^y, KaKi ejHHCTBeHHOMy Hcro^HHKy bchkoS co- 
BepmeHHOfi CHCTeMaTH3a^iH, vjíík orB HejiOB^Ra ueckoastb ki^ mpy^ . 
EoffTL ynorpeCjiaerL npn 9tomx Bupa»eHÍa — „la méthode objective" 
I ,1a méthode subjective" kb cmhcji* cnocoCoBx AiftCTBÍa, a hh- 
Kasi He B:b CMucjt MeroAOBi, qT6 cb HecoMEd^HHOCTBH) bh^ho 
jse H3i> Bcero npeAu^yn^aro. GodcTBeHHO i;'&ibk> CBoe& ;kh3hh h 

CBOHlfb HCTHHHUMX npH3BaHÍeifB KOHTB C^BTaili BUpa60TBy HOBUX^ 

Haqajii AyxoBHOĚ n nojraTH^ecROft op^aHH3a^iH nejiOB^^ecTBa; dxa 
MUCJB npocB^HHBaeTB H vb ero Bypc6 noJioaKnrejiBHofi $hjioco(|)íh, 
vfiík owb Hir&TB eo^e aíjío cb BonpocaMH o6BeBTHBHaro 3HaHÍfl. 
nepBufi BanHxajiBHiiĚ Tpy;^^, ycraHOBHBinifi HayqHUfl ochobu Teope- 
TinecKoft co^ioJIO^iH, hmÍjtb j^sí KoHxa 3Ha?eBÍe ^npeABapnxejiB- 
Hoi pa6oTu''^ H OHI cosHaBajii BnojiH']^, no ero csoBaMi, tto „na- 
yHHoe ycrpaHeme cy(KBeKTHBHot totoh 3pÍHk mofjio 6htb tojibko 
BpeMeHHmrB'', wb osB^amH nepexo^a otb „coi^iajiBHofi ^^hserh*" 

KB n03HTHBH0& nOJIHTHB'6. 

TaKBiTB o6pa30irB, cyóibeKTEBEue H^eajiBi, RoropuMi (|)hj[oco^'b 
nocBflTfLTB CBOK) mH3HB, 6bmh T^aieJiBHO ycrpaHfleMH KWb npH no- 
CTpoeHÍH coiuojiorin, Bas^ TeopeTH^ecRoft HayBH, h ocraBjfljiHCB 
IŘSL TOĚ oÓJiacTH, Tflík OHB MorjiH 3aHflTB CBoe BaBOHHoe npeo6jra- 
WDiiiiee m4cto, — am coiíiaJiBHoft nojiBTHRii. FoBopa o cbocmi bcjh- 
EOMB iipH3BaHÍH H Ha3UBafl ce6fl ^opranoMB HejiOBÍ<iecTBa' n 
„nepBOCBfln^eHHHBOirB^y Kohtb pyKOBO^CTBOBajica apnaiOMi rjiy6o- 
joswb y&ksijs,emewhj qTO oh'b MOsexB ocHOBaxB nosHTHBHvio pejiHriio, 
cya^HOCTB BOTopog oÓBflCHeHa Bi ero „rjiaBHOiťB^ coAiajiBHO-nojH- 
TiqecROMX TpaBTarJt; owb nodTony c^Hraji^B ce6ň wh upaB^ HrpaxB 
pojB, npHHaA^eacau^yio bcIh^b BOo6ii^e ocHOBaTejiaMi pejiHiiosHiixi 
y^efliŘ. HecnpaBeAJHBO 6li;io 6u bha^tb bi> stoitb npocryio Maniio 
BeiHHifl; KoHiy Hy»AO ówio to iiejio^noe cascoBOcxBajieHie, Koxopoe 
xasB 6pocaeTCfl bi> rjiaBa bi> mojibhxi BOicnHjiflTBBHBrxi pa6o- 
TaxiB Hi^BOTopEixi HamHxi OTeHecTBeHHuxi HCTOJiBOBaTej[e& ero 
Hxefi. KoHTB AO($pocoB^CTHO npHSHaBajii H Aa»e HHorAa npeyBe- 
ii?iiBaji> 3acJiyrH cbohx'b npeAinecTBeHHHROBx h coBpeneHBHROBi 
BB c^pi HayqHOfi (jfEZOCO^m; bb npeAHCJiOBÍH &!> „CHcreirl no3H'- 

WBHOĚ nOJIBTHRH'' OffB CB TpOHlTeJIBHOK) OTRpOBeHHOCTBH) HaSHBaeTB 

muenuMi CBoe co6cTBeHHoe npea^see npeAcraBJíeHie o no3HTHBHofi 
msarb, RaRB ^saRjrioqaioiueficfl bb neiTB oahomb'', Tor^a RaRi eciL 
H Apyríe aBTopu, npHAepsHBaK>ii^iecfl tíxb »e B3rjiflA0Bi. O nocj']^- 

AOBaieJUDLl CBOHXB, — HanpHM^pi; o JiHTTpě, — OIPB OTSHBaerCíI CB 

(íoAmHirB yBaseHÍeM7», RaRi o caiiocTOflTejiBHEm MucjHTejrflxx. 
ÍTo Kacaercfl cyĎxeRXHBHSMa h o6BeRTHBH3Ma, to Kohtb bx cbocitb 

BTOpOMB TpaRTaxi CRJOHeH-B 6bI-1X OT^iaCTH 3JlOynOTpe6jiaTB 9THMH 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



134 B%CTHHR'B EBPOnU. 

TepMHHaMH; — TaKx, pascKasHBaa m> iipe;íncjiOBÍH h bx „nocBfln^eHÍH^ 
nenaJiBHyK) HcropÍH) CBoeS jih^hoS aiHBHH, ohi> ynoMHHaerB o „hc- 
cpaBHeHHOMx roA^ o6wKTHBHaro coH)3a ct ^oporHifB cymecTBOMi, 
R^B KOTopoMy OHi> uBUBJíii cyó^eKTHBHoe o6o;RaHÍe^ ; sax^Mi^ Hacrajrb 
naTHjrfeTHÍft nepioAi* „oÓxeETHBHoft pasjEyKH*; ;^ase npHCjyra 4^hjio- 
co^, „HecpaBHeHHafl^ óesrpaMOTHaa A'i^ByniBa, Hii^a Ha Hero 
ÓJiaroTBopHoe „ofixeKTHBHoe BJiianie" ^). 

TaRi BaRi „CHcreMa no3HTHBHO& nojiHTHRH" 6ujia BSB-^crna y 
HacB TOJiBRO H31 BTopuxi pyR'B, Eh HSjíoseHÍflxi Mejujia h ApyrHxib, 
TO BX cy»AeHÍaxi> o net h ofe ea „cyCobeRTHBHoft neroAf OKa- 
sajiHCB BecBiia cymecTBeHHBui h orqacTH saÓaBHEia omnÓRii. T5, 
^Tb KoHTB paasH^ajTE, 6blso cnyTaHO HamHMH ROMMeHTaTopaím; xb, 

HT5 0H'B npHMŠHHJTB El COipaJIBHOfi nOJIHTflRŠ, 6BLI0 OTHeCCHO Kl 

coi^ioioriH; jsfiLSssie tb, míb owb c^^ajii h ciHraJi^B rjaBHOK) sa^ft^^H) 
CBoeň SH3HH, ,o6i»flBJiajiocB BOBce Hecyn^ecTByioiiiHHi vb ero (J^hjio- 
co({)CROň cHcreM*!. nHcaiejiB, HaxoAHBiniň HysHUMx pasiacHATB ne- 
qaTHO „CBOHCo6cTBeHHiMOTHoraeHÍa r"b Koniy", ^roóu noHOHB nyó- 
jihrí onpCAiJiHTB, rA§ ROH^aerca Kohtb, h ta* Ha^HHaerca oipb, 
aBTOpi, — BucRasajťB MHŠHie, tto „Ropennofi HeAOcraTOR^B RoetoboS 
CHcreMii" saRJHoqaercfl bi „ycrpaHemH cyóieRXHBHaro iieTOAa hsi 

06j[aCTH BOnpOCOBl COI^iOJIOriH, dTHRH H nOJEHTtfRH^ (?!). Ho CIOBaMl 

Toro se nHcaxeJifl, „no3HTEBH3Mi CA'i^a2i'B ao chxi nopi nojiA'i^a, 
— ycTaH0Bnj[7> 3aR0HH0CTB ^ejiOB^^ecROfi to^rh sp^nifl Ha flBjeHia 
npHpOAu"; Tenepb „xa se xoHRa 3prbHÍfl AOJsna 6iixb npEJOsena 
u Ri p^memio npaRXHnecRBXi BonpocoBX, — ho axofi hojiobhhu ae- 
jiHRaro AÍJa no3HXHBH3irB coBepnraxB ne Mosexi (?), noxoMy hto 
xyxi eMy npHnuocb 6u (!) BBecxa cy(5i»eRXHBHBiĚ mctoa^b Aaae bi 
nocxaeoBRy qacxo-xeopexHqecRHxx BonpocoB^B... Bi ^nosHXHBHoft no- 

JIHXHKt** KOHXTb OXRpHXO OXRasaJCa (sic) OXB 9X0ft naCCHBHOft pOJH 

H, npH HOMOH^H cyóieRXHBHaro MexoAa, nonuxaiícfl nepeRHnyxB moctb 
oxi HayRH RXSH3HH... ]ífl RaRofi cxeneHH KoHxi H Bi CBoeiTB Rypdb 
^nijioco^m ÓujiT^ 6jih30R'b ri xoMy, ttoÓh CBjiBaxB Hay^HUBTB o(5pa- 
30MI Bonpocu xeopexH^ecROfi hcxhh* ch BonpocaMH o npaRTH^e- 
CROMi fíjiarfe, H AO RaROĚ cxenenH eny xtcHO 6hjio bi nyxaxi o6t»- 
eRXHBHaro MexoAa kb coi^iojioriH, 9xo bhaho" — H3Tb xaRHxx-xo cjiob'b 
„Kypca*'. To ate CM^raeme coi^iojioriH cb hojihxhroh) h axHROio h 
xo ffie He3HaHÍe A'feftcxBHxeJBHUxx xpyAOBi h nijieH KoHxa — npo- 
HBjflexca B^B pa3H£ix'B MÍcxaxi co^Hneniň namero aBxopa. „B^b ch- 
cxeM* KoHxa nero-xo neAOcxaexi h 'lero-xo BecBMa Baatnaro**, ro- 
BopHTi owb, HO coÓcxBeHHo caMOMy nHcaBmeny oxh cxpoKH HeAOcraBajio 



^) Systéme de politique positive etc., par Angnste Comte (P. 1851 ).T. I. Preface. 

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MHHMAfl coi^iojiorui. 135 

TO^HtirB CBÍA6HÍfi O co^epauimH „Systéme de politique positive'' h 
Apyraxi paóon ^^HJioco^^a no uoAmmík h 3thbí, — HHane ohi. ne bh- 
xín 6u HeAOcraTBa h npotíijia xaiťB, rA$ cBopte, HanpoTUBib, npeoÓJia- 
Aaen h36htoki cyÓieRTHBHsiia. „ycrpaH^fl cyó^RTHEHutt MeTOA'B 
Bfk Bonpocaxi uojihthbh (t.-c. coiíiojioriH?) h stheh, — noaropaeTL 
asTopi, — nosHTHBHSiTB He MOserB xase onpaBAaTs CBoero co^CTBen- 
earo cyn^eciBOBaHifl''. Cairb Kohtb, „JSAKb hsb^tho, nepemejTB, 
HaR0Heit'B, SI cyÓ^esTHBHOMy neroxy'' ^) (x.-e. na A^bjrb owh ne- 
pemen ne ex ;q)F^m7 Merojíy, a ki> Apyroft o&iacTH BonpocoBi, — 
n odiacTH npaBTHHecBHxi sahani, vxb Bcrynaeri b^ CHJiy cy^ieR- 
TIBHafl TO^nui spi^Hifl). 

,Gy(}iesTHBHafl Heroda'', Boropyio Rohtb hujífiwajjrb na nep- 
BHfi nian^b bi CBoeB coipa^mot nojuiTHBt n aiHR^, npHHflTa6uja 
y HacB sa ocoóuft nayHHufi MeroA^B, npnroAHuft 6yAT0 6u aju leo- 
peTH^ecKofi C0I^0J0^iH. HanoJOBHny jmmb usvbetHus w npeBpaxHO 
noHjiTiifl HAen ^^pam^yscsaro MUCJiHTeja nopo^iun y nacB ne^o- 
pasytri^HÍe, Boropoe noc^ysmo hcxoahok) to^rok) jsm o6pa30BaHÍa 
Kaxofi-TO 4^aHTacTiraecR0Ě „cyÓieRTHBHofi mROJni'' bi namefi quasi- 
eoi(iaior]iHecRO& jnrrepaTypé. SajiBjíeHO 6ujio Aase cb ropAOCTBH), 
?To „cyÓ^eBTHBHafl nucoia ecTB no npeiufyn^ecTBy pyccRaa mROja 
ffb coivojorín'', H HTO Bi EBpont ^ne nonajin^ Basnaro sna^eHÍfl 

CyÓXeRTKBHBMa, ROTOpiltt FB A^fiCTBHTeJíBHOCTH nOnaJTB R'B HaBťB H31>- 

3a rpaHHi^u cjrynafino, usi Bxopuxi h TperBHXi pyRi, b% nepeny- 
TaHHom H coBepmeHHO a6cypAH0irb bha'% '). Habent sua fáta libelíi! 



n. 

HecpaBnenno Óojiše neHajBHUJi nocj[%ACTBÍfl j^jui HÍ&ROTopux'B 
HaniBx^ ýH;ioco4K)Bi HM^a xpyraa Mucjib Konia, ycBoennafl CneH- 



ComeHLi H. K. MizafiiOBCtaro, t. I, crp. 187, 146—147; t. lY, crp. 89,92 
I ci*j^ 131 ■ ítp. 

*) OxBWb wyb lyumizi y naci sHaTORon Hay^Hoft 4>]uoco<i)ii^ B. B. JleceBHTb, 
oiBocnúfica Booóii^e Kpafiee CHvcxoxBTeiBHo ki yiipasHeHÚmi Haonixi „co^ioIo^ovb^, 
— roBopx o&b oóiesTHBHoft H cyÓiesTHBHOft Touaxi spftHÚi, ynoMHHaen lurso o „ne- 
^opa^MMdUj ROTopoe oduo moAMto u moiao nopoxvTb vh HexaBHee npeiu oxHJueH- 
ue coopH Bi Hameft JiHiepaTypi o npeoÓiaiaHÍH Toft hih xpjroft hsi sthxi Tonerb 
3pÍHia opu HsyneHÍH coiúoiorniy Hjni, luim ne coectbMb npaetuhHO npuHMno y ho^ 
vmpwnh^ cy6ieKTHBHaro h o6ieKTHBHaro MeToxa*'. Cm. „OnHTb KpHTH^ecKaro iiscjríb- 
vmíáz ocBOBOHavui nosHTHBHoft <)>Hjioco4»ÍB^ (Cn6., Ib77), crp. 241. BnpOHeni, bi 
dion Tpyxi aBTOp& Tauce ne BMtJi vb BHxy TpasTaxa KoHTa o nosHTHBHoft noiHTHBi, 
t n CBOSTB „QHCbMaxi o Hay<iHot <t>iuoco4|»ui^ (Cii6., 1878) ovb ynoMHHaen o6% 
non TpaBTaiii toibbo bckoji&bb, bi oihomi Micrb Ccrp. 19?). 



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136 BftCTHHKl EBPOnU. 

cepoMi H nepemeAinafl b'b HairB raBse wb HdBpan^eHHOMi bha'&, — 
MuciB o jiorHMecsott CBJÍ3K1 coi;iojiorÍH CL HayROH) o&b opraHH^e- 

CBOfi SH3HH, lUU 6ÍOJlOrÍeH). KOHTB BnOAFJ^ yĎÍ^AHTeJlBHO 06l»flCHHJ11>, 

?T0 A-ifl noHHMaBÍa coiUauHux^b flBjieHÍ& Heo6xoAHMO npe^BapETeib- 
Hoe sHaROMCTBO cb flBJíeHÍflMH ospy»aH)iite& npepoAu, ci jcjiobíjuch 
a&HSHH opraHHSMOBi BOo6ii;e h qejoffbqecKaro opraHHSMa bi oco6eH- 
hocth; nodTOMy co^iOJ[o^ifl ^oJisea nojibsoBaTbca pe3yj[bTaTaMH Bcbxi 
npoíHx^b OTpacjie& 3HaHÍfl, oilHpaflCb HenocpeACTBeBHO na 6iojoríio, 
BOTopafl, no KoHTy, oÓHHMaerb co6ok) h ncHxoioriio. Hh pascys* 
Aemfl ero o BBaBMHOfi 3aBHCHM0CTii h CBaBu HayEi, hh CA^bjaHHHfl 
HM'B nonuTRH o6o6vafiEÍi RyjibTypHO-HCTopHqecKHX^b aahhuxi Bce- 
liipHOfi HCTopÍH He AaBajiH Hu Majrbfimaro noBOAa npeAnojaraTb, qro 
owh craBHJii 6iojiorÍK) bt> i'bcHOM'b cmucj^ (6e8i nctixoJioríH) wh py- 
ROBOACTBO H vb oópasei^i TeopeTHRaiTb coi^oJoriH. 

?t5 me c;^ajH HamH nocJťJ^AOBaTejiH Kohtobcrhx^b Boasp^mfi 
Hdi 8Tofi SApaBofi HAeH ({^paHi^yscBaro Mucsureju? Ohh BOOópasiuH, 
qTO co^ioJlom AOJURHa 6uTh nocrpoena na MaTepiaji^i hhcto-6íojio- 
rHHecROiťE, H ci» AOCTodHUMi jy^maro jiibjíA ycepAiem^ ctujih 6ed- 

nJIOAHO B03HTBCa Cb TeopiflMH H {^aRTaMH, He HBlilOil^HMH a6C0Jii0TH0 

HHBaBoro OTHomeHÍfl r^ 3aAaqaM'B coi^iaiBnoS nayRH. dm nHcaTeiH 
noHeiíy-TO npcAcraBHJiH ce6t, hto 6io.iorúi jsfiJUKa^ Hrpaxb pyROBO- 
Aflii^yK) TBopqecRyK) pojib npa paspafioTRŠ coi^iaioraHecRHx^b a^h- 
Huxx, H qTo cneipajiHCTbi ecrecTBOBHamfl npHSBaHu jsfls&e Henocpe^- 
CTBeHHO yqacTBOBaTb wb cosa&híh coipoiorÍH, Roropaa laRHMi o6pa- 
30M'b npeBpaiHJiacb 6u wb noA^HHeHHyio qacTb nayRH o6%opraHH3* 
Max'b, BonpeRH E^esurb KoHTa h 3ApaB0Hy «iejiOB%qecROMy CMucjy. 
ABTop'b, HaHóoji^ pa6oTaBoiifi y aacrb vb dnowb joshohi naopaB- 
jieHÍH, HanojHHJii noqxH i^'&9bi& TOiťb nepecRasuBaHÍeMi h pasGo- 
poAťb coqHHeHiň no 6io;iorÍH, h owb yBŽpeni o^naRO, qio co^ep- 
atanie 9Toro xoMa — „cnjiomb coi^iojiorH^ecRoe". Oh^ nffraerb Ha- 
Ae«Ayi "iTO „rocnoAa ÓioJiorH, horoh^hbi cb nocji']^AnHMH pe3yjibTa- 
xaicH pa3A'&ieHÍfl xpy^a bi ofijiacxH CBoeft cnei^iajbnofi nayRH, no- 
ROH«iHB'b dXH, xaR'b cRasaxb, CBOH AOMamnifl A^a, nanpaBax^ cson 
snania bx nocxpoeniio Biniía nayRi — nayRH oňmeerBennoft". One- 
BHAHO, dxa <|^anxacxHqecRafl na^esA^ ocnoBana na flBnoM^ neAopasy- 
Brtnin oxnocHxesbno npe^Mexa h co^epsania coiúoiorin, paBHO 
RaR^ H oxHOCHxejbno cxenenn h CMucjia 3aBHCiiM0CXB ea on 6io- 
jiorÍH. Bhaa necocxoflxejibnocxb vhxT> bubo^obi, Roxopue ^'i^aKxrcfl 
Hnor^a npeACxaBHxejiflHH ecxecxBeHnbix'B nayR^b no nocxopoHHBM'b 
A^ HHxi^ BonpocaM^b co^iaJl[bHofi shbhh, aBxoprb xn^exno cxapaercfl 
ycxpannxb coMH^e B'b xoirb, ^saRonno jh BOo6n^e BM^maxejiBCTBO 
6ioj[oríH Bx oén^ecxBennyH) nayRy^. Upn 5j[Hsa&nieiťB pascMorpi- 



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MHHMAfl coi^ioioria. 137 

híh KkJíSL — roBopHTB OHt — „Tasoe C0MH*HÍe AOJracHO neoÓxoAHMO 
pascbflTbCfl. fl,^o ne fb 6iojiorÍH, a bx 6iojioraxx. reRRejiB coBep- 
meHHO npaBx^ yrsepaAaa, hto... Óy^yii^HMi rocy^íapcTBeHEUMi jiio- 
AflM'B, dROHOMHcraM^ H HCTopHBaMi> npHji[eTca rjaBHHMl o6pa30Mi» 
05paTHTB BHHMaHÍe Ha CpaBHHTGJlBHyK) aoojiorÍK), T.-e. Ha cpaBHH- 
TeJiBHyK) Mopij^joriio h ({^Hsiojoriio xiiboth£ix'b, ecjiH ohh no»e- 
iuoTb no.iyo[HTB BŠpnoe noHflxie o csoeni cnei^iajiBHOMTi npejMáeii. 
H sor/^a ara qmBHHxeJiBHO-doojiorHqecRafl xoHRa 3p']^HÍfl hphboahtii 

JUDA^ft Bl» CaMlUrb HeB^pOflTHUM'B 3a6j[yaiA6HÍflMl», TO BX axoMi HaAO 

BHHHTb He canyio to^ry spinifl, a Jio^eft, ne yM'&H)u^HX'b ch neio 
cnpaBHTbCfl''. 

TpyAHO o6%flCHHTBy RaRi Morjia BOSHHRnyrL canafl aucjih o tom'b, 
vro H3CJi'bA0BaTej[H „q)aBHHTejibHofi Mop<|^JiorÍH h ^nsiojioriu atneor- 
Huxi*', HM'ki CBOH) ^peBBuqafiflo oómnpHyK) h cjiosnyio cneipa^íb- 
HOCTB, AO-SAHH en^e nonyTHO saHHMaxbca co3 fl^s^ewb Apyrofi eo^e 
6o£ke cioacHofi h xpy^Hoft nayRH, uu^ioiafiíí cbok) ocoCyH) rpoMa^- 
Hyfo o6jiacTB h CBofi HeoóunafiHO 6oraTu& <|^aBTHqecRÍ8 Maiepiajii. 
Hhrto en^e ne npe^Jiara^x acTpoHOMaM'B pyROBOAHXb pafioxaiiH no 
^wsiiR^b, a c^e^íaJlHCTaMl» no ({^nsoRt — co3AaBaxB xhmíh)) xoxa 4>u- 
Saša TaRi» se xo^ho AOJisHa onHpaxLca na acxpoHOMÚo, a xnMÍfl 
—na ({)H8BRy, RaRi h co^íoJ[0^ifl — na ÓioAomo et ncHxojrorieio. 
1t6 CRasaiH 6u mu o xhmhrí, Roxopufi oxucRHBaxb 6u cboh) nayRy 
Bb xpyxaxi^ no íffmiiKÍ h osnAaji^b Óu otb ({)H3hrob'b pyROBOAfln^Hx^b 
yRa3aHÍ& jím cbouxi pa6oxi»? A iieacAy vbwb dxa HMenno yAHBH- 
TeiBHaa cxpannocxs csyMHJiacB es aBxopoiix, nojsejiaBuiHMi paspa- 
fiaxuBaxB coipojiorÍK) npn nenocpeACXBeHHOfi noHon^n 6iojorÍH u 6io- 
ioroB^. B'B RaRÍfl HeoĎxoAHMua fifiúpii BOBjeRJia ero dxaéesHaAem- 
Hafl xoHRa sp^nifl — mosho BHA'bxL hsx cst^yion^aro npHiišpa. IIo- 
roBopHBi o&B HXxiosaBpaxi HJiH puÓo-fln^epax^E, co cjiob^e Arac- 
am^a h FeRRejui, h BucRasaBx HHxepecHyK) ncxany, qxo „jfuóu bu- 
pa6oxaj[H ceOb qpedBuqauno CJiosnue annapaxu, npHcnocofijenHue 
Ki BOAHofi a&H3HH, RaRHxx j uxxio3aBpa, Rone^HO, ne Óujio*" , Ham'B 
aBTopb npoAOJisaexi: „Ilpujomuxe xenepb dxo pa3cy»AeHÍe ri aBJíe- 
msíwb ofía^ecxBeHflott shbhh. Rocmaehme eMfbcmo euda uxmiosaepa 
KO/Kjfw-HuGydh coí^iaAhuyio ipynny^ RaRyio-HHÓyAB oÓn^ecxBennyK) 
HHAHBHAya;ibHOCXb. Eco Bnyxpn axoK HHAHBHAyajbHOCxH h noA^b 
BiiflHÍeirb ea pasBHxiji, cocxoan^aro bx nepexoA'^ oxi OAHopoAnaro 
Ki pasHOpoAHOMy, vb AH({»ýepeHi^HpoBaHÍH qacTeS, wh ycajieniH pas- 
^emsL TpyjijBkj o6oco6jiflioxcfl pisRO paasHHHbie hhahbhau, to"... 
H T. A- ?t6 6u hh BUxeRajio hsi dxoro cpaBnenifl uxxíosaBpa cb 
coiuajibHOH) rpynnoK), buboau AOJia^nu 6brrb desycjiOBHO Hee^pnu, 
BCJ^ACTBie HeB^pnocxH caHaro MexoAa, ynoxpedjiaeMaro aBxoposcB, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



138 B^CTHBVb RBPOmi. 

BniinHifl, noBepxHOCTHtifl aHajoriH Me»Ay coBepmeHHO pasHO* 
poAHuiíH saTeropiflMH flEiemfi Besjsíb npeci^AyiOTi asropa, Kaši 
KomMapi, H craBflTB ero npocTO fb TpamecKoe noiomeme: 
Ch OAHoft CTopoHu, OHI KaKx Óy^TO cosHaert Hxt HesasoH- 
HOCTb H, roBopfl, vh HacTOfl^eiTb cjiY^9Íkj cnei](iaj[BHO o6i> ana- 
jiornqecKOiťB iferoA*]^, pascys^aerB Bnojra^ SApaso h ocHOBa- 
TeiBHo; HO, Cb Apyrofi cropoHu, oh'b ne nošen orpinmTBCfl otb 
dTEx% anasorift, Koropufl Basyrca eny odflsaTejBHEuni, wb BH^y 
ycBoeHHaro hitb nenpaBHJiBHaro noHHMamfl nayqHofi cbash nesAy co- 
i^iojioríeH) H óioJoríeH). Ohi ne xot^^b 6ii, hto6u lejiOB^^ecRoe 
o6ntecTBO noxose Óhuio na opraHHSiťB, bi> RoropoMi jik>ah HrpaiH 
6u pojiB naccHBHUxi KiiTO^eB^B; ho oh-b ne b% CHJiaxi OTBeprayTB 
TaBoe B083p%HÍe h npeA^araerB óopoTbCfl c^ hhmx coBepmeHHO ne- 

B^pOHTHUM^B CHOCOÓOHi: HpOTHBl TeOpÍH, COCTaBJfllOn^efi, no ero CIO- 

BaifB, ^nodopHifimee hatho na yMCTBeHHoň shshh XlX-ro B^ica'', 
OHI coBiryerB Beera npaKXH^iecKyK) „6opB$y saHHXHBHxyajBHOCTB'', 
AJisí oxpaH£i HeJOBŠEa otb rpoBs^eft eicy, 6yAT0 6Uj ynacTH npespa- 
ii](eHÍfl Bil Rji^ToqRy o6n^ecTBeHHaro opraHHSiía. Bo Bcefi jrarepa- 
Tff/b coi](iaJiBHux% HayR'B e^Ba jol Bcrpd^THTCx Óojiie nopasHrejiBBiifi 
oépasqHBi CBiimeHifl HecoBiriteiHMiix^B h npoTRBonojosHurB hoha- 
TÍfi. Oaho asTb AByxi: hjh leopifl B^pna, h Tor^a 6opoTBCfl ch 
hok) ctojb xe Óesnojesno, saRi BOscraBaTB npoTHB^ saRona raro- 
i^HÍfl HJiH npoTHBi ecrecTBeHHUxi npoi^eccoB^B opraHE^ecRoft sbbhh; 
hjih Teopifl omHÓOHHa, h Torxa AOcraxo^HO AORasaTB ea necocToarejB- 
HOCTB, npHHeiTB BpoAHoe npaRTH^ecRoe BHa^enie ea orna^aerL caico 
C060K). CpeAHflro BUBOAa jAvb h 6utb ho MOsen. ^jui aBTopa cy- 
^ecrroyerB, o^naRO, h^tto cpe^Hee: owb ne MOserB npoTHBOcrojrrB 
aBTopHTery FeRReja, BejraRaro cnei^iajiHCTa bi 6iojiorÍH, ho ho 
CTOJiBRO ROMHereHTHaro bi> ^ya^oft eny coi^iaJBHOfi nayRi. Oh^ 
^CTByen ce6fl ÓescHJiBHinrB bi BH^y RaieropEHecRaro nojosenifl^ 
BucraBjrfleBiaro H^neip^HirB ecrecTBOHcnBiTaTejeirB^ o cxoactb^ ne- 
jiOB^^ecRHXi jiH^HOcrefi cb ^njacraj^aicH,. (^raHann, anTEMepam h 
MeraicepaMH'' ; ohx otfpa^aercfl nocji'6AOBaTejiBHO r% rHxpš, r'b ro- 

.fOBOHOFElTB, Kb ROJOHÍfllTB Me^iyS^ H nOJEHHOBl, RX MypaBe&HHRaiťB, 

H 3ar6irB saiiŠHaerB: ^ctohjo 6u cxo^htb en^e b'b nqejraHufi yjeit, 
HO BIU noŘjí.ewb jryqme npflMO Kb jho^^aitb^. Bon rx RaROny pe- 
3yjiBTaTy hphboahtb npHMÍHeme H^ee Konra, -- 6yAT0 coI^OJIO^ifl ohh- 
paercfl na 6iojioríio! 

ABTopx npoÓyoTB RawB 6y;^T0 npoTecroBaTB npOTHBX o^ojrite- 
niHXx ero MeAysx h HXTÍOBaBpoBx; ho ohx c^aeicfl cb My^nreiB- 
Buwb qyBCTBOMX, nocjii AOJiroft h yroMirrejiBHOft bo3Hh (tb opraHHSMaMH, 
BXOj^an^HMH m> ROMnereHipH) HaTypajHcroBx. „Besx cobíh^hía - yrib- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



MHHMAfl CO^IOJIO^Ú[. 1 39 

maCTB OHI ceóa —lejiOBiK-B ecxB cymecTBO HacTOJbKO cjoatHoe h 
pasHopoAHoe, hjih coBepraeHHoe, nw ne MO»eTL yate boStb wh co- 
coíVb He TOJiBKO TasHxi coBepmeHHuxi oé^ecTBx, RaRx ch^oho- 
^pa, HO A^se H TaRHX'B, RaRi iiypaBedHER^b. Owb ne MOserB 
6uTb Kb TaRofi creneHH norjion^eni oÓn^ecTBOMx; 6opB6a ^an^e roh- 
íaercfl vh ero nojibsy. Ho Bce-iaRH lyrb ;ítjio TOJibRO bt. rpa^ai^in. 
HtsoTopue H3X cocraBJífliontHxx CH({)OHo4K)py nojiHnoBi h MOAyBx 
cyTb npocTO nomoBue opránu, Bcb ocrajbHue óesnojui. 3to BKicmaa 
WFh OAepsaHHHxi oÓn^ecTBOMi ea^i opraHHSMOMi notíihfl,!^. Bi nne- 

JHHOM^ PO^ eCTb TpyTHH, ROTOpue XOTfl H COCTaBJUHOrb, C06CTBeHH0 

roBopfl, vb coBORynHOCTH nojOBofi opraH'b oÓ^ecTBa h paAH dxoro 
ornpaBjeBÍfl to^bro h Tepn^TCfl, ho Bce-raRH caMOcroflxejibHO ^jífiTbj 
jeraiorb. Cyn^ecTByiorB h Óesnojufl pa6o^fl nnejiu. 9to MeHbmafl 
cieneHb no&bp}! o^n^ecxBa: npeBpaTHXb oahšxi n?eji'b bx npocrue 
opraHEi Tpy^a, a Apyrnx^b bi npocTBie opránu pasMnosenifl poio 
He yAajocb, ho HCRaji^neHÍe Bce-xaRH secbMa CHJbHO. HaROHei^x, 
Bi qeJOBŠnecROirb o6n^ecTBÍ úesnojiuŘ pa6o^ sosMOseHi xojibRO 
ffb H^e^ — Bi xeopÍH Majibxysiani^eBB. IIodxoMy neJOB^^ecRoe o6ii;ecxBO 
HisorAa ho AOCXHTHexT* cxeneHH coBepmencxBa CH^^OHO^^opu; ho 
ero 6opb6a cb jnraHOCxbio HERor^a ne rohhhxca, npHqeiťB maHCu 
6opb6H CyAyra RjiOHHXbCH 10 Bx xy, xo vh ApyryH) cxopony''. 
Aňoprb ne p6maexcfl cnopHXb npoxHBi xeopin, ocHOBaHHofi na 
„TesHcaxi FeRROJia"; „b-b o6ineM.% — roBopHXB ohx^ — a Bce-xaRH 
CTHxaio ee vbpEOio h ne nory npocxHXb eft (xeopm) xojibRO o^Horo, 
HHeHHO xoro, ^xo OHa npHSHaerb HaH($ojiše coBepmennuMi xo o6ii;e- 
CTBO, Roxopoe HaHÓOJc&e ypo^yexi CBOHX'b mohobb^. 

IIoBHAHMOMy, HeB08HomHO AJUL 3ApaBaro CMucia CBflsuBaxb coBep- 
meHCTBO qejiOBt^eiďcaro oón^ecxBa cb noHHseHÍeMx xsna oxA'&JiLHux'b 
JURHOCxeft, ero cocxaBJflionpx^b; ho oho xaRx, 6yAxo 6u, buxoahxi 
no aHajoriH cb rojohúimh iie^ys^b h nojinnoBi. OxRy^a »e B3flJiacb h 
Ha ^enTb AepsHxcH 9xa atícypAHaa anajiorífl? Tn^exHO 6bLio 6u HCRaxb 
OTBfoa Ha 9X0X1 Bonpocb b'b cóhbhhbuxi h npoxHBop^qHBEixi pas- 
cpLUfimsrh aBxopa, vb ero ÓesRone^HO pacxHHyxuxx Bapiaivflxi» 
Ha leifu o puóaxi h CH^^OHO^^opaxx, o6i> HxxíosaBpaxi h Mypa- 
BetHHRaxi», o Rji^xo^íRaxx H opraHaxx. ^asRe caifue pšmHxejibHue 
nocjÍAOBaxejiH opraHHHecRofi xeopÍH vb coipajibHofi nayR^ cpaBHH- 
BaiH He^iOB^HecRoe oón^ecxBO cl opraHHSHOMi xoJibRo bb usBto*- 
HHxi oxHomeniflxii h ne norpyauuHCb bx o6jacxb cjiHSHflROBx a 
Hejtysi A^fl oxucRaHifl „coiúojiorH^ecRHXx xeopeirb'' ; a Hanrb aBxopx, 
orpHi^ui HenpiflXHyK) eny aHa^oriio bi npHHH^Hai, AOboahxb ee ao 
H^uBajaro h coBepmeHHO HeB^poHxnaro paBBHXía: ohx npaMO 
BUDHaexx o(í^^ecxBO bx paspsA^ xaRHXx ;,HHAHBHAyajibH0cxeft'', 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



140 fiftCTHHKfB EBPOnH. 

RaK'B pa3HUfl opraHHqecsífl T&ia, coctoaii^úl hsi BjrlToqeRi^ — hhah- 
BHAOKB. ^CymecTByiorB — pascKasHBaeTb OHt — pasjíH^mufl crynenH 

HHAHBH^^ya^BHOCTH, BOTOpUA 6opH)TCfl MeSAJ CO60IO, CTpeMflTCfl nOA" 

"iHHHTB ApyrB Apyra. dra 6opb6a Be^eicfl paanH^HuicH creneHflMH 

HHAHBHAyaJBHOCTH Cb BeCblia paaSHHHUMl yCniXOBTB. B^h BBlCniHXl* 

opraHH8Max'B, HanpHMŽpi b% qeJiOB^R^, bc£ rb 60 muuáouowb 
KjvkroHevíby Koropua o6paiii,aiOTCfl eaieceRyHAHO vh ero TbjAy Bcb 
ero TRaHH, opránu HyBCTBi» h AHRsemfl^ saBpbnon^eHH CBOéMy 
i](&ioMy OBOH^aTeiu>HO. B'b HH3mHX'B opraHHSMaxi no6^A& i]i'&Aaro 
BAjíih HacTflMH A^eso CJiaÓie. Bi icypaBe&HHB^ hhahbhai b% t^* 
H0M7» CMueii cjiOBa noóto^en^ o6ii^ecrBOMi>; bi noíHiiHflRt dra 
noé^Aa en^e plniHTejibHte. ^aOpsBa, Basi dBOHOMH^ecRaa eAHHHi^t, 
crpeMHTca noA^uoHHTb cejSt, noooTHTb pa6o?aro. B'b Hcropie Haarb 
HBBtcTHbi Hai^ioHaibHbifl HHAHBHAyajibHOCTu, no6&BAeHHUfl H He no- 
6'kRAeBBUSL eAHHHAaMH rocyAapCTBeHHUMH. Bnyrpn Ha^ioHad[bHofi 

HHAHBHAyaJbHOCTU ÓOpiOTCa HHAHBHAyaibHOCTH COCIOBHUfl, a BHyrpH 

nocfl^AHHxi — uHAHBHxyajtbHOCTH HejiOB^HecBÍfl. ^ocTHrafl crporo 
o6oco6jieHHoň crynenH pasBHrifl Kacni, cocaosie noótacAaeri Basi 
BucmyK) Haiúonajbnyio HHAHBHAyajibHOCTb, TaBi h nnsmyK) — hcjlo- 
Bt^ecRyH) H T. A-" 3A^b no.iHiTHflR^b H MypaBefiHHBi OTnecenu 
B'b Tofi sie BaieropÍH ABJíenift, BaB'b n (|>a6pHBa, naiponaibnocTb, 
cocjiOBÍe, rocyAapcTBO; bjiítohbh OTA'&JibHuxi» opraHH3MOB7» nrpaKKrb 
pojb HnAHBHAOB^b, saBpd^non^ennux^b „CBoeMy ic&iOMy OBonqaTejibHo''. 
^asbme hath yse neByAa no nym CBoeoópasnuxx anaioiiÉ; dTO 
ya&e ne leopena (BaBi jio6flrb BupasaTBCfl aBTopu, oÓiaAaion^ie 
c^acTjraBuifb CBOňcTBOMi ne npocro BHCBasKiBaTb ndB^crnufl mucih, 
a roBopHTb npflMO TeopenaMH, „Baninuim noiomeniflMH'' h hcth- 
naMH), — BTO yaBe pesyjibTarb ncnyra Óojifenennaro Bootípasenm, 
noAaBJennaro HÍpoirb nxTÍosaBpoBi h MeAys^. 

HejbBfl ne qyBCTBOBaTb HCBpennaro coaum^niji o TOirb BOin^e- 
CTB* TpyAa, BOTopoe noipaneno aBTopoirb na a^o coBepmenno 6e3- 
njioAnoe h ({^anTacraHecBoe. Mošen 6uTb, oni h B^pno noBTopflerrb 
BBFJiflAH AapBHna, FeBBejifl, Harejn h Apymxi naxypajnicTOBi^ na 
npeAMCTH Hxi cnei^iajibHOCTH; MOSBerb Cnib, AMcTBeTeJbno 060- 
codaenie nojiOBi, „Basi h BCflBoe pasA^enie TpyAa nesAy hhah- 
BHAaMH OAnoro h Toro »e BHAa^, ecTb „flBjeníe Óojrifónennoe'', h 
„HHAHBHAyajbHocTb ^ejioB^^ecBaji, Basi MysnnnH, laBi h menn^nnbi, 
Tepnnrb npn 3tohi Bopennofi yn;ep6x, coBckwb neBOcnojinfleMufi 
no6o«inbiHH no6^AB3iH^; Moserb ÓuTb, h bi caMom a^^^, ^npocrofi 
9repMa4>poAHTb^ npeAcraBJíflerb, „CbTOHBH spd^nifl nnAHBHAyaabnoft 
SH3HH, BEicmift TRHib pasTáHoaieHÍfl "" . Ho BorAa aTH B3rjiflAu npflMO 
npHM^nfliOTCfl Bi» (j^aBTaBťb coi^iaibnoň a^asnu h BorAa „HnAHBH- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



MHHMAfl 0OI](IOjIOnfl. 141 

AjaJBHOCTB ^eJOB^^eCBafl^ CTaBHTCfi B'B OAHH'L paspflA^B Ch „HHAH- 

BH^^aJBHOCTBH) ceMefiHOH)^ H oóii^ecTBeHHOK)^ Ha ocHOBanÍH cxo;^- 
CTBa cJiGVhy Tor^a mu HM^eirE yate ^"^0 ch npocTOH), coBepmeHHo 

nepBOÓUTHOK) CXOJiaCTHBOH), 3a ROTOpyiO HHCROJIBRO He OTB^TCTBeHHa 

cíporo-nojosHTejibHafl óiojorifl, KaKOBH 6u hh Cujih yBJíeTOHia ot- 
;c&iBHux'B efl npeAcraBBTaieB bhí oóu^Haro Rpyra hxx cneipajrb- 
Efsnph 3aHflTi&. 

C^i:'6jiaBi]iHCB sseprBOH) onra^o^Hiix^ anajiorifi, aBTop'B imfiTb bu- 
lojífiL vb HHJíHBH^aiBHoft 6oph&b (TB „poROBOH) TeH;^eH^ieK) o6me- 
CTBa ABHraTBCfl no THiiy opraHHHecRaro pasBHTÍfl^, JI^BnrajiCB no 
aroft opramiHecROfi Aoppri — b^POatho, hsi no;ipaacaHÍfl nojiHOHa- 
Kairb H MypaBcfiHHRaifB, — naiOBÍ^ecRoe »o6mecTB0 ecTL nepBtift, 
ÍJHsafinrift H BJi^finiifi Bparx HejiOBÍRa, npoTHBx ROToparo (T.-e. 
oón^ecTBa, B^poflTHo) oetb ^ojubohi 6wrh nocroflHHO Ha-croposi. 
06niecTB0 eaMBnn> npoi^eccoMX CBoero paBBHTÚi crpeMHTCfl noA^n- 
HHTb H pasApofiHTB jiOTHOCTB, ocTaBHTb oft RaRoe-HH6y;(B OAHO cne- 
ipajBHoe ompaBJíeHie, a ocraJELHEia pasAaib apytbm^, npeBpaTHTB 
ee Bsi HHj^HBHAa vh opraHx. JIiraHOCTB, noBHHyflCB TOHy se saRony 
pasBHTÍfl, Óopercfl hjih, no Rpaftneft wbpb, AOjra&na 6opoTBCfl sa cboh) 

HHÍHBHAya.TBHOCTB, 3a CaMOCTOaTeJÍBHOCTB H pa3n0CT0p0HH0CTB CBoero 

H*", TaRHiTB ofípasoMi, Bonpoci „CBOAHTca R^ 6opB(* 3a ithahbii- 
lyajBHOCTB MeaR^y qejíOBiROBrB n o6vD,ecmowh. Bi cjty^ai uo&b]s,u 
nocriAHOTO, ono cranoBHTCfl RpinRoio iiHAHBH;íyajiBHOK), He^feraMOH) 
ejiHHHi^eK), nojt^HHHfl ce&b Bce CHJiBH*e h cvjíhwke jrainocTB, roto- 
paa HflBBOXHTCfl 9THMX npoi^eccoiTB na crenenB npocroro no^iHnen- 
Haro opraná. Ho, nofitat^^aa TaRHM^B oÓpaBoirB jh^hoctb h caMO 
odpan^aflCB vh opranH8M'B, oóukecmeo nodjieotcuím yotce ectbMz yCAO- 
eiHMs optaHUHecKOu oicushu. KaR'B n BCSRÍfi opranHSBTB, ono AO^ia^no 
HirferB CBOK) mojio;íoctl, spfejiocTB, crapocTB h, naRonei^^t, CMepxB. 
Ho B03M03ReffL H Apyroft cjyqíaft — (íojrte hjíh MenSe nojinoft no64AH 
JH?HOCTH, npn^eMi o6n^ecTBO, ne npeBpan^aacb wh oprannsMi, npaR- 
nraecsH ORaaerca CescMepTHHMi, T.-e. CMeprb ero yfi^OTB b"b co- 
Bq)nieHHO m^ nacB ne^íocrynnyH) ^aja** (ecra ne Óy^orB ^RaRnx-B- 
HwSyjíB y^^apoB^ co CToponH**). ^pyrann cjiOBaMH, oÓníecTBO, ne 
(íy^yro oprannsMOirb no npnpo^íi, MoaterB o;ínaRO npeBpaTHTBca b-b 
opraHHSiTB, H Torflia ono ne mrierB yate BOSBpaia, — ono „no^Jie- 
aum yate BcfarB ycjOBiaMi opraninecRoft TKHsnH**, no;íO(5no RaRony- 
HHŘyjíB sHBOTHOMy. OfRy^ta B3aT0 H na hcmx nocxpoeno 3to 6acno- 
cjiOBHoe, xora n Becbua Raieropn^ecRoe nojoaienie —nenaBicrno. 

íto6m H36aBHTB ce6a otb crparanoft onacnocra npeBpan^enia vh 
npocTHe opránu ^y^OBH^naro coi^ia^fBnaro nxTÍOBaBpa, jioah AOJi»nu 
ynopno san^nn^aTB cbok) HH^HBH^íyajiBHOCTB npoTHBi otfníecTBa, bi 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



142 B^cmuKii fiBPomi. 

cocraFB ROToparo ohh bxoaatb- IIo spaBnefi wkpb, asropi, cb ceoefi 
CTopoHu, o&kmfierb 6opoTBCfl Ch HaAJiesan^HirB MysecTBOMi*, 6eai> 
B0Jie6aHÍfi H comh^híě. Tyrš eMy nOMOn scraTs 3a6£iTEift 6ujo 

„CyÓieKTHBHHft MeTOAl>*. „Teopifl ÓO^hÓU Sa HHXHBHAyaJBHOCTb — 

HCTHHHa^ — BOCKSfcitaerb oh^b TpamecRH, —ho, HMesHO croa aa to^vk 
sp^HÍfl 9Tofi 6ofh6uj SL H otíouiBjflH), ^TO 6yAy (5opOTBCfi CB rpo3fl- 
n^eio norjioi'HTB mcha Bucmeio MHAHBHAyajBHOCTBK). Mhí ;^a hítb 
AO en coBepmeHCTBa; ď caifB xo^y coBepmeHCTBOBaTBCfl. FlycTB ona 
crpeMHTCfl no6opoTB nena; a Cy^y crpeMHTBca notfopoTB ee. ^Ba 
B03BMeTB — jBiíjsjuwb. H, BaBx npHCTyuB ETB 6opB(%, fl CTaBJK) ntoAt 
Ri Teoi^H (sic) 6oph6u sa HH^HBHAyajiBHOcrB, BasB pasB na toitb 
urbcrb^ vjíik oHa (x.-e. Teopia?) saxBaTUBaerB Meefl. ď neOTpHiptiO 

HU OAHOrO H8B Cfl nOJIOSeHÍfi, He OTBOpaHHBaiOCB OTB HCTHHEI. 3. 
TOJIBRO nOBHHyH)CB 3aR0Hy 6opB6u, ROr^a OÓBABAHIO, ^O OÓU^eCTBO 
fl^OJlTREO CXyXHTB MHŠ, H dTO nOJIOSeHÍe CyÓieRTHBHO. A He cir&io 

CRasaTb, qro oho bihí cjiysHTB, noTOicy ?to 8to éujia 6u hcao- 
CTottHaa HayRH HenpasAa, h 9to Hesipnoe nojioxeHie otiieRTHBHo'' (?). 
dxa TporaTesBHafl p^mHiiocrB xpa6po óopoTBca cb o6n^ecrBOM^, 
RaRx CB „BBicmeK) HH^íHBHAyajiBHOcrBH)", AM^RO ocraBjaerB saco- 
6010 3HaMeHHTyK) 6opB6y cb B^TpaHUHn HeJiBHHi^aMH: TaiTB Bce- 
TaRH Óujio H^HTO peajibHoe, ^laBaBmee MaxepiajrB js^ae ejuiíosíh cpa* 
acenífl, a djifbch reponnecRÍfi hujib nanpaBJíeHi npoxHBi npoHSBOJib* 
Hofi ROMÓHHaipH cjiOB'B, BBiAaBaeMoft 8a Hay^HyK) TeopÍH). 

rio mh^hík) asTopa, MaccoBua HapoAHua ABHseHÍa raRse hmšiotb 
CBoft RopeHB ffh ^jipon^eecfb pasBHTÍa oCmecTBa no opraHanecROMy 
THny, T.-e. bb no&kj^i oómecrsa naA* jih^hoctbio". IIpH hbb^^hux^b 
ycaoBÍflXB, „BB oCmecTBÍ — roBopHTB oh^b, — noflBJíaiOTCa ABa npes- 
Bu^aftHO jiio6onuTHB[e Tuna, ROxopBie a nasoBy BOJiBHHi^efi h no- 
ABHHCHHRaMH. 9to OTmcneHi^u, npoTecraHTu. IIpoTecryiOTB ohh AByiifl 
coBepmeHHO paBJíH^HUMH, ho Bce-TaRH poAcreeHHUMH neiRAy co6oh> 
H qacro Apyri bi Apyra nepexoAan],HMH cnoco6aBiH. BojiBHHi^a npeA- 
craBjaeTB upoiecrB BOHHcrByion^ia, aRTHBHHft; noABHanHRH -npo- 
TecTB HHpHuft, naccHBHufi. H TÍ, H Apyríe nopuBaH>i*B BcaRÍa cBasH 
CB o6n],ecTBOMB". BojibHHi^a u noABHKHHRH B03craH)TB Bo HMa „no- 
pyraHHoft h pasAaejeHHOft HcropHiecRHMB npoiieccoMi jiHinocTH** ^). 
Bb dTOBTB ROHcraxHpoBaHÍH o6a^eH3B6crHaro 4^aRTa HapoAHux'B 
ABHsenitt aBTopB bhahtb RaRofi-xo 9HcropHqecRÍ& 3aR0H'B^, Rasi 

6yAT0 (j^aRTB H SaROHB — OAHO H TO ate. Ho 06uRH0BeHÍK), HOBUa 

HasBania, npHAyMaHHua aBxopoMB, cocraBJíaíOTB aw nero ^leopeMy*". 



^) CoHHueHia H. K. MHxaftjOBCsaro, t. V, crp. 884; rairb xe, crp. 6, 81, 288 — 
40, 263--8, 298 -9, 374—5, 458 u ip.; t. IU, crp. 164-8, 170—72, 177—8, n jip. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



MHHMAfl COI^OJIO^Ifl. 143 

nonuTKa o^bflCHHTb MaccoBBifl ABHseHÍfl „opraHHqecBHMi npoi](ec- 
com' o(5n^ecTBa h 6oph6oío sa HHAHBHAyajLHOcrs na^aerb caaia 
co(k>K>, ecjm jijBasje AonycTOTB 3th Asa HecocTOflxejiBHue npHHi^Hna, 
831 soTOpusb ojsfiwb jípAjBJdWb coyjRHTB npOTHBOflAÍeicB ApyroMy. 
HapoxHue aieMeHni, qyBCTByioiipe ea ce6% rHeri AAHHaro otfn^e- 
CTBeHHO-nojHTHHecBaro crpofl, noAHHMaK)TCfl BOBce ne bo hma hh^h- 
BHxyajiBHiix'B npaBi, a bo hma cbohx'b oďn^ecTBeHHuxi npasi h 
iHTepecoffB, nonHpaeMuxi ]i,^yvmiE sjaccaMH, h B08CTaR)TB BOBce 
He npoTHBi o6a^ecTBa bi mepoBoiTB cmuci^ axoro ciOBa, a npo- 

TKVb AftBfllI^lXl HXl OTA&IBHBIXl CHUThj BOTOpUH MOryTl HaXO- 

fjsThcsí vh aHTaroHHBirl cx sesamAMB h noTpe6HOCTflMH ^oxbmHH- 
CTBa Hacejiemfl. Hep^A^o HapoAHUfl ABHseHifl He toju>bo ée HM^iOTb 
xapasrepa (5opB6u npoTHBi oÓn^eCTBa, ho, HanpoTEBi, npoHcxoAflTi 

HMeHHO BO HMfl HpaBl dTOFO Otfo^eCTBa B^ erO Ilť&IOMl, npoTHB^ 

saxBaTOBi BjacTH nojiHTHHecBofi HJH 8BOHOMHqecBofi. OpraHHHecsafl 

Teopifl, 60pB6a 3a HHAHBHAyaJIBHOCTB H TOMy nOAOÓHUfl C03AaHÍfl 

Bootipasenifl — Tjvb p6niHTejiBH0 ne npa hcmx. 



m. 

SarpaHH^HUfl reopÍH, ycrap^&iufl h OTBeprHyrufl na poAUH^, 
noflBJíflioTCfl y HacB HHorAa h ycnšniHO nycRaiOTCfl b% xoa'b b^ bha& 

CaH06lITHUX'B OTKpurifi H TeOpeMl, HO Cb npH6aBB0H) Kb TOMy OTh 

ce6fl BaKoro-HHÓyAB a6cypAa. B3rjiflA'B na o6ii^ecTBO, naK^ na CBoe* 
oÓpasHufi opraHHSMi, — b% Óojrke pasyííHOiTB sHanemH dToro ciOBa, 
KB CMQCjrb BHyrpeHHeK cbash h HcropirqecBofi npeeMCTBeHHOCTH co- 
ipajiBHiixi* ABJíeHift, — rocnoACTBOBajix b% H^Mei](ROfi ynoHofi JiHrepa- 
Typi Bi ABaAi^tTHxi H xpHAi^aTuxi roAaxi nacro^maro CT0Ji'frrifl. 
OpraHHqecsafl AORxpHHa — no cy^ecTBy CBoeMy KOHCepBaTHBHaa h 
peaB^ioHHafl— opoEtB^Taia b*b nepioAi* nojiHTHqecBaro saciofl, npeA- 
mecTBOBaBinaro ABH»eHÍH) 1848 roAa. „HcropHqecBÍfi npoiíeccB" 
6iurb BecBHa yAoCnuirB quasí-QayqnuMi npHBpuTÍeifB jí^isl npoTHBO- 

AlftCTBÍfl BCSIBHM^ pe^pMaTOpCBHMl TpeÓOBaHÍfllfB H CTpeHJieHÍflirB. 

BpeHena 9th npomjH. íH coiíiajiBHO-HayiHoft jiHTepaiypi Tepna- 
híh npeofijiaAaerB naopasjíeHie BpHTHHecRoe, onHpaK)a^eecfl Ha Ha6jiK)- 
Aeflie H anaiBsi. IIorepAJiH cboh) CHJiy TpaAH^iH rerejiBflHCTBa, cb ero 
6e3C0AepxaTejiBHofi AÍaJieBTHBOK), Boropaji, no BiipaseniH) oahopo 
H^Mei^Baro lopncra, nrpajia toshcomi, aHTHTe3HC0M^ h CEHTesom, 
Kasi ^oBycHincB ipeMfl mapaira, jiobbo nepeópacuBaeMBiiiH h nc^ie* 
3aK^^HlIH Bi noiViŽAOBaTejrBHOirB nopsA^i- ^OpraHHqecBifi"^ B3rjiflA'B 
Ha rocyAapcTBO ne nojrBsyercfl yiBe BpeAHTOifB; 0TA'k9BHue npono- 



DigitizeiJ by VjOOQ IC 



144 B«CTHHB1> EBPOIIH. 

B^AHHRH noAOÓHux^ yMeHÍfi, saRi ine4>^Jie h JlHjien^ejibA^B, npH- 
jiBJOTb HMi yate Apyroft cmhcjtb h Bce-iaKH croarB oahhoro cpe^e 
HOBurB H^efi u Teopitt. UsvfbcmuŘ BjiouHjniy caiťb npHÓtraBnríí 
uHorAa El coMHHTejiBHUMi aHajiormM'B (Biipo^eiTB, ncHXOJoniqecsHiťB, 
a He óioJorHiecKHMi), iracajTL eme ^erBepxB B^Ka Tony Hasaxi: 
„OpraHHTCCKoe Boaspinie, noHHMaeMoe OAHOcropoHHe, MoaKen. secTH 
Kb HeB^pHOMy npeAcraBjeHiio o TaRi-HasBiBaeMOiťB ecrecTBeHHOiTB 
iipoi](eccl9 HCRJiioqaioiiieirB CBo5oAHyfo A^TeiBHOCTB .m^HOcreft. Hcto- 
piji HapoAOBi He AOJSHa Óhtb cpaBHHBaeifa ci pocromi pacreHÍft 
H.1B AasRe cb paBBHTÍeiTB qeJOB^qecRaro opraHHSMa. Besi comh^hía, 
OAHa efl CTopoHa AonycRaerb cpaBHeme Ch cm^hoh) BOspacroBi h 
oiipeA'i^fleTCfl npHpoAHOH) HeoóxoAHMOcrbio. HapoA^B AMcTBHreJbHo 
— He TOPB Bi nepioAi mojioaocth, RaRi wb nosAnMmett spijiocre. 
Ho OHI cocTOHTb H81 jLH^HOCTefi, ROTopBifl npeACTasjAHyrb C06OK> 
Bcfb BOspacTH SH3HH; crapHe joojsfl Bjásuovb na mojio^o^ flapo;rB, 
a MOJiOAHfl jraraHOCTH Moryn. A*ftcTB0BaTB Ha HapoA'B crapMfi, Ho- 
9T0My Ri ecrecTBeHHO-HeoÓxoAHMot croponš napoAnaro pasBHTia 
npHCoeAHHflexcfl Apyraa, 6uTb MOserB, coBepmenno Hnaa, a hmobho 
HHAHBHAyajiBHafl pa6oTa h CBOÓOAHaa A^TeJiBHOCTb, n3u^HflH>n^afl 
HanpaBJíeHie h co^ep^Ranie dxoro pasBHTÍfl^ ^). 

Bi BTHxi HeMBorHxi ciOBax'B H^Hei^Raro y^enaro bhojih^ íicho 
H jiorHHHO o6iflCHeHO HMeHHO TO; ht6 noÓyxAftJio HiROTOpUX'^ Ha- 
niHxi nncaTejeft b% ceMHAecflTBix'B h BOCbMHAecflTiixi roAax'b 6e3- 
Ha^eatHO 6;iy»AaTb wb jiaÓnpHHrt RaRoft-TO ^coi^io-CiojioriH* , BUAy-- 
MUBaTB HefiuBajiutt ^cy6'BeRTHBHuft MexoAi*^ H BucTynaTB vb cRa- 
so^HEift noxoAi* npoTHBi oÓH^ecTBa, RaRi opraHHSMa, bo hma hh^h- 
BHAyajiBHOCTH MHHMuxx Rji4ToqeR% — JiHHHOcreft. KoFAa Bi esponefi- 
cRofi jiHTepaTypi opranH^ecRaa Teopia ne nrpaja y2Re HHBa«oft 
pojH H HOTTH Hc^esajra bi o6n^eifi nay^HOirs ABRiRemH, ona npH* 
HHMaJcacB y nacb 3a RaRoe-TO rposHoe crpaniHJiHn^e, Cb RoropuirB 
6opB()a B03MoasHa, ójato 6u, tojibro na cy6'BeRTHBH0fi, npaRTHqecKoft, 
a ne na xeopeTHqecRoft hoibí. ABTopHTen otaíjbhhx-b óíojofob^, 
B3flBmHxcfl cyAHTB O opeAMeT^ HiTb HesnaROMOiTB, BaTMHJTB vb rjia- 
sax^B HaniHxi ^hjioco<|)Obi sHaneHÍe BceS rponaAHofi ifaccu cneióajrB- 
HBíxi pa6oTi» HO paaiH^HBíMT* OTA&iaM'B oÓQ^ecTBeHHOfi HayRH. IIo 
Heo(5iflCHHHOMy jiorHqecROMy npoTHBop&qiio, HecHMnaTHqHftfl peaR- 
i^ioHHafl AORTpHHa, nonaBmafl ri Haní qepesi AapBHHHcroBi, ;^o- 
BOAcna ÓHJia y nacB ao hocjíahhxx npeA^feJiOBi neJiinocTH — j^o 
npHpaBHenifl JiOAett k% nojiunaMi h MypaBBjíifi h ao npESHaBda 



*) (ieschichte des allgemeinen Staatsrechts nnd derPoHtík, von I. G. BlttnUichli. 
Mťincheo, 1864, CTp. 671. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



MHHMÁfl COI^lOJEOrifl. 14f) 

^ejOB^HecRaro oÓmficrBa, ocotfuM^ cyn^ecTBOMi, hitj^ii^eimx cbok) 
caMOCTOflxejiBHyH) HHAHBHAya^BHOCTb. H Ha 8TH ÓJLys^amfl yRa3£i- 
Baiun TenepB cb ropAOcrbio, BaBi na hí^to AOcrottHoe HsyqeHÍxi h 
BOCXBajieHifl! 

Bi npesHee speiifl, npH rocnoACTB^ HCTopa^ecsofi mBOJiu bi> 
HJkneipcofi coAÍajBHO*HayHHofi jiHTepaiypi, npHHaTO 6ujío ycraHaajiH- 

BETb H3VbC£BUSL CTyneHH paSBHTÍfl Wb XOAÍ 06lI^eCTBeHH0fi MlidBJÍ. 

FereiB pasjíHqaJix Tpn crynenH: — ceMeňCTBO, rpajK^ancRoe o6mecTBO 
H rocyAapcTBO. Po6eprB ^ohi-Mojib npHHHMajiT* mecTL ROHi^eHTpH^e- 
CKHxi c4»epi: — xBHEOCiEy ceuhu, iLieMeHH, ofimecTBa, rocy^apciBa, 
C0K)3a rocy^apcTOB. Hain'B aBTopB, o coqHHefliax-B KOToparo mk ro- 
BopHJH Bume, CHHTaerL noBHAHMOMy CBoeia cotfcTBeHHOCTBio dxy 
crapyK) H^eio o THnaxi h cryneHaxi* pasBHTÍfl, xota oh:b upujsMb 

ei TOJBBO HeBOBMOSHBlĚ BHA'B H CM£[CJ1'B, BBJ[H>?HB'B Vb ISJiSíCCll^VL- 

wofso emfi kjištohbh h opránu. IIpHTOMX h o6ii^ecTBO, h nejioBiEi, 

H Sl^^TOHBa npHBpUTU y UerO OAHHITB CJIOBOMI: „HHAHBHAyaiBHOCTB'' . 

EciH MU ocraBHMi Bi CTopoHi laByH) MHHMyH) coi](iojiorÍK) H o6pa- 
THMi BHHMame Ha npaBTHHecBÍe buboau hsx nojiosemfi aBTopa, to 
Bani neBOJiBHO 6pocHTCfl FB rjiasa oaho crpaHHoe oficTOfliejiBCTBO. 
OBasEiBaeTCfl, hto owb ne OTJiH%erB oÓmecxBa otb rocyAapciBa h yno- 
Tpe&uieTB o6a supasema xasi, BaB'B 6yAT0 ohh coBna^aiorB; no- 

BHAHUOMy, 0H% H HO nO^OSp^BaOTB, HTO Bb dXOITB Ciy^ai OHI cjí- 

AyerB HHCTO-ROHcepBaTHBHO& H flfiOie peaEi^ioHHoK to^b'^ sptnifl. 
HflorAa H napoA^ orosAecTBJUieTCfl y nero (tb rocy^apcTBOMi; no 
ero cJtOBaiTB, Ilerpí Bejundň „cosnaT&iBHO noA^HnajEi Be6 jui^nne 
HHTepeciii HHTepecaiTB pyccsaro uapoda^ (t. II, crp. 23). TaEi 
BaiTB Ilerpí^ I OBOH^axeiBno saBpinocTHJiT* naccy cbo6oah£ix:b en^e 
speCTBflH^ H „ryjifln^Hxi jno^eň^y npHpaBHHB'B hx:b b:b xojonaMi, 
TO roBopHTB o csysomH ero „HHiepecaiťB pyccBaro HapoAa'' MOaino 

1OIBK0 FB TOM'B CJlJHSih, eCJlH H3X HOHATÍfl O UW^OJlíb HCBJIK)WTB 
BpeCTBflHCTBO. 

/I^airite; HeyBJíOHHo OTcranBas uHASBHAyajiBHLifl npaBa npoTHB'B 
oCmecrea (a ne tojibeo npoTHBX rocy^apcTBa h ero opraHOBi), 
EBTop^B flBiflercfl BaBi 6u TeopeTHBOMi jiH6epajiH3Ma bt> caiiOMi y3B0M'B 
cmícii aroro ciosa; laBHx-B óeaycjiOBHBixi* jiH6epaiOKB-HHAHBUAyaJiH- 
CTOBi», roTOBuxT* jífiLSíe 6opoTBca npoTHBi oón^ecTBa bo hma CBoefi 
iH^Hofi caMOCTOflTejiBHOCTH, e^Ba JIH MomHO 6UJI0 6u en^e na&TH 
wb coBpeMeHHoft Espont. BesA^ JiE[6epaj[H3M'B, Boscrasafl npoxHKB aA* 

tfHHHCTpaTHBHBIX'B CT^CHeHÍň, CHHTaeTB AOJIFOMl 3aflBJIflTB TOTOBHOCTB 

sepTBOBaxB CBOHMH HHiepecaiiu A-^ oÓmiecTBeHHoň hojibsu; HHBOMy 
en^e ne npnxoAHJia vh rojiosy muoib o 6opB6i cb o6ii]iecTBOM'B, b^b 

ToMi m.— MiLft, 1889. 10 



Digitized by 



Google 



146 B^CTHHR^ EBPOnU. 

KOTopoMy HeiiOBŠK-B iipHHaji;jieatHTi, — h ara mmcjl cocTaBJwerB aM- 
CTBHTaaBHO opHrHHa.iLHyio HepTy „coi^iajibHofi 4){ijiioco({)íh" asropa. 
IIponoB'l;iyfl ysRÍK wingepa^iHaMi, aBTopi bi to se BpeMfl Hana^aerb 
Ha JiHÓepawibHiie npHHi^Hnu n BUCBriHBaerB hxi, naRx 6u ne sa- 
MÍnaa, hto ero coÓCTBenHaa leopifl HHiero jpyroro He co^epaiHrB, 
BpoM^ o;(HOCTopoHHHro .iH($epajiH3Ma. Oh^ ctoqtl h sa rocy^ap- 
CTBeHHoe BM^maTejBCTBO, ne ocTanaBJíHBaflCB A^^e naA'B BonpocovB 
o TOMi, KaKoe rocy^apcTBO Óy^ert BirfcraHBaTBCii h t6m% óy^en 
rapaHTHpoBaea noabsa xaKoro BMŠmaTeiiBCTBa ajisí napo^a; npH droMi 
sa^BiBueicfl TasHce ÓopbÓa sa RHj^HBHAyajBHOcrb, — cioboiii, oaho 
He^opasyMÉHie cjrb^yerb sa ApyruM-B, o^na nyTaHima — sa Apyroio. 
PascysAafl 06% onacHOCxflxi no6^ABi oÓn^ecTBa uB.xh jhhhoctbk), 
aBTopi He A'fcjaeTB paaiHqÍH Meat^y RJiaccaMH h sjeMeHTaMH Hace- 
jieHÍa; ohi roBopirrb o6i HHAHBHAyajBHOcxH BOo6me, — mki 6y^o 
jiK)AH cpeAHHXi H BBicniHxi cJioeR^ TaBse TepnflTB yn^epfii otb 
npeo6jiaAaHÍfl oÓn^eciBa hjth rocy^apcTBa. Popáslo npouie 6ujio 6bi 
roBopHTB npflMO 06% oÓesAOJieHHiixi Tpy^Hii^Hxcfl Ksaccaxi, ne npH- 
irbniHBafl TyrB hh OTBJíeHeHHoft ^eJl0^^ecKOŘ wIh^hocth, hh OTBJíe- 
qeHHaro npeAcraB-ieHia 061 o(5mecTBÍ. 

KaKl San^RTHHRT* npaB% HHAHBHAyaJBHOCTH, aBTopi AOJSeHl 

BOscraBaTB npornB^ aprejiH h o6mHHBi, h6o bth opraHRsai^ÍH Hece- 
mh'Ihho „aaxBaxuBaiorB^ jihhhoctb n MOryrb „norjiOTHTB'' ee. 
DÍBepi Jleyy, Roroputt npHiracBiBaji ce&k HSOÓpbreHie csosa ,co- 
^iaJH3M^^, pasyirljii noA'B hhmi „TaRoe ycrpofiCTBO, bi RoropoirL 
jiH^HOCTB npHHOCHTCfl Bx »epiBy Dttjioiiy, HMeHyeMOMy OÓmeCTBOlTB** . 
Coi^iajiHBMi CHfrraexcA BOOÓu^e npoTHBonojiOBCHUMi HHAHBHAyaJiHSiiy, 
H xeopifl ^6opB6£i sa HHAnsHAyajiBHOCTB'' AOJSHa 6bitb npasHaHa 

CaMUlTB RpafiHHMI* JlEÓejfSUlhBUWb npOreCTOHX npOTHBl OCHOBHBIX'B 

npHHi^HnoBi coi^iajiQSMa. 

Ha dTOMx íáu MOseiTB noRoeqHTB pasóopi xpy^OBB r. Mflxaft- 
jiOBCRaro no coi^íojioriH O* Hhrto ne craHerB oipm^aTB, hto co- 



^) PasÓHpaa Teopíi) nporpecca HaasanHaro asTopa, mi Mexxy npoHHMi npiiBeiH 
H3i ero craTbH, nepene^aTaHHoft bi 1888 ro;iy, híckojbko ciobi 061 osHAaRÍH wm* 
DOflBJíeHifl „CoiuajibHott craTHKH" Cnencepa fe pyccsoMi nepeeoxi, npH^em ysasaiH na 
crpaKHocTB BHCOKOMipHaro TOHa OTHocHTejBHo MHciHTejifl, TpyxH KOTOparo HeBcš xaxe 
H3BÍCTHU 6uME spHTHKy. HaiTB HaaoMBHjiH DO 9T0iiy BOBOxy O cyo^ecTBOBaBÍH crapofi 
sypHai&Hoft CTaTbH aBiopa, nocBflmeHHoft cneuiajbHO ESJíoseHÍD h pa35opy „Coi^ian- 
Hoft CTaTSKE** {wb „Oiei. 3an.", 1872 r., J<& 3 h 4); o6i dioft cmvb saÓHjrb no- 
BHAHMOMy H cam aBTopi npH H3xaHÍH cBOHxi coHHHemft, — HHane ohi cxijan 611 
cooTBiTCTBeHHyx) noopaBsy híe oroBopKy npH nepeneHaiai craT&H o nporpecca rb 
1883 r. 



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I 



MHHMAa coiíio.ioria. 147 

ofiaiom, BaRi h BCflRafl Apyraa HayRa, HM^erB cbok) caMOCTOfliejiL' 
HyK) oÓjacTb HsyHeHÍH h ceofi rpona^HBift ^^aETHqecRÍtt MaTepiajii. 
Eft He^ero x^axB cb oópuBRaMH 6iojiommecziixi> CB^^eHÍft, c:b ana- 
joríiíMH H ajjeropiflMH hsi oÓJiacrn ecTecTB03HaHÍfl. Coi];iajBHaH 
HayRa icoserL ycTaHOBUTBCfl npoHHO TOJibRO npH noMon^n Bcecro- 

pOHHflX'B Ha6jIiO;^eHÍft HaA'B COBpeMeHHOK) SH3HBI0 HapOAOBl, B'B 

43fl3n CB aHajHsoirb h npaBHJiLHiiiirB otíoÓn^eHieifB 4>aRT0Bx Bcenip- 
HOft ncTopÍH. HHRaRofi cyÓxeRTHBHOfi mROJiu BB xeopeTHqecRoft 
HayK* HÍTB H 6hts He MoaterB. Coi^iojioriH, nocrpoenHoft h& 
nojiniHflRaxT* H HXTÍosaBpaxi, HŠn h Óutb ne Moseri. 

X CjIOHHMCRlft. 



10* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



KYKOIKA 



acKHa-B. 



I. 

6l OAHOMl H31 ySCHBRHXl, HSBHBaiOII^ffXCfl nepeyJIBOFB MOCRBH, 

KaKi pasi TEM-B, r^t nepeyjOKi ^ijiSLerb npaMoyrojBHOe kojího, 
CTOBTB AOM^ OHeHB óoraTaro Byni^a Botti^OBa. Eofii^OBi A^Bajii^ ne- 
ÓojiBinofi Be^epoBi, — a^o Óeijio Mes^y PosAecxBOiTB h Hobuitb 
Tojíflwby — H ero jiflwb ^acoB'B okojo ^eBaiH Be^epa ropijTB oraaMH. 

EcJiH BH He 6uBajiH vb Mocbbí, to uwb nyxHO ocraHOBHTbCfl 
HeMHoro H Ha nepeyjiB^, A^aion^eMi eojiího, h Ha CBiTHBmeMca 
orHflMH aomí, h na ero xo3flHHÍ. 

MocBBa — xopofflift ropoA-B. Bosflyx-B b-b neft cyxoft, TyMaHw 
p^ABH, cjflBOTB Tose He ocotieHHO Hacxa, a ropoACRÍe nefisaam 
yXHBHxejiBHO BpacHBu. HHofi pasi t^eniB no yjiHi^, h to HanpaBO, 

TO HaJI^BO, B% ÓOBOBUfl yJIHI^U H nOpeyJIBH OTBpBISaiOTCfl TERÍe 

bh;i;u, hto cb nenpHBu^B tojbro yjiBiÓaemBCfl otx y^OBOJEBCTBia. 
To dTa 6oROBafl yjuHi^a ď^htb Rpyxo bhh3i, bi ropo;^CROfi OBpar^, 
H AHO OBpara, h ero npoTHBonojoxHufi cRarB, nOwiHu aohobx, ci> 
pasHOAB^THBíMH RpumaMu, H npHHyAJHBuxT*, npeŘpacHBux^, HO o^eHi> 

OpHFHHaJIBHUXl MOCROBCRBXl Il.epRBett, I](epR0B0R'B H HaCOBOHrB. 

HHofi pasi dxorB shboK OBparB sajiHTB posoBofi 3apefi, h sapa 
axa TaR'B h ropHTi, xaRi h MoraerB oRnaMH aomobx h 30jotom^ 
líepROBHíix-B rjiaB-B, RpecroB^ h hxi ujineft. CMOTpHfflB Ha Bce bto 
H AyMaemB: He MOserB Óbitb, htoóbi xyTx shjh ne^oópne, ne- 
npHBÍTJiHBBie, HejiacROBHe jiioah... MoKerB 6htb, jíiojiji TyrB h ne- 
Ao6pH, H HenpHBŽTJHBU, H HeJiacROBu, HO yaii H 3a TO cnacHóo^ 

HTO ÍKfleínB BCTpiTHTB HX'B TyTB. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ByKo;iEA. 149 

JI,pyrofi pasi bu BHAsrre ne oaparx h ne ropoA'B, a posHoe 
DOJie. Hh ;(epeBi(a, hh BycTHBa, a tojilbo wiockba seujis, to^eo 
pasocTiannaa BHHsy, h na^i neio Bce — BosAyxx, Bce — netfo. A 
BxaiH — saRofi-TO MOHacTBipB, sa syÓ^axofi cr^Hoň cb tíameflHH, 

TOHBOmeH-BOJIOKOJBHH H npH3eMHCTUfl I^epBBB Cl IIpH?y;^inBUMH 

rjaBaMH: BopoHOiO; JiyBOBBoft^ yseHBBofi impaMErAoft. 3émok) nojie 
<%J0, BOSAyxi TOcn, h MOHacnipB ctohti Basx MaieHBBaa HrpymBa^ 

H TOJBBO ryCTOft rOJOCB BOJOBOJa CBHAtTeJISCTByeTB o TOM-B, HTO 

xoHacnipB H ero ctíhu — eacroamie, 6ojiBime, ciapiiHHHe. .IÍtom-b 
noje sejieHO, muBHBifi Bosj^yx^ ooHsaerB sojiotomi h sa^epra- 

BaeTB ^^aJBHifi MOHaCIBipB 30.90TOft ;iUMBOfi. 

HHOfi pa3i noBasuBaiOTCfl BaBÍe-ro npyAu, cb xpocTHEBaMB h 

BCTiaMH, BOTOpUlTB Vh rOpOJS,% BaseiCfl, H 6UTh He Sa^^lfB. HHOfi 

pasi 6oBOBofi nepeyjoBi bmšcto aomobi oroposeai crapHHHuirB 
RaMeHHuifB 3a6opoMi-CT%Hofi, B3i-3a BOToparo BUCUTCfl rycTOft, 
sasi JiicTb, jnmoBuŘ caA'B, nepenojiHeHH£i& rH'£3AaMH CBpHDyqe- 
sapBaioii](HX'B BopoHi H rajiOBi, ci> bx'b secejiuwb ropianHUMi 3bo- 
BOMB. HHOFAa... Ho Bcixi npesecrefi MOCBOBCBaro ropo^CBoro 
nefisasa h ne nepe^HCJramB. 

Hsx OBomeBi ^OMa Bofii^OBa bhai* 6wn> xoxe HyAecHfiift, — ne 
93% TkTby TTO BBixoAHJiH 61 nepeyjiOBi, a Hsi o6paii^eHHEixi b:b 
oapBB. $acaA'B, k% nepeyjmy, buxoahjii na netfojiBinofi ABopi, or- 

v^eHHUft OTB JAKUfl BaMeHHUBTB Ó&IUMl SaÓOpOBfB, CB AByBffl 

BoporaMB, Ha Boropuxi cha'£jih cnei^iajBHO-MOCBOBCBie jbbu, hmÍh)- 
mf.% BEXh MoncoBi, crpaAaioii^iixx MopcBoň 6oJi'fi3HBK). O^HoaTas- 
HBĚ, ch MesoHHHOMx, Aowb 6ujn> Tose &bjiui H CHapysH O^eHB 
HCBspa^HHfi, ecjiH He c^HTaTB sepEajiBHBixi cxeBOJii Bi ero OAHHHaA- 
lyiTH OBHaxi. CBpoMHiifi CHapysH, OH'B 6ujíi» OHeHB 6oraTO h co 
BsycoiTB OTA'&iaH'B BHyTpH. Ho Jiy^me Bcero óujít* bha^b hs^ obohi, 
o($paii^eHHux'B B'B napEi, Boropufi no BpyxoMy CBaxy cnycBajica 
BHH7B Bi yseHBBOň Ay3Í. HeBdpa^Huft cb nepeyjiBa aomi, OBasu- 
BaaocB, CTOAJi Ha OHeHB BucoBofi rop^, H H31 Hero 6blio bhaho 
ooi^B-MoeBBEi. AoMa, AOMa, BpEimH, BpumH, ii;epBBH, bojiobojibhh; 
j,owi H i^epBBH no jiosÓHHaiTB, no CBaiaMi h no rpetfnfliTB xoji- 
xoB%: i^epBBH dBOHATB H HepesBaHHBaioTCfl; JieraiOTB to xaMi, to 
TyTB d^aT£iMH TyqaMH nTHi^bi; bhahu saropaion^ÍHCii h Aoropaio- 
iqifl dopH; BHAHH BeJiHBOjribnHUH, 6e3AOHH£ui SB^Anufl ho^h; bhahh 
ucHHe AHH, sajiHTue TenjiBíMi cbítoh%, BaB^ r&io Tensott bpobbk). 
A BHHsy, HeAaieBO otb rjiasi, BBeTCii npHxoTJinBafl ptqoHBa, CHa- 
naia Bi ecTecTBeHHux'B Ceperaxi, a noTOMx vh BucoBoň rpaner- 
flot Ha($epesHoft, nopocmett b'b n^ejiflxi BpannBoft h A^P^Bii^aMn; 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1 50 vbonooffi EBPomi . 

Hepesib piHBy nepeERHyra SHBonHceafl apRa xoa&e rpaHHTHaro Mocra^ 
— H xoTB Bx HxajiiK) nepesocHTe 8toti» bhax... 

He xyHaiD, inoóu ^epcb Ahtohobhtb EofiAOBi* BHjTpeHHO 

I^^HHJll dTOTB BBX'!^- Bo BCflROMl CiyHa^, OH-B HOABOAHJfB, O^HaSO, 

BCflBaro HOBaro CBoero rocrfl ri» OBHy h, cojibaho pacnpaBJíflfl cboh 
xojieHUfl ebji,uíi éaseHÓapAU, AOuaxuBajii: 

— BoTB Jiy^nnee aoctohhctbo Hoero ^OMa. — SaT^brL Bofti^OBn>^ 
TOT^acL se yMOJucaii) a BupaseHÍe JiHi^a ero roBopnjio, iro owbr 
caiTL coBepmeHHO paBHOAymHO cMOTp^i na stotb RpacHBuft, cias- 
Hufi ÓojBmofi nefisasi, cmotp^'b, nepeóirpafl npe dTom Ksio^aiUE 
Bi Bapnani cojihahuxi h djieraHiHuxi 6pK)B'B, anH npocro onycTHFb 
pyKH Bi^ EapMaHu cojHABaro h HO^Haro nBAsasa; h BaEi» 6u 

BCnOMHHBB, BHAHMO, HTO-TO ÓOJT^e HHTepeCHOe, OHI ÓUCXpO, HO 

MflrRO, B3flffB rocTfl noA'B pyKy, oipuBajii ero ott» BH^a h nauHajnbr 
6ec^Ay npHMtpHO laRi: 

— noca^AHÍtt pa3'B fl CTpamHO CM^AJica bi anr^ificROM^ KJij&b. 
Mh HrpaeMi: a, rpa4>'B KéxiHHi, IIoATopryeBi HBan^ CaBBHTB b 
CoRHH^, He TOTB... He neTep6yprcRÍft, ne RaMeprepL, a eroÓpaTB, 
ROMaHAHpB nojieBofi 6pHraAK[ ero BuconecTBa. H Borb-c^.. 

^HpCb AhTOHOBHHB rOBOpHJIl H^ROJIbRO BB HOCB, Vb ABBSe- 

HÍflx^ 6ujrb HonopeHi, jiimfiwb seiajiB hoxoahtb na HHOcrpaHi^i^ 
H A'&ficTBHTejBHO noxoAHJii, HOCHJB OAH^ jiHmB 6aReHtfapAu, a 
OA^Bajicfl no nocrtAHefi uojs,% ho HHRaRi ne napHSCROfi, a jioh- 
AOHCRofi. Oón^ee o6pa30BaHÍe ohi nojiyHHJTB bb mocrobcroS Sanct- 
Petri-Pauli-Knaben-Schule, ta* Aomejii ao naxaro RJiacca, a Ky- 
ne^ecROMy h ^aÓpnqHOHy A^y Buyqojicfl OT^acrn vh Ahpjiíh, ot- 
qacTH noA'B pyROBOACTBOifB on^a, ÁHiona Bofii^OBa, cuna snaMe- 
HHraro ocHOBaTeJifl j^apiiu, Tpo^^HMa ^apcu^a Eofii^OBa, nanaB- 
maro npocTEiHi MOJOTOÓoeMB h Ron^HBmaro HHJuiioHHBniH o6opo- 

TailH. P0A'B 5ofiAOBUX'B ÓUJIB paCROJBHHHÍfi; paCROJBHHROMB OCTaiCfi 
H ^^CB AHT0HOBHq'B, HO Wb vbýk He TOJIBRO OC06arO, HO HHKa- 

Roro yeepAifl ne noRasHB&iB^ hochji* 6aRH u oxRasajicfl otb aojuk- 
HOCTH „Hona''. ROTopyK) HcnpaBjífljiH BCK) CBOH) SH3HB ero orei^i^ 

H A%A'B. ^HpCB AhTOHOBH^B ÚhUTh BAOBT*, HUtjl AByXB CUHOBefi^ 

H»B ROTopuxB OAHHi oiyxHJiB BB IlefrepÓypri bb rBapAÍH, a Apy- 
roft, en^e Majb^HRi, y^oica bb rHMHasm h shjib AOMa, h mecTHaA- 
i](aTHJ^THH)K> AOHB, BapK). ^OHOMi> sanpaBJífljia h sa A^biiH cmot- 
p&ia AaJii»Hflji pOACTBeHHHi](a Bofti^OBa, Ó^AHaa ABopflHRa, xose 
BAOBafl, AOcraTOHHo CR^TCRafl, oneHB pacnopflAHrejBHafl, OHeHB 

XHTpaji, AOBOJIBHO TpyCJHBafl, CB RpyrJlUMH ÓOJIbmHMH TJiasaMH SHA* 

Raro RopHqneBaro i^Biia h sojitumh pteHHi](aMH h BOJrocaiifl. lEer 
noÓaHBajicfl, Aa h to ysB neiiHoro, tojibro EofhoiOBX-rHMHasacrE^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



KVKOJIKA. 151 

a Bapa WBHuin»-AaBHO ocBo6oAH-iacL Hsi-noAt Macra „Téra* 
OiHuniaAu. 

11. 

Ki OAHHHaAuaxH HacaM^ bcí, Koro y Bofii^OBUXi. ai^a^H, co- 
6paiHCi>. OCmecTBO, ^cjiobíe-b naTB^ecarB, Óujio caMoe pasHOOÓpaa- 
Hoe. BfiLM reHepaju, Cokhhx, HanpHurfepx, — He totb, hc Eaneprepi, 
ne nerepíJyprcKiň, a KOMaHAHpx nojieBofi ópHraAU ero Buco^ecTBa; 
6iUB Byiii](u, Bi HHCJi'b HXT> H IIoATopryeBx HBaH'B CaBBHqii. Fe- 
Hepajoi HapaAHJHcb bi rycTua anojeru h 6uíu npeyBeJiH^eHHO Bte- 
JHBU H osKUBJíeHu; Kyni^u, ho^th bc^, hh^^m^ hh BTb MaHepaxi, 
HH BT> OACffiA* He ycrynHJH 6u CoKUHy (sHaexe, TOMy, Kaneprepy, 
nerepÓyprcKOMy), ccjihÓh He H-iKOTopHfl mapai wh CAepffiaHHOCTH 
MaHepi H OT^Hii^eHHOCTu OAe»Au, — BOoCme, bi> arJiumtOM'^ A^^HTJib- 
MeHCTBÍ. FeHepajiBfflH u reHepajiLCKia ao^kh ch reHepaJiaMH KaKi- 
TO npi^bxa^H ueMHoria. Kyni^u, hjih, BŠpH']ke, KOMMepcaHxu, npHBesju 
aaro cnojHa h cynpyre, HAO«^eK^. Ha cynpyiaxi Ďujii Hacroamií 
6apxaTL H 30J10T0 HeMHoro cjihuieohi MaccBBHoe, a típasbaHiu 
saneuRy ^epesi-^ypt oÓMBHue: spHTeJiH) ^yBCTBOBajiacb hxt> xa- 
xecTb. JI,uji»HO, OAHaKO, cKasaib, ^to, KpoM* HenojiHaro coĎJiioAe- 

HÍa WkpH Vb 30JI0TÍ H GpiLlbflHTaX^b flfiL H^bCBO.lbRO BeJIKROBaiOCTH 

pysi, KyneqecBia AaMu hh^ím^ ne orau^ajiHCb orb ABopaHCKux'b 
Aaiťb. Be& obí 6ujh o6pa80BaHBi, Bcb noóuBaJiu na „Kypoaxi*", 
Bcb CMorpijiH Ha seiuH 6ojí^ hjiu moh^ caMoeToaTe.ibHo, vmíah, 
irpaxb na ^opreniauo h roBopHJiH, no BpaiiHeň M^p^, Ha Asyxi 
HHOcrpaHHuxi asHKax-b. HeoÓpaaoBaHHaro EynesecTBa ^npcb Ahto- 
H0BH9i> ne npiiHHiiaJii. 

MojOAesb ffleHCKaa Cujia KynenecKaa. MyacEaa — CMimanHaa: 
lyni^bi H ABopane. Kynnaica h ABopaHHHBa mo»ho 6ujio oiJiH^uTb 
Cb nepBaro ae BsrjaAa, HecMOxpa na to, ^to 9to noaoAŠHie Kyn- 
iW)Bi> — yae Biopoe ero oCpaaoBaHHoe noKO.iiHÍe — hh crtcHeHHux^ 
xaaepXy hh npeysejiRqeHHoft hobh3hu njiaTba, hh Aa^e BejiHRO- 
Banixii py^b ne uutjo. Kyni^u Cujiu bucorh, craiHU, na Kp^n- 
iuaa,j HejtHoro RopoTRHx^ Horaxi, (Tb pyManuMH, neiiHoro na- 
CHCTuuH u óojbmHMH jiHAaMH B 6.iecTaiuHMH riasaMu; noA'b toh- 

U&IDHMl CyRHOMl HXl ({^paROBl H CH)pTyR0B3 HyBCTBOSaJIHCb Cll.1b- 

Hua H o^HdibHua Mbími^u. 3to Óujih Bcero Jiamb bhvrh Óoraxupeft, 
BUÓHsniHXca ch CBepxiecxecxBeHHUMH ycHJiiaMH hsi RptnocxHoft Ra 
éuu vb JiK)AH, — H vb HeMaJue jhoah. JI^Bopane 6u.iu xose bucorh 

1 CtpOŘBUj HO HOPH y HHXX 6bIJIH SHARH, JlHAa OXAaBaJlH CUHe- 

Mt H seiOHij^ofi, rjiasa ecra ĎJecrfciH, to nepBHO, h MycRyjiOB'b 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



152 B^CTHHRl EBPOim. 

ocxaicfl Jimah caMHft Heo6xo;i;HM£ifi sanacB; ocrajiBHoe a^bho, he- 
^iHHa^ CB npanpaA'i^AOBx, pacrpaHHBajiocb, h TenepB y npaBHjEOFB 
óujio caMBHH pacrpaneHO Hspa^HO. Kyni](u h xBopflHe, co6paBmíecfl 
lyTL, Bce 6hjh npiaTejiH MeK;^y coCofl, TOBapnmH no yHHBepcHrery 
HJH no riiMHasin; ^epaiajiH ohh ce6fl Apyrb cb ApyroMx no-ApysecRH, 
HO Bce-TaKH Bt BOB^yx* 6hjio hto-to TaKoe, ^mb crfecHajio h tíx'l, 
H ;ipyrHX'B: Bym^n AaBHJiH ABOpflHi A^Hxmi^aMH, ABopane Byni^OB^ — 

nOBoišHÍaMH, HaSHTBIMH CBflSaHH, ROTOpUfl BeJIH HJIU MOFJIH BeCTH 

OTL KaKoro-HHÓyjiB, xoTfl 6vL OTb saxy^a^aro KoMHeHOBHHa, lELe- 
petfo-KiflHHHa HJiH OTB FeAHMHHOBHqa CyHHn^eBa, co cryneHBEn Ha 
cryneHBRy, otb nexeiBEH r^b RpioneHRy, AUBme h ^a^nie, Bume 
H Bume, TaR'B Aa^ieRO n tor^b bucoro, hto on o^Horo BOoSpasenLi 
dTOŘ BucoTu RpyflCHJiacB rojiOBa. 

JI^^ByniRii, ROTopBiMi jiikisuioch ^o^y eejiOBRO, RorAanxina* 
3B[BajiH ÓapumnaMH, a ne A^BnuaMH, — Ryne^ecRÍfl a^bhi^u bc6 Óujih 
qncT^&ine& BejiHRopyccRoft RpoBH. Ha xoxj[yineRi>, hh hímorx hjeh 

nO;iyH'6MOR'B, HH ]SJ^YTlSX'h RaRHXl-JIHÓO lUeMeHHUXT* npHMÍCe&, JUiKnb 

dTO Bcer^a óuBaerB b^ abophhckom^ oóusficrvb^ TyrB ne 6ujo. Bcb 
6bijih BejinRopocciflHRH BO Bcewb ÓesROHe^HOiTB pa3HOo6pa3ÍH He 
bhojhí ycraHOBHBineficfl pacu. OAHOo6pa3HBi Óujol tojibro ^Hcraa 
MOCROBCRaa ýbíhy SByqHaa h orqeTJiiiBafl, hícrojbro i^epeMOEsas h 
npoTfl^eafl, HeiopoiuiHBijfi pasroBOpi, CMumjeHuĚ B3riaA'B h ne- 
ToponjiHBua, CB AOCTOHHCTBOnrB, íBHaema — eme yD[ti4Binee na- 
cÁjíie fiaÓymeRi, CpaBniHxi sa oópasei^ wh MaHepax'B MaTymeR-B- 

HHORHHB. ÉpOM*! dTOFO BHyrpeHHflrO CXOACTBa, BH'bliraOCTB jíikBjmeBrL 

6uJia pa3J[HqHa. Bi o^Hofi CRastiBajacB crapaa npHMŠCB ^KHCRoft 

RpOBH, H OHa, Blb COe;(HHeHÍH co OiaBAHCROS, AMSk npeMHJyK) fijIOH- 

AHHRy, HH B^ HCMi HB ycTynaiOH^yio xopomett mBeAR'^, poBOByio 
RaRi posa, 6%jyio RaR^ caxapx, cb rycrsiMH sojiotbimh BOJiocaiiH 
H cRpoMHO-JiyRaBUMH pjasaMH. Apyraa RaR'B 6yAT0 BcnoMHHJia npa- 
óaCRy-TaiapRy, ho BcnoMHHJia jihhib ^yrB-nyrB, HeacHO, RaRx nojy- 
BaÓuTBit coHi, h 3X0 OT^aseHHoe, e^Ba npoÓHBaionieecfl, exBa nep- 
i](aH)n^ee cxoactbo npHAaBajio ^epHOBOJiocoft, ^epnorjiaBofi, CHyrjioft 
H crpofiHOft RpacoTRi RaRyK)-TO yAHBETejBHO npHBjeRaieiBHyH) jmi- 
ROCTB. BoTB H en^o ópionerRa, ho y»e He cb raiapcREMi otAh- 
ROM^, a RaRoro-TO cjiobho rpe^ecRaro THna. IIpaBHJBHŠfinrífi OBajTE 
jiHi^a, 6oJiBmie Tennue oasa, A^HHHutt TOHRÍft hocb h cRop^Euft, 
Cb onyn^eHHUMH yrjaMH ry6i, poTB. Omy^a BsajiacB A^BymRa laRoro 
THna, coBcIiTB HenoHflTHO, ecJiH He AonycTHTB BJáaHifl hrohb rpe- 
qecRaro nncBMa^ RoxopuMi* njiaBieHHo MOjrajmcB ea dRsaiíBTHpoBaH- 
HUfl npeABH-seHn^HHti. Bujih xyxi h RaRi Óy^xo acHxoBO^KH, h 
ro^HO i^uranoHRE; 6ujie BflxqaHRH, HanoMHHaBndfl aHrjnnaHOR'B, h 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



RyEOJlRA. 153 

capaTOBKH, KOTopHX'B HeoiiuTHOMy spHTejíK) Moa&HO óujLO BUAaTb sa 
HmiBflHOK'B. HeKpacHBUx^ novTH He 6ujio. Hh Bapa, hh ^npcB 
AuTOHOBHq^, HeKpacBBHXi He jmóvum, nesAY npoHHMi, h noTOMy, 
H10 HeKpacHBaa RyneqecBafl aohl, 6ojiBuiepoTafl, sejTOsyÓafl, TycBJío- 
rjasafl, iipun^eBaiafl h nyxjiafl, Ďtura oahhm^b h3^ Óojíbhhxti v/kcTb 
syne^ecTBa, vh Roropoe wbmm h RappHBaxypEi, h yjra^Hue jihctrh, 
H ycTHue aHeB;i;oTu. Boji^HeHHaH. ho nopo^HCTaji ABopanKa emfi 
wá&Th CBOK) npeJiecTB; ho KynqHxi Cb xBopLK), Aa 6e3'B nopo^H, 
ysi coBdkMx njnoxo. 

BeqepHHRa ÓiLia bi pasrap']^. Oojhahub jiíoah Hrpajm b-b ^aJis- 
Hixi KOMHaTax'B Bi BEHiTE. MaMamH paBC&nicb no rocTHHuifB. Mo- 
joxesB, Myscsafl h ^eHCRaa, to cir6mHBajiacb bo Bpeufl Tani^eBi 
BJH Hrp^, to pasA^flJiacB, Ror^a Hrpti h Tani^ii BOHHaiHCB. ^i- 
BfinEH noHon Bc% ÓiiJiH eo^e o^enB mojeoau, po<5tj[H h noBTOMy 
lepsajH ceófl ys'B cJHmROirB HesaBacHiio. He yti^rajiH vh craAo 

TOJBRO XB^-rpH MOJHOAeHBRÍfl SeHH^HHU; HXT^ ORpysaJia MOJOAeSB; 

^ynnm saBHAOBam h craHOBHjracB en^e nesaBHCHfiíie u rop^ejniB^e. 
MojiOAaH xoBafiRa, A^BymRa, cb ROTopoft fl toj^íbro-tto cpncoBai^B 
MOK) TaTapoHRy, cana noHTii ne poó&ia, ho coBJía^aTB co cbohmh 
j^qHBmHMHCfl rocTBflMH ne Morjia. 

SaxpHJB ROH^HJiacB, h cettqaci se a^bhi];ei crajiH OTA&tflTBCfl 
OTB ]iy»qHH'B. Hama TaTapo^Ra BSJLia hoa^ pyRy mHpoRonjie^yH) 
iipocjaBRy, 6&[yK), ^yTB vh BecnyniRaxi, ci OTRHHyroft Ha8aA'B ro- 
jOBot H HaHBHo-AepsRHMH F^asaMH, H HOHuia CB HeH) HO ps^Y 

KOMHaTB. 

— Hy, RaRoe 9to narae 6a(5i>e, Tona, npoTHBHoe! — cep^HTO 
menrajia Bapa CBoefi saRa^u^nofi noApyri. — Hy htb!.. SÍ ÓOJiBme 
He ((yxy crapaTBCfl. HycTB caMH ceóa sanHiiaiorB. Jla h RaBajiepu 
Tose, He^ero CRasaTB, xoponra! He MoryrB ohh, htojih, cairana- 
wtb! H4tx, HysHo — BOffB RaR% ^oHTanoBa — canoft ROReTHH^aTB na- 
nponaJTfio. 

Bapa roBopHJia bto cjiaBnuiTB, rpy^nuMi, tohho hb^b-hoa^ cep^i^a 
moHOTOiTB, ROHTpajiBTO H BHOJirojioca, htoÓu cjnimajia tojibro o^na 
noxpyra; ea pt«, RaRi bhahti ^HTaTeJiB, 6iuh ne^oópna h ne 
coBcíirB HBa^HHa, HO JiHqHRO ocraBa^ocB HBan^HuirB, a ^epHBie 
rjiasa cxoTp&ra na meAnmxx na Bcrpi^ hjih cha^bhiexi^ no nyrn, 
laKB Bcerxa, hphb^tjhbo. 

— 3to ysacHO TpyAHO RORernn^aTB, Ror^a tojob^rx nenpa- 
Burea, — OTBÍrajia Tona. 

— H-H^^, ne o^eHB... Tona, MHjgiaa, snaemB, a om uwb vb 
QOcrtAHee BpeMa, sa bth npasAHHRH, Bce 6ojíbme h 66jihme npaBHTca. 

— ypO^l OHT*! 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1 54 BIvCTHHKrE EBPOIIH. 

— A BorB, ToHe^Ba, HpaBHTca. H SHaemb, KáKx on-b mhí 
HpaBHTCfl? SHaeiDB, irb tu on^yn^aemb, sor^a BOCXHii^aeniBCfl; aio 
HyBCTByeniB Ha Ka^eJiaxx, Kor^a JieiamB bhhsi. Botb ^tí) HiieHHO a 
qyBCTByK). — Bapfl no(5jiÍAH'&ia9 r;ia3a ea ciajnH cepBesHU h HcnyraHHu; 
OHa HarayjiacB kl yxy npi^TejiBHHi^ii h, neiiHoro saAuxaacB, npo- 
inenTajia: — Ohi ne sHaerB tojibko, a oh-b MoaerB co mhoS CAÍJiaTB 
Bce, TTÍ) saxo^erB... Tona!.. 

— JI,a vkAh ypo^í-B OH-B, Bapa! — TpeBoatHO h npejocreperaKme 
OTBŠTHJia ToHa. 

Bb bto Bpena npiaTeiBHHi^i ocTaBOBHJi'B MOiOftoft ^ejOBÍKt, 
OAHHi H81 rocrefi. Mojioaož ^cjiobíkx CKasaJii hto-to, htí) roBO- 
paTB MOJiOAue JHOAH mojioauhx A^BymBaiíi na TaHi:(OBaj[BHUx:b Be^e- 
paxi u MUMOXOAOM^, — oÓMaxHBaacB EJiaTKOMi* H najiBi^aMii noAnpaB- 
.taa onycTHBmiaca bo Bpena BajiBca Manaceru py6axH. Bapa h Tobb 
ocraHOBHJiHCB, H3am,H0 cKJioHHJiH rojiOBKBy oAHa Ha óoKi, Apyraa 
HeiíHoro Ha3aA'B, h Bucjiymasu MOJOAoro ^ejiOB^Ka, npHB%T.iHBO Giecra 
oasBaMH H nojiy-yjiu6aacB ry(5RaMH. Hhbto 6fii ne noAyMaji'E, tto 
8TII ryÓKH TOJiBKO-HTO npoH3HOCHj!H cjiOBa Bi po^t: „6a6Be npoTHBHoe**, 
H Bi oco6eHHOCTH: «OH'B, ecJiH saxo^erB, Bce HOsRerx co HHoft CA'&aaTB^, 
JI,']kBymKn BucaymaJiti MO.iOAoro MejiOBÍBa, Hsan^HO h mhjo otb^thjs 

H TpOHy.IIHCB AaJIbme CB TaBHMl BH^OlfB, KOTOpuS r0B0pHJLl», HTC 

owk ne ocraiOTca ^oiiBme tojibro no A'i^BHqBefi cspoMHOCTH. 

— Bt^t BOTB H BpacHBx, a OTBpa^eHie! — o^eBHAHO, np< 
TOJibKO-HTO ocraBJíeHHaro MOJOAoro He.iOBÍBa csas&ia Bapa. — dn 
OHx Bce Kb TeÓi, MaTymKa, noA^fosaerB. 

— .laAHO, CB rbwh h orBi^erB, cb h4iix noAi>fe»aerB, — OTBť 
THJia ToHa, cu^cB. 

^'^ByniEH BomjH bi> soMHaTy, fa^ HrpaiH b'b Baprti. Jlnni] 
TOJUbKO 0HÍ nepecTvnHiiH ea noporb, Tona BCBHnyjia ťiíasaMH hi 
noApyry h nporoBopHJia: 

— Ax% TU BapbKa, BapLKa! 3ťo na neio .iioOoBaTBca, Apan 
TU aiaKaa, CK)Aa npHnija! 

Bapa ne OTBŠqaja, npomjia ci noApvroft vb AaJiBHÍtt uojiyoi^ 
n^eHfluň yrojiB KonnaTu, bi crojiy, ta^ BaJuuiHCB raaeru h bí 
CBOJiBRo RHHri, H npHc&ia, o6HaBi> ToHH) 3a TaiÍK) H pasBepHyBj 
BHHry. 

— ÍHTafi! — monoTOMB CKasajia ona: — a a 6yAy cmotpítb. 

— $y, raAOCTb! — BOCRjiHBHyjia Tona; OAHaBo craia A*^ai 
BHAx, (JyATO qaxaerB, a Bapa ycrpcMH^ia r.iasa na BapTO^nufi croai 
3a ROTopuMT, Hrpajii ea otoi^i cb Tpena napTnepaiiH. 

$HpeB Ahtohobhhb Hrpajii C7» noHerHi&niHMH rocraMH: cb reH( 
paJ10Ml> COKIlHUMl, CB HBaHOH^ CaBBHqeM^ IIoATopryeBUH^B, ^($p] 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



KYKOJÍKA. 155 

BaHTOlTL CyROH^ H mpUKZ, H Cl BpynHUM^ M0CB0BCKHM1» OBCflHH- 

KOMi, CxenanoMi FaspMOBH^eMi ^arypHHUMx. $Hpci» AflTOHOBHHXy 
saRi fl yse CKasajiT*, hmíjtl bha'b aHrjHHEHHHa. Corhh'b 6ujn> jib% 
Tbxi padMamQCTuxT* h Hen^eueiH^ibHuxi reHepajiOBx, Koropuxi 
mósvh Kyni^u, h KOTopue JiioSaT^ EyniíOBi. ÍIoATopryesi 6ujli> 
Ha^yiuň nflTHAecflTHJi'£THÍfi ^bjiob^icb Cb Jiyiu,owh yaii cjihutkomi 
pyccKUMZy KOTopoMy He no3aBHAOBa.ix 6u h crapocra HSBomnqBara 
ABOpa, HO cb óopoAoS, ocrpHseHHoft xbocthkomi & la Henri IV, h 
ycfMH Bi BHA* niHJien.i. ^erBepiuít napiHepi, ^HrypHHi., Óujvh 
rovb OHZy KOTopHft „He SHajii, HTO MOKert cx Bapeft CA&iaTb Bce** . 
Tooaaie roBopH.ia, ^T0 om> „ypoAx** h „raAOcrt", h ona 6uji9l ne 
coBcfeifB HenpaBa. 

^HrypHHi 6ují% BHCOKX, He TOJiCTB, HO rpyscHi H, Kasajocb, 
OAHHaKOBoft niHpHHu Cb Bcpxy js,o HH3y. Oaítx oh^ 6vuii> Bi> no- 
HomeHHuĚ H M'ímR0BaTKi& ciopTyRi cx n.ioxo npurJiaHieHHUMii bo- 
poTHHBOifb H jiai^KanaMH. Ha me^ y nero óujrb noBAsani crapufi 
rajcryxi, HMÍBnii& bha^ tpahoikm. Ilyxjioe, (5*.ioe .mufl ero, ne- 
aiorpa na to, hio eny eme ne Óujio h TpaAiíaTH jrirs, 6ujo npo- 
pÍ3aH0 Ha Ji6y h na nieRaxi h]&crojii>khmii rjiyÓORHMH CKJiaARaMH. 
Pusaa 6opoARa h ptARÍe ycu poam KJioqbflMH. Bojibniie rjiasa 
CHA*JH OAUHx ort Apyroro cjhoiromx ójihbro h Óujih 6o.ibine o6ur- 
HOBeHHaro BunyRJiiJ. B% u&Tmiiik ciopiyRa Bndk.n Bjia;iHMÍpi cb 
nenaMH, a na oahomT) hsx u2uihiífiB% óo.ibmož ót-ioft pyRH 6uai. 
BSLjsíkvb nepcxeHb cb BejiHROJitoHoň Caprosoft Mea^y myTh BeJinRO- 
.linHuxi) ópH-ib^iHTOBi. ^HrypHHX 6uxh caMuK uojiOAOÍL HBi napT" 
HépoB-L. OcTajibHue SBajiH ero CBepcxHHROBx „mcHRaMH*' H „Hopo- 
caiaMH" H noAaBaan hmx ABa najibiía, — ajia ÝarypHHa 3Ke ne TOJbRO 
xtaajH HCRJiH>qeHÍe, ho ^aae hhromj h na Muaib ne mopjio 6u 
npHATH o<Jpani.aTbca cx hhmx ne RaKx cb paBHUMx. íejiOBhRx, bx SBa^- 
i^aib jítb ÓUBHiift HeAioatHHHUMx aRiepoMx; bx AsajmaTb-Tpa 
— aioÓHMUMX CJiyKROfi HaCTOflxejifl, e^Ba ne nocrparmiňca bt> mo- 
flaxH; Bi> ABawaxb-nflTb — oahhmt, hsx opAnnapi^eB-b CEo6ejeBa, BJia- 
xniripcRHMx Rasa^iepoMi, a cxajio Óuxb h abopahiihomx; HaROHei^x, bx 
W^i^axb-AeBflXb, pasBepHyBmift ^tia CBoeft ^apna xaRX, hxo nyne- 
HecRaa MocRBa xo;ibRO RpflBaja oxi> yAOBo^bcxBÍH, norjiflAbiBafl na 
eeoew nesasHaBniarocfl ABopaHHHa, — xaKoS He;ioBÍRx 6ujii> bho^ih* 
AOCTOHffb etcxb wb bhhxx Cb renepaaoMx Corhhumx, ^apcoMX Boft- 
nflBau^b H IIoAxopryeBUMx HBanoMX CaBBH^eMx. 

— ]lfl Bijih OHT, — cxapHRX, o6e3bflHa! — raenxajia Tona na yxo 



— Axx! — AOcaA-iBBO oxBixaaa Bapn, oxMaxHyBuiHCb pyRofi, 
TOHHO €Tb MyxH, H He CHycRafl vjídíBí ch ueio. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



156 B^OTHHRl EBPOnU. 

Ohi MOJiqa Hrpa4'L, cópacusafl sapiy 3a sapioft, ne meBejia 
HHTJ^Mi, RpoMŠ RHCTH npaBofi pyRH. Ero rji^a He oipusajHCb otb 
sapTB. JIhi^o 6U.10 coBepmeHHO HenoABBSHO, h tojilko na jlÓj He- 
sanf^THO, HO Bce rjiy6;se a rjiy6se fip'&8UBajacb b% sepnyio Bosy 
ROpOTKafl H RpsBafl Mopn^HHa. Ero napTHep'^, IIoATOpryesi, cepjtiuai: 
11X1 Rapru, OAHy sa Apyroft^ HeMEuocepAHO Ónm hpothbhhrh. TIoa- 
TopryeBi noBopaHHBaJCfl na ctyjAj cryHaJii pyRofi npH cÓpacusanB'! 
KapTB, TO CBepRaji'B r.iadaMH, to sasMypnBaJCJr, to r.iflAtjix Ha 
<;Boero vis-á-vis cb HeHaBHCTBio h MCTHTejbHO, — a^nrypiiH-B xotl 6u 
AOXHyji^B rjiytíxe, tojibro Mopn^HHa CTajia BpfeuBaTBCfl 6bictp^, e 
Bapfl saAHO HaÓJuo^ajia ee, h, nenoHATHO noneiiy, 8Ta plsRaa Mop- 
ii](HHa BocxHma.ia ee. 

IIocjriAHflfl BBflTRa AftHa — ^flrypHH^ h IIoATopryeffB ocrajiHCB 
vb npoHrpiini'1. 

— CnacH(5o! CnacHÓo-CB, noqTeHffiftnii& CrenaHx FaBpHJiOBH^i*! 
— aaroBopHJix HBani CaBBHTB, ho^am rjiasaMH napTnepa. — dxaBi 
HrpaTB-CB, jiyqme janTH njiecTBÍ — BuHrpaBniie yxMBuiBHyjHCB, cxa- 
paacB ne CMorpiTB na $HrypHHa, ROHewo, htoóh neoÓHAÍTB ero. 

— no3ApaBJi«K)! — mennyjia Tona Bapí. 

Bapfl He meJioxHyjiacB; tojbro ea nepnue ^rjasRH íyxB-qyTB 
npH^ypajiHCB, h b^ hhxi na^Hnajio HrpaTB He;[(oyMtHÍe h ney^OBOiB* 
CTsie. 

— ^CnacHÓo"?! »JIanTH bjicctb"?! — BOCRJiHRHyji-B ^Hrypan^B, 
B^B otb^tb Ha yRopB HBaHa CaBBHqa. Bapa BOCXHn^eHHO cauuia 
noApyri Tajiiio. I^Hrypeni BApyrB npeoópasHjicfl. Ob nejiOBBOft 
CTpaHHoft rpai^ieft) cb itarRoft h ch^bhoS, xotb h iitniROBaToft rpa- 
JsxeŘ H jierROCTBH) Me^BiksoHRa, oht* BunpaMHjca na cryjit, ducrpo 
H jiOBRO 3a6pajii ri ce&h em,e HecMimaHHBia RapTu h Óucrpo 
crajii pasÓHpaTB hxi. 

— Hy, rocnow, ccjih Ha to noni.io, — roBopHJTB offB, a ero 
oasa CB neosHiaHHBíMi tíjiecROMi h neosH^anHofi crporocTBK) rjifl- 
jiibjiii Ha napTHepoBi, — ecjiH ys'B na to nomjio, a, rocno^a, AOBasy, 
OTO janTH-TO ne a njiejTB-CB. 

— A BOTB, ocpaMHTB ao OHI Hxx! — mem-ajia Bapa, Bce 
Rp'lnqe H Rptnne csHMaa TajiiH) nojtpyrH n sa^HO cjAfl^s. sa abh* 
^eniaMH h Bdr^ia^aiiH ^Hrypena. — Majio^Ra, ToHH^Ra, HHKorAa 
en(e hhrto npH mhí ero ne ocpaMHJťB. SnaeniB, owb RaR^ „Jle- 
Tynx*' na (54raxi: Rorw „JleTyn-B" h^íotb, a QotioacHTBca Mory, 
OTO OffB no&kjsjiTb. 

^HrypHHl H Vb CaMOMl JSJh^ HOÓ^AHJTB, H HO^^AHÍTB B'B OJUSTf 

nBHyTy: pasjoiRHJii RapTH, CRasajTB hícrojibro cjiob^b, yRasajrB Ha 

ffiCROJBRO RapTl, CnpOCHJTB pasa ABa: „TaR-B-CBP^-T-^FfcpHO-Cl?* — 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



KyKOJKA. 167 

naiyrojTL vb otbštb yjHBJíeHHoe: „B^pno**, »TaKi**, — He6pe»Ha 
CMtmaai Kapni h, ne oópan^afl BHUMaHifl Ha CMymenie IlBaHa 
CaBBHW, ycnoKOHJCfl, jíhhbo bsajii bi 3y6u noTyxmyio nanapocy^ 

ňEEBO nOTflHyJICfl CB HCK) Kb CB%H%, MHMO niaMeHH ssoňmjTh CH- 

lfliitHX'b A^BymeEi, ne 663*5 yAHBjeHia BrjiflA']^cfl vb hhx'b, — h 
BCTpferajix TaRofi BsrjaAi, KOTopue CKopo He satfuBaiOTca. Ohi b*b. 
Ty se ceByHAy onycTHJii rjiada ri BaprairL, jibi^o ero ocra^ocb He- 
npcHHi^aeMO, ho coMH^HÍfir He 6ujio — ohi h bh^^^, h hohajix Bce. 
Bapfl, BCHHXHyBí, noAHfljacB h ynua. Ho noRpacH^a ona ho 
on CMyn^enifl. „Hy, renept tboa oqepe^ib, a a Bce w^-iaja**, — no- 
^lynajia ona. 



III. 

Be^epHBRa Tjinyjiacb cbohmi ^epe^OMi. Tani^u oAnsjíECb HrpaMH^ 
Hrpn — Tani^aiiH. Bi ROMnaTaxi* cxanoBHJiocB sapne, bopothhhrh 
sasajiepoBi Ha^ajH TepaTb cboh) CBŠsecrb, A'&ByniRH paspyHflHHJincB, 
ranSpB crajii HrpaTB THme. MysHHHu h jifiMU yse ne laRi ah- 
miiCB Apyi*B Apyra, RaRi bi Haqaji'^ nenepa, h yse crajiH saBH- 
SHBaTbCfl MesAy napoHRaMH noaTH^ecRÍa yxasnBaTejibHUfl OTHomenifl^ 
oÓpHBaionúflCfl bmíctí ci rohhjomi Be^epHHRH. Pa8B'6 tojibro ho^bk), 
BO BpeMfl cHa, €My npHCHHTCfl xopomeHBRoe jh^hro, 6ajiBH£id Óam- 
Ma^ORi* Ha MaJieHBRofi Hori, KaRaa-HHfiyAB ocoÓenHO típocHBmaaca 
eiiy vb rjasa jenra bt» ea xyajieTi. Mosera 6bitb, npHCHHxca, ^to 
HBÓyAB H eú: xenjioe npHROCHOBeHÍe chjibhux^ pyRi*, Hecyn^Hxi h 
Bpysan^Hxx ee b^b BajsBob, nepnaa 4>B^7Pft cx 6kíuwb Bupisowb 
ziuera, RpacHBO noAcrpHseHHaa ÓopoARa, c^erRa yROJOBniaa ee 
npa BeocToposHoiTB ABHseniH bo BpeMfl ranila, cwbjíuŘj neMHoro 
Aep3KÍfi, — MyscRoft BsrjiflAi... A ííHorAa xaRia BeHepHHRH, laRia 
yxasHBaHBfl ROHnaiOTCfl h ne cnaMH to.7Bro, h bi xaROMi cjijHa/b 
EOH^aH)TCfl HHOFAa, Hosajiyfi, xyse, no RpafiHefi iflp*! MeH'6e noa- 

THHHO. 

Bapfl TaHi](OBaja, rpai](io3HO pasroBapHBajia cb RaBajiepaMn, mhjo 
— CB MajosHaROMUMH A^BymRaMH, H p^niHTejíBHO n rpyfioBaxo — RaRx 
HCAaBHO CB Toneft — cb ropoxrhmh npiaxejiBHHríaMH. Bb rb ROMHaxBÍ, 
ni mpaiH Vb Rapxu, onatíojiBnie ne xoAHJia, ho, oÓboaa rjiasaMH 
rocxeft, Bce ocranaBJíHBajiacB na ABepH, Roxopaa seja xyAa. Ona 
He acAaaa, hxo oxxyAa BuftAerB om — oh-b oÓtiRnoBenno bhxoahji-b 
H3B-3a RapTB xojiBRO hocjií yKHHa, — eŘ caMOfl xoxíjocb nofixH 
TyAa. H BApyrx, Bcero jrainB ORO.10 OAHHHaAi^axH nacoBi, bx ABepax-B 
noBasa^ca obtb. PaAOMx cb hhmx croajTB IIoAxopryeBx h hxo-xo 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



158 B«CTHHB'b EBPOHU. 

eny roBopHJii>, Om> ero cjiymajn, BHHMaiejbHO ckjiohhbx rojiOBy, 
Cb BOTopoft npH dTOWb ynajio na jio6'b H'lcKO.ibfio aobojibho Hespa- 
f HBLixi EOCHU'B Bojoci, HO ero rjiasa cnoBotlHO h Hacro&^HBO 
HTO-TO HCEaju Bi saji£, nojiHofi Jio^efi. 

Bapfl, pa8CÍflHH0 cjymaBmafl ceoero BaBajiepa, HCEoca Haójfo- 
jifiLJiB, ^HrypHHa. 3aMÍTHB'B ero Hn^yii^iii bsfjijiax, ona osHBHJiacb h 
3aroBopHja caMa. Ona saroBopHjia TaBx Bece.io, ea jihi^o h rjiasa 
3arop'lj[HCB TaEHMx orouBBOMi), ^TO BaBajep'B, 3a.iH)6oBaBinacB, nfiSRe 
HeMHoro poTB pa3iiHyji'B. $HrypEH'B, ocMaipusafi, csojibSHyjix espja- 
AOMi H no Bapš, h... Bunywii qacu h nocMorp^i^ ea hhx'b. Baps 
BApyrB npepBa.ia cbok) ptqb h eerepni^HBO cxajia oÓMaxHBaTbca 
BÍepoMx. Efl rjiasa h3i» Becejuxx CTajiH ne^oópuMB, a tohkíh hosaph 
-saipeneiajiH. 

^arypHHx cnp^Ta-ix tocu, o^eBHAHO nacHJibCTBeHHO obobíh^s 
pasroBopi CB HBaHO&rb CaBBH^eMx n nomexB no sajii. H xoawii 
0H'B, H na xoAy ^epsajioi, xose npoTiiBi osha^bíh h ne noj^i* cráTb 
i^Boeň BH^niHOCTH, jiOBBO H yBÍpeHHO. Ohi mejvh npflMO bi Bapi. 

TojibBO-HTO OH-B B-B Heft no^íomeJTB H xorfeji-B HTO-TO CBasaxb, 
BaBi Taněpx rpanyjii BajBCB. ^HpypHHi npHPJacHjrB Bapio. H 
Tanij^OBajii oni otjihhho. Ohi xpOHyjicH cb MÍCTa cpasy, ne bush- 
^a£ xaBTa, h nonajii npflMO b'b TaBT'B. Jl^epsaJii ohi xasi, hxo 
j^ana noqxn ne nyBcxBOBajia nojia, ho bm^ctí cb xím^b xaKx 6e- 
pesHO, Hxo He OfuniHO 6ujo ero pyBH. 

— Bh npocTHxe, tto a b-b ciopxyEŠ, — CKBSdun onx bo Rpena 

— Upon^aio, — oxBÍxHJia Bapa h BpyatHjacB, ne saM^iaa, ^xo 
Epysnxca. Ek) OBJíaA^&ao BaBoe-xo cxpamno Hexepn'kiHBoe) pasApa- 
meHHoe osHAaHÍe, osH^ame noaiaxia ero pysn, oasH^aHie BarjiaM, 
Boxoptift BBiAajii 6u ero, — oatH^anie, hxo b^b ero rojocfi DoaBaxca 
ocoÓeHHBie, nonaxHBie eft, oxxíhbh. Ona ne saifi^^ajia, ^xo BpysHTca. 

— SL ceroflHa panBuie otíuBHOBenHaro ÓpocajTB BapxH, — npo- 
^ojsajix OHI, JOBBO Bpysa ee uemjsj xanij^yion^HííH. 

Ona MOJiHajia. 

— HBaHx CaBBHq-B ysacno na nena nanycxEJca. Bei bha'&ih 
bíjb? 

— Jía. Oxxoro h 6pocHjiH? 

— Hfkrb. Obojio OAHHHawaxH ^ojiseH-B npiixaxB noft npiflxejB. 
^S noA^H^aH), hxo6h BBecTH h npe^cxaBHXB... %o ae, eníe xypx? 

— H4x^, ycrajia. 

Bapa c&ia, ho JinniB xojibbo noAomejiii Apyroft BaBajiepi, ona 
<;eft^acB se corjiacnjiacB h ocxaBHJia ^arypEna. Ohi ne xaHi](0BajrB 
^ojBme. 



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KyROSRA. 159 

PoBHO FB o;i£[HHaAi](aTB ^HrypHHa BiissajiH vh npExcsyio, oi- 
ujj» owb cefiHacB se Bomejrb bhíct^ n npÍHTejieMx, o Roropoiíx 
roBOpHiTB Bapš. Bapfl no^iCTeperajia bxi noasjeHÍe, h npem^e Bcero 
otfpaTHJia BHHMaHie Ha Crenasa FaBpHJOBHHa. ^erypnE^ RaRx Óy^TO 
tiiurB crtcHeH^y ^ase CMyn^eHi h CRpuBajix sto, ho CRpQBajTB He- 
npiflTHo; CHaqajia oh^ nOBe;ix rocxa nepeai sajii cb qepea^-Hypí 
pa3Bfl3HO& MaHepoft hotth xoBflHHa, noTOiTb caiTB 3aBfÍTH;rB aTO h 
3acyeTH.iCfl yae coBC^Mt Hexoponio. Foctb Toate 6hjix RaRx 6y;íT0 
CMyii^eH^B, HO TaRx, nonpocry h ne epomacB, CMyn^eHHUMx h ocra* 
saicfl. 

Uocpejifi sajni mejurumit Bcrp^TH^Cfl xosflHffB. IIoBHAiíMOMy, oh'b 
SHaJTB, RTO 9T0 HACTB (TB ÝHrypHHHMX, H T0»e TJiynoBaTO CHyxHJica: 
ne 6ucj[ymaBX 4>P^h npeAcraBJíeHia, hh rx cejiy, hh zi> ropový 
HasBajT* CBOH) $aMHJiÍK>, GJiHmROiTB Rp^HRO xpflXHyjii FOCTK) pyRy, 
to<iho ciapoMy npiaTejíK), h saroBopirjrB o uoroA^. Xopomo en^e, 
TTO BORpyrB myiťijiH, roBopnjiH h ABnrajrHCB, a tobsihlio óu yse 
coBcfaťB ApflHHO. Bapfl BHA'i^a Bce dTO, H ea rjiasa Bce óojbdic 
TeifH'|jiH, a HOSiipH Bce 3aM'6TH^ HrpaaH. 

— 9to e^^e htí) aa „cocyjiBRa"?! — no.iy-BOCRjraRHyjia orojio 
Hea ToHH. 

HacROJiBRO ToHfl 6u.ia npaBa, nasBaBi ^nrypHHa ypo;^oirB, Ha- 
CTOJiBRO se Óujio npaBAu h bi uposBEn^*! ^cocyjiBRH'', ROTopsnii 
OHa HarpaAHJia noBaro rocra. Ohx úuji^h o^enB neBucoR^, ao hoa- 
tfopoARa $HrypHHy, h HeseJiHRi*, noacajiyfi ;^ase TOHBme njOTHOtt 
apociaBOHRu Tohh, ho nponopi](ioHajieH'B h cRJiaAeHi, RaRx xopomifi 
^paHU^yscRÍft „nepBuft jiioÓobhhri". Ero ({^paRx óujuh 6e3yRopH3- 
HeHx. HecMorpa na to, ^o ohi cioajix pa^oiix cb Mory^HMX 
^HrypHHuux, OffB ne Rasajica hh mbjtb, hh cjaóx. Bapa CMOTp^a 
Ha ero jihi^o Hs^^ajiH, h bi^ orAajieniH oho RasaJiocB o^eHB ÓjAm,- 
HHiťB, se^enoBaTUMi h HedHa^Hre^BHiiMi. 

— EaRoft ;íOXJieHBRÍfl! — ne yHHMajiacB Tona. 

OTei](i» noMaHHjTB ri ce&b Bapio; ona no^onuia, h efi npe;^- 
craBHjni rocra: 9to Óujtl RaROfi-xo RHasB H3% I3eTep5ypra, ^s^uems. na- 
cmíBRO rpoMRaa, tto b(A Kjia?HHEi, Cynan^eBU n npo?ie mocrob- 
CKÍe re;;HifHHOBHqH H IlajeojioroBHqH MepR.iH nepe^^B neio, RaRi 
zgbaxíi nepeiCB Mtcac^eMx. 

CjiÍAyH)niyK> RaxpHJiB Bapa xani^OBajia cb RHa3eM'B, yis-a-yis cb 
^arypEHUiTB h Toneft. 

Bapa H yAHBjajiacB, n cep^HjiacB: noneMy aro a ona potíšerB npeA'B 
KHaseiTB, Kor^a no Hacroameny cjií^OBaJio 6h poĎixB eny? — xaRoft 
OffB 6u.TB He(5ojBmoft, xyAenBRÍft h rpycxHBifi. Owh 6uai> y;^HBHxejiBHO 
rpycreHX. Ero He(5o.iBniie, o^chb xeMHwe cipBie rjiasa, bi cobcímx 



i Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



160 B^CTHHBS EBPOmi. 

HepHuxi picHHi^axXy CMOip&iH xaBi^ rpycTHO, laKB saio^HO-rpycxHO 
H bmíctí (te T^Mi xaEi Ao6po H MflrEO, HTO Bapfl xaBoe Biipa- 
xeme sHA^a to^bso na KapTHHRaxi, a& h to na seecsHxi* jh- 
i](axi. B6JIH3H Jiei^o BHHSfl Óujio He HsiiaToe, a xaKoe, tovho ohi 
BBisAopaBJíHBajrL. Kosa Óiuia H^na h r^ia^Ba, ksavb y seHmHHH^ 
HO o^oHB Cjťi^AHa. HocB, ry6u. bocth JiHi](a 6ujas, xasoBU, totoo 
Hxi Jišnnjix óojibinott JH)6HTejiL h 3HaT0B'B hcthhho HSflii^Haro. Btm" 
^uBSíSíCh vrb dxo Bdfln^ecTBO, Bapa AJMajia: „TaB'B Boxrb ona, nopo- 
j^hctoctb!'' — H po($&ia, xohho npe^^ Heft Óbuo cobcími ocoóeHHoe 
cyn^ecxBO. Bapa TpcxBOBajia axy ocoÓeHHOCXb h en^e cvuíhwbiy sor^a 
npHnoMHHajia, BaBoro BuaoBaro nponcxosAenifl roexb. A BHasb 6ujn> 
CBpoiieHi, ynxHBi* u roBopHJTb oieHL MHJio, ncBpoHHO, cep^e^HO H 
Aase HaHBHO. 

— Bu ^aBHO SHasoMH cb CxenaHOiTB Fa^HJiOBHHeMi*? — aoboi&ho 
HaxflHyxo cnpocH;ia poó^Binaa Bapa. Po6^a OHa, o^naso, to3bko 
BHyxpeHHO, BOSMyn^aacB npH oahoS mucjh, hxo ona Moserb saje- 
ÓedVLTh, BajcB oxei^i*, hjih cnyxaxBca, BaB^ $0rypHH'B. 

Knasb osHBHJca b onenB helio; ero csaBHiie rjiasa paAOCxHO 
yBejHHHJuiCb, HO HO saciajH, a npHBiteBaxejbHO noxeMH^n. 

— JíaBHO, — oxbíxhj-b OHI. — Mu bmíctí Cb HHíCb A^ajiH no- 
cjňjiflioio BaMnaniK). íl 6wii> cojiAaxoirb, a oh'b o^HAepoirb h yse 
ÓujTb npH CBoÓeJieBŠ, Bor^a mu nosHaBOHOíHCb. H crpanno, name 
SHaBOHCTBO Ha BofiH*! — jiHxepaxypHOo SHaBOMCXBO. Owb xorxa nHcaJii* 
BoppecnoHfleHipH, a a — cthxh... 

— Bh HHraexe? — capocHJia Bapa. 

— Si jHxepaxopi, — oxb£xhjii> BHa3b| yjuóaacb, h nimMOiBi*, 
OHeBHAHO saxaHBi BHHMaHie. Bapa ptmnxejibHO ne snajia npoHs- 
BeAOHifi BHasa, BaBi vb axy icnHyxy ona hh cxapajiacb npHnoMHHXb^ 
HO cjumajia jih ona BorAa-HHÓyAb ^xo-nnCy^B o hhxi, h icoji^a:ia. 
Knasb HeMHoro saxyifaHHJica, ho npeoAOJi'kiii ce6a h npoAOJsaJťb. — 
SI HEHiy p'Iabo h HOMHoro, HO dxo Moe eAHHCXBOHHoe npHSBame..^ 

— y BacB MHoro jiHxepaTypHHxi snaBOMCTBi? 

— ^a, BT* nexep6ypri. Go baíhihhmh BpyaBBaMH MOHa o&b^ 
mfl,eTb no3HaBOMHTb GxenaH'b FaBpHjiOBHiib... S. xojibBO vb eroT] 
pasi* xopomoHbBO padCMOxpki'b MocBBy, h ecm ea nnoaxeiH xaKi 
ď^e CHMnaxHHHU, BaB'b ona cana, mh^ tíy^erb oneHb npiaxHO ne 

SHaBOMBXbCa Cb HHMH. 

— PasBi MocBBa xoporaa!? — BOCBJHBnyjia Bapa. — AnoMoeMyj 
hítb HH^ero xyae h csy^H^fi Mocbbh. Bce jiyMie, xojbko (5^ 
ne OHa. 

Knasb Becb npocBŠxjri^ n na MrHOBenie xenjiuMi, .laoBOBaM*] 
BdrjiaAOM'B ocxaHOBH.ica Ha coóec^AHHi^'!, xohho o6Aa.3'B ee hic^b. 



Digitized by 



Google 



RyEOJSÁ. 161 

— 3to MOjíOAOCTb, — CBa8aj'B OHI, H ero rojiocb BHesanHo sa- 
sBjqarb HeotfHKHOBeHHO npHBJíeKaTeJibHHMX yqacrieMx. — 3to bt> boce 

HOIOXOCTb H MOJOAUe nOpUBU. JI HCnEITKIB&Il 9T0 Bl CBOe Bpeiifl, 

Kori;a a no^TH &bmLjn> na BOftHy. dnaere jih, b% jiynA iQjio^ibsiiBL 
XEBerh 6a6oHBa. Kor;^a ^e.iOff&Bx Hysaers, (5atfoHR'6 xonetcfl c($po- 
CHTB Chce6sí ByROJíBy. Botb, Bama RyROJBa — BanrB aoitb, MocBBa. 
H fl Bor^a-TO xotíjte yaerbíh. H CTenaH'B raBpHJiOBH?'B HcnuTarE 
TO se, npeoÓpasaflCb to bi MOHaxa, to b^ cojAaTa, to b'b aRTepa. 

— Hy, ym^B OrenaHx-TO FaBpMOBH^^ m&io noxosi na 6a- 
(íowy! — coBepmeHHO HeBOjn»HO copBajiocb cb rj&b BapH, HTaRi se 
HeBoiBHO OHa BsrjflHyjia na $RrypHHa secTRHifB u HacirlinjiHBuirB 

— OrenaHx TMpzjiOBfivh o^eHb xopomaa h o^enB (SoraTas 
Harypa, — cepbesHO otbštkjii RHJisb. — & snaio, RaRi CHJibHu 6wai 
ero nopbiBEi. 

— 9t0 nOTOMy, TTO OWL CaMT& TaROfi... SAOpOBeHHUft, — CMŠflCb, 

CBasajia Bapa h onsTb secTRO BsrjiaHyjia ea HX'b vis-á-vis. 3a- 
caňacsí h RHflSb, ho ero cbt^xx Ówit^ thxoh) h ;(o6poH> yjia^Roft. 
Ovb nocMOTpbjB na ^Hrypnna jiacROBO, JiacROBO RHBHy^n eny ro- 
JOBOH), Rorxa TOTi noftMajTb ero BsrjiHA^, h CRa3aJ[^: 

— ^a, H opraHHBirb y nero Mory^. 

Majo-no-Maiy potfocTb BapH CHJibHO yiceHbniHjiacb, — BHanaa^b 
OHa xase roBopHTb irbniaJia, — ho coBCŠirb ho npomjia. KHfl8b6ujrb, 
''se 6e8rB BCflRaro cohhíhíh, coBCŠifb ho CTpamHiift HejiOBtR'b, ho 
Bpeiifl OTib BpeneHH, to ero TOHRoe, nsfln^Hoe jihi^o, to noBan npn- 
BieRaTejibHafl HHTonaitifl bi rojiocš, to paBHOAyniHoe BOcnoHHHanie 
o RaROifb-HHÓyAb o^eHb sasHOirb snaROMOirb, a HHorjia h qT0-HH(5yAb 
rpyóoBaToe h Hensan^noe Ryne^ecRoe vh canofi Bapš — sacraBjuLXH 
ee CHOBa HcnuTUBaTb upncTyna poóocTH. OcoÓeHHO potf^a ona, 
Borj(a eft npnxoAHJiocb sHaROMHTb rhhsh cb ;(%ByniRaMH h ayne- 
leeRoio MOJiOAeacbK). He pšmasacb ona h saroBopHTb cb hhmi nep- 
Bas, po6&ia npn Rasxoirb Haqaji^ pasroBopa, a AAJibnie pasro- 
Bopb mejrb xopomo n r^a^RO. Ho h Tyrb Bapa 6ujísl ne Toft hchoa- 
THnrBa Bii8iiBaH)n^eft Bapeft, ROTopaa Tani^OBajia, CMOTp&ia h roBopHJia 
CB ^HrypHHuiTb: bto 6wi9l HOBaa, ;^aiHRaTHafl, coBcIirb (5;iaroBOcnH- 
TaHHaa Bapa. 

IV. 

K'B ROHity Be^epa, k% ysHny, Becejbe pasrop&rocb na cjiaBy, 
Bo BCK). BoJibnie Bcíx'b pasouuHCb x^BynncH h ABopanquRH: nysbiRa, 
j(BHxeHÍe, roBopi, yxasHBanbe — y^aqnoe h ney^a^noe, npiaTHoe h 

T<» m.— Maí, 1889. 11 



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162 BI&CTHHSl EBPOnU. 

HenpiflTHoe, xaRi hxi BcrpflXHyjiH, tto h^hua HepDHUfl CHcreMu 
ABopflHi) H sseHii^EHi secejio pasryjiflJiHCb. Ryn^HKH Tose óujíb ee- 
cem, HO rjflA^H ÓuHBaMH, Ecaoj^jioÓhSLj towo xorlui h ne cm&ih 
tfOAHjTb: uwh HeAOcraBajio npocropa h Koe-Rxo yse croBopajicfl 
cefiiaci se nocoi yacEHa „saKaxHTBCfl" b^ i](£iraHBaMi, sasaTHTbCfl 
Ha jihxhxx co6cTBeHHBix'B H HaeMHuxi xpoflBaxi, cb rHsaHbeMx, 
n^HflMH H pasManmcTUMH asecraMH, BaicaTHTBca bx saropoAHHe 
pecTopaHU, rjíib hxx Bcrptiarb Tose h^hamh h ranmhewh. 

— Bamy pywy! — cBaBajix $HrypHHX Bapl, KO^;^a npmiLia 

nopa HATH B'B CTOJIOByH). 

Bapfl pasroBapHBaJia Cb SHflseMx. Ohh iiajo h orpuBHcro roeo- 
pHJiH KPYVb Cb ApyronTb, ho Bapl BasaiocB, hto ohh roBoparb ee 
yifOJiBafl: laRx xopomo, Tas'B saxflrHBaioniie xopomo 6uzo efi cb 
hhitb. Ona to CBepruBajia, to pasBepruBaja CBofl B^pi, to ony- 
CBajia rjiasa, tohho nmfiL hto-to na no^y, to noAUMaia hxi> h ocra- 
HaBJíHBajiacB BsrjuiAOifB Ha Jimiíb shasa. Ona s^ajia, hto ee noBe- 
AeTB B'B ysHHy oh7>. Efl paxocTHO noRasajiocb, hto ona yse nofi- 
Maia ero ABHseme npoAJiosHTB e& pysy, h BaKi pa8'B vb aro 
MrHOBenie ona ycjiumaja csoBa ^HrypHna. B'ÍAHufi ^ibepb xpycx- 
Hyjii m> pyBŠ, ho ona, ^pa^i03H0 cejohaa roJOBBy, CEasa^a: 

— Merci. 

Bapfl Bca pasroptjiacb otl Tani^eB^ n BnewT^L-^mfi Be^epa, b 
BOFAa ÝHTypHHb BBflJTB 66 noA'b pyBy, B^ 6fl rojiOBBi nonecmcB 
Tam S6 pasrop^BmiflCfl mucjih. Ona BxpyrB BOBHenaBHA^^ $Hry- 
pHHa, ona BApyrB saxor&ia mcthtb eny... H botb ei npeACTaeH- 
lOCB; HTO ona Ta MHJieHLBafl npnHi^ecca, o BOTopoft eft tojsbo-^to 
pascBaBUBajii bhabb. Khasb paBCBasuBajTB, BaB'B owb h6a^io roHy 
HasaAi TaHi](OBajrB cb neH); saBi na tíajiaxi, vfiíb ÓuBaiorB npHH- 
i^eccKi, H6 BaBajiepu npHiJianiaiorB hx'b, a oh£ HasnanaiorB ce&b 
BaBaj[6poBi>. Bapi np6ACTaBJfljiocB, hto ona npEHi^ecca, h ^nry- 

pHHl, H6np0CTHT6J[BH0 BaÓUBHIHCB, nOAOmeJTB BX H6fi nepBHĚ. „IIpiIH- 

i^6cca^ BapBapa ^HpcoBHa ^jb^erb bha'b, hto ho saM^werB Aeps- 
Báro, H6 saM^^aerB yHH^TOsaionito. ?hh%, EdkÓJifojsfiJOJniSL aa axH- 

BeTOlTB, BÍSJIHBO, HO Henp6]U[0HH0 H H6M6AJI6HH0 BUnpOBaSBHBaeTL 

AopsBaro H31 s&aa h noASUBaoTi, no ea npHBasamK), bhasa. Be- 

AeTB 66 B'B ySHHy BHflSB, a Sa CTOJOMX CaAHTCfl pflAOMl CB HeH>. 

Ona BHAHTB 6ro hoaji^ ceóa, h bc6 speiifl 6& Bas6TCfl, ^ro, Bon*- 
BOT%, ona B03BM6TX 6ro, MajiOHBBaro, xoponi6HBBaro, xyAOHBBaro h 
Ao6paro, Ha pyBH, BaB'B peÓenBa, h... h h6 to ona CTanerB ero 
6aH)BaTB, 3aq^'B'T0 npnmHMaTB b'b rpy^H, h6 to ocToposHO i^&io- 
BaTB ero, bi ^hctuď, npeBpacnuĚ jtoOb^ wb npeBpacHua Teiuiui 
b'6bh. Ob BaBott dsaroAapnocTBH) (Sy^erB ohi BsrjflAUBaTB na Hee!.. 



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RyROJIRA. 163 

A 4ep3RÍfi, ra^Rift, MysHROBaTufi, Bon sHaen mib BOo6pa;^iiBmíft 
ce^; BHdAfl H3% noA^b^s^iia, npH^ieMi) xaHAapMu h no;iHi](eficRÍe 
Tooo B'B HaciťimRy Bce-iaRu BUTAHyícfl nepeA'B hhmx bo ^ponn, 
óy^CTB CRpeseraTB syÓaMH, H^a no TeMHHirB yjHi^aM%, 6y;ierB 64- 
CHTECfl, Cy^erb A^se njiaRaTB... Bšab, roBopaTt, njanyrB ate bth 
MyxHHHH— TERx uyCTb DjraHeTB H oh-b!.. 

Ho BapBapa ^npcoBna Bofii^OBa, noxoMCTBeHHafl nonexHafl rpas- 
AaHsa, He 6iiJia npHHi^eccoft, h noTOiiy oea fl^ojimEo, 6um bí^jihbo 
oTBiTHTb AepsROMy: ^merci**, h npnHiiTB npeMOKennyH) pyRy. 

JI,ep3RÍfl ORaaajicfl, o;íHaRO, eme ^epsTC, ^btb oea ^ynaja; oh-b 
H KHflseiTB crajfB pacnopflsaxbCfl, bitIcto loro, ttoÓu njiaRaTB, Ópo^fl 
no TexHKiK^ yjiai](aMx. Gea^ajia oh'b HesaiďiTHO noAMHFHyjrb eny Ha 
Torno — RBflSb ceflnaeB »e npewoKHJi^ Toft pyRy, h Bapi noRasa- 
jocb, TTO Tona BHSHBaiome h HacMinuÉreo — RaRoft y nea c^íjajica 
npH 3tom:b ra^RÍfi tojicthS hoci, cb raARHMH xejiTUMH BecHymRaMH! 
—nocMOip^a Ha nee. IIotomi ^^ypHH-B RaRHirB-xo noBOJiHTejiBHnM^B 
TOHoiTB cBasajii: 

— Hy, MHJOCTHBua rocyíapHHH h rocno^a, caacm-b bc* BMÍert. 
KHflSB nocsyniHO nocMorp^jrB na nero, po6RO — na Bapio, h 

nomejTB ne Bnepe^H, a csa^H hhxi. 

YacHTOB ÓHJTB ÓJiecTsimfŘ. Ilocy^a, xpycrajiB, cepe6po, RymaHBfl, 
BHHa — Bce BTO 6elio o^ho Jiyinie spyroro. Rhabb Maio oÓpamaa-B 
BHHMaHÚí na íjí^y, h, chaa Hes^y Tonefi h Bapež, npoAOJimajrB 
CB010 Hsanpíyio h cepAe^nyio Óojitobhk). ^Hrypnn^B, HanpoTHBi, Ra- 
sajiocB 3a6ujB Bce n npenpoxHBHO, no hx-b mhÍhíío^ CMaROBajrB 
Kaa&Aoe ÓJiiojíft b Ra^^yH) pioiiRy. 0(5a uHJin, o^naRO, ne i](epeMO* 
HHCB H, xaRi cRaBaxBy onETTHOfi n npHBUHHofi pyROfi; cxapne coji- 
Aaxu H apxHCxu cRasuBajraeB-xaRn wh hhx'b. 

— KaKB BaiTB npaBHxcfl moS RraseHBRa? — cnpocHjrB $iírypHffB 
Bapio. Ohi CRa3ajrB dxo cb BupajReHÍeMi h^shocxh k% npiflxejiH), 
HO Bapt noRasajiocB, ^o btb xo se BpoHa oejl h Bas^HHHaexi ne- 

pe^l HHITB. 

— Orqero: Barni?! — ohohb pfeRO oxB4xH.ia ona. 

— Oro! — CRadajTB *HrypHHB h npo^ojwa^x: — ny, ocjih xoxhxc, 
BanrB... h ohi npiocxanoBHjrcfl, B^pyrB cxporo h nponm^axejrBHO 
BSTJÚiHyKB efi Bi rjiasa. Owh npiocxaHOBHJicfl, BsrjiflHyjrB, bh^hmo 
eapo^HO noxosAftJ^, hxo6u ona nORpacni^a, n orohhhjtb: -ocjih 
xoTHTe, BanrB... rocxB. 

He Haexo Bap6 npHxo^HJiocB HcnuxuBaxB BBpuBu xaRuro rH'ÍBa — 
a OHa ÓLLsa xaRi hm^b no^Bepsena! — RaRoft OBMjííbjrh eio xenepB. 
Ona noRpacfflja ao CJiesx, BOima sasBen^a vh ea pyR% o xapejiRy, 
H ona dčxsBHo npHRycHJia ce6š hrahioh) ry6y. 3a6uBmHCB otl 

11* 



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164 BftCTHlIB'B EBPOnU. 

FH^Ba, OHa nopuBHCTO otfepHyjracB ri ^HrypHHy h, Hcno^^oÓBfl rjuiAfl 
Ha Hero vb ynopi BejHROJiiiiHBíMH B36imeHHiiMH ^epHUMH rjasaMH, 
nporoBopEJa: 

— Bu cnpamHBaere, RaR'B owh uhí HpaBHTCfl? ^a? O^eHb. 
Mh£ ocoÓeHHO noHpaBHjocB, RaR'B o;^HHX rocnoABH'b pacTep&icfl, 
Bxo^a Bx saj^B pa;^OM'B cb TaRoft nepcoHOft...— ^HrypHHi, cna^ajia 
TBepAO BUAepsHBaBmifi efl BsrjiAA^B, npH bthx^b cjosaxx pa30M'B 
onycTHJix oasa h cjra(5o noRpacHŠJTB. Ona npoxoi^uua: - A MHjiHfi 
RHHseHBRa H He noAOsp^BaeTB, RaRi Ógatca ero BejmmisL, ^a, BanrB 

RHflBeHBRa MHŠ HOHpaBHJICfl. 

$0rypHHi 6ojiBine ne saroBapsBajTB ci> cocŠARofi. 



Kor^a rocTH pasiixaiscB, ornn b'b aobtí Bofii](OBa noracjH 
Bespík. Rpoir]^ ROMHaTu BapH. ]Iojypa3A'6Taa Toha jieauma na ah- 
BaH^, r^^ eft nocrjiajH cnaTb. Ha AaJiBHeirB Rpec3'i CHA&ia Bapa, 
TaRse vh nonypaBCTerHyroiťB njíB.wb h ci pacnyiueHHUHa ^epHUMH 
BOJiocaHH, Ha 4>0H'i ROTopuxi cfl jhihhro RasajiocB ropa3AO MeHBme. 
Bapfl, CB pasrop^BíHHMHCfl n^eRaMH, roBopHja. Toha cjiymajia ee, 
o^eBHAHO BBBOJHOBaHHaa efl p'fiqaMH. 

— ToHfl, a He offlHÓaiocB, roBopio Tetít, ^to ne omu^aiocB! 
— roBopoa Bapa. — He npaBAa jih? He CJiinaa ate a, ne Aypa »e, 
He cyMacmeAHiaa me! He HannjiacB se a! HpaB^y a roBOpio? 

— HpaBAy, — OTBÍTHja noApyra. 

— HÍTB, ToHBRa, a ne myny! — npHRpHRnyjia Bapa. — Tu 
cepBesHO HOAyMafl, cooÓpasH, n Torxa otbí^ě. 

— Hy, npaBAy »e! — BOCRjHRHyjia Tona h Aaa&e npHnoAflajacB 
H npHauua pyRy Rib rpy^H. 

— EciH npaBAy, to a HHRorAa eqe ne Óuiia xaRx c^acTJíHBa, 
RawB ceroAHa. S, xeít roBopnjia, hto a po(Mfejia nepeAi hhiii, xotb 
H BHA^a, TTO OHI cpasy BJiatfajica b% Měna. H tu ne noH&pHmB, 
RaR'B BTO yAHBHTeJBHO HpiaTHo: H po6^niB, H... ROMaHAyeniB hitb. 
EcJiH H TO, H Apyroe bm^ctí, bto crpanrao, crpamno npiaTHo: po- 
(H&eniB, poóieniB — h BApyra, w6 saxo^niB, to cb hhitb h ča^- 
jiaeniB; hjih, Hao6opoTB, ROMaHAyeniB, a canott crpaniHO; a owh droro 
ne snaeTB, RaR'B bi sacaA'^* 

Bapa ÓEierpo BCTa^a, cA^ajia hícrojbro maroBi h ocTanoBH- 

JiaCb, ypOHHB-B JHI^O Bl JiaAOHH. 

— Tona, ht6, ecjm ohb »eHHTca na mh4! — MevraTeJBHO npo- 
menrajia OHa. — Dpon^aS, MocRBa!.. a ^nrypuna wb nepeAHioH) ne 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EVKOJIKA. 165 

nymy, Aapom, hto ohx eíiy npijrrejib... Tohh, ^a th BH^íi.ia, tu 

npHMiTHJia, BaBl OWb B8VJlAfíiBSLJil> Ha MeHH, npHM^THjra? 

— BHA'6iia. 

— Hy, MK-B ate ohx CMorptai, KaEx? JíyraeHBa! ToHioniKa! 
Mhí Bce saseTCfl, hto a ooíHÓaiocs. 

— CmOTP&II BaKX BJIK)6jieHHHft. 

— ToHK>mBa, Aa, Moaera (5htb, 9to otb BHHa. Bš^b ohh — 
j(pflHH. Ohh b^ab on BHHa ce&^aci bi h^hocth. Bohi HsaHi 
CaBBHTL, ^aate cl OjniniiaAKofi, pyqKH ea, bi po^i oópyÓKOBi, lít- 
jyert. $y, or-Bpa-xH-TejiBHHe! — hohth ujiaw, saspu^ajia Bapa h 

6pOCHJaCB HH^ROMl B'B HOAyHIBH CBOeĚ HOCTeJIH. 

EicROJihJío BpeneHH noApyrn MOJi^ajiH. 

— Bapfl! — nosBajra Tona, CesnoRofino rjiaAa na nee mnpoBo 
OTBpuTUMH rjasaMH. 

Otbštoitb 6ujio MOJi^aHÍe. 

— Bapa! 

— ÍTÍ)? — pas^aaca oyxoft roJiocT>, vb MarKyH) noAyniKy. 

— Bapa, TU njMtHeniL? — 6epe»H0 cnpocHJia Tona. 

— Hy, yati 8to „nocjii AOSA^^Ba b^b neTBepra*' a orb nero- 
Hfi6yxB sanjiaHy! 

droTB otbÍtb HeosH^^aHHO 6ujrb CKasan^ TaBHMi paBHOAym- 
ffitfimHirb H cnoKofiHÍfiniHMi> tohoitb, tto cna^ajia pacxoxoTajacB 
ToHa, noTOH^ Bapa. IIoTOirB o6i, hh cb Toro, hh cb cero, ópocn- 
JiHCB OAHa Apyrofl bx o6xaTÍa, CTara líijOBaTBca h xoxoTaTB, xoxo- 
TaTB H i^osaTBca. HaKOHei^i, oúi yrnxjiH h yjerjracB, qHHHO 
npHspuBHiHCB ojiibsiJiowb AO canaro noA6opoABa h rjia^a nepeA'B 
cofioi Bi npccrpancTBO. 

— MeHa o^ho y^HBJíaeTB, — Me^Jienno saroBopnja Tona: — no- 
JoaffliTB, a en^e hh pasy ne BJioÓJiajiacB, ho Bce-xaBH dro tto-to 
crpaHHo: TaBi m tojibbo-tto nacnerB ^Hrypnna pasaxaiacB, h 
Bj^pyrB — BHasB. 

— A Hy ero, TBoero $HrypHHa! — MeAJieHHO, paBno^ymno h 
ne OTpuBaa rjiasi opb npocrpaHCTBa nepeA'B co6oft, OTB^TUJia Bapa. 
SaišiTB, ona B^pyn npnc&ia HaKpoeaTH h hí^sho CRasajra:— Bna- 
aeflBBa, MHJieHBBÍĚ, Hrpyme^Hufi, AO($peHBBÍft, hostb, xo CBH^aHBa, 
aasrpa, bi co^pamn! — hotom^ HCByccTBeHHUMx ÓacoMx n Ha b 
oporoBopona: — Bame creneHCTBO, OBcanHBi ínrypHH^B, h^h, 6pa- 
Te^:B, ApnxHyTB 6^^ nponiaHia! — BUTanyjiacB, naniJia na noAyniB'! 
noxyqine jri^cie^BO msí tojiobu h sacnyjia. 

Bb BOMHaT^ crajio thxo. Tojoibbo A^majiH Hap^BHBmiaca jíib- 
ByniBH, Aa ocB^eHHufi jaHnaARoft ap^bhIB pacBOJiBHHqifi josri^, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



166 B-fiCTHHKTb EBPOira, 

Bi» nyrjiHBOMi neAoyii^HÍH, koch.it» he hiix'b TOpHue oasa h Mop- 

m.ffJIl B'B &kAUSÍ IfOpn^HHBI TeMHO-ROpHHHeSElfi J06l. 



Yl. 

Ha Apyrofi jifiBh Bapa noAHJiJiaci> vb BooAyineBJEeHÍ0, no;^o6- 
Eowh BOOAymeBjíeHiH) BoScKa, roTOBamaroca k'b 6010 no^i HaHajb- 
CTBOM-b Heno6^AHMaro nojiROBOAi^a. Gboíí TjMerb OHa Ai^JiaJia Cucrpo, 
HerepirkiHBO h ptmHxeabHO. FopHHqHoň AOcrajiocE hk sa qxo, hh 
npo qTO. ToHfl 6ujia no^asjíeHa BapHHOĚ dneprieft h ea y^anaiiH, 
Bqepanmefi h, HaB^peo, npeAcrojiii^efi, ceroAHJiniHeií, xani iro ^axe 
Haqaiia qyBCTBOBaTB Kh npiflTejBHHi^ h^hto ffbpoA'^^ He^oÓposeiia- 

TeJIBCTBa H Bpa»Ae6H0CTH. 

Bi» CTOJEOBoň 3a yTpeHHHiTB qaeiTB Rapa npoAOJinutJia Ópai^aTb 
opyaieiTB. Cna^ajia AOcrajiocB Ópaxy, KoropHft BCiajiTb paHbme h 
3aHflj['B ea npHBHqHuft ciyjrB. Bparb, BOHenHO, ne ycryoHjrB, ho 
3a TO nojiyqiijii xasoft yHHqiosaiOii^ň BsrjiflA^, qro, 6yAB ohi ae 
6parB, a nocropoHHifi, oht» HaB^pno nomeJTB 6u luaRaTb no Ten- 
HUMi nepeyjiRaMi, RaR'B 9to npoesTHpoBajiocB Bqepa ji^n ^erypiraa. 
BpaTB se TOJBRo seBaji'B ÓyjiRy sa 0^ BpacHUfl n^eRH h crbosb 
aeBaabe npotíypqajit tto-to npo „6a6i6 ^pcL". 

— JlHxepaTypHO BupaacaeTecs! — cb yHHqToataiomHMi capsas- 
MOM-B CRasaja Bapa. 

— (heHB TH noHHiiaeniB, qrí) xaRoe jiHTepaTypa, — npoAOJ- 
aLaJTB seBaiB 6paTB: — RaRafl ona: Ch poranH? 

— KaRx ocrpoyMHo! — aaobhto npnn^ypHBinHCB, OTB^THJia Bapji 
H CB npeysejiHqeeHofi He6pe»H0CTBiD o6paTHjiaCB Kh JiaReio: — B[BaH'B, 
BejiH sanpeHB „FojiyóqHRa^. — H ona Bususaioii^e nocMorp^ja na 
fipaxa. 

^rojy6qHR'B'' ÓLuia .lonia^B, or^aHnafl wb pacnopaseme Bapn. 
BparB CBoeS JomaAH em^e ho hm^i, h sto cocraBJULio ero caHoe 

60JIBH0e MÍCTO. 

rjia3a ópaTa Aase norycRH&in, h oh'b c^^ajicfl MOJiqajTHBO, ho 
6e3ycji0BH0. Bapa crajia He6pesH0 Han^BaxB h hhtb qa&, nosBaHHsafl 
jioseqROĚ. 

Tyxi m> cpasenie BnimajiacB „xeTa'' OjHMniaAa. 

— Te6t 6u, BapeHBRa, ho cji*AOBaJio yfeaaTB, — (tb h'62rhoctbk>, 
Roxopofi npoTHBop^HHJin eji HeAOÓpue seiTue oasa, CRasajia xersa. 

— Orqero, xexa? — cnpocHJia Bapa npHBŠTJHBHirB iQHOiťB, xoae 
Majío noxxoAHBniHMX R'b ÓoeBOMy h BEistiBaioii^eMy BsrjiflAy ea rjiasi. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



KTKOJKA. 167 

— B^AB... — H TeTEa ch H3JFHraHeft MHorosHaiHTejíBHocTBK) no- 

HH3HJa rOJIOCB: — Vb}í,h UpvkjlfiTh Ch BHSHTOIPB EHa3B. 

Bapfl noHiiJia, ^to HsjíHmHfla MHOrosHa^HTejiLHOCTB ^ojisea 6ujia, 

TtlTB-TO yaSBHTB 66, H OTB§THJía Cb HaiHfflHeS He6pe»H0CTBK), 3Ha- 
HeHÍe ROTOpOH JífiJlXMO 6UJÍ0 61ITB TOSe flSBHXeJIBHBIlfB. 

— ÍTO HťB, jiflwh ocraeTCfl ne cOBciiPBaBe nycroft! Khaba npHMyrB. 
IIojiosHJia opy»ie h TeTRa. 

TasHiTB me bohhomx c&ia Bapa Biriert cb Toneft b% canH h 
3aHyqHJia h jiomaAB, h Rynepa, bo bch) pucB RaiaflCB no yxa6H'- 
eruM^ MOCROBCKEifB yjiHi^aM'B. Ror^a ona BOBBpan^ajiacB, He;^ajeRo 
OTB ;^0Ma efi BcrpiTBLiCfl rhjibb, 'ixaBmifi, o?eBH;^o, oři hhxi. 
Bapa CAepa^HHO, ho npeBŠTJiHBO, bo bcarom^ cjyna^ o^eHB mhjio, 
HasjíOHHJia rojiOBRy, cb npaxaToB ri jrai^y otb Moposa ny^ofi, 

Bl OTB^TB Ha HORJOHl RHfl3fl. KhABB SRO, RaRl H sdb 3TH Clflni- 

Hue yxaxHBaion^ie MymwHu, bctp^thbi h ysnasi ee, Aepnyjr^B 
rojOBoft, TOTOO Jioraa^B, nepejí^B Roxopoft MaxnyjiH RHyroirB, h ne 
cpasy cooÓpaBHJTB, RaRoft pyRoft chatb manRy. Bapa TopatecTBOBajia, 
yjHÓaacB bx My^xy, ho ea TOpatecTBO yj^ecarepEiocB, Ror^a ea 
caHH Aornaji-B bsboh^hr^b Rnasa, h RnasB en^e pasi cnpocHjrB, — h 

T&KHMl BCrpeBOSReHHBIMl^ TOHOMl, RaRHMX y;(OCTOB^paH)TCa, TO^THO JIH 

uHHOBaJo RaRoe-HHÓyAB crpamHoe Hecqacrie, — nasípnoe jih Bapa 
6y;^eTB ceroxHa BenepoifB bx co6paHÍH na ójiaroTBopHxejiBHOMx 6ajiy. 



vn. 

CjiaBHofi napo^Rofi, BOsÓyacAaa BORpyn monoTB h pasroBopu, 
KHasB H Bapa, nocjrl BTopofi Ra;q9HJ[H ÓJiaroTBopnrejiBHaro 6ajia, 
npomiH vb ^afinuft Ój^erb, 3a hhmh cji^AOBajiH $HrypHH7» cb xei- 
Koft OjHMniaAofi noA^B pyRy. Ob Tpy;íOM'B Hanurn cboóo^íhhS ctojpb, 
KanajiepEi cb Tpy^oifB ;^o6hjihcb a^h ab:m% naK) h nenenBa. $Hry- 
pHffB 6hji'b osHBJíeHi 6ojQ>nie ofiuRBOBenHaro, cb npeyBejuraeHHoft 
híshoctbh) oTHOCHJica Kb RHaSH) H CTapaxejBHO He saBrínajrB Bapn. 
Rhasb y3Re cobc^m^b „nponajrB^^ RaRT^ CRasajrB ce(5^ HHCieHHo 
ÍHrypHffB, — MOJinaj^, B0CXH^^eHH0 rjiaA^iJi^B na Bapio, h ecra h 
pastfiajTB poTB, TO JiHfflB }ífisí Toro, HTo6u roBopHTB CTHXH, caiíBie 
cja^RÍe, camie TaHHCTBeHHue, cthxh ÓojiBine Bce ^era, jífií Th)t- 
í^a, ]i» nojOHCRaro, m Hnor^a, po($^ npe^^ Bapeft h nepecajiH- 

Baa BTB H'&SH0CTH AeRJiaMai](ÍH, CBOH co6cTBeHHue. 

H BApyTB ^HrypHHi y^HBjíeHHO BCRHHyjTB Ha Bapio rjiasaicn. 
— KnasB, H3i BacTB Bunuia 6b[ xopomaa HanBRa! — cb p^rhm'b 
eiiixoirB H HeAOÓpfinrB BsrjiaAOiirB CRasaJia Bapa. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



168 raCTHHB'B EBPOnU. 

?yTBÍ9 RHfl3b Tasí H CB&RBJICfl, BaR'B HaROJIOBinaflCfl yJIHTBa. 

— IIoHeMy TaKi? — cnpocHjrb ohi, Óoji^sHeHHo yjutfascb. 

— Bil, fifiJiXMO ÓBiTb, OTJiHHHO yif^^ere hžtb BOstiCeJiBHHfl iň- 
ceHKH H CaioBaiB jiíbrei... A bto sto? — Herepn&iHBo cnpocHJia Bapa, 
p^KO yBasasi B^poMx na hto-to, sa cnHHoft rhasa, h RaBi 6u ne- 
peptisafl caiia ce6fl. 

Khjisb oóepeyjicfl. 

3*^ HHini CT^HH, BiuoseHHOft TeMHO-nypuypoBEiH'B ÓapxaiOMi, 
CTOfl^a Ha nBeAeerajrib 6ojibmafl CikíOCBldXBSM Mpaiiopnafl rojoBa. 
FojiOBa craTyH Óiua oterBa HasjíoneHa h HcnoAJicŇSbfl, ci jri^HHBtnrB 
npespimeifB CMorpikia na CHA^BinHx^ 3a ctojomi. Monpoie saBHTKH 

ROpOTBHXl BOJOCB ^0 HOJIOBHHEI CKpUBaJIH He<5o;iBinO& ynpflMUfi JíO&b. 

TaKaa se syp^asafl, Basi h rojOBa, AJiHHBafl 6opoAa cspuBaia 
nojOBHHy ii^eBi h noA<$opoAOB'B. BeAHafl nacTB n^eKi, aoói h rojafl 
mea Óblih h^^shíi, h Biríkcri ci x^ifB chju»hu h j^hhbu. FoiOBa 
Auinajia Moryqefi qyBCTBeHHOCTBH), Boxopaa npE^aBajia es aHTHHHoft 
Bpacorb nod^AOHOceyH) npeJiecTb; a .iííhb nasjíOHeHHaro ffiivsLemB 
H HaciťJ^nijWBoe npesplme, Hrpasmee obojo rjiasi h na ry6axi>, 
A&iajni 9Ty Bpacory HeAOcrynHOfi, ApadHan^eit, noAiHHflioii^efi... 

— Kto »e exo? — noBTopejra Bapa. 

— 9to... dTO, Basercfl, aHTHHHafl rojiosa Jbou^ Bepa, phm- 
CBaro BMnepaTopa, — cBasaJi^ yAHBjeHBuft bhasb, ne noHHiiafl, vrb 

— HiínepaTopa!.. — nojiymonoTOMi h npcrasHO nporoBopiuia 
Bapfly He OTpuBaa rjiasi otb pmobu. — Ohi b4ai> a^bho yMepi! — 
cjKa6o BOCBJíHEHyja ona, yjojónyjiacB tfucrpo npOMeJiBEHyBOieft yjuG- 
Boft H onflTB CT&oa TJísijiíkTb Ha craTyH) saj^ao h sajioóno... 



— H-Hy, 30JI0T^e! — nporoBopHJTB ínrypííH-B, Kor^a Bapa yiixajia 
CB nojOBHHu 6ajia, hotth ne yAOcroHBi 6ojiBnie hh ero, hh one- 
qajieHHaro khasa, h npoo^ajBHiufB ciOBe^BOM^. 

^HrypHffB úujťb HenpaBi: aro — BpacHBaa h CHJLBHaii „6a6oqKa' 
Tpenerajiia u ÓHJiacB, ocBo6o»AftflCB h8i> CBoeft „KyBOJBH^... 

B. Jl^^fi,JíOB%. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



/••. 



0B30PT) 
PyCCKHXT, HSyiEHlň CJIABaHCTBA 



U *). 

AO KOHaA XVlII-rO B*KA. 

GjUlBflHO())HJIBCTBO COeAHflflJIO B% CBOefi TOOpÍH JSfiSL paaiBqHHfl 

Ha^ua: naiUoHajibHoe hjh njieMeHHoe h B^poucnoB^AHce; necMorpa 
Ha Hxi pasA^bHOCTB H A&se npoTHBOp^HÍe^ — laRi KaB'B bi cjia- 
BflHCsoiťB Mipi^ eAHHCTBO iiseMeHHoe He coBna^ajo Ch Bd^poncno- 

BŽAHUMU yCIOBÍflMH, — OHt BasaJIflCb eMy TOSAeCTBeHHUMH, nOTOMy 

^TO npHM^HfljiHCb vb ocoÓeHHOCTH Ri pyccROMy Hapo;^y. C'b nje- 

He&HOft TOHBH 3ptHÍfl B^ Rpyn CJiaBflHO<{>HJU>CKIIX'B, CHaHajia BecBHa 
lUaMeHHHXl, CO^yBCTBifi BXOAHJO H CJiaBflHCTBO. IIo TeOpÍH MÍpí 

rpeRO-cjaBHHCEÍft, npaBOCiaBHuft, npornBonojiaraJCfl MÍpy repMaHO- 
poMaHCROMy, He-npaBOCJiaBHOMy; c&nuKeHÍe Ch MipoMi cjiaBflHCRHifB 
H, vh osHAaeMOMi ÓyAyn^eMx, oC^AHneme c^ hhm'l yRHBUBajiocB 
mn i^B A^fl BCTHHHO HapoAHLixi crpeMjemň pyccRaro o6ii;ecTBa. 
Kb TO xe BpeMfl, h cb oCšhxi TO^esi spšnifl cnaBflHO^HjiBCTBO 
OTHOCHJiocB CB BpaflHHMi orpei^ameiTB bx A^TejiBsocTH Ilexpa. 
Mesxy T^HT*, Kor^a bhoci^actbíh nHcaTeira, jifijKe pa3A'&*iflBinie 60- 
ňe Rjra MesÁe hash craparo ciaBflHO({>HjiBCTBa, HcnajiH vh HcropÍH, 
CB Kasoft nopu Ha^nnaeTCfl y HacB nepBoe c6juiseHÍe cb ho- 
B^tniHirB ciaBflHCTBOifB H ero Hdyneme^ to OKasuBajiocB, ^to nep- 
BEd cosHaTeJiBHBifi HHTepecB Jffb ciaBflHCBOMy MÍpy H nonuTBH ero 

BSyqeHÍfl OTHOCflTCfl HMeHHO BX IleTpOBCKOMy BpeMeHH. OaHHI H31 



*) Cm. Byme: aopfajb, 584 crp. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



170 B^CTHHK^ EBPOmi. 

9THXT» HHcaTejeft Ha^HHaeTi Hcropiio pyccKaro ciaMHOBiAeHia co 
BpeMeHi Ilerpa, ROTopufi „caoeio reHÍajiBHOH) Ad^BHOsopsocTÍio npe^- 
BHA'feJi'B, HTO cjiaBaHCTBO HyatHO H Heo6xo;^HMO AM Poccíh, KaB^ 
AJH caMaro nojiomemfl esi bi> Esponi, xaBi h jí^jis. HpaBCTBeHHaro 
pa3BHTÍfl"; Ha^HHafl ci Ilexpa, no ciOBaiii dxoro nHcaxejifl, „Hame 
npaBHTeju»CTBO nocroflHHO sbsbjisijio lOSHUnrb cjib,bsebmi> o eAHHO- 
njeiíeuBOCTH h e;^HHOBÍpÍH h OBasuBajo iswb coflíkŘcrúe HpaBcreeH- 
HOH) H BemecTBeHHOK) noMepKKOio" ^). Jípyroft hctophbb, peenocr- 
Hufi no6opHHB'B cjiaBflHCKaro e^HocTBa, BHAnrB 6% Ilerpi ncTHHHaro 
HaHHHaTeJia pyccKO-caaBaHCEHxi OTHoraemŘ. Botb cjiOBa r. Ilep- 
BOJitýa: „B^B KOHiíi XVII BiEa na i^apcEift npecroJB pyccBÍft 
BCrymuL MOJO^ofi Ilerpí AjreKcšeBH^x. 9totb rcHiaJibHHft pyccKÍft 
Diapb OTJHimo noHfljTB BasBHOCTb H sHaqenie cjiaBAHi í02khux'b h 
sana^Huxx ji^sl Poccíh, h ^'ificTBOBajrB KaBi 6u vb ^yxi cob^tobi 
lOpia KpBa:aHii?a. Herpt, necMOipa na TaateJiyK) BottHy Cb raBe- 
^aMH B3i-3a EajiTiĚCBaro Mopa, ne ynycKajrb h3^ BH^y BejnBaro 
jsikiB^ ocBOÓosAeHÍfl OTb TypoBi loacHaro cnaBflHCTBa „Hamero na- 
po^a, namero asuRa, Hamefi B^pn", RaB^ BHpasiuicfl pyccBÍt no- 
cojTt B^ Kapj!OBii,axx (1699). Mnorie loanue CJiaBane nocrynHjra 
Tor^a na pyccByio cjiy»6y... Kor^a Ilerp-B, nocjrife nojnaBCBoft 6htbh 
H BOScraHOBjenia CBoero BjiaHÍa bx nojuLm^, sa^yMaJii Boftny npo- 

THBl TypBíiH, TO OH-B XOTÍJTE BOCHOJIbSOBaTBCa nOMOB^BH) e;^HH0B4p- 

HBix^ H ejj^HHonjeMeHHQXi Hapo;^OBi Typipn, tfoj[rapi>, cepÓOBx, 
BOJioxoBi, rpeBOBi... DjraffB Herpa ne y^^ascfl, naACK^u rorocja- 
BflH'B ne ocyn^ecTBHjracB, ho vkwh ne Mon^e ufi^h Ilerpa coxpaHHJi'B 
CBoe o6aflHÍe cpe;i;n lorocjiaBflHi*, noAAopsHBaji^ cnomemfl cb hhmh, 
oco6eHHO CB Hepnoropi^aMH h cb yropcBHMH cep6aMH, h ocraxcs 
na CJiaB)mcBOBrB lor^ caMBisrB nonyjuipHuirB pyccBHMii i](apeHi; ^a 
wb OAHOMi Monacrap* b^b cptMCRofl Ýpynreoft Top* oópasi Ilerpa 
BejiEBaro ciHTaercfl ^ly^OTBopnuMi. Ilexpi ne 3a6Br.i*B o 3anaAHHX'b 
cjiaBJíHaxi, HMenno o nexaxi; owb ncBajii cpe^n hhxi& onHTHBixi 
Bam^ejiflpHCTOBi, yHeniixx, jtfixie „BOMe^ianTOBi^; caifB owb, npe- 
ÓBiBafl KB BŠHŠ, pasroBapHBajix cb ^emcBHMH nanaMH no-cia- 
BflHCBH... Bi> noJiBmi Ileipi xo3fl&Hn^ajrB yse no CBoeA box6, h 
TOJBRO OHI yjKepasajTB cascoHi^a ÁBrycra na hojuboboitb npecrojri^. 
nojiflBH yjEe Tor;ía saE-B-TO HyBCTBOBajm neoÓxoflHMOCTB pyccsoft 
onopu npoTHFB H-^^Mi^eBi... CjiaBflHCBift mpb speMOHi Ilerpa, yHH- 
HHaKeHHufi, 3a6HTuft, norpyseHHUĚ vh neBtoecrso, ne mofb y^OB- 
jieTBopHTB sejiaHiflurB Ilerpa BejtHBaro; pyccBÍft iifi,pb xot&tb 6u 



1) „BectxH Bi» 06ía,ecTvb JDÓnTejrea poccificRoii cjioBecHocTH''. Bimycsi IL M. 
1868, npHi.: „O cjiaBiiHORtxeHÍH vh Poccíh^, ct. A. A. MaSROsa, crp. 13. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



0B30FB pyCCKHX^B HSyjEHlft CJIAMHCTBA. 171 

mf^ BOHHOBl, HOpflROB^, y^GHlIXl, apTUCTOBl, peMeCďeHHHROBl H 

Apynixi CB^Ayn^HTB juoAefi npeHHyn^ecraeHHO bst* cJiaBAoi io^hbixi 
H sanaAHUxi: ho TaRHX'B juo^eŘ 6iuo Majio Mea&Ay CJiaBflBaHH, h 
pyoadfi i^apb ]i,oji7Rewb 6ujii> TaRHxi jno^et HCBaxb Mes;(y HHonjie- 
MeHHHBaMH, oco6eHHO MesAy HiiMi^aMH. Q^apB Ilerpí BejuiRiž 6ujrb 
no hcthhí TaRofi „ciaBJíHCKÍň i^aps", RaKHirB ce6^ ero npeAcraB- 
jon BpiixaHH^i h Banofi hmchho Óuji^h CJiaBflHaMi nyseHi. Cjia- 
Boe, HecuOTpfl na CBoe y»acHoe nojnosLeme, no^yfljra Bce sejiHqie 
H ECH) BasHOCTB TaROFO pyccRaro i^apfl jím cjiaBAHCRaro MÍpa, h 
OTHeciHCb Kh HeMy noBCiOAy Cb SHBtiiinHHu CHMnaTiflMH'' ^). 

B-B caMOiTb A&i^9 A^TejbHocTB Ilexpa bi stomi OTHomemH ee 
toácTb HHHero no;i(o6Haro ce&k vb írpewneciBjíoineŘ mocrobcroS 
HCTopÚL Ohi snaerB hjh se^iaeTB snaTB o cjaBanaxi; owb hohh- 
Maen, wio aieMeHHoe po^CTBO, nacB cb hhmh coeAHHflioii^ee, ectb 
HpaBCTBeHHafl, a sskrbwb h nojiaiH^ecRafl CHJia, h naiBsyerca eio 
paairaqHEiirB ofipasoirB: wb Bofinax^ Cb Typi^efi owb pasc^HTUBaeirb 
noAHflTb ÓaJíRaHCRHxi cjiaBflHi ji^si hxi ocBOÓošAeeifl n jljisi ycnšxa 
€o6cTBeHHO& óopBÓii; vb nepByio nopy cbohxi npocBtTHTejiBHUxi 
3i6on OHI nojaraeTL, ^to hosoti jí^b STofi uíbjm BOcnojibBO- 
BaTbCfl o6pa30BaHHUMH H oÓy^eHHEiHR noABMH H3!B sanaji^Haro caa- 
BflHCTBa, KOTopEie fiiuDi HpeAHO^HTaibHii HepeA^ ApyrHMH HHoaeii- 
lUUCH noTOMy, — Raxi oh^b oasHAajrB^ — hto, Bjia^^ cjiaBflHCRHM'B 

flSHBOlťb, OHH ÓyAyn TOTWCB BJUI CROpO BJlSLjsfkTb H pyCCRHH'B. 

Uuffiii ero Bi aroiTB OTHomenÍH ne cobcšitb ocyn^ecTBHJiHCB: bo&hu 
Cb TypI^dl 611JIH He bhojhí^ y^a^Hu; ocBOÓosA^HÍe 6aj[RaHCRHX'B 
cjaBjíH^b AOCTErHyro ne Óblio; sana^nue ciaBHHe ne 6ujih bi co- 

CTOflHÍH Saiť^HHTB ^yjRHXl HHOSeMI^eKb, — HO UpH BCeiťB TOlfB Bl 
PyCCRO-CJaBflHCBHXl OTH0HieHÍflX'B H BTB CaMOMl 3HaHÍH CJiaBflHCTBa 

HerpoBCRoe Bpeiifl cr&so BasRHOŘ anoxoM. IIjiaHu Uerpa^ noHAiue 
HiH yraAHBaeiiue h npeAnaiaraeMue, nanun BOcropsKenniie orro- 
JoesH H B% sanaAHOiTB, h vb ioshomi caaBflHCTBi. Ero hma npi- 
otípiio Banixyio CJiasy; MaJO snajiH o npesHHXi mocrobcrhxi ii^a- 
psTB, HO HMfl Ilerpa a^BJísmocb cb onpeA^eHHUjfB noH2TÍeM'B se- 
iHRaro cjiaBflHCRaro i^apa, na Roioparo hosho Óbijio BoaiosHTb 
ffi^exAT CB060AE1. Ero hmh BOcn']bajocB bi y^enofi noasm AaJina- 
fSBuevb, vb HapoAHOft nodsin cepÓOBx; Bume npHBeAeHO yRasame, tto 
vb OAHOMi cepČcROiTB MOHacTupi ^pyniRofi Fopa noprperB Ilerpa 
BexHRaro crajrE HyAOTBopHUM'B o(5pa30ArB. Gt> ApyroŘ cropoHBi co 
BpeMOH^ Ilerpa vb pyccROfi »h3hh, vb Bonpoc* o ÓoptÓi cb My- 



»> „CiaBírae", t. II, crp. 408—411. Tam «e, cíp. 216, 384—394, h ;q). co6paHii 
jttsaHifl o BejHKofi CMSLseb Uerpa B. y saDaxHHxi h dzhhxi cjasiiHi. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



172 B%CTHHin> EBPOnU. 

cyjiBMaHCRHMt B0CT0ROMi>, npesHÍfi no^TH HduiOHHTeuHO rocnoA- 
CTBOBaBnriK hothfb san^nTu eABHOB'bpi^eBi HaHHHaen onpeA^^TbCfl 
Bi MOinBi san^HTU eAHHonjieHeHHHROB^. Ob 8Toro BpeMeHH no npe- 
nMyn^ecTBy BonpocB boctohhuíí HaHHHaen a^atbca xaRse BonpocoMrb 
csaBflHCBHMi. Aajbine ysasKenrb, tto npa Uerpi ABiflerca bi Ha- 
me& JiHTepaTypi nepBaa Kuuia o CAaesHcmeih. 

Jífi CHXi nopb He BEiflCHeflo AOcraTO^no, bsi> RaRHxi hcto^hh- 
SOBI H B036ysAeHÍfi BupocB HHTepecb Ilerpa BejHBaro si CJiaBAH- 
CTBy. IIoApo6HOCTH nojLwnpiecBJOŘ h A^njiOMaTHHecBofi HcropÍH Der- 
poBCBHxi BpeMeHH eii^e A&JeBO ee paspaCoiauu, Rafi'B eu^e ne 
HSAaHa ÓojBmafl nacca apxHBHaro MaTepi&ia; o6cTOflTeibHoe HS^aHÍe 
Oyiiarb canoro Ilerpa TOJbKO Hanaro btb nocj^bAHÍe roAu. Kor^a 
noABHHyrcfl HcropHHecBÍfl HsucKamfl, óesi coTiwbaiíi BUflCHHTCfl h 
8T0Ti» Bonpoc^. Bo BCflROirb cjiynaš csbAeiúíí Ilerpa noqepnajiHCB H8'b 

paSHHX^b HCTO^HHKOBl. IIpeSAe BCerO AOJUKHa ÓEUa A')bS^CTBOBaTb 

noiHTHHecBafl TpaAH^ifl, CTapuft ouuvb mocbobcsoě AHiuoHaiiH, ch 
BOTopuMH Ilerpí ffljimj&wh 6uji% BCtýkmubcsi Tornaci, sor^a bob- 
HHKJiH nepBua A^a cib Typi](ieĚ h nepBua npeAnpiaTia Ha ?ep- 

HOMX MOpt. B^ nOCOJbCKOMl* HpHBasi JíflJMBSi ÚhUldk HaBOHHTBCH 

orb cTapHxx Bpeneni óoibrnaa uacca CB^^A^HÍfi o lypei^RHXi a^- 
jiaxi H Kb TOiTb HHCjr& noBasamii M'bcTHUx'b npHBepseHiteBi h 
arenroBi Poccíh, HacrÍH) rpeB0Bi>, Hacriio ciaBflHb^ nacriiD mojao- 
BJiaxoBi (pyMUHi). HoBua A'bJia A^BajiH noBOA'b 6mxe npHCMOTp^trbCfl 
Ki M'6cTHUM'b ycAOBÍaiíi fi&iBaHCRaro CdiaBflHCTBa; ho bi pysax^B 
Ilerpa ioSHO-CJiaBAHCBÍa CHomema npioép^Taiorb Óojiíbe onpeA^eH- 
Hbitt xapaRxepi, h BOSHHsaerb uucu yaie ne toako 06% eAHHort- 

pÍHy HO H o eAHHOHJieMeHHOCTH. 

^McTBHTejibHO, crapaa MocBBa Morjia yace míinh óojiEmott sa- 
nacb cB^A^HÍň, npHX0AHBniHX'b bx nocoJbCBÍfi npHBa3:b. Ob naAe- 
HÍa CflaBaHCRHxi i^apcTBx h KoHcraHTHHonoJia, B'b MocRBy npexe- 
saerb mhofo CB^ji^eniA o TypeAKHxi h óajiKancBHxi A^arb Biiicrb 
Cb MHoroHHCJeHHbíMH npHnieji[bi](aMH — rpesanu h cjiaBaHaMH ^). IIpH 
HBaH-b ni aBJíaeTca bx Mocbbí^ rpeqecBaa i^apeBHa, hto^bi craTb 
pyccRoň i^apHiJ^eň; cuh7> HBana lil 6ujl% senarb na MOJiAaBCRott 
BHasH*! Ejienš, AO^epH Ořezaná BeraBaro; rpHropítt U^aifBJUucB, 



*) ysadania o6i dTOin co6paHH 6wa vh nHiirt t. Ranrepesa: ^XapiOTepi otho- 
meHÍi Poccíh ki iipaBociaBHOMy BocTOsy vb XVI h XVII ctoiítííix'^*^, 1885, o mm- 
Topoit MU roBopHiH vb „B. EspooH*' 1885, Maň. Jífiis^ nocoiLCKaro npEsasa asjlb yxe 
MHOzecTBO jiK)6onuTBtfin[Hx% CBixeHift HamHiTb HCTopBiuurb; ho eiue zAfTb c^eI^an- 
Haro HscjiijLOBaHiii. H^yrb noApoÓHofi paspa^OTKH h OTHomeHŮ ciaBAHCRia craparo 
BpeMeHH; Mesjíy opo^HM-b bi nacTOjmiee BpeMJi roTOBaTca H^xania niKOTopurb crapiixi 

IUUUITBBK0B1>, HHTepeCHUa Vb 9T0MI OTHOmeHUl. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



OBSOFb pyCCRHX^E mYHEfaŘ CJUBflHCTBÁ. 173 

neiHKi sHaMeHBTaro itb 6ojrrapcROft HcropÍH naxpiapxa Ebohmía h 
(3ixibej[B naxemfl tfojirapcKaro i^apcTBa, craHOBHicfl bi Poccíh 
sieBeiunrb MHrponojiHTOifb; b^ MocRBy npexoAflTB y^emie khhs- 
HHKH, KaB% H^Bor;^a IlaxoMifi cep6HH^, MaRCHirB rpeRi, no3;iH^ 
6paTbfl JÍHxyj(H, HBBOJiafi Gnaeapift h "". jl. B% MocsBy npaBHJiBHO 
^eTB cib npaBOCJiaBHaro BOcroRa MHOsecTBO „ÓoroMOJiBi^eBi^, npo- 
cnejet mhjioctuhb, hs^b BOTopnxi naÓHpaioTCfl nocTOflHHue, ^acro 
iciycHHe noji0THHe€KÍe areHTii b^ Typ^iB... Mu bha^jHh Biraie, 
m Hsi Bc6xi BTHXi CHomeHÍfi coópajiocb b% namefi crapofi nHCB- 
leHEOCTH JHHIB o^eHB HeMHoroe j^Jia EBy^enifl cJiaBflHCTBa; n8i» droro 
iCTOHHHva He Binnjio HHRaBoro iit^naro pascRasa o noioseniH 
npaaociaBiji h cjiaBflHCTBa fb Typei^RHXi npe^^ax^B; bmícto »h- 

IHXl BSB^Crit, KOTOpiIfl MOSHO SuJlO nOqepiIHyTB OTh npHXOAHB- 

nniB oHeBiuneBi, AOBOJiBCTBOBajiHCB ycrapijiBDfH h HenojraiíMH pas- 
cmBMB xpoHorpa^a. Ho ecjni h ao bhiishhsobi ne aoxoahjte bth 
xHBHfl oA^ema, to mhofo htb coÓHpajocB vb hocojibcromi npH- 
ttsft, KOToparo ho mopb lomoBaTB npexopiBiirifi wb PoodK) hho- 
3exei^. CB^xenifl npHBaBa Óojan CBoero po^a BaHi^ejiflpcBoá lafi- 
Hoi— Blb načeš ocraBaiocB tojibko o^n^ee npeAcraBJíeHie o&h yrae- 
Temi npaBocjaBÍfl hoa^b Typei^BHM'B htom^b h o toitb, hto sth yrne* 
TeHHiie npHxoAflTB bi MocBBy npo(»TB MHj[0CTiiHa H noMon^H, 

K^ yciyraiTB Ilerpa Óbutb TenepB btotb omirB nocoJiBCBaro 
npiBasa ch toh) paseei^eio npoTHBi npesHflro, hto TenepB caM% 

Wl^ BHOCHJTB FB OTH Zí^Jia CBOH) OtfUÍHyH) 9HepriH), H CHOmeHÍfl 
n DSHHirB daBflHCTBOlTB npHHflJH FOpaSAO 60jrite OSHBJíeHHUft H 

úffteibEíů xapaBTep^. Bx nojiHTHqecBHXi coCutIaxi oto oónapy- 
suocb npflMHiTB crpeMJemeiTB no^HSTB y ÓajiBaHCBHX^B ciaBflHi 
BOopyzeHHUfl Boscramfl, ocHOBanieirB npoqnuxx nojrarHHecBHxi cho- 
o^ft, BaiTB, Hanp., tš, BaBÍa cb tíx^b BpeneHi ycraHOBEjniCB cb 



Apyroft hcto^hub^b CB^Aemfl IleTpa o CJiaBflHCTBŠ Ówrh, b^poatho, 

KHBHUft M npHTOlfB He TOJIBBO pyCCBift, HO H HHOCTpaHmift. U(ř 
Ke& B&pOflTHOCTH Ha^O HpeAHOJIOSHTB HHOSeMHBift HCTO^HEB^, BOP^a, 

Ba]ipinr6pB, qexH flB.iflK)Tca y IleTpa hoa^b HasBameiťB ^emaHx 
ÍBalmieD) EJiH cjiaBflHe Booón^e noA% HnieHeirB „mBjaBOHOBi''. Mosho 
apexDOiioaBHTB 'raBsse, hto CB^Aema Ilerpa vb otoitb oTHomeHÍH 
BBiCHHJHCb CB To^emeMi BpeneHH, RorAa eny caifoiry eiy^HJiocB 
w6iBTB ciaBSHCBie napoAu (Bpoir& IIojBniH, bi BoreMÍH, CaBCO- 
Bi, noMepamn) h bha^tb cJiaBffHi vb Uerep^yprš na CBoefi cjiyactíš. 
HpHBOAHirB OAHHi o^pas^HB^B Hsi BpeMeHx OFO nopsafo nyre- 
3a q>aHHi](y, BOfAa UeTpB, asHBjí cairB b^b FojjiaHAin. pas- 

MOIOAICPB ABOpflHl HO pa3H£IMl BpaflMl EspOHU A^^ o6y- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



174 B^OTHKRl* £BPOUUI. 

qeHÍfl BoeHHOiiy h MopcROMy jiikiy. Oahb y^HJiacb 3% Tomkejíxii^ 
Apyrie Bt Ahfjiíh, HcnaHÍu, BeHer^ÍH. H^RoeMy ^EHOseMi^y'' OcrpoB- 
CKOMy (dTQ úujvh noMB^b iLiH ó^Jtopycci), HaxoAHBineMycfl bi btomi 
^HCJiiy AftHO 61U10 ocotfoe nopynenie — orticKaTs „IIlBjaBOHCKyio 
3611 jfio^: TeKCTi» dTofi 6yMarH coxpasHJica wb ^epEOBOirb ornycsik 
CB coÓCTBeHHopyHHUMH nonpaBKEUH IleŤpa. 

„HaBasHUfl craTbH rpHropiio FpHropbeBHHy OcrpoBCKOiiy", am- 
uufl 2-ro OKTflópfl 1697 ro^a, coctoajih wb cjAjíjfomfiirh: 

„1. "fixaTb Hsrb FarH, pobb^a^bi noA^iHHHO Ha Koropse seMiH 
M M'krra Ójsnusíe h noAaxHŠe, ao CAoseucKOú hjh ao CjioeaHKOi h 
AO mKAseoHCKOu scMAu, A Ha ROTopue iťbcTá no^AerB} 11 ^pesi 
MBH seMJiH H rocyA&pcTBa H BOJBEEie ropoAu, H ht5 otb BOToparo 
ropoAa AO BOTopHx^b }iibcvh Bepcri h mhjíb, h saBOsa Aopora, h 

Bl» nOABOAaXl^ H Wb B0pM'6X'B AOBOJBCTBO eCTB JIH, O TOMl O BCeMl», 

po3B'6AaB'B H pascMOTpa noAJiHHHO, sanecaTB hmhhho. 

„2. IIpHŠxaBi B^ Toe ninjaBOHCByio Benjuo, epobía^tb: noA'B 
KUTopuirB ona rocyAapeM7>, h mhofo jib vb nefi ropoAOBi h snai- 
Hux^B íAcTb^ H MnorojiK>AHa jiB ona, h Basie wb nefi jifoah: ciy* 
^Hjiue JB, hjih Bynei^BÍe, hjih naxoTHue, h BOTopuxi hhhovb óojhoh, 
u ecTB JH Bi Hefi BanHTaHu, nopyxqHBH, noAHopyTHHBH, monepu, 
Óoi^ianu, mTEpiianu h naipoBu, BOiop&ie 61 cjysujiH hju h huhí 
ciysarB na bohhcbhxi Bopadiaxi h saioprax^B, hjih na Bynei;- 
bhx^b BapaÓJiflx^B. 

«3. Jl^a H o TOifB eny npoB^AaTB: saBOBur xairB j[H)ah vb Mop- 
CBOMy nyTH u 60K), ÓyAyrB jih npoTHBi BeneroBi), h na neiTB sa- 
o6uHH'6e, Ha BasHX^B cyAaxi ÓojiBniH ynoipe^jieHÚi m> tfoH) hmík>tb. 
Ha BapaÓjflx^B sul hjih na Baioprax^B, h vb botophs;'b M^ax'B ohh 
Toň BofiíHU ynoTpeÓJUiiorB h b% ^hx'b ^^joraxi? H o loiťB, a^h 
noA^HHHaro yB^penÍH, pasroBopaca 3 snaTHunH Ha^a^BHHMH jh)abmh, 

B3flTB y HHXl Ha HHCBMÍ. IIpH TOMl EpOB^AaiB HOAJIHHHO X^bl KTO 

Toro MopcBaro A'^a h ynorpeóienifl ecTB b^ toS ase aeiu^, hjih 
%)ro ^i flBUBy, H3i 3HaTHi>ix'B nanajiBHux^B jiiOAeft, BHi^e-aAMHpajm 

H HHUXl BBiniHHX'B H HHaBHHXl ^HHOBl, H HMflHa HX^B AByX'B UJOl 

xpex^B, HJIH H ÓojiBniH, sanHcaTB. 

/ „4. Jía H o TOiTB npoB^AftTB: TorB BumeynoMflHyroft CAoseu- 
CKOů uapodz Caoúchckou au hsukz ynompeÓMevm^ h MO^rao .ib cb 
HHMH PyccKOMy HeAoeiMcy o BceifB toeopumb u pasyMrbmt? A hs^b 
hhx^b, BaROBa hh cctb ^nna, ?edí[0B'6Ba Toro CjaBeHCsaro Hai>OAa 
H fl3£iBa npHBecTB ci C060H) ffb ÁMCTepAaarB, jí^jsl noBHamfl asuKa 
hx'b, yroBopacfl c% hhm'b noHeny A^BaiB na m^chii^b. 

„b. Jífi E o TOM^ npoB^AftTB: Toro BumeynoMaHyTaro eapo^al 
MHoro JIH Ha uoýk csyaarrB, hjih Óojibhih na senjui? 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



0B30P^ PyCCKUX^b USy^BHlň CJIABAHCTBA. 175 

,6. ^ eMy ate, 6yAyiH Bt CiaBencKofi seMJii, o BCéM-B Bume- 
nHcaHEOSTB pasB^AftB^ H y^HHfl, npoB']&AaTB: Benei^ufl a^Ji^bo jih 
(3Th Tofi CjiaBeHCROg BCMJiHy u iiyTb Ki* Hefi Ha ROTopufl M^krra, h 
Hpedi HLH seMJiH H ropoAU, h CROJibKO MHJii^ 6yAerb hjih AHefi 
xoAy? 

,7. A 6yAerb CjosaRH AdUKT> CBOft ynoTpefijiflK)!^ n6 nj^ome^^ 
PyccKQto H3UKa, H ysHaTb eBO, ^to ohh roBopara, PyccKOMy qejio- 
BÍKy Óy^en ne mohho, h TaKHX'B BumenHcaHHux^b HanaibHuxi 
jDO^efi H^Tb, H eny ixaib Bib BeHei^uH). A iipí'£xaBL wb Beneii^uH) 
npoBÍA&Tb: ecTb jh bx Beaei^bui BHineonHcaHHue HaHajbHbie j[K)ah: 
KanaTaHu, nopyrqiiKH, noAnopyxHHKH, munepu, nmopnaHu, 6oi^- 
MaHu, BOTopue &b yif&iH CjOBeHCsaro flsuBa h Mopcsoro HCBycTBa, 
H MHoro JIH xaiTb Toro asusa K' HHiix'b flSbiROBx TaRHX^b Jíio^efi, u 
6yAe Hxrb Hafinaib b% rocyAapeBy cjiy»6y, n xaKÍe jtoah bi Mo- 
cKOBCKoe rocy^apcTBO bt> cjiyaLČy noi^yTi jih, h noHeny noxoraTb? 
o TOKb cb HHMH noroBopnrb HaupHH^l^p^ Taiuse h o tomi npoB^* 
i^Tb: Toro CjiOBeecBaro asuRa hhuxi ABUKOB^b Bumnie nanaibEue 

JK)AH eCTb JIH, H RTO HMflHU, H SaRÍe HHHH, H B^ SOTOpUXl ^ňO' 

Tax'B ciysaTb, h Basoe o ce^ hma h noxBajiy vb BOHHCBHX'b Mop- 
cKHxi A^ex'b HMŠiOTb? H TO Bce npoB^AaBi noAJiHHHO, sanHcaxb 

o BCeMl» HMflHHOy H Cb TOK) SanHCBOK) ^aTb Bl AMCTepAaiTB, He 

ximsafl HHrA^*' ^). 

OcTpoBCBÍfi ne hchojihhjii nopynenia, ho HaBasHUH craxbH 
ocraioTCfl jiidóohuthumi CBHA^JibCTBOM^b, BaBx yse BI 9T0 BpeMfl 
Qexpa HHxepecoBajio cjiaBaHCTBo, bhahmo HBBŠCTHoe noBa o^eHb 
M&io. SLaByH) „DljuiaBOHCKyH) hih CjlOBauByH)'' seiLiH) Ilerpí hoa^ 
pasyifŠBaji^ B'b dTOMi cjiynai, mosho BvijíikTb hsi xoro, ?t6 roBO- 

pilTCfl Bl 0C06eHH0CTH O MOpCBOMl A'^^ H CJiaBflHaX^b-MOpflRaX^b: 

dra seHJifl Óujia umoheo Jl^ajuiai^ifl; ho CB^Aonifl o nefi 6buih en^e 
TaBi HeacHu, hto nocjiaHHOMy JiHi^y npeAHHCUBajiocb coÓHpaxb toho- 
ipa^HHecBÍH CB^A^flk, saRi 6yAT0 nuia pi^b o coBepmeHHO HeH3- 
ffkxHbixi crpasaxi*. Bhoci^actbíh dxorb npeAMerb fí^isí Ilerpa Be- 
usaro BbuiCHHjica: na ero cjiyacói 6biJiH jih)ah hsi btoS IIlBJía- 
BOHCBott seMJiH, BaB'b aAHHpaji^b SnaeBHqi, MsjíopaAOBHqi, CaBBa 
ParysHHCRitt h np. 

MosHO iipeAiK>jioď;HTb AftJite, hto Hcro^HHBOifb HHTepeca m> 
ciaBflHCTBy ÓbuiH coHHHeHifl KpH^aHHqa. CyAbóa dTHXi coqHHeHÍfi, 
sasi H 6íorpa({)ifl nHcaTejifl 3a BpeMH ero skhbhh B'b Poccíh, ao CHX^b 



^) ^nBcuia H dyMarH flerpa BejiEsaro^. €hi6. 1887, crp. 199—201. O npexBHxi. 
Djvuifxi dToro AOspieoTa h 06% OcrpoBCKom cm. Tam se, exp. 656. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



176 a&GTHHB1» EBPOIOI. 

nopx HeflCHa; TaR'B, rpy^eo oapejiihjusMSL ao chxi noprB canafl 
creneHB bjeIahía xpy^OFL KpusRaHHqa B'b Poccíh. BHHMaTejiBHuft 
H3CJi'6;^OBaTejrB Toro h Apyroro, r. BescoHOBi, mopb ycraHOBHTb Jiinnh 
HeMHorie ^asxu h3% AOKyneHTOB^ MOCROBCBaro ^ne^aTHaro ABopa'' 
HJH MOCROBCRoft Tiniorpa4)ÍH n ea ÓHÓJdoreRH, npn KOTopiix'B cocpe- 
AOTOHHBajocB H pa6oTajio TaR^b-HasuBaeMoe RppHi^Roe 6paTCTB0 — 
Rpyau)R'B otfpasoBaHH^finiEX^ Jio^ett TorAamaefi Mocrbbi, npaBHTejH 
H cnpaBiiiiHRH THnorpa^ÍH, x.-e. pe^aRTopu ea Hs^aHÍfi. BH(!jiioTeBa 
ne^aiHaro ABopa, aaipiapniafl h BMto^ i^apcRaa, úum rjaBoM- 
mHurb RHHroxpaHHJiHn^eiťB crapott Mocrbu. BpeMfl efl npoi^B^HÚi 
r. BescoEOVb yRasBiBaerii co6cTBeHHO co BpeneHi naipiapmecTBa 
HHROHa, ÓJiaroAapfl osaBjeHHUATB cHomeHÚrBTb cb rpeRaMH h ios- 
HUMH caaBflHaMH, npHTORy y^eHUXi jriOAett hsi sana^Hofi h K>a»oft 
PycH, ÓJiaroAapfl RpyaMty PrHmeBa h RpyTHi^ROMy CpaTCTBy. Ob 
dToro BpeMeHH fb 6H6iioTeRy ne^aiHaro ABopa creRajocB MHOse- 
CTBO RHHTB HBi npHRasa 6ojiBinoro ABopi^a, H3i nocojBCRaro npH- 
Rasa, H3ib 6H6jdoTeRH naTpiapxa, hsx ^BepiHefi** (ABopi^OBOfi) th- 
norpa^in n npo'^. MeaRAy npowicB mhofo RHim Óbtjo nosepreo* 
BaHO nmn RynneHO nocjš CMepTH yqeHBixi JnoAeft, diiisRHrB k*b 
i^epROBHOuy npaBjieHÍK) h r^ THnorpa^ÍH, RaRi mhtpohojihtb cap- 
críK h noAOHCRÍft IlaBe^TB, rjiaBa RpyxHiiiRHrB jííksmejíei u Hanajib- 
HHRi^ THnorpa^ÍH, Eira^aHJfi C^aBHHeipdfi, yneHEie „cnpaBntHKH*' 
RaRi iepett HERHif^opi CHiceoHOBi, KapioHi Hctomehi h ap*; xaji^ 
no CMepTH CeneoHa IIojioi^Raro, GHJiBBecrpa MeAB^AeBa, Jl^aicHrpifl 
PocTOBCRaro. Bi pocnncaxi ÓHÓJiioTeRH newTHaro ABopa mu bb 
nepBBrft pasi BcrpinaeirB h ynoMHHaHk o RHHraxi KpHsanHHa ^). 

A HMeHHO, B^B pOCOHCtl RHHPB MHTpOOOJIBTa IlaBjía (yif. 1675) Ha- 

BBaea iiesRAy npo^eni „RHHra IIoiHnfRa, BeerepcRaa vum HeccRaa^: 
noA'B Heio r. BescoHOFB noHHMaerB hmceho xy RHEry KpHSRaHHqa, 
ROTopafl Óiuia HiTB HBAana noA'B HasBameirB „PyccRoe rocyxap- 
CTBO Bi noj[OBHHÍ XYII-fo B^Ra^. B^B Tott se pocnHCH npOTHBIb 
dTOtt kehve CA'&)iaHa noifŠTa: ,,B3flTa iťb rocyAapio^, T.*e. rsrb i^apH) 
AjieRdio. KaR'B nonaja RHHra r^b MHTp. IlaBjy? F. BesconoB^ o&h- 
flCHflerB dTO cJitAyH)ii^HirB oópasoirB. ApxieiniCROirB CHÓHpcsift h 
T060JIBCRÍ& CHMeoH^, 6&yb comh^hía sHaBinitt RpHscaHHqa b^b ero 
TOÓojBCROft ccujirí (cb 1661 roAa), ocraBHJPB cboh) enapxÍH) h To- 
ÓojiBCRB FB 1663 — 64 r., RorAa KpHa&aHHHi saROHHHjTB CBoe 3Ha-i 
HeHHToe npoHSBeAeme; CHMeoHx bubsbi bb MocRBy nepBUfl 'csí-^ 



^) „KaTOJiH^ecRÍft CBameuHHK^ cepÓi (xopBan*) K)\>ifi KpeacaHHii, peBHHreju* bos 
coexHHeHÍfl uepKBefi h Bcero ciaBAHCTBa bi XVII lAvb**^ II. BescoHOBa— pnAi- craTei 
Bi „IIpaBocjsaBHOMi 06o3ptHÍH'', 1870; cm. sx^cb AHBapB H (|>eBpaJb. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



0B30FB PyCCKHXt KSY^EHlfi OIÁBaHCTBA. 177 

(ipCKÍfl coHEHenifl KpH2saHHW ^), H 0Tb Hero nojiy?Hjrb hx'b iiHrp. 
naseai. Orb IlaBja, npaBHBinaro tofae iipa3;(HHM'B naTpiapiimM'B 
iipecT0JiOM'B, KHzra EpnautHE^a ecrecTBeHHO Morjia ^oíltu ao AjieKctfl 
MflxafijiOBEHa. Ectb h ^^pym yKasanLi, ito EHHrn aoxo^^hjh ao 
i^pfl AjieEC^: Bi iipHBa3Hux'B A'^ax'B apxHBa MHHHcrepcTBa hho- 
CTpaHHux'B jííbjrh CM. CaiOBBeB^ Hamejix no^^B 1674, hto neasAy 
i^pcsHMH BHHraMH, BOTopufl nepeiuerajT* HHOseiieAx SÍTSJ3n> 3h- 
sy^ ynoMflHyTL ^chhcokx ci> bhhi&hi^u K)pi>fl Cep6eHHHa^; x.-e. 
EpHauiHHHa, H CojOBBeBi nojiaraj'B, hto ero xpyxu (HMeHHO 
glIojiHTiiKa'') He ocraBajwcB Cesi BjdflHÍfl ^). Bi n^apcTBOBaHÍe 6e- 
j(opa AjeBCŽeBH^a, RpHsanHHi 6BLa'B ocBo6o;KAeHi h Bepnyjica hbi* 
Ch6hph; HeH3Bto:H0, ?tí> crajocB Ch hhitb ^a^nie, ho ero RHHrH 
He Ófdja saČHTH h ohatb n^yrB bi xoa'b. ApxienHCBonx CHMeoH'b, 
HtEor^a BiiBesmiĚ hsi Ch6hph (no npeAno.io;KeHÍH) r. EescoeoBa) 
JIojbuěsj'' h yAaj[HBmiňcfl na noBoK, 6wii> CHOBa npHSBaHi Ha 
ciysenie h vb npesHeM'b cant npHHflji^ bi ynpaBJíeHie THnorpa<|^ÍH). 
CmeoHi* IIoTOi^Bift, y^HTejiB Oe^opa, a&bho yse sanuniJULTB ocho- 
KTb ocoCyio THnorpa4)ÍH), nesaBECHiiyH) oitb naxpiapxa^ ors boto- 
paro (xorAa Óhjii loasHirb) ne Bcer^a moseho Óujio nojy^HTB ne* 
oÓio^HMoe A^fl HSAaHÍfl BHHrH ^ÓJiarocAOBeHÍe^, n ÓOJiie ÓJHSByK) 

KB I^pK), Ha BOTOparO MOSHO ÓUJO HM^TB BjáflHÍe; dTOTB nJiaH'B 
fiOTB OT^aCTH BHHOJlHeH-B C^ OCHOBaHÍOMl „BepXHefl", T.-O. ^BOp- 

i^OBoĚ THEorpa^ÍH ^). Ho CMepTH nojiO]](Baro, ona nepem^a b^b 
ynpaBjeme CHJiBBecrpa Me^BŮ^eBa, h noBH;iHMOMy naiajtacB vb nefi 
ozHBjeHHafl A'9^^iTeiBH0CTB: iffb „BepxEfoio^ Tunorpa^iio Bce 6ojiBnie 
TpefioBajHCB varb crapofi bhhfk h pyBonnCH a^a HS^ania. Bt> aBrycr6 
1681 caafB i^apB nod^THj'B npHBasT^ ne^ainaro ABopa, sameji bx 
6fl(jioTeBy H OTo6pajrB H']teB0J[BB0 pyBonHcett, Boxopufl Bai&ii b^b 
ceSk AOcraBHTB; fb ^mcjň hxx 6Bi.ia „IlojiHTHBa na ^emcBOicB 
s2saA*y — BaBi no^iaraerB r. EesconoBi, totb caMufi dBseMnjiapi, 
soropHfi 6hLjrb bx pyBax^B i^apa AjieBcl^ h BOSBpaxEaca kb 6h6j[ío- 
Tesy no ero CMeprH. E^Ba jih coMHHxeJiBHO, hto BHHra EpesaHEw 
fou HMeHHO yBasuBaeMa Oe^opy AjieBcieBHHy. Majio xoro, — co- 
ofetaerB r. BescoHOBx, — ^epesi nojiro^a eme bsjitii bhhth c!b ne- 
^axHaro ABopa, T.-e. hsx 6u6jdoreBH THnorpa(|)CBoK, vb „Bepx^B^', 
no HMeHHOMy yBasy, h npnroirB npsMO „bx HacrepcByio najiaTy^, 

1) allpas. 06o3p.*, 1870, AHBapB, cíp. 184 — 135. 3iick tojilko ne coudkwh cxo- 
mca loxK Biiiaxb CneoHa r. BescoHOBi c^HTaerB to bi» 1664 -m, sorAa KpHsaHHH-b 
ampoLjeh ^noxHTHsy**, to kl MapTi 1663-to. Cp. CTp. 136, npHiťbH. 

*) HCTOpÚl POCCÍH, T. XIII, CTp. 196, H npHM. 171. 

*) lipas. 06o8p. 1870, jub., cTp. 138; MafisoBi, „O^ep&H hsi HCTopis pyccK. iHTep. 
IfH ■ XYin CT.« Cn6. 1889, CTp. 160. 

ir«n m.— Maí, 1889. 12 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



178 mcTHKWh SBPOnu. 

T.-e. B^B ^(BopiíOByH) THnorpa$ÍK) jm neTOin: vb racjit norpe- 

60BaHHlIXl BHHTB ÓUJIB. OnflTB „IIOJHTHEa nHCBMeHHaS CJiaBeH- 

CKaa*. Bi 1686 toaj yMep^ omwb esx saMiTOTejbHMraHxx A'ia- 
Tejeft crapoft Tiraorpa^iH — iepeft Riíke^o^% CHMeoHoe^, h ero 60 • 
raTaa ĎHÓjrioTeKa hs^ khhitb cjiaBaHCEHX'B, rpenecKHx-B, jmithhckhxx 
H ffi^e H^CROJibKHx^B BocTo^Huxx ^) nocxynHJia Bi THnorpa^ÍK). 
S^icb Hiri&jiacB KHzra KpnataHHHa De Providentia Dei, osarjiaB- 
jeHHafl CHMeoHOBHMi „o npoMucjit Cosíh", h Kpowb Toro en^e 
pflA^ jzi^pyrHXi co^HHeHÍfi KpHsaHE^a; a HMeHHO b'b pocnecH ysa- 
saHH: „TpH KHHrH HHCBMeHHHa CepÓHHa lOpBfl BíjiHKa (x.-e. (MkiBi^a), 
BX TOMX íHCJií KHHra rpaMMumuKa Bi jíecTB, jía bt» nojijificth eso 
K)pBeBU pyKH: KHzra QÚAunenie na CoAoeemyfo WeAoĎumuyio Aa 
KHHra o CsfunoMz tcpemeniu'' ^). HaKoneiíTi uu BcrpiqaeMx KHHrH 
KpnataHHHa b-b ÓHÓjrioreKi HaBicrnaro CnjBBecTpa MeAF6;íeBa. Kor^a 
8TorB Hec^acTHBiK npeeMHHKx CHMeona IIoJioi^Karo BM^majcfl b-b 
i^epKOBHO-nojHTHHecKÍH pacnpn Toro BpeneHH, óiaLajii-Óujio bx 
noJiBmy H ĎHJiTb cxBaTCHB (bx 1689, a kb 1691 KasneffB), ero 

KHHFH ÓErJH OTOÓpaHU H OnHCaHET Ha nepBUfi pa3X ^eJtOBiEOBTB AO- 

BOJiBHO ÓesrpaMOTHEiifB, ÓETJíH cjioseHBi vb KJiaAOByK), a no CMepTH 
naxpiapxa loaRHifa yKasoirB ÁApiana 6ijjih nepe^anBi b'b THHorpa^- 
CKyH) ÓHÓJiioTeKy h npn btoitb CHOBa onncanLi, h h3i> ohhch, xoth 
H na 9T0TB paax ne BecBMa toihoA ^), OKasHBaeTca, ^to bx CnCjrio- 
TeK^ MeABŠA^Ba Óbtjio h6ckojibko connHemS KpasanH^a, KaKx, nanp., 
ero pa6oTH no pyccKoS HCTopin, „nojrHi'HKa*', „Beci^a Bajiepia h 
ABrycTHHa" h o IIpoMBrcjii... 



1) Bi rpeiecKofi pysonBCH Foiiepa, npHHaxjiezaBineft HHKH(Í>opy CflueoHOBj, bdo- 
cjrbxcTBiH yneHHfi XpHcriaHi MarreH, cocrasiiBniífl saTaiorb rpeiecsHMi pyBoiracAirB 
naipiapmeft ÓHÓiioreiui, OTRpiui TEuwh ^eMerpt; pysonncb MarreH ysesi sa rpaHHiq^. 

') Cxtxfl no crapHiii pocnHCiWB cyABÓy sHHrb RpHxaHH^a, noxi hxi pasemiH, 
He Bcerxa to^huiih HaHMeHOBaHÚíMH, r. BescouoBi jcLiaerB oxHy omHÓKy. 6i ^racjríb 
pyKonBcefi HHKH(|)opa CHMeoHOBa, noTpeÓOBaBHiixi naTpíapxoiii IoaRHHO]r& na ero cbj^ 
THTejibCKift ABop%, ÓHja KHHTa „OnHcaHÍe BHHiy ROTopHMH K% nofRÓexH H Ki paso- 
peHÍK) uapcTBa npHXOxATb''; r. BescoHOBi (Taní se, aHBapb, 147 — 149) xyMaen, hto 
dTO sarjiaBÍe „cctb oieasjíHO pyccsift nepeBOX^ iHTyia h bmíctí HSJoseHÍe cymaocTR 
H3BÍCTHaro npoHBBexeHLfl lOpiesa o HpoMHCii*^, rxi ecTb ^acTHiui sariasú vb Tasoif^ 
pox*)^: De causis ▼ictoriarum et cladium; ob peccata incognita nos patimur clades 
H T. n. Ho vb crapuxi ÓHÓjdoTeKaxi o^eeb HSBtcTHO 5hio oco$oe co^niHeHie nox-& 
dTHMi sarjaBÍeMi, eaup.: „OnBcame bbbií hjib npBnefi (iBTafi: npBiBsi), hmh s'b 
Bi norB6ejiH h paaopeBii) bcabIb rocyxapcTBa npExoxBTi n kotophmb A^aMH bi k^ 
locTB B Vb noKoi coxepxaTCB. IIpeBexeflo ci pasjniHBHxi rbbti jiaTBBCBaro BSHKa na 
pyccKÍfi BacBJíieirb GaxaBCKBMi'' bi pysonBca IlyÓJi. BH5iioTeKB, ToicTOBCsaro co- 
6paBÍa, II, J^ 895; laM* xe I, >6 171, 339 b ipyr. 

') Ho MB^HÍK) BescoBOBa OHa c^iJiaBa „toibobo b pasyKBO**; bo npBBexeBHHB hite 
caMBMi sarjiaBk (CTp. 156—157) ae ocoÓgbbo tojibobh b paayMHu. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



0B30FB PfCCKHXt HSyTOHIĚ CJTÁBaHCTBA. 179 

IlepccMaTpEBafl ynoMHHamfl o SHHraxi KpHaiaHiraa b% sthxi 
OI^lCflx^ H onitTBaxi THnorpa^CROtt ÓHÓJiioTeEH, mu bha^k, hto 

fflKOTOpUfl H81 nvrhj H HMeHHO „nOJIHTHRa^, OÓOSnmSJOTCSl O^eHB 

crpaHHO: „BeerepcEas hjih ^emcBafl^, „ELojiHTnBa na ^emcBOMi 
sshbí^, „nojroHO-jaTHBCEaii'', HaRonei^x „CJaBencKafl''; hhkto udrb 
oiraciiBaBinHxi BHHry, nBxe „tojirobo h pa3yMH0^, ne nonaji'b Ha 
eacToamee o(5o3HaqeHÍe en — pyccKo-xopBaTCKOK) hjh pyccK0-cep6- 
axm. IIpaBAa, cairB RpnmaHHTB cÓHBajTB onECEiBarejiett ci nyxE: 
FE nepBiiX'B BHnraxi cbohx-b ofb nnineTB no-CJiaBAHCRn ^aTHHCRod 
asfiyRoft (reri ynorpetfjifliOTB ee xopBaxBi), a Hnor^a no-jiaTUHH; 
HO HasBaxB RHHry BenrepcRoft, TCincRoft, nojiBCRoft — SHa^Mo hmítb 
spaflHe CMyTHUfl npeACTaBJíeHÍfl 06^ dTHXi Hapo;^ax^ h fl3URax'B. 
TaRHiTB o6pa30ifi, eare y^enue MOCROBCRie Jiiom XYII-ro B^Ra 
4uH saHHxepecoBaHU coAep:fRaHÍeMi> co^EHeHifi KpHsaHH^a, to 

eAví BCe-TaBH OneHB MaJIO CBÍA6HÍ& o TOM^ CJiaBAHCTBl, BOTOpOMy 

nieHHO 9T0TB HHcaTejib nocBfln^ajTB cboh xpy^ii. 

Cs^Asi AajBme Hcropiio co^Hnemfi KpHsaHH^a, r. BescoHOBi nojia- 
raeTB, qro c% Kouufi^ 1680 ro;i;oBX oh4 6hjih aaÓUTa: nacrynHJH co- 
^STifl, ROTopufl JierBO MoryrB oÓ^achatb sto saÓseHie. Bi caMoft th- 
norpa^ÍH npoHSoauH 6ojibinifl nepeirbnu: nocjrfiAHÍfi HeJiOBÍR-B, y ro- 
Toparo Morjfo hícrojibro coxpaHHXbca crapoe npesame, Cujix bsbíct- 
Hiitt RHESHincB OeAopi IIojiHRapnoBi, ROTopuft, OAHaRO, AaJieRO ne 

MOrB paBHflTBCfl CB CBOHMB npeAmeCTBeHHHBaMH. BnOCJI%ACTBÍlI 6h- 

^iÁoreRa 6ii;ia saB^AusaeMa h onncusaeMa nHOCxpaei^aMH, RaRi 
rpeRi CRia^a, no3AH'ie H^Mei^RÍfi yqeHBifi MarreH, Roropue, Bnpo- 
TOiTB, HETepecoBajTHCB B'BaToft ÓHÓjrioreK* TOJiBRo pyRonHcaMH rpe- 
^ecRfniH. B^B npoMe»yTR^ Mes^y dTBMH oimcaHÍAMii, bi i^apcxBO- 
Banie EjmsaBeru, cocraBJíeHib óujii hobuS RaxajiorB, no CJiOBairB 
Be3C0H0Ba, „AMcTBOBaBinífi ao canaro nocji'i&AHflro BpeneHH: aobojibho 
TOTOBiĚ FB nepeTOCJieHÍH RHHrB, HO BecBMa c6hbhhbu& Bi Hx^3a- 
rjuiBÍflx^, xoTfl H nepeBo;(HTB HX'B nocroflHHO no-pyccRH^. H 3A'£cb 

OIUITB MeSAy „.laTHHCRHMH H nOJIBCRHMH^ RHHraMH HaSBaHEI CO^H- 

HeHÚi EpHsaHHqa; o^na RHHra 03Ha'9eHa RaR'B naimcaHHafl „latino* 
bohemice'', a cÓopnHRi iiaTepiajiOB-B, cocTaB^enniiifi KpnsaHn^eirB 
no-pyccKOft HcropÍH, Ha3BaH'B ^Hcropia pocciftcRaa na ho^ibcromb", 
— xora nojBCRaro SA-fecB nn^ero hítb: 3A'íjcb naxoAflTca BtinocRH 
npflMO ir3i pyccRoft jri^ionncH tojibro jaTETHCRHMH 6yRBaun ^). B^b 



O r. BeacoBoiTB no dioMy noBo^y jKopiierb XVin bíkx „BOimpesniiMCfl Hestse- 

Cmnrb OTHOCHTeJBHO pOXHOft CTapHHH, TEKl TTOnOCjd^ npHIDJOCB OTKpHBaTB CO^HHeHÚI 

RpixasBHa bohth sasi AvepiiKy**. Bro 5ojiie vbwh CTpaHHo: vtó se cx^aia caMa 
eiapsBa XVII Bisa, hto6h npHbecTH hxi bi hsbícthoctb? Rehiii RpnsaHHHa xe- 
zaiH Wh KaseHHoft ÓHÓjioreBi, rxt 5hjih xocTynHH tojbro cjtyjicHBmHirb bi neft iHi^ain 

12* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



180 B^bcnaoffh ebpoiih. 

BOHit'1 Xyni BŽKa, Kor^a Hobhkobi HSii^aBajii „JI^pesHiaK) poccifi- 
csyK) BnBJíioeBKy'' , ohi nepBHfi Haneqaxajinb H'&KOTopBifl HCTopn^e* 
CBÍfl CB^emfl o KpiiaiaHHH'í no^b HMeHeMi K)pifl Cep($eHHHa« 

C^ TOHHOCTLK) HeH3BÍCTH0, 6fiU7> JIH SHaKOlTB IleTpX BeJIHRÍf 

Cb couHeHÍflMH RpnsaHH^a, ho ecxB ÓojtBmafl B^poaTHOCTB, ^nx> 
owk 6hjIh eMy hsb^cthu. Qpn nepBOMi nofiB^emn wb Mockbí Rpn- 
saHHHx ^) o^eBHAHO oCpaTHJix Ha ce6a BHHMame: BaBi hh m&io 
H3BÍCTH0 o($i axoMi ero npeÓuBanÍH bi Moceb^, hsi ero co^EHe- 
híě h hsi ApyrHX'B yKaBanift bhaho, hto oh^ ycffferB saHHTepeco- 
BaxB MHorHxi yHeHux'B H CHJiBHUx^b JiK)Aett TorAanmefi Mockbh;^ 
ero ccfiuiBa 6iuia no^erHafl; ero rhhfh npHBJíeRaBOTX BHHicaHie 
MHTponojiHTa naBJa, ^HTaiOTca y^eniiMH A^TejiflMH THnorpaýin^ 
HaHÓOJie upocBŠn^eHHBíMH jih);(lmh CBoero BpeMena; cjiyxi o hhx^ 
AOXOAHTX flo i^apa AjieKcfia, kx KOTOpOMy ohí Cepyrca Ha Bepxx;. 
HOTOiTB TpefiyeTTb HX'B i^ipB Gcjíopi. Hsí. BpeMen^b Ilerpa usvbctBO^ 
noBa OAHO TOJibBo yBasanie. FjiaBHUiťL Ha^ajEbHHBOM'B THnorpa4>ÍH- 
Óujub B^ TO BpeMfl H cocTOflJinb npH Ileipš rp. H. A. MycHHi- 
nymRHHi. depeši Hero no yBasamflirB Ďerpa h no oÓcrofiieA- 
CTBaiíx TOCTO TpeÓOBaJiHCB H3'B THnorpa4)ÍH pasHBia bhhfh h pyBo- 
HHCH jí^jia. HSAaHÍH H nepeBO^a, ajísi cupaBOBi, h itesAy npo^HMir 
AASL 6opB6bi CB pacBOJOiTB. Bb H0fl6pi 1714 FOAa rp. MycHHX- 
UyniBHHB HHHieTB ynpaaiflBnieMy THnorpa^iefi IIoiBBapnoBy: „Ta- 
BOSB CHH^H BHHry K)pifl Gep6flHHHa^ BOTopyK) OH^B HaioaBHJTB npo- 

THBO pOCBOJHHBOBB HamHXX. H OHyK) BHHTy CHHCaBB HpHHIJIB 

cio^a^ ^). UoApadyMŠBaeMafl BHHra fisiJia nanHcaHHoe RpnaBaHHqeiťB^ 
„Oójnmeme na OojOBeAByio ^ejo^HTnyio^. Jt^ajtBFbfimHXB cvbf,eEÍ& 
o6rb axoMB jííkA ne hm^tca, ho o lOpiš Cep6sLEi/iwb roBopHTCfl 
SA^Cb BaBB o h&hobíbI hsbWhomb, h mosho npeAoojiaraTB, wmy 
BpoMŠ „OÓJiHqeHÍfl'' 6ujiH h8B'£cth£[ i^apH) h Apyrifl BHHrn sroro 
aBTopa. 

n3ai'6AOBaTejiflMB KpnsaHHHa nocTOflnno npHXOAHja láucsh o 
saMŠHaxejiBHOMB coBnaAeHÍH yBasanifi KpnsaHHia cb HanpaaieHieM^ 
IlexpoBCRoft pe^opMu. 

JIl^TeJiBHOCTB KpHsaHHHa npoHSBOAHJia ysBe na CkKiOBBeBa, 
Booóme HaóJifOAaxejiH CAepsanHaro, aas6 xojOAHarOy axo nne- 
qaxjiŠHie TJsjÓOKOŘ BHyrpeHHefi cbash cb npeoópasOBamflHH Uerpa^ 
„EciH BHHra KpHsaHHHa HM&ia BJiianíe (bo spenena AjieBC&f^ 



H 6oMhme HHKoiiy: oni h CTajiH hsbícthh vb HacToaii;ee spěna toibbo vafb dnixv 
dKseiinajipoBi 0(i)4)HiiiaiBHHX'B — bi oÓHUHOBeHHOMi pyKonncHOMi o5hxoa'1^ Hxi He 6hjio. 

') HasusaBinifi ceóji Cep^EHom b^poíitho noroMy, hto axo o6o8Ha^eHÍe (bmícto 
^opsaTa) 6hjo bi Mockbí noHSTB^e. 

3) „flpaB. 06<>3pÍHÍe", 1870, (j>eBp., cíp. 839. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



0530P'B PyGCKHX'B HSy^EHlft GJIABflHCTBA. 181 

Kor^a ona ĎHBajia „HaBepxy"), — roBopHTB CojiOBbeB^, — to npeat^e 
Bcero ^(OJSHa Óujia bi ^HTasmexi ee oKOHHaxejiBHo yHHHTOXHTB 
KHTaHSMi*, BucoRoe MH-lBÍe O cauHxi ceól^ H npe3pŠHÍe r'b ^py- 

TEWb BapO^aiťB, npOflCHHTB C03HaHÍe o COÓCTBeBRUX^ HeAOCTaTBaX'B, 

o npeBMyiitecTBaxi j^pyriixi Hapo^OBi h dTvswb canuMi noABHHyTB 
vh nepeM'lHaM'B, KOTopus ecrecTBeHHO aoji^^hbi óujlu npesA^ Bcero 
BHCfiasaTbCfl vb noApasamn. FjiaBHEift Bpe^i ajisl oón^aro 6jrara (no 
ooBaif^b KpHscaHiraa) npoHcreRaeirB otb HesHamfl canoro ce6fl, Rorj^a 
JDO^H caMH ce(5fl, cboh oóu^as ESJínniHe sroÓSTb, Ror^a c^HraiorB 
^SL CHJBHUMH, 6oraTUMH, MyApuuH, He 6yAy^H Ha caMOHi jiíbjuk 
laROBUMH. PyccRHx^ jHO^efi TflroTHjia crpamnafl 6íahoctb: Kpssa- 
wsn yRasuBaerB na 6orsLTÍŘmsi sanajqifiifl rocyxapcTBa, yRasEiBaerL 
H Ha TO, noHeMy ohh TaRi» ÓoraTii: Anrjiifl h HH^ep^aHAEi noTOMy 
^raTu, "iTO TaATB pa3yMU y Hapo^a XHTpu, MopcRÍfl upsciaHan^a 
v ToprH OTJHqHue; i^B^TerB bchroo penecjio, senmejiiíme h otímnpHafl 
Koposafl ToproBJTfl; en^e cj[aBH']&e h cnacTJiHB^ éuBaerB rocyja;ap- 
•eiBO, Ror^a wh neirE npH dTOMx h saRonu xoponm. RaRi, Hanpn- 
iňpby BO $paHi9H. A Poccifl? Ilpn Bceft CBoeft HeH3M']^nMofi mn* 
pOTÍ H A-SHHÍ, ona co Bclxi CTopoH'B saoepTa a^h ToprOBJín; MaJO 
FB h^ ToproBBix^b ropojOBi, hÍtb AoporHx^ npoH3BeAeHÍt, ynii 
Hapo^a xyiiH h rochu... orroro HHOCTpaHHiiM'B Rym^an^ HH^ero ne 
<5T0HTB Hxi oíÍMaHyTB. PyccRÍft hcjiobír-b caMx HH^ero ne BH^y- 
xaeTB, eciH eny ne yRamyrB; RHHr'B y nero HHRaRHX'B wbrb hh 
o 3eMJie;^iJÍH, hh o Apyrnxi npoMBicJiax'B; ohb ji^hubi, ne npo- 
ManueffB...; hseiri ero 6ijí,ewb...\ ncTopÍH pyccRÍft neJiOB^Rx ne 
SHaerB, HHRaRHX'B nojiHTHqecRHX^ pasroBopoBi Becm ho Moserb, h 
flOTOMy EHOcrpaHi^u ero npesHpaiorB^ h t. jí,. CojiOBbeBi ^onoji- 
BfleTB en^e jipyreMH, Haifb 3HaR0MBiMH yse, ^epTann „neqajcBHyio 

SapTHHy HapOAHarO 6aHRpOTCTBa B% dROHOMHHeCROlfB H HpaBCTBeH- 

fiOMi oTHomeHin'', HapecoBaHnyio KpHsaHH^eMi; nepeqHCJifleT'B cpe^- 
craa, ROTopuH off& npe;!(jrarajrB a^ih HcnpaBJieHÍH 9thx'b 6%^*^ h ROTopuff 
cocroflJH ffb npocBŽn^eniH h yjyqmeHiu saROHOBi, h npoAOJKsaerB: 
„TaROBa npeo6pa30BaTejibHafl nporpaMMa y^enaro cep6a. Bch- 
iKmy jierRO Moserb noRasaTbCfl, tto IleTpi BejHRÍfi vh CBoeft npe- 
o6pa30BaTe9bHofi ^'^TeJibHOCTH HaxoAHJicH noA'b Bjňsimewb STofi npo- 
qMtMMii. Mil AaJieRH OTb mucjih npeAnojiaraTb sjíibch HenocpeACTBen- 
floe BjriHHie; ho cpaBnenie nporpaMMH KpnsaHHqa cb ffi^TejbHOCTbH) 
Ilerpa o^eHb nasHo: ono hcho noRasBiBaerb, tto nyTH npeo^paso- 
BaHúc, HSÓpaHHue IlerpoM^, ne 6íijh cjiij^CTBieiiirb ero JiHHHaro 
iipoH3BOJia, ero jmmEuwh iRSTJisifl,owb, a 6bzjih cjrfiACXBÍeifb oÓmjuTh 
BsrjiHjíOBx TorAaniHHXT* jiyqniHxx Jiioj^eft, TorAanraHxi aBTopHxeTOBi** ^). 

«) HcTopw Poccíh, t. Xm, M. 1863, cíp. 196—202. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



182 B^CTHHKl EBPOnU. 

Ho Bi 8T0My Mosbo npHÓaBHTB OAHO cooÓpaseHie. H^en 6yAy^ 
mfiSi pe4K)pMU cosp^BajH, óesi comh^hía, tojibbo bi t^hoitb spyry; 
Bi xaKOMi ase t^chomi Bpyry oÓpan^asHCB coHHHeHÍfl EpEsaHHW^ 
H Bo BCflBoiťB cjiy^a^ MHoroe, htď roBopHJii KpHsasHTB, 6ujíO 
roBopeHO UMz oóhum^, h ecJiH cyiqecTBOBajo to saMi^axeibHoe co- 
Boa^eHÍe ero BsrjflAOBi ch HanajaMH nexposcBoň pe^^opnu, to secBua^ 

B03M0SH0, HTO BJlÍflHÍe EpHSaHHHa B'B 06pa30BaHÍH BSrJflXOBl jyH- 

niHx^B JiOAett ÓBUio 6oj[Bme, ^iiťB mu M0xeM'B sasjíOHaTB no na- 
jiHuuMi CByAHUMi ^^aKxaMi. Bi saHUMasan^eHi HacB Bonpoci Morjo* 

ÓUTb, HTO EpHSaHHH'B HOBJliflJIl Ha 6bJlhmÍt HHXepeCB B^ CJiaBflH- 

CTBy — ne tojibbo nojiHTHqecBÍfi, ho HMenno o6padOBaTejibHufi. CaicB^ 
OH^ 6ujn> oĎpasoBanHutt caaBflHHHi, h HEBor^a npes^e, npH bh- 
sobí HHOCTpani^eBx, ne ABJíflJiacB mucsb o npHrjiameHÍH poACTBen- 
Huxi cjiaBflHi, y^eEux% hjiu xexHBBOBi; wh ycraHOBjeniH MopcBoro 
A^Jia UeTpi c% oco6uM'B npeAnoqTeHÍeM'B oópan^aera BHHManie na 
Benei^iH) h JI^ajutaiÚK) n hh^otb TaMi» xopomeň MopcBofi mBOiH 

JÍM CB0BX1» HTenilOBl. BUTB UOSUQVbj MUCJIH Horpa o ABHSeHÍH 

npocBÍníeHÍa, nepexo^aníaro oti o^Horo napo^a b!b apyrony, fb^ 
H3B'6cTHofi pí^H, saHHcaHHoft y BeÓepa O? ne cJLynafino cxo^atcs 
cb HOAOÓHBíMi pascys^eHieiirE, BOTopoe HaxoAHM'B y KpHsaHH?a ^). 
En^e AO Ilerpa noAroTOBjajiBCB 6ojAe ójieskísl CHomemfl c^ 
CJiaBflHCBHMi loroMi, yse ne TO.aBBO i^epBOBHua, ho nojiHTE^ecBui. 
Typei^BÍe xpEcriane npH i^api AjieBctí n npaBBT&iBHHi^í Co^bš- 
oÓpa^ajiHCB Bi MOCKOBCBOMy npaBHTeJiBCTBy CBnpHSUBaMH na BoflHy 
CB Typi^ieň, — BoSey, wb Boxopofi ohh bha&ih CBoe ocBOÓosA^nie. 
IIpH neTp'6 dTa Bofina B030(5HOBJ[fleTCfl, h otb Ca^BancB^ro ciasjíH- 
CToa H^yrB hobus otípan^enifl 3a homoh^bh); pyccBÍe nocju oo6h- 
paiorB na uicA cb^a^hía o Typei^BHXi A^JUkx^, o nojioseniH xpH- 
CTÍani B'B Typi^ÍH, rpeBOBi n CJiaBjiH'B; esb^thuS Bo8hh]](uh'b se- 
Aen cHomeflifl ci caMHMH cep6aMH, HiienHO tímh, BOTopue vh^ 
bohi^í XYII-ro BÍBa BsicejiHJincB noA% npeABOAHTejiBCTBOirB naxpi- 
apxa Apcenifl ^epnoeBHna b^ HUH'6mHH)B9 ÁBcrpiiD. Hsi cpeAs 

CJiaBflH^B ABJflJIHCB JK)AH, BOTOpue CXaHOBHJHCB peBHOCTHBUlH HOCOÓ- 
HHBaMH pyCCBOfi AHHJOBtaTÍH H, HaBOHeAX, A'&fiCTBOBaJH Bl CdMOfr 

>) Das Ter&Dderte Russland. 

') Cm. eme nK)pift KpBzaHH^i**, MapsesH^a, crp. 157 — 160; DepBOJi^a, „CjiasjíHe"^ 
T. 11^ crp. 360: ^IlaiHTH^ecKU muciu, Koropuji KpHxaHi^ nponoBibxHBaji sa PycB, 6uhi 

BeCOMHÍHBO HSBÍCTHH DpH OapCROlIl XBOpt Bl MoCKBÍ. IIoiHTHKa, BMÍCTÍ Cb ApyrHMH 

co^HHeHÍflMH RpHsaHHHa, HaxoxHjacB Bi impcKoft ÓHÓiioreKi. Hin>, npaBxa, np^mixír^ 
yxasaHÍH na to, hto UeTpi BeiHKÍfi sHajii IIojHTHRy, ho bcji xb&TejibEocth »Toro Be • 
iHKaro „ciaBaHCEaro uapa^ ^acro nopadSTeibHo flanoiiBHaeT& ^noiHTEHecRia xyiiR*^ 
RpBsaBHHa^ HaHBBaa ci ycBieflflaro pacnpocrpaHeHia apocsiiKeHÍB sa PycH b aps- 
SHBa xpynixi> ciaBflfli aa pyccKyx) ciysOy, b soaiaji ysasaMB o6i oxejRA^ b 6opoMxi»*u 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



0B30FB PyCCKHXl HSy^EHlfi OSABJIHOTBÁ. 183 

PocdH. TaROB'B 6ujn> EsvbciEuíL vb TlerposcRoe Bpeufl CaBsa Bjia- 
ABCJaeoBHqi Pary3HHCsifi. H'6BorAa Typei](BÍfi noAAaHHutt, owh 6uj['b 
fatHuiTB areHTOMi pyccBaro npaBHT&iBCTBa b^ KoHcraHTHHonojit h 
noTOMT* nocesHiíCfl b'b Poccíh, laK^b EaE'B ero npe6uBaHÍe wh Typi](ÍH 
craHOBHJiocB neŮedon&CEuwh. PyccBÍfi nocoJTB b^ KoHCTaHTHHonoji'£, 
ToiCTOň, nHcajii wb Oe^opy FoJiOBHHy b^ 1702 ro^y, hto CaBBa 
BjaAHCJ[aBjeB'B, ^nopoAOio parysemrai", coÓHpaexca feaiB no Top- 
roBHMi A'&iaM'B vh AsoBi H noTOiťB Bi MocRBy, H coB^Tyers o6pa- 
THTB Ha Hero BHHMaHie: ^hsbojib Cb hhm^ mhjocthbo noroBopHTB o 
^iniHeiťb cocTOflHÍH, nonese owh ^eJLOvbK^ 3^0 HCsyceHi h na 
MHom Ta&HHfl Ben^ BiAOMei^i''. B'b cji^AponteMi ro^y AnpaRCHH^B 
imcaji'B i](apH), hto CaBBa ParysiracKift sejiaerB bha^tb rocyAapeBfii 
OHH, ^a He20Bto'B 3&I0 Ha^oóHiifi, H cB'6xoMi Ha laMonraifl x&^a 
H He rjiynoBa cocroflHÍfl". Buccjiíactbíh, BaKi yBHAHiťB, CaBBa 
ParysHHCBÍfi, BoropuS cjsíb^saca Mes^y t^mi npeAnpÍHMHHBKUťB h 
óoraiuirB He^o^iaHTOM%^ 6pajicfl h sa JiHTepaiypEiie xpy^u, otho- 
CfliiUecfl s^B CďaBflHCTBy. ^MH^pa^iJl vb Pocciio a BcryiuieHie sa 
ea csYx6y CTaHOBM.iHCb A^OBfB Hep^ABHifB; jí^ls. mhopex^b npeóu- 
samé fb Typi^H craHOBHJOCB HeBOSMOSHUMi; Apyrie nB,jsibsíjaíCb bi> 
Pocdu 6uTB nojiesHuiíH CBoett poAnnt. Tasí iilih cH)Aa rpeRH, 
MOJAaBO-BajiaxH, cep6u. IIoAofiHmii oCpasoHi caya&iui^B b'b Poccíh 

MHXaHJl'B MnJIOpaAOBHTB, pOAOHanaJIBHHBli HSB^THOSt 4>aMHJlÍH, BOTO- 

psA fiusan roHi^oifB h aresTOM^B UeTpa b^ loro-sanaAHHXi csa- 

BflHeBHX'B 3eMJIfiX'B. 3a^CB He M^CTO POBOpHTB O HOJIHTHHeCBHX^B H 

BoeHHHxi co6uTÍflxi IleTpoBCBaro BpeneHs, Boxopufl Bce (SojiBme 
npHBjesajH cjimíiwb b!b A'i^aM'B Poccíh, h cb xpyrofi croponu pac- 
npocrpaHflJH y nacx, no BpaňHett u'bpb vb hsb^hom^b Bpyry, cbí* 
A^msí o K)»HOMi H loro-sanaAHOM^B cjiaBflHCTB'6 ^). 

^pedBuraafiHO jhoCohutho^ hto IlexpL BeJiHBii ^ase b'b 6ojiše 
nosAHee BpeMfl, ne y^OBJíeTBopflflCB tÍmh npaBXHHecBHHH CHome- 

HÚIMH, o BOTOpHX'B MEI yHOMHHaJIH, HCBaZTL 06nUIX'B CB^A^HÍft O 

ciaBflHCTBi. Stotb Bonpoci, MesAy npoHHMx, HameJTB nrítero b^b 
ero CHomemaxi n nepenncBi cb JleftÓHEi^eirB. CHomemfl axH, no- 
xpoÓHO HdJioseHHUfl r. FepBe, 6oj^ hjih Menše esb^híi. JíeM- 

1) Otxíahhji CBt;(eHÍ4i o6% aroMi npexnerb paacijiBH y Oojiosbena, bi TOMax'& 
^HcTopÍH*', iiocBiniieBHHxi iiapcTBOBaHJK) ílerpa. I][iiJiBHHfi oÓsopi pyccco-cjiaBflHCKRxi 
OTBomeiiift vb JlerpoBcsyi) 3noxy ciapaica cxiiaTB r. KoHyÓHHCKift, vb khhkk* (cb 
crpaHHHMi saria^iem); „Mh h ohh*', Oxecca, 1878, crp. 1—185: „lOzHue ciaBXHe, 
pjMHaH H neipi BeiBKii vb hx-b BsaniiHiixi CHomeHiaxi^. 

O Oobí BxaxHciaBOBHvb y UeKapcaaro, „Haysa h JHTepaxypa npn Uerp* Bean- 
lom", T. I, crp. 252—255. O MiuopaAOBH^, cm. KHHSKy ero noTOMxa Fp. Mwopa- 
XOBHia: ,0 pojí* jCBopaHx h rpa4>a Meiopa^oBHHi", KieBi, 1875, h y Ko^yÓHHCKaro, 
crp. 127 ■ xajHk. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



184 MCTHHRl EBPOnU. 

HHiíT. eme aa^ojro ao Toro, Kor;ia Jiiprao npeAcraBHJica Ilerpy Be- 
jEESOHy, OTHOCHJíCfl CB 6oJihmmn> HHTepecoirB K*b Poccíh h Cb 
6oJiBinHírB co^yBCTBÍeM^ kb ;í'feflTej!bHOCTH pyccBaro líapa. JleftCHHirb 
xopoino noHHMajix Bejiimoe sHa^eHÍe coBepmaBraaroCH Bt Poccíh npe- 
o(5pa30BaHÍfl h sejiaji-B eny ycirfcxa ne tojbko b-b HHrepecax^B Poc- 
cíh, HO H TOJOBi^eCKOfi IÍHBHJIH3ai^ÍH. ^jMhí xotéjiocb 6h, — HHnieTB 
OffB Bi ffHBap* 1708 r. kx ojiHOMy pyccKOMy ;iHnjiOMaTy, — htoÓh 
i^apB npHBejTB bb ncnojHeníe npeRpacnoe h BejiHRoe HaM^peníe 
i^HBHjiH30BaTB CBOK) o()niHpHyio HMnepÍH) H BBecTH Bx Hee HayBH, 
xyAOsecTBa h xopomíe oóu^an. TaRx RaRx a npeAno^Hraio HHre- 
pecB o6me^ejiOBÍHecRÍft (a ďfeAOBaxeJBHO h cjraBy Bokík)) BC*Mt 
ocTajBHHiTB, ÓojAe ^acTHHiTB HHTepecaiTB, TO H nHTaio caMoe ropflTCe 
acejiame, hto(5u aio naid^peHÍe ocyn^ecxBHjiocB; n6o TaRHiťB o($pa- 
30MX MoatHO 6blio 6u cpaay ycoBepmencTBOBaTB h npHBecTH b*b 
jy^mee cocroaníe sHaTOrejiBHyK) %ctb seiraoro mapa h ho^th bccb 
cŠBepo-BOCTORx Hámero MaxepHRa^. B^b sanHCR'^ o BBeAenín nayR^ 
Bi Poccíh, cocraBjeHHoft AeiÓBmsfiWh bx rohi^í xoro ae row A^m 
OTnpaBJíeHia Uerpy BejHROMy, ohx roBopnrB o npOTMyn^ecTBaxx, 

RaRÍH HMÍeTB PoCCÍH CpaBHHTeJBHO CB COJTfce I^HMJIHSOBaHHBIMH 

crpanaMH vh Bonpoci ^pocBi^^eHÍH. Ho cnoBaMx ero, Poccía npe;t- 
cxaBJíaerB ^hohth Henonaioe nojie; nojtofíno HOBOMy cocyay, ona He 
yCBOHJía ce6š qysAaro sanaxa, h mhofía BRpaBnriflca y HacB oumÓKn 
MoryTB 611TB npeAOTBpameHKi h HcnpaBJíeHBí. ocotfeHHO noroMy, wo 
BcfeMTb (Jy^CTB pyROBo;i;HTB yiTB Myaparo rocy;i;apa*. »HcTHHHyH) 
jiíbjíh HayRH, — roBopHTB íajiBme JleftfíHHi^x, — cocraBJíaerB ójaaen- 
CTBO joo^ieň, TO-ecTB cocTOflHÍe nocTOflHHaro y^iOBjerBopema, na- 
CROJiBRo STO B03M0SH0 jí^s^ ^ojiOB^Ra, npnqeMx OHH ne aojshbi 

aHTB KB npaSAHOCTH H pOCROniH, HO CO^iftCTBOBaTB BCflRÍft HO CBO- 

HiTB CHjiaMx npocaaBJíeHÍK) Focno^a h o6ffl,ecTBeHHOiiy 6jiary'He- 
jiHiieMŠpHOK) AO<5po;í4TejBH) H nosHaHÍeMx hcthhh. Cpe^iCTBO, cb no- 
MomÍH) ROToparo mo»ho noBecrn jno^^eft na stotb nyTB io6poíÍTe.ra 
H cqacTÍfl, 3aRJiH)qaeTCfl wb xopomeirB BocHHraHÍH lOHomecTBa. Uo- 
cpe^CTBOMB BOCHHTaHÍa MOKHO Aa»e y KHBOTHHx-B jíjkidLTh ^Jieca, 
TfeM-B 6ojrbe y Jiio^eft, Roroptie nojyiHJiH otb Focno^a ÓescnepTnyio 
Aymy h cos^ana no ero oópasy h no^oCiio'' ^). 

Bb oí^homx hhcbmí rx IleTpy AeMmm^b BoaBpamaerca k-b 
06'BflCHeHÍH) BejiHRaro sna^eHÍfl HayRi h xyja;osecTFB, „hoctohrbo 
eojíiftcTByion^Hxx cjiaB* Focno^Heft h Ójarococroamio Bcero pojwt 

1) ^OTHomema JeflÓBHi^a ei Poccíh h Ilerpy BeiHKOHy**, no HeHSxaHHHiii 6711a- 
raní JleftÓHHQa bi FaHHOBepcKoi ÓHÓjdoTeKt, B. Tepse. Gb6., 1871, crp. 65, 74; 
^CÓopHHKi nHceMi H MenopiaJioBi JlefiÓHHiia, OTHocjniiiixcji bi> Poccíh h Ilerpy Bexa- 
BOMy". Hs^aii B. Tepte. C116., 1873, CTp. 75—76, 95. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



J 



0B30PT> PyCCKHXX HSyiEHlft CJAMHCTBA. 185 

qeJOB*TOCKaro" h „cocTaBJiflK)mHX'B nacroamee coKpoBHme ^ejiOBt- 
qecKaro po^a, laKi KaK^ nocpejiiCTBOMi* hxx HCKyccrso npeBOSMO- 
raeTB npnpoAy n i^HBHjrnsoBaHHHe HapoAu OTJH^aiOTCfl otb BapBap- 
ckhx'b". Ohx caifB cb ^bjiojlí^vchbs, 3aHHMaeTCJi HayEaMH h mirkjrh 
cqacrie cjiJiaTB bt» hhxx Ba^Hwa OTEpEiría; oh^b Ha^iercH Tenept, 
qro HamejB bx IleTpt MorymecTBeHHaro rocyjiapa, KOTopEift inocra- 
TOHHO HHiepecyercfl HayKaMH h totobb bbo^htb hxb bi cbocmb o6mHp- 
HOMB rocy^apcTB*. „9th BejiHKOjíyinHHa HairifepeHiH Baraero Bejrane- 
CTBa MoryrB cnocotícTBOBaTb 6-TarococTOflHÍH) Óes^HCJieHHaro MHoate- 
ciia jno^eft ho tojbko bb coBpeMeHHOMB, ho h bb rpa^ymaxi 
noKOJiiHiflxx, OKasaTB 6ojiBiiiyH) nojBsy BceMy ^eJiOBÍTCCKOMy po^y, 
ocoÓeHHO ase pyccKHMx h BdfeirB cjiaBAHCKirMB napo^aMB... DpoBH- 
jí$HÍe, noBH;íirMOMy, xoneiB, ^to6h nayna oÓoniJia KpyroiTB BecB 
3eMH0& mapB, h TenepB nepenijia bb CKneiio, n noToiíy HsÓpajro 
Bame Bera^ecTBO opy;ííeM'B, laKB KaKB bkt MoaeTe, cb ojíhoA cto- 
poHH H3B EBponw, H CB Apyroft — H3B Asíh B3flTB Jiyímee h yco- 
BepmeHCTBOBaTB HaAJien^ii^HMH M^paMH to. Trb CA'&^aHO bb o6íhxb 
^acrax^B CB^Ta; h6o bb BaraeMB rocy^apcxB^fe Bce, htó Kacaerca ]í,o 
HayKH, eme hobo h no^oÓHO jracry Ófeioft ÓyMara, a noTOMy moseho 

HSÍirHyTB MHOrHXB OraHÓOKX, KOTOpHfl BKpaJIHCB BB EBpoiA nOCTC- 

nerao h HesaMÍrao. Hsbíctho, ^to ;íBopei;'B, crpoamiftca bhobb, 
BHxosHTB jiy^rae, ^mb totb, EOTopHft crpoHjrca BiKaMH h «iacTO 
noABeprajrcfl HcnpaBJíeHia&rB h H3MÍneHÍflirB^ 0. 

TaEOBX (Jhjtb ofime^ejiOBiqecKift HOTepecx JloiÓEiaijfiL kb Bejra- 
KOMy i-fciy IlerpoBCKOft pe(|)opMH, ycHJHBaeMBift eme ero yjiHBJíe- 
meiiB Ex HeoÓuEHOBeHHOiiy yny h snepriH npeoCpasoBaTejia; ecre- 
creeHHO, hto ch 9thmb HHiepecoiTB coeAHHH.iHCB crpeMJieHifl eb 
i3y?eHÍK) Poccíh, ea Hcropin h ea eapojiOBB. Sa^o^ro ao tofo, 
KaKB nanajiHCb ero CHomenia cb nerpoMX BejraEHMX, ohb óhjtb 
BB nepeiracE^ cb HHOCTpaHHHMH yneeiiMH, sHBmHifH bb Poccíh, 
iojebe ejíe uewbe SHaBímiMH ee h iracaBnraMH o Hefi, saKi an- 
ciepAaHCsig ÓyproMHCTpB BeTseffB, y^eeuft raBeAi. CnapBee^ejiBAB, 
ii3b6cth£[ě ÓapoHB FioficceHB, y^eHufi óepjHHCEÍft 6H6jdoTeEapB Jla- 
Kpo3B H Ap.] OHB EsynaeTB pyccEÍft asuEB, HnteTB CBÍ;i;eHÍK o 
ifHoroqHCJieHHEix'B napoAaxB, Hace.TaK)iiiHXB Poccík), h yicierB onpe- 
xiiarb Hxx dTHorpa^HqecEyK) npEna^JiesHOCTB, BÍpno yEadUBaerB 
He;^ocTaTEH HSBicTHoft, Burae;(raeft nepe^i tíbtb vb Aetmií, pyc- 
CKoft rpamiaTHEH Jly^oJB^a, sHaerB Hecxopa, oĎBacnaeTB npoHC- 
xosji;eHÍe BaparoBB, crapaerca co6npaTB pyccsia EHHrH, h t. a* Bb 



*) lepM, OTHomeHÚi JTefiÓHHiot, crp. 134; C6ophhr'b iracein h MCMopiaioBi, CTp. 
306—208. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



186 racTHiucB BBPOnu. 

ero jijbsíTeshBoi nepeuECviíb ch ypÓHXOirb, pyccRHirB nociaHHHROM^ 
vh Biwk ^)y He pasi BosBpan^aiOTCfl Bonpocn o pyccRofi ApeBHOCTH, 
o vÍTh HSCJiiAOBaHiflxi^, RaRÍfl AOJisHu 6u 6uTb CA'&iaH£i o napo* 
Aax'b pyccBaro rocyAapcTBa h hx'b fl3EiKaxi». SiOMy ypÓHxy a^bho 
6iuo nopy^eHO pyccRHHi npaBHiejiBCTBOMi coÓHpaxb CB^xenifl o 
npoHCxoxAeHÍH cjiaBflHCRnxi napOAOBi; yp6EXi fiesycntniHO o6pa- 
mflJLCSL CB dTEiTB BonpocoiTB Rx pasmoTB yqeHUlTB JIK)AflirB Bl 
Ilpar^, HO, rjiaBHuifB oópasoicB, yRasuBajTB, ?to TaRHX'B CB^A^Hifi 
HaAO HCRaTB y AeŘóvmsfi ^). /(éficTBHrejiBHo, Ror^a wb BA^&J^k 
1712 roAa ypfiuxi iipi'6xaji'B hsi BtHEi bi FaHHOBepi n yBH- 
A^cfl CB JlefiÓHHi^eiťB, nocjftAHÍtt cocraBiLfB eiiy BRpaxi^^ sejaeicyio 
sanHCRy o npoHcxosAemH cjiaBAHi, Roiopafl h Óiua AOcraajeHa 
ypÓHxoM-B B-B Pocciio: ,810 npeABapHxejBHoe H3Jio»eHÍe, — san^^ajTr 

yptíHX^B Bl nHCBMi R'B FoJOBRHHy^ — COCTaBJíeHO Jefi6HH]]ieM'B BRpaTI^y 

HO TaR'B xopomo, HTO, fl He coMHÍBaiocB, OHO AOcraBHTb ero sejn- 
qecTBy 6ojiBnioe yAOBOJBCTBÍe", Biftcri ci tíitb ypÓHXi npocEjrb, 
htoCbi JefiÓHHi^y nociana Óujia RHHra „naiepiiRi'', HeoCxoAHMan 
AJa ero sanarift pyccROiu ApeBHOCTBio ^). 

SaHHCRa Jlefi^HHi^a ^o npoHCxosAeniH csaBAHi^ óiua eABa jih 
ne nepBUMi no BpeMeHH opeM^poirB Hacroan^efi ynenofi pa60TH o 
CJiaBflHCRott H pyccRoK ApeBHOCTHy RaRafl nonaja xorAa bi pyKH 
pyccRHX'B juDAeft. Sa*^ ne ÚhiJio, ROHenno, tíhh npHBBRHaro 6acH0- 
cJiOBÚi no dTOMy npeAMexy. J^jisí cysAcnifi o nponcxoaLAemH h Apen- 
HOCTH cjiaBflHCRHX^B njieMeH'B Jle&ÓHHicB HaxoAHTB ABa cpeAcraa: 
fldUR'B, na ROTopoiťB roBOpflTB 8TH HjieneHa, h ap^bhía obha^tcxb* 
CTBa o HHX'B ECTopÍH. ELo flSiiRy 0H^ saRjno^aeTB, hto secB c^- 
BepB, HacROJiBRO oh:b HaM^B HSBicreHi; pacnaAaercfl na ^exBipe rias* 
Busi HJieMeHH: laiapcRoe, capifaicRoe (csaBAHCRoe, no ipesHeMy 
HasBaHÍK) 8Toro njieMeHH), ^uHCRoe h H^iiei^Roe. „OrRyjra buhlib 
8TH napoAu H oco6eHHO caaBflncRifl nieMena — Hcropifl He b'b co- 

CTOflHÍH 0npeA*MTB, H ipyAHO CRasaXB, RaRl npOHSBeCTH HXX GTS 

>) YpÓHxi Óuj-b Wh BiiHi CBEHaia xaTCsimi nocjaHBHKom, hotomi Bcrynsii Ha 
pyccKyc cjiyjíc6y. 

*) AoBecenie FpÓHxa xasi^epy FojioBRHHy n 1712 roxy: „O BpyveHHoi mhí kom- 
mhccíh o Havaji ciaBAHCKaro napoxa h o hxi nasrb h crapaicfl h pasHHiii ocoÓaM^ 
j^esswb wb Eparl koiimhccíh xaji boí rb sHHra, botophh o Ton inicaBH, opÍHCsaTb 
H Eo mhí npHCjaTB; ho hhkto 5ojBme vb tomi ciyxHTB ne Moxen, saKx lafiHHft co- 
bíthbki JefiÓHHi^i Wh PaHHOBepi; a ero o tomi npocHii, ROTopuH mbí en^e Depexi> 
orh^MfiUh MOHMi aaoHCKy Bpy^ui; a ynoBax), hto to ooHcaflie i^apcsoMy BeiHHecTBy 
yroAHO 6yieTL**. Coioblcbi, t. XVII, cíp. 403—404. 

^) Tepbe, „OTHomeBifl JeftÓBHi^** h np., crp. 186—139; ^G6opBHXi nHceii^b ■ 
MeMopiaioBi, crp. 210—213. O Apynui yneHuxi paóoraxi JeftÓHoiut no ciaBiiHcsoft 
jipeBHOCTH CM. Wh nepBoft H3i 3THXI KHHrb CTp. 40, 43-46, 47, 71, 101—102, i6l. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



0B30P1> pyCCBHX-B HSyHEHift CJABaflCTBÁ. 187 

noTOMBOBi Hoa. yneHMe mhofo o&b btoui* íyMajiH, ho a ne xo^ 
ociaHaBJHBaTBCfl Ha CJniniROMi He^ocroB^pHiixi npe^nojioseHiflxi^ . 
TaKHMi oÓpasOMi, npH nepsoMi npEKOCHOsemn kphthkh OTnaAa.iH 
Ia4>eTi», Mocox'B, CjioseHi, PycB, AjieEcaHApi MaKeAOHCKift h t. j. 
OcraHaBJíHBaflCB na oahhxi nojiosHxejiBHuxi CBHA^TejiBCTBax^ o 
eapoAaxi, shbhihxi na seiijiflxi nuHJ&niHefi Poccíh, JleŘÚBULu^ na- 
suBaerB Foiiepa, ynoMHHaBmaro o BHMJiepiaHax^B, saBmexi npH 
^epHOMi MOpt; FepoAora, roBopHBmaro o CKReax'B, capMaTax'B h 
ApyrHX-B napoAaxi, — sairlnafl, ^to MHoroe mofjo 6ii noc^ysHTB sa^cb 
SI o6iflCHeHÍK) npoBCxosA^HÍfl cjiaBflH^B, o ^ewb noApoÓnte obi> 
HEMi^peBajicfl roBopHTB Bi ApyroM'B uicrb. Oh'b HaauBaerB jífiuihme 
Tai](HTa, IlTOJieMefl, fobophtb o roTaxi, shbhihxi y ^epnaro Mopa 
H HdPHaHHuxi orryAa rynnaMH; no pascKasy Ilpacsa, XHBmaro npH 
ABOpi ryHHCRaro i^apa, owb saBJHOHaers, qro AxTHJia 6ujvb BOBce 
He AHRÍ&, HO o^esB gjiaropasyMHufi BjacxejiHHi. FyuHOBB Jlefió- 
HHi^i cuTa^^B HapoAOMi capMaTCBHMi aiH ciaBaHCKiiM'B, H Bi hvicjA 
AOBasaTeJBCTBi yKasuBaerb, hto h^roíibro ryHHCKuxi ciobi, co- 
xpaHeHHux^B AP6BHBMH nHcaTOJiaMH, xopomo o6i»acHaK)Tca h3i» cjia- 
BflHCKaro asuRa. Pynniii, ROTopue mcjvb AiTHJia ocrajiHCB bi> Tlan* 
hohíh, 6ujih ciaBaHCRaro npoHCxosA6HÍa n „hohth Bca Bepxnaa 
BeHrpia, a xaBse h ÓóJBmaa ^acTB Hasnefi BeHrpm en^e lenepB 
roBoparB no-CJiaBancKH^. RocjA totobi h rynnoBi crajiH pacnpo- 
crpaHaTBca no EBponi cjiaBane, ROiopEie buhuih hsi IIojíBniH h 
Poccíh h pasoiDJiHCB Ha sanaAi AO AApiaxHqecRaro Mopa. Uieina 
xasapcRoe JleMmíHTt laRSKe npHTOCJiaj['B ri cjiaBaHCRHMX. Boj- 
rapu, BumeAmie cb Bojifh, xaRae npnHaAJiesarB Ri dioiiy njie* 
MeHH, noTOMy hto, roBopsTB JleftÓHHi^i, „bi BojirapÍH, nea&Ay 
Cef6ieŘ H OpaRÍeň, ne tojbro xenepB ynoxpetfjiaeTca cjiaBaHCRifl 

aSURl, HO H 0X1» AP^BHHXl 60J[rap'B COXpaHHJIHCb HŠCROJIBRO CIOBl^ 

HanpuMipi, BoroMHji-B", — HasBame hbbícxhhx^ epexHROBx. „HaRO- 
Heiíi, B-B IX bír* no P. X. npio6p4jiH hsbícxhocxb pyccRie, b*- 
poaxHO, ApeBHie poRcojianu, Roxopue 6HJin xaRi MorymecxBeHHU^ 
no Aase ocasAaJin KoHCxanxHHonojiB. ?xo(5u jyHme cyAHXB o hx^b 
ApeBH!bttniei Hcxopie, 6ujio 6u xopomo hmíxb cxapiiHHyH) RHHry 
Hxi, HasuBaionJiyioca IlaxepHROMi, n Apyne naifaxHHRH''. TaROBa 
6iLia y JIefi6HBi;a cm^b y^enaro SHania oómfiTh HCxopaqecRHxi^ 

ICTOqHHROBl H HeSHaHÍa aJeMOHXapHBIX^B <|^aRXOBl> CJiaBaHCROtt cxapHHu 

— MCTopiH B adURa; oxi dxofi orpanBHeHHOCXH CBtAeHift sHua ero co- 
o6paseHÍa nanBHu, ho saxo saaBJíenu úhumi xpeÓOBania BCxopHHe- 

CROft RpBXBRB, B BOnpOd O npOBCXOSAeHÍB CJiaBaHCXBa nocxaBJíOHs 

Ha HacxoaníyK) BcxopBHecRyio no^By. HeMHoro jAvb cnycxa vh 
IIexep6ypr6, no iiucjiairB xoro se Jlefiónni^a, ocHOBana 6ajia aRa- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



188 B-BCTHHKl EBPOnU. 

^eMÍfl HayRx, Hano^HenHaH HHOseMHUMH, noHTH HCEJioqHTejrBHO h'6- 
ifen;KHMH, yqeHEiMH, KOToptie, MesK^y npoHHM^, sanajiHCB h pyccKoS 
HCTopieft, HMeHHO ;ípeBHeft. 3to nepBoe BpeMíi aKajiieMÍH j^ocraToqHO 
h3b4ctho ^), h mh He Cy^eM^ ocTaHaBJíHBaTLca na rixx pa(k)Taxi» 
no pyccKoft HcropÍH, Koropna iipe;i;iipHHHMajiHCB bt» aKa;temH[ h Óhjh 
udmsiJiowb Haraeft HCTopiorpa^iii: cx ApeBHOCTBio pyccKOio conpn- 
KacajiacB h jipeBHOCTB cjiaBflHCEaa, IlepBHe marn HÍMei^KHXT* Hcropn- 
KOBT», EaKx Baftepi), MHJiJiepT* h ;íp., ne oÓxoah^hcb (íesx omHÓOKB, 
ííesi c^HfflKOMi caM0Ha;^'6flHHux^ ptmenift, ho Baano 6h.io to, ^o 
Be3A* y STHxi y^eHHXx, nporaeflniEx-B npaBMBHyio raKOjy, cxaBH- 
jincB Tpe6oBaHÍ2 HcropEHecRoň kphthrh. BucniEikrB BiipasemeiTB 
3Toro HanpaBjema crajrt buocjiíactbíh IILien;epx. 

BosBpan^aeMCfl rx OerpoBCROMy spenenH. IlepBUfl nofepcH sa 
rpaHHi^y caMoro Ileipa h ero MHoro^iicJieHHHxx nreniíOBt noBejm 
MesAy npoHHMx Rx jra^HBíMX Bcrpi^aM^ cb pasjírmuMn c^aBflH- 
<5RHMH Hapo^aMH. KoFAa Ilerpí BejHRii orapaBMca b% CBoe nep- 
Boe nyreraecTBie, b-b CaRCOHin npHBÍTCTBOBawTB ero bsbíctheiě ^ia- 
TeJB MajeHBRofl cep6o-JiymHn;Rofi jiHTepaTypu, ^peni^ejiB, npHBfe- 
xjTBOBajTB ero RaRx BejiHHaftmaro cjiaBaHCRaro i^apa h saaRiaiTB o 
po;i;cTB* CBoero Hapo;i;a ci BejHRHMi Hapo;íO»rB pyccRHMi; cb STniTB 
npHBiícTBÍeMX $peHiíejiB nepe^aji-B h cboh cep(5o-Jiy»HitRÍe nepe- 
Bo;iBi H3X CBfln^eHHaro nncaHÍa. HeH3BÍCTH0, RaRx npnHajix IleTpi 
BejiHRift TO H Apyroe; ho paacRasuBaioT-B, hto Ror^a b-b 1712 roxy 
offB onaTB 6uji'b bx CaRComn, to cep6cRÍe CTy^enTU npoBoawyíH 
ero npH ocMOTpfc j^ocTonaiiaTHOCTeft BffrreHĎepra h oCmchhjih eny 
Hx-B no-cep6cRH ^). B-b B^hí Ilerpí BejiHRifi roBopHji cb tcih- 
<;rhmh nanaMH no-cjiaBaHCRH, Ho^oÓHEra Bcrpfe^iH ecrecrBeHHO bos- 
(íyatAajiH BonpocB o npoHCxoKAeniH caaBaHCRHXx napo^íOBi h hxx 
pojícrai, TorB BonpocB, sa ptmemen-B ROToparo o6pam,ajiHCB kt^ 
JTeflÓHHi^y. 

PyccRÍe TAOJiom^ ^Bopane, fe;^HB^Iie yiOTBoa MopcROMy ;í*jy, 
hmíjh cjiynafi: BH;i'feTB cjraBflHi> b-b Benei^iH, vjííb 6wio TawB HHoro 
:BfopflROBi ;i;ajrMaTHHi](eB^, h b% caiiofi JI^ajiHaii;ÍH, Tofi „mRjaBOHCROft'' 
seMjrife, ROTopyK) IleTpx bx 1697 pasHCRHBajTB H3^ AMcrep^íaMa. 

dTH BCrp^^H ÓBIBaJIH AOBOJIBHO HeOSRHAaHHUM'B OTRpUTÍeirB, H Ha 

nepBuft pasi sto OTRpsiTÍe npnHHMajioeB, Raserca, aobojbho ciíyTHO. 
Oyo^ecTByeTi, Hanpmri&pi, pascRasi o nyTeniecTBÍH bx HTajriia h na 
ocrpoBii MajiBTy crojBHHRa n. A. TojiCToro, b^ 1697 — 1698 ro- 

^) „HcTopifl AEaxeMÍH HayRi**, UeKapcEaro; „MaiepiaiH jlmr HCiopÍH asaxeMÍH 
sayKi"; „HcTopifl pocciftcKoft asaxeMÍH^', r. CyxoMJiHooBa. 

') Rich. Andree, „Wendische Wanderstudien*, 1874; HepsoiBítít, „CiaBirae**, t. U, 
crp. 18—20. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



0B30FB PyCCKHXl BSY^EHlfi CJIABaHCTBA. 18^ 

;(ax'B. MesAy npoHHMi, fb stomx nocJi']&AHeMi> roAy TojctoS nonajii*- 
n JI^alKa^iH>. PascEas^b ero O hochti eii^e BnojiH^ik xapaExeps 
cmpuxx ifocBOBCBHxi CTaxe&HuxT* cnHCROBx H „csasoKb^y o6paii^afl 

BHBMame HO^TH HCKIIOWTeiBHO Ha BH^mHIOK) CTopoHy Toro, mb 

exy oiyqaJiocB BHAaib. Bx JífiLJiiiňJ(m owb BcrpiiH^Cfl, BOHeHHO, cb 
Hacejemeiťb cnaBflHCKJOfB, ho ne bhaho, htoóu dxo oÓCTOATe^iBCTBO 
ero ocoóeHHO sanHiepecoBajio. Hacejienie Aa!iMaTHHCRHX'B ropi*, — 
no ciOBaiTb ero, — cocraBJífljH parysflne, BanuraHu MopcBÍe, h 
acipoHOHU, h MapHHapBi (mopjíbh); j^crpoenie aomobhoo nn^iorL 
KaMeHHoe caMoe najioe h nysnoe, xaBse xjiš6a h CBOxa miiioTh 
Maio; xojBBO saÓaBJíflioxcfl ^^pysxaMH, xo-ecxB rposAÍeiíi bhhhhxs 
BTOXh H BHHorpaAy, rpyniB, menxajiBt, op^xoBX MHHiajiBHuxi, opt- 
lOBB se rpei^BHX'B h hhbexi OBon^ett hm'Iíqxi AOCxaxoBi; a fobo- 

pflTB BCb CiaBflHCBHMl O&UKOWhj a HXaiBflHCBOtt flSUBl BC£ 3HaH)XX 

I HasuBaioxcfl FepBaxu (x.-e. XopBaxu), BŠpy A^pmaxx paMCByio''. 
H3B Kopcyjifl Tojicxoft nponjBUix mhmo ocxpoBa cb. ÁHApefl, vjiib- 

SHIB OAimb H&IOBlbB^B: ^He HM^eXTi CB C060K) HHBorAa HHBaKoro 

TOBapH^a, a nonnxaiOT-B xoro HejiOBŽBa pHMJiaHe sa cbaxofo n CRa- 
siiBaioxi HeiTB Hcxopin, BOxopmfB B^ipuTb HOBOSMOSHO H cjymaxB- 
HTB Henoxpetfflo". Bx Paryai hjih ^yÓpoBHHB-fc ohx ocMOxp-fcji^ 

AOCTOnpHMŠHaxeSBHOCXH, Bp^nOCXB, HOneXHBlfi ABOpi* H np., H OHH' 

CHBaerB CBoe CBHxaHÍe cx bhasomi: ^^Bi* nepBoS naiax^ BHJia^ecBie 
WKOBue JiOAH, HeJEOB^Bi CB 8, cxoflxx B'B BpacHux'B o^es^axi; H 
Ch Toi na^axu npHmejii bx Apyryio najiaxy, bx Boxopoft Měna, — 

rOBOpHTB TOdlCXOft, — BCXp^HJTB CaMl BHfldB H 3a HHMl OAHffB OFO 

iesoBÍB^B B'B BpacHoft se OAes^% h noBeii moha vl ApyryH) na- 
jaiy, wb Boxopofi nocxaBJíeHu specja, oChxu BpacHUMn BaMBaMn, 
H najaxa oéexa x^h se BaMBaMu; kb xoft najiai^ bhasb caMx 

djB H MH^ npOXHB^B Ce6fl BeJI&I-B CŠCXB Bl» EpeCiaX^B, TXk fl CB 

BmrB CHA^^ He jipjiTOy noxoMi no6diaroAapcrBOBaji'B eMV sa jiacBy 
ero Ri ce&bj oxx nero nomejii*, h oh'b MeHH npoBOAH.ix wb xpexBio 
naiaxy hs^b xofi, bx Boxopoft fl cb hhmi cha*!^- A roBopsjíx co 
XHOK) BHflSB ParyscBifi CJiaBflHCBHMi> fldUBOMx" . Tojicrofi saMŽHaexi), 
ttsi ocoÓiiĚ otfííHaft, Hxo BOFAa owh 6ujít> y bhaba, xo bi „na- 
jary" ne bxoahjx hhbxo hsx cenaxopoBx; ho o hoiíx nieji'B pa3- 

rOBOpfB H BaBHMl CJiaBflHCBHMX fl3B[B0M'B OHH FOBOpHJIH, ToJICTOft 

He c^eii HysHUMx o6i»flCHaxB. OnHcaHia 6uxa onaxB xojbbo bh^ih- 
Hifl. „B^b xoifB ropoA'^ ^S^ytfpoBHHB*! AOMBi crpooHÍfl BaMeHHaro ne* 
Bemsie, OAHaBOsx xo m^cto ne Ao6pe ÓeBJOOAHO. Pary3flHe, mjjixxa 



*) IlepexaBHHfi H. A. IIoooBH]r& bi „AxeBei^, 1859, Jé ISi „DyTemecTBÍe bi>. 
iicuii) H Ha o. MaiBTy CTOJBBHBa n. A. ToiCToro bb 1697 h 1698 ro^axi^. 



[_ ^^ Digitized by GoOgle 



190 BI^CTHHRX EBPOnU. 

H cenaTopu, h Bynei^Rie jmjíjii^ sx npii&miwb niEO^eíiJifiM^ mcbjobu 
H npieMHu, a njaxBfl hocatb cenaiopu paryscRÍe h mjflxia qep- 
Hoe: noA'B hchoaomx Ka^TaHu ;(OJ[rie, noAOÓHBi nepEenecRHirB pa- 
caiTB, a Ha Bepxy ;(OJirifl si enan^H, no^oÓHu Hepee^ecRHirB nás- 
TÍflifB. JI^eHbrH y hmxx cboh cepe6pHHU2, BOTopuď HadHEaiarB ;(h- 
HapiflHH, TbTh AHHapefi Ha sojotoA HepaoHHofi a&h>t^ no 132; a 

BHAOITB Tb AHHapÍH BpyTJHie, BeJHHeCTBOirB Cl MOCBOBCByH) KO- 

ni&BY. BípHHi^eHii, TO-ecTB KHH3H, 6uBaH)rB y HHxi noif^CH^rao: 
Ha BCflBoft wkcíijj^b BSEÓspaiorL HOBaro miassi h3'b cenaTopefi; a bca- 
Kia A^a AÍiarora o6mfi pecnyCjHKoro... Boííhh HHKorAa parysane 

HH CB B'£m'B He Hlf^H)TB: AaiOTB flfiL^U UfiCSLl^lO pSMCBOMy H BOpOJK) 

ranraaHCEOMy h rhask) Benei^BOMy h cajnany lypei^tOMy*. Oiiipa- 
BHBfflHCB AftJiie ffb Kacxeib-HyoBO, TojctoS Bcrp^THJCfl xaMt cb 
j^pyroMH MOCBBEHaMH, TaBaie ^AHBniHMH no IlTa;riH, ci bhassamh 

FOJIHI^IHUMH, BHflSBJlMH PinHHHHlTB, rarHHUlTB, XnJIBOBtnill, Eo* 

pHCOMi RypaBHHBUfB H HHUMH. JI^aj&iHe nyrb Jiesaix mhmo 6epe- 
roBi, sacejreHHuxi xopBaiaMH, ;(0 IlepacTU wb aj[6aHCE0M'B RHaaRe- 
<;tb^: b-b ropoA'^ h vh OBpecTHUXi oocejieHiflxx SHByrB rypsa h 
OBOJO MHoro cepíJoB-B rpenecBoft B^pu. „k vb cep6u no^t ^ep- 
asaBOK) BeHei](BOH); He;(aBH0 m&kBAJiií otb pyBx nposjíflTEixi <5y- 
<^ypMaHx. ors ;(epsaBii Typei^Baro cajrrana, h sHByrB CMesHO cb 
xypeiiBHMH ropoAaHH h cb A^peBHHMH. Ti cep6ii joojiji BoenHHe, 

nOAOÓBTCSL BO BCeMX AOHCRHITB RasaBaifB, rOBOpflTB BC6 CJiaBflHCBHirB 

fl3BiB0M'B, HJiaTBe HOCflTB repBaipcoe; senu hxi h AO^epa bo Bceirb 
flo;][o6HB[ repBai^BHMi senaifB, bi UÁMufb h vh o6BiBBOcrflX'B, h 
sasopx OT^ MysecBa nojia vi}A'bfOTb n captiBaiOTai. T'6 cepóti x;ri^ 
H aLHBHOcreft h 4>PyKi^^ HM^iorB j^ocraTOB'B, aiEByii Mes^y Be* 

JIHBHXX H BBICOBHXl BaMeHHETXl TOpB, AOMa HM^IOrB CTpOeHÚi Ba- 

MeHHaro; bi MOCBOBCBOMy napoAy 3^0 hphbíthbi h noHHxaTejBHu^. 
dxy npHBÍTHOCTB Tojicroft lícnuTeurb h wb ospecmocraxi IlepacrBi. 
Bx ;^eHb naTHjecflTHHiíH ohb I^^ejtl bx cejo PHsy, vjsjk „6u3i> 
npHHflTB CB jih)6obbh) h BeJTHBHMi noHTeHieiTB; a BaBi nošxajTb 
Ha3aA'B, TO npoBoauuiH ero ao jio^bh BeiHBHifB iiHorojnoAcrBOiťB"' . 
B'B caMoft Depacri Tojicroft shji b% ;i.om'6 BannraHa MopcBoro 
BHi](eHiiifl EyeBHHa (cocroflBHiaro na BeHe^iaHCBo& cjiys6i), cb bo- 
TopuMx no3HaBOMEjiCfl 611^6 wb RacTeJB-HyoBO H BOTopuft npocEjrb 
ero, npiixaBniH b-b Ilepacry, nocejrarBca y nero. IIpEHEHajrB Toj- 
croro íBOK)po;^HBift ÓparB ByeBHHa, atftfa-PB BaTOJHHecBÍft, cb sera- 

BOH) leCrÍH) H npBBÍTOirB! „Vb TOITB AOMŠ, — FOBOpETB OffB, — 6bLI0 

jňwb najtarb, h BpoBaTeft, e ctojiobi, e Bpecejii, e cryjOBx, h 
BCflBExi noxpeóx aobojibho, a nocxe^ifl Óiua jí,2íl Měna EsroxoBjíeHa 
EspflAHafl; xaBse xotb BanExancBÍň 6pax% oóocjajTB moha ^^pyBxaiiH 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



0B3OPX PyCCKHXl HSyiEHltt CJIABflHCTBA. 191 

H shbhoctíh)'' . HaROHeit'b, TojictoS 6iiBajii h b'b Rarrapo ejih vh 
Bob4 KoTopcKoft: „otb Toe KaiapEi, — nismeTh Offb, — TBusBjrb TypKH 
vb ($j[isHHXT> M^crarB, BepcTax'B bx meciH h 6jinse, h Bcevjs,2L y 
sarapii^eBi ci TypBaMH óuBaiOTB 6on, h qacro 6BiBaeTB nepeHHpbe, 
sor^a noMHpflCB HiriiorB MesAJ co6ofi h lopra". HaBoneii^x, Toj* 
CTOft ysHajii*, ^To Heno^ajieEy otb bcíxx uiCTh aHByrB bojb- 
HHe jooWj HasiiBaio^iecH nepHoropi^aMH: „B^pu xpHcriaHCKoft, 
flSHBa cjiaBflHCBaro; h cctb hxx HeHajo hhcjio, HHBOMy ne ciy- 
saTb, BpeMeHeifb BoAny xo^aTb (tb TypBaHH, a BpeMeeeMi bok)h)tch 
Ch BeHeraMH*. 

Pascsasi TojCToro HanncaHx, naBi bh^ho Hsib npHBeAeHHuxi 

0(Spa3HHBOB%, COBepmeHHO BX CrapOMl, HOCROBCBOlťB CTHJI^: laBi 

imcajiiHCB craTeftHue ciihcrh, najiOMHHKH, TaB'B imcajincB crapHHHEifl 
KocMorpa(í)ÍH. OnHcanie ero — hhcto BHtmHee; obtb paacKasiiBaerB, 
crapaacB 6htb o6cTOflTejiBHKMB, to, htí) ohx Bujiikii — BHimHOCTB 
louovbj naJiarB, OAesAu, saimmerB o^croflxeJiBHO "b^y ^ naneTRH, 
nojpiiTHTB HTÍ) noxoae Ha MOCROBCRoe, — ho AaJBme ero naÓJiiOAe- 

HÍfl eÓBIRHOBeHHO HC H^yTL. OoHCaHÍe ToJICTOrO ÓUJLO THimqeCRHMl 

W CBoero BpeMeHH; B^poflTHO, xaRi se nanHcajH 6u cboh Bocno- 
ifflHaHifl FojiHi^uHii, Xhjirobh, FanraH h t. «, JlHrepaTypearo pe- 
syiBTaxa bth nyremecTBifl ne hh&ih: sanscRH, b^b poA^ 3anHC0Ri> 
TodCToro, ocraBajiHCb AOMamnnAfB A'^oifB, b:b cbíti ne Hs^aBajiHCB h 
He nocjryaciLiiH k^b yMHOseHÍK) CB']&AeHÍ& o bhi^bhux'b cjiaBflHCRHX'^ 
CTpanaxi, ho RaR^ vh HaTOBniHxca TenepB nyTemecTBiaxx pyccRie 
craiH ocBOHBaTBCfl Wh sana^Hoft EBponi^, TaRi y 6uBajiBrxi jno^eň 

HaHHHaiH COÓHpaiBCfl H CB^A^HÍfl O CJiaBflHCTB^. KoFJia Typei^RÍfl 

boIhu npHBejiH rx cnomeHiflMi ch losHBiBrB h loro-sana^HUMi esa- 

BSHCfBOirB, o HeiTB HM&íOCB ySO ÓOJEBUie CB%A6HÍ&, híktb 6uBaJ0 

Bi XYII fírí; bx [IeTep6ypri 6buie nojnrraHecRHMií areHTaMH m^ct- 
HBe cjiaBiiHCRie yposeni^u; MesAy pyccRHMH Bcrp^najiHCB Jiiojsjs, 
6iiBaBiiiie na Hicraxi. 

3t0TB HOBUfi HHTepeCL R'B CJiaBflHCTBy npOHHRaerB OXHaCTH E 
Vh SHETH. PyCCRift HapOA'B E H8LIR% BCe Han^B COnOCTaBJHIOTCfl H 

coeAHmraoTCfl ci cjaaBJíHCRHirB — vh napoAii n sisukl cjiaBaHO-poccift- 
cúft. HsB^CTHufi HjBfl KonieBEHx (ejie RonieBCRÍft), poAOMX esi 
aanaxHoft PycE, nojiy^EBOiift otb Ilerpa nopynenie nepeBOAEXB h 
ne^iaTB vb Aucrepjuaiwb pasHUA nojresHua rhefe, bx oahomi hsi 
CBOHxi E3AaHÍĚ („BBeAOHie Rpamoe bo BCJiRyK) Ecropíio", 1699) 
laKB o6pan^aeTCfl r'b CBoeMy HETaxejno: „B&rab, npaBOCJiaBHuft mn- 
mtejK), HRO ho fl]irlflxoM'B 6u AepsHOBenm nEcaiE BapBapcROMy 
usoBy napoAy: ho cjiaBAHopoccificRíft HapoA'B cjiaBHO npocjiaBECfl, 
na^e bcíxi napoAOBX, cboeitb ÓJiaropasyMÍeirB. IIpoHÍa napoAu e 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



192 B^CTHHKl EBPOIIH. 

nopy6e;sHaro ne ^Bsjiíiioťb asuRa. CjiaBflHopoccificKiň se napoA^ de 
AapoBaHie Óomie HM^exx, ako e^Ba ne bch) EBpony o cbohmi asuk^ 
npefi^en*: He noMany 3aí IIojiBCKia seMJiH, ílpyci, ^exoBX, Mo- 
paBOBi, BeHrpoB-B, BoiomaHx, CjiOBaKOBX, KorayCoBx, HjLmpisiwby 
ji^SíMe AO AsuH PocceaHOMi OTKpoBeHHufi fl3£iE'B''. 9th tojrh <> 
CJiaBflHO-poccifiCROMi Hapo^*^ 6bl3h, MesAy npoHHifB, HcnojneHieirs 
Toro ycjiOBia, KaKoe nocxaBJíeHO 6ujio wb npHBHjerin, jíaHHOft rano- 
rpa^mHKy Teccaary bi AMcrepAaMi — npocjiaBMTb pyccKaro ^apa 
H pyccBÍň HapOAi> ^). Bi onHcaHÍH pyccRofi 3eMJiH noBTopflexcfl 
6acHOCJiOBÍe o Mocoxi; KonieBaqi roBopnii o MocKBÍ-p4EÍ: ^ona 
nane bcíxi p'£K'b npocjaBHca 3^u h HMeHeM'B Mocoxa, npaoTi](a 
poccíňcKaro, h npecB']kTď'lttinHM'B npecrojOMi npecB^TJiittinaro h Be- 
.iHKaro MOHapxa**... 

Bi TOM-i. 3Ke tohí roBopHTB O pyccEOMii aauKi Apyroft yneHHft 
RHHSHHRi IlexpoBCRaro BpeneHH, Oeiopx IIojiHRapnoBi, aBxops 
aeRCHRona TpeasHqHaro ^). Bx npe^HCJiOBiH IIojiHRapnoBX roBopn.TB, 
TTO o crpaAaHÍflxi) CnacnTejia noB^BOBasocB sa Tpex'B asuRax^B: 
eBpeficROMi, rpenecROHi h jiaTHHCROM^; B^ CBoeM'B cJiOBap^ bm^cto 
eBpeficRaro owb nocraBHjii: „n9Lmi> cjiaBeHCRÍfi, aro no neujmi OTi(a 
MHornxi flsuROBii ÓjaroiLiOAHMina; nonese oix nero aRH otb 
HCTO^EHRa HCEsnepnaeMa npoqÍHM^b mhofhmi npoBSUTH fl3BiR0M'B, 
CHpi% nojBCROMy, qeracROMy, cep6cR0My, 6ojirapcROMy, jraTOBCROny, 

MaJIOpOCCifiCROMy H HHBIITL HHOSafiniHMl BCkwh eCTB flBHO. He 

MajiyK) se h OTCK)Ay Hamx fl3£iR'B ciaBeHCRÍfi UTáierh nonecTB, ako 
Hanajio BocnpiflrB orB caMBiA ciaBu... ovb ciblbu cjiaBeHCRÍfi h po^ii^B 
H flBURT* npecJiaBHoe CBoe Hanajo Bocapiama^. 

^Mu BHA'^H, HTO yse Wh mocrobcría Bpenena rhbshhrh cra* 
BHJH pyccRifi HapoA'B BO TJiaBŽ cjaBAHCRaro mieneHE; xenepB axo 
^'i^aeTCfl RaRi 6u oóflsaiejiBHUMi — 6e3'B comh^híh, uo^i BjmiHieMX 
rlxi HOBBixi CBflsefi ci cJiaBflHCTBOMi, RaRÍfl BOBHHRajH upH IleTp^. 
Ho BocxBajiHTejuiMx cjiaBflHO-poccificRaro po^a bhahmo He^ocraBaio 
TOHEiixi CB^;i(eHÍ& o TOMi oiaBAHCTB^ (RpoM']& nojiBCRaro), BO rjiaB^ 
ROToparo OHH craBHJiH Pocciio. E;i;Ba jm ne 6ojiBine bcžxi Tor^am- 
HHX'i> RHHSHHROBi uoipeÓHOCTB laRHxt CBifleHÍft HyBCTBOBajii Hexp^ 
BejHRÍfi: npH nepBuxx npeoópasoBaHÍnxi owh HCRajii* HysHHX'B 
jio^efi y 3anaAH£ix'B CJiaBflni; ohh hh^ih o6pa30BaHÍe e, nojara- 
JOCB, MOrjiM jierRO ycBOHTL 6j[H3RÍfi Kb usTh HapiqiflMi pyccRÍft 

') IleKapcKia, „HayKa h jHiepaiypa npn Ilerpi", t. I, cíp. 18 — 19. 

^) „JlescHKOHi Tpe^idinHHft CHpi^B pi^eflifi ciaBencRHxi, ejuHHO-rpe^ecsHxi h 

JiaiHHCKHXt CORpOBHOie, H3X paSJH^BHZl XPCBHHXI H HOBHXl EHHTb C06paH0e H IH> 

ciaBeHCKOMy ai4>&BHTy bi ^hhi pasnoioseHHoe'', h np. Mocua, 1704. ÍIpexHciOBie 
noj^DHcaHo GeAopoMii HojiH&apnoBHiťb. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



0B30FB PyCORHXl USy^EHlft CJIABflHCTBA. 193 

sshiKb; MeacAy bthmh cjiaBflHaMH, oco6jihbo „ÓeM^anaMH^ («iexaMH), 
Ilerpí* oauEAajrb HafiTH h ^heobehrob^ ji^Jia hobhxi RaHi^e;i)ipift n 
sojMeríĚ, „rapefiĎepoB-L**, h jiOAeft, sHaromaxi „npaBOCTH*, x.-e. 
H>phj(iriecRÍfl HayRH, h KOMe^iaHTOBi, h nepeBOXHHKOBi HHOcrpaH^ 
miTb RHHrB Ha pyccRifi sisuKb, h t. a.; h tojibro Ror^a onun 
ffB drrowb OTHomeHÍH ee yA^ca, neTp'B OTRaaa^cfl (m STOft mucjih 
H erajTb npHsuBaTB H^M^eB^, sarpaHHqbuxi h ocrseftcRHxi, xo- 
T&TB BOcnoJbSOBaTBCfl hi^hhumh niBe^aMH h np. Ho ohx Bce-iaRH 
zejiajTB BiiflCHHTB, RaRoe se 6ujio Haiajio cJiaBAHCRaro njenenH, 
OTRy^a HAeTB pOACTBO pyccRHxx ch cep6aMH, nojflRaMH, 6eMqaHaMH 
H T. Am cnpamHBajii JleftÓHin^a; naROHei^i aceiaJTB hmťtb pyccRyio h 
ci&BaHCRyH) HCTopÍH): OH^B nocTOflHHO BOdBpaiD^ajicfl Ri arofi saóorb, 
Qopyqafl pa3HbnťB jm^aifB nHcan o crapoft Hcropin h o&b ero 
BpaieHH, A^ftfl pacnopflflcemfl o co^upaHÍn HCTopHHecRHX'B MaTepía- 
lOBi H caMTi 3a6oTflCb o coxpaHeHÍH naMflTH CBoero i^apcTBOBama. 
ynoMaHyroMy BHine cnpaBmHRy mocrobcroA THEorpa^in, IIoJHRap- 
DOBy, nopy^eno 6hjio b^ 1708 r. nanHcaTB Hcropiio — BiiponeiTB 
TQjbRO HOBiftnryio, otb 1600 ao 1672 r. ^), — paóora iipoAOJ»a- 
jacb H^^CROiibRO Árby ho coHEHeme IIoJíHRapnoBa ne nonpaBHJOCb 
Herpy. Sat^Mi MCTopnqecRia pa6oTH nopynajmcb TparopÍK) CRop- 
MROBy-IlHcapeBy, HejiOB^Ry yneHOMy, tojbro b^ ApyroBťb a*-^; 
co^HneHÍfl o co6cTBeHHOMi BpeMeHH nopynajiHCB óapony Fioftc- 
ccHy, 1jlla4»HpoBy, 0eoi|>aHy ITpoRonoBH^y. TpyAt IIojiHRapnoBa, Ra* 
sercji, ocra-ica HeHSBécreH^; ho Apyria coBpeMeHHHa eMy co^ih- 
Heflifl, RSB^b „iSapo pocciftcRoft ucTopÍH^ MaHRÍeBa* (171 5), RaRi 
noAA^vaHHiiia ^acTH loaRHMOBCRoa .i^^tohhch, npHHaAiieauiiAÍH Hanajiy 
XVEQ-ro F^Ra, h hoa., CBBAixejibCTByiorB, tto HaraH rhhkhhrh la- 
xoAHJiHCb en^e bhojihí noA'B BJiianieMi CTapoH, saHHCXBOBaHHOfi y 
noibCRHX^L xpoHHCTOBT», MaHepu H HanojiHajiH AP^BHOCTb Bejrinuifb 
H osy^HUiTB éacHOCJiOBieMi. He 6ujih yAaHHBi h hohcrh sa hcto- 
pieK) ciaBaHCTBa. Yse b'i> rohií']^ i](apcTBOBaHÍa Ilexpa BaiHRaro 
Bifloja ^KflHra Hcropiorpa^ia** MaBpoypÓtfna bt> pyccROirt uepe- 

O QeKapcufi noiaraerb, sto Mocoxh h AjescaHApa MasexoflCKÍe Ilerpy Ha-^ 
mAmk. ^ 

') naiHoe aarjame: „Knira HCTopiorpa4)iii nonarU HiieHe, anaBii, b paamipeHÍA 
upoxa CiaBiracioro, h hxi I^apeH h MaxiTejeH nox'B mhofímh HMJiHaini, h co mho- 
rín DapcTBÚniH, KopoieBCTBaMH h npoBÍui;iiDfH. GoÓpana hsi MHoriixi. KHHn IcTopn- 
«ciBxi> vpesi rocnoxúa MaBpoyp6ÍHa ApiríMaHApiTa ParyxcRoro. Bi» RoropoH oni- 
Cfeiu oovaTie, b jííhMA ikštl napoxoBi, Óhbiiiíxi jisHxa CjaBeHCsaro, h ejUHoro OTe- 
xoTA hhbí bo MBorixi I^apcTBiHxi. poacbajríca npesi MHoríe boíhh, aoropiie 
Wh EspouÉ, BO Asíh, b bo Aepia-i^. FasmipeHiA bxi Imnepia, b xpesHÍrb o6h- 
» wk pasHHxi BpeMeBaxi, b nosBaHÍe BtpH, Xpicra GnacÍTejii, nox:^ MBorÍMB 
Tmn HL— Ma&, 1889. 18 



^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



194 BMTHEKl fiBPOnU. 

8to 6£ua nepBafl RHHra Ha pyccKOirb fl3UR]&, nocBfln^eHHaa cjia- 
BflHCBOfi HCTopiH. KHHTa neHaiajiacB npH chhoa^, soropoMy ao ocho- 
BaHifl aBa^eidn HayíCB nopy^aeirb Óujn^ nepesoA^ h HS^anie bhbpb: 
Bx coHHHeHÍH) MaBpoyp^HHa npHCoeAHHena bt> bohi^% ocoóas craTBfl, 
nHcaHHafl bhahmo AyxoBHUifi& JOo^oiťB ^)j rA%, ne Óesi ASBiiraiB- 

HOCTH npOTHBl KaXOJIHqeCBHXl HECaTeJieft, HCnpaBJfllOTCfl OniHÓRH 

aBTopa OTHOCHTeJiBHO KHpiLoa H Meeoffifl. Biipo^eicb, MaBpoyp- 
6vwb (6eHeAHRTEHCRÍft a66arB, POaoitb hsi AyÓpoBHHBa, yM. 1614), 
ifoserB 6uTB, ifeHBine Apyrnxi mofb 6u HaBJíeKaTB nopni^ame B^b 
dTOiTB OTHomeHÍH: ci Apyroft cropoHu, ero RHHra ocysAena Óuasl 

RRTOJIHieCRHMH BJiaCTHMH Sa fflROTOpiie 6^arOnpÍflTHiie 0T3UBU o 

npaBOCiaBHiixB. Hmh nepeBOATORa na pyccROMx HSAanÍH ne noBa- 
sáno '); fb OAHOft pyRonHCHOi rohíh sani^HeHO, tto nepeBOA'B ca'^^- 
laffB „H^ROTopuiTb AOíípoatejiaTeJieM-B" — ero opaito He HasBajiH, 
noTOMy BipoHTHO, TTO Bce eme 6(mjiiiCb ^neHaraaro jiHcra". Ilepe- 
BOAHHROiTB Óiut ynoMflHyTEift CaBBa ParysHHCRift. Ilerpí ei» nerep- 
Q']&HÍeiirB sAftJ'B RHHTH MaBpoypÓHHa. B'B mjA 1722 r. i^apB óujlt, 
Kb AcrpaxaHH A<ifl nepcHACRaro noxoAa h nncajrB vb chhoa%: 
„KHHry, ROTopyK) nepeBOAHj^b CaBBa PaiysHHCRÍfi o cjiaBeHCEoiťB 
HapoA'i& CB HTaJiiaHCRaro asBiRa, Apyryio, Roropyio nepeBOAHirB rhhbb 
KaHTeMHpi o MaroMeTaHCROifi srrohÍ, esuem Hane^aTanu, to npH- 
nuHTe CH)Aa ne M^mRaBX, 6yAe nie neroTOBBi, BeJHre neMeAJieHHO 
HanewTaTb h upnciaiB^ ^). 

KHHra o^eHB CRopo h Bunua uocjA dioro Tpe6oBaHÍa, ho co- 
MHHTejiBHO, Tro($Bi OHa Morjia yAOBJíerBopHTB CBoero HHTaTeJifl. Bi 
cauoMx jiíbJAj coHHHeníe MaBpoypÓnna ecib wbvto crpannoe. Abtop*b 
6hUL% ropn^ifl cjiaBaHCRift naipiorb, jsufkrb Aase tfojiLmyK) naiH- 



Bjax^TejiLHH*^ (Ha sropofi cípaHEvl:) „nepesexena co ÍTailaHCRoro na Poccíhckoh 
asHKi, H Hane^aTaHa noBeiisieirb h bo spěna cnacTiÍBaro Biaxleúi Oerpa Bejíaaro, 
IjinepaTopa h GaiioxepsAa Bcepoeciftcsaro, h npor^ajiy h iipor^aa, h npoTiaa. wb 
CaHsmdTepÓyprcKOH Trnorpa<j^niy 1722 roxy, aBrycra vb 20 jifiBh*^. 

*) nesapcsifi, 00 CTapuin noKasamiiirb, upuracHnaeri* ee Geo()>aBy riposono- 
Biny („Hayaa h iht.*', II, crp. 576); ^hctobhtb— 8eo<|íMaKTy JonaTHHCKOiiy, hc yiui- 
SMBaa, BiipoHeirb, cbohzi ocHOBaniŘ („8eo<|>aHi*', Gii6. 1868, crp. 691, npHM.). 

') HoaTony neiapcsift lasi 6yxT0 ocraiijuien noxi coiiHiHÍeirb airopcTBo nepe- 
Boxa> ccHiaacfc tojbko na crapiixi ÓH^iiorpa^^n, MHTp. EBreHu h ConHsoBa, vro 
nepoBOX^ cx^xaHi CasBoi) ParysEHCKHin; ho »to noxTBepsxaen h Óodbe paHHÍft cbh- 
x:6Teib~TaTimeBi, a saTiin craio hbbíctho b npjnioe ysaBaHÍe caMoro Herpa. 

') CojiOBbeBi, „HoTopúi*', T. XTin, crp. 198. RHora o MaroMeTaHCKom sasoffb 
6iua HanHcaHa A^^Hrpiem RaBTempom (oti^omi ÁHTioxa) no-iaTHHH ■ nepeBetxeva 
Ha pyccBÍft nsBKi Halhrckhiii: „RHÍra CvcrÍMa hih cocroanie MyzaMexanciLi pejnnm 
Hane^aTaca noBeiiBiem ero Beai^ecTBa Qerpa BaiiBaro IiinepaTopa ■ caiioxepxiia 
BcepocciHCKaro. n Tynorpa(i»ÍH KapcxByDmaro GaHKTiniTepdypza. lim 1722, xesal^pa 
Bi 22 xeHb". Gp. neiapcKaro, II, cíp. 581—685. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



0B30Fb PyCCKHXt HSyHKHlfi CJIABaHCTBA. 195 

TaHHOCTb Vb ApeBHHXl H CpeAHeBŠKOBIlX'B HCTOpHEaXl, HO Kh dTOMy 

npucoeAHHfljocB orcyTCTBÍe bphthbh, pasHABmeecfl BHor^a orcyTCTBÍH) 
sApaearo cMucjia. drj 'lepry nHcaTeJia h CBoftCTBa Bcefi KHHrH 
MOSHO xapaRTepHsoBaTb He(5ojiBnio& iprraTOH. Ha nepBfiix'B crpaHH- 
i^ixi »HcTopiorpa$in** MaBpoypÓHHi, yKa3aBT>, Kanie nncaTejiH 
H3JiarajiH Hcropiio ;^pyrHX'B Hapo^OBi h t6mt» hx-b npocJiaBHJiH, npo- 
AOusaerB: 

.HapoAi* se cjiaBsácEoft, bo apbbhíxi BpeMeHaxx ^ubioh ocRy- 
xewb (cRyAeH'B) jHOamh yieHUMH^ h usnanajia crapajicfl HenpecTaHHo 
BoesaTH H míhíth A^a Aocroinue b^hhou csaB-i opysiesrb, a ne 
neKca HÍMaiíO o toitb, ^To6^ kto onicHBajrB nocrynKH hx^, h ne 
HHorie IcTopiorpa^^Bi BOcnoMflnyjiH o CjiaBflH^x^b; ho h to HanoMÍ- 
HOBeHie yqÍHÍjiH fiojiniH no npÍHÍH4 paTeu híhchhxx otl CjiaBflH- 
csoro napoAa Ch npoTqÍMH napoAU, neaiejiH BUXBaJUíJiH ceH HapoA'B 
KaKOK) cbítjioctík), ce&b HenpíaTejeH, KOTopoH HapoA'B 03Jio(5jífljrb 
opysieMi^ cBOÍHi Ma.io ne bc^ napoAu bo BcejieHH^H; pa3opijrB 
ílepcÍAy; BJia^feit Asieio m AepiKOio, ňiaca Ch ErinranH, h cl 
bgiíkími AvieBcaHApoM'B; noKopirt cetíi Fpepiio, MaRCAoniio, Ijwípi- 
HecKyK) aeMJno; saaiaAiJii MopaBieio, IILieHCKOH) seMjeio, HeracKOK), 
nojbCKOK), H 6eperH Mopa BajiriftcKoro, npomeji-B bo iTajriio, r^í 
MHoroe BpeMfl BoeBajii nporÍBnb PÍMJiflH'B. Hnor^a noó^b^^ewb 6u- 
Ban., HHorAa 6mmai wb cpaateHÍH, BeaiKiirB CMepronoóhieM-B Pím- 
Jismowb 0TM^eBaJ[^, Hnor^a jrc 6ÍK)HÍcfl b^ cpaa&eHÍu paBOHB Obijte. 
HasoHei^^b noBopÍB^b hoa^b ceóa. A^psaBCTBO PiMCRoe, 8aBJiaA'&9'B 
MHoríe Hxi ^poBiH^iH, pasopisi PíifB yqÍHfl A^HniRaMH I],ecapeH 
PíMCRÍxi, qero BO BceMi> cbšt^ hhoh napoA^B ne HÍHÍBaii'B. Bjia- 
Ain ^aHi^ueK), AnrjiieK), h ycTaBÍJi'B AepsaBCTBO bo ImnanÍH. 
OBjaAtJi^ jyTHÍe npoBÍHiíÍH bo EBponi: h otb cero BcerAa caaB- 
Horo HapoAa bi> nponieAnrax?B Bpenenaxx^ npoÍ3oniJiH cíjiH^inrie na- 
poAH, cipŠHB CjraBane, BanAajiu, ByproHTioHw, Poou, Ocrporoeu, 
PycH ujiH PacH, Bisiroou, FenÍAu... ,2I^aRH, IIlBeAH, HopnaHnu, 

OeHHU HJIH $ÍHHBI... ROTOpue BC% ÓíMlll CaMOH HapOA^B GjiaBflH- 
CKOH*... 

noAOÓHiiMi oÓpasoMx Haiosena rjiaBa „o caaBflHaxT* pocciii- 
CKHxi, BJiH MOCRBÍTanex^b" (crp. 68 — 76), ta* oÓMcnaeTca, mix) 
pyccRÍe Ha3BaHu „Pocdane, rípbih pasc^nu, nonese Poccia abei- 
KoiTB pycRÍMx HJH cjiaBAHCRÍiTB sHaMeHyeTb pasdflHte, HapeHOHu 
TaRo npmHOH) ne Majoio, noHCjRe jiioah CjiaBane OBJiaA*JH bch) 
CapMai^H) EBponcRyH) h wctl Abíh, erAa Cb nanajia BLnnjiH h3x 
CRaHAin", a 3ar&Mi pascRaauBaercfl nesAy npoTOirB, ^o ^erAa 
cíh Pocdane mm vh CapHai^iH, BcerAa noRasuBaJiicfl jiioau ecre- 
CTBeHHOBoeHHue, H BcerAa HeyRpoTÍMu; bo BpeMfl erAa noMnoH 

18* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



196 6«CTHHBX EBPOnU. 

BejuBÍH BoeBajTB nporiBy MíepÍAava i^apfl noHTCBaro, PocdaHe npi- 
BeAeHH oTh TacoBasa oih Tasia rocy^ajMi hxt>, pasapan^eme Bejiiícoe 
y^ÍHliH npoTÍBy pe^iennaro i^apa noHTCBaro, vh cnocn^meHÍe CBoero 
coiosa CB Pímckíitb ^^epsaBCTBOirB... 60 BpeMfl Bicnedana iiecapa, 
npdteaBme ^yHan o nopyCiBi* ABa naiBa ca^Aars PímcbíxX; bohuih 
BHyrpB vh Misiio, h Táno yÓLiiH Aq)inna ÓypiricTpa npeauenra; 
H OTh Toro BpeneHH oůmmcs. vb MÍ3Íh LuripinecBon, ot& HHxse . 
HasBana Pan^ia (Paciiifl). Buxb vh TOBapin^exi bo BckPb noxoAaxx 
boíhcríxx Ch ForeaMH, BoropHe pasopLiH EBpony, h hehc crpaHu, 
cryasajH iiHorasAt' AepsaBCTBy Fpe^iecsoMy"... H bcjAat^ díďkwh 
roBopHTCfl o no(%A6 BHflsa ^HMerpiji na^i* ManaeirB, hotomi o 
Rpen^enÍH PycH h t. n. Gboh ncro^iHHBn OTHOCHrejBHO Poccíh MaBpo- 
ypÓHHX yBasuBaerB TaB'B: ^Kto sejíaerB SHaxH bc£ ^'i^npecjaB- 
Htia HapoAa PoccmcBoro, Haúerb teuí coópaHu vb BHiraxx lepeMÍa 
PycKaro (?), GirísMyHAa FeptfepniTeiHa h ^paHiUmsa Bi3ia Bep- 
raifCBaro h KpaBOBuru"... Bcero noApoÓH^ owh roBopHTB o hcto- 
pÍH AaJMaTHHCBoft, cepÓCBOfi, óoceiftcBOĚ H 6ojirapcBoft, ho cb bcjih- 
ROH) nyraHm^eft. H^rojbro nosAHŠe TaTHo^eBi Cb 6ojiBniHirB npe- 
iLe6pememewb roBopHJTB o rhhtI MaBpoypÓHHa h saj&['B o BpeMeHH, 
norpaneHEOiTB na ea ^rreme. 

TaRHifB otfpasoiTB. HecMorpa Ha Bcb saóoiii, Oerpí He iforb 
Ao6HTBca RaRoro-Hu6yAB SApaBaro co^raneHÍa no cjoiaBaHCROfi HCTopia; 
wb AOManraefi JiirrepaTypš ne HaxoAHJOCB 06^ aroiTB npeAMerb 
HH^ero, RpoBiš XpoHorpa^a, EocMorpa4)ÍH h GHHoncHca. JlflSRe y^e- 
Hiftnrie JiOAH Toro BpeneHH BnaAajiH bi q)y(k)e 6acHOC90BÍe, RaKoe 
rocnoACTByerB oTHOCHxejiBHO ciaBancTBa cb rohi^i XVI-ro BÍRa h ao 
nepeBOAa MaBpoyp(5HHa. 

He MHoro AajH A^a Bsynema cjiaBaHCTBa h rfc nyremecTBia, 

BaRÍa HCROHH B^ROBl COBepmaJÍHCB pyCCBHMH JIIOABMH Bl ROHCTaH- 

THHonojiB H vb najiecTHHy. nyremecTBeHHHRu sairlHajiH Hsp^ARa o 
BCTp^Haxi CB cjaBaHCRHiíH TRwrejiaME Typ^iH, cep6aMH h 6ojira- 

paMH, HO HHRTO HBl HHX^ He HM^^ H He AaJTB O&b dTOWb BaRHXX- 

HHÓyAB onpeA^eHHuxx CB^Aemft, RaR^ noBue nyremecTBeHHHRH fb 
poA*^ CTOJBHHRa TojiCToro He yM&ui tohh^ pa3CRa3aTB o xopBa- 
TaxTi h HepnoropímiCB. IIpHnoMHHirB, HanpHM^p^, opnrHnajiBHaro 
crpaHHHRa nerpoBCRnxi speMeni, MOCROBCRaro CBan^eHHHRa JEyRBa- 
HOBa: He Hir6a paHBme HHRaRoro acnaro nonaria o óajtRancROirB 
ciaBaHCTB^, OH*B Majio HiťB HHTepecoB&sca, H MorB OHI OTiri^qa'n> 
TOJíBRo ciy^aftHO Bcrp^qy cb RaRHiTB-HHÓyAB CAaBaHHHOiTB. Mesjty 
npoHHMi, JiH)(k>nBiTHU Bi ero nyremecrBiH yRasama pyccRHXx He- 

BOJIBHHRaXl Bl KOHCraHTHHOnOJI'6. npHÓUBHIH Vb KOHCraHTHHOnOJUb 

H He 3Haa hh Typei^Raro, hh rpe^ecRaro asuRa, nami nyremecT- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



0B30Fb PyCGRHX^B USy^EHlfi CJIABaHCTBA. 197 

seHHHKTB 0Ba3&acfl B'i> BecbMa saxpyAHHTejiBHOMx nojiosemn. Ha 
npHcraHH Ha KopaÓJiB abejíhcb xypei^Rie „ropa^iHHBH^, x.-e. TaifO- 
aeHHHe, h crajua, no ciOBaMT> JlyKbaHOBa, „npocHTb ropanio" (x.-e. 
xapa^i, no^aTb), hjh Tpe6oBaTB nomjHHu, h OTOÓpajiH xoBapi ^a 
ocMorpa BX TaMoasnio. „H 6bictb HaM'B ne^ajiBHO bojimh h csopÓHO, 
npenijni bx qy»oe i^apcxBO, fl3UBa ee SHaeirB, a TOBaps bsajh 
TypRH; RaE'B eBO Bupy^HTB, Borb snaerb h cb r^itb, n xaRO 6iiBinH 
Bi pasMumjieHiH... H aóíe npHCJia Borb Haifb bi KopaÓJK), npH- 
fljuLfb B BasoBy HeBOJibHHBi, a caMi Ha nacb rjiflAtrrb ^a no-pyccRH 
H cnpocHJix: OTBHJib TU, orne, cnp^^ OTBy^a, h mu CBasajrer, hto 
ci MocBBH. Ky^a-Ae Bacb Borb neceTi? H a CRasaj-b, tto no o6t- 
maaiH) Bi> lepycajiHMi, h ohi mojibmx: xBajia Bory, xopomo-je, 
TToa-b-Ae Bu TyiTb CH^HTe, BHTb-;íe Bairb na^oÓHO no^íBopba. H a 
Bi HeMy no6jiHse noAnieji'B h crajii eMy roBopnrb, Bas^b MOJrb TeÓa 
soByrb, H OHI CBasaJii: Mena-Ae soByrb RopnHJibeMi; xaBi a eiiy 
MOJiBHJTb: KopHHJU>H)niBa, 6yAb JiacBOBi, mu jiioah saítesie, flsuBa 
He 3HaeMi», npECxaTb ne kt> BOMy, ne cm^mx, chahmi* hto Yurbu- 
BEKU] TypBH y nacb xoBapi bshjih, a BupywTb ne snaeMi; xaBi, 
nosanyfi, nopa(5oTa& cb naMH. H om MHjenbBOtt, xpHcriaHCBafl 
lyma, xaBi CBasairb: a-^e Te64, orqe, h TOBapb Bupyny h ^Bopi 
|06yAy, TAÍ CTOaTb** . Btotb KopHHjibioniBa AtftcTBHTejibHO BupyiHjrb 
flamero najiOMHHBa, Ao6ujrb ero TOBap% hsi Typei^Bot laMOsnu, bo- 
ajan ero no RoHcraHTHHonojuo, saBOJii bx naxpiapxy n noMorb 
Ha&TH BejibH) wb rpenecBOMi MOHacrbipi. JlyBbanoBi Bcrpi^anca no- 

TOlTb HO pa3l (Tb pyCCBHMH HOBOJIbHHBaMH. ,yG^fl,9LJÍll npO HaCb 

pyccKÍe HOBOJibHaBH; crajiH bi naMi bi> MonacTbipb npnxoAHTb h 
cnpamHBaTb, ^tď boahtca na Mocbb^, a mu hmi bco CBasuBaeM^b^ 
ít6 Ha MocBB* Be^OTca h BXJpyccBHXx ropoA^x^. IIotomi mu crajin 
BHxoAHTb na yjHi^u h cb II^peMi-q)aAOM'b onosHaBaTbca; Tíuvh na 

yjHI^ MHMO XOAflTb HeBOJIbHHBH, HeBOJIbHHI^U; BJiaHfliOTCfl HaMli: 

pa^H MHJieHbBie!** „Ha B^oe Mope h na íepnoe nacro mu ryjiH- 
Bajni na saiopraxi ^), ta*! namn MHjenbBÍe noBOJibHHBH, a na boto- 
pyH) Baxopry hh npHAenib — BaBT* noĚAenib noBaTopri, TaBi hhoS 
pysy Q&iyeirb, nnofi no^y; xaBOBu MHJienbBÍe paAu! KaB^b ecrb bo 
aiffe CHAflTb; BCflBi Bx ce6* lanerb; noAiyiorb xj*6oMx-cojibH), 
BHHOMx i^epBOBHUMb; ocaAyTi» Te6a BBpyrb HejiOBÍB:b naibACcaTb Aa 
cnpamHBaiorb: ^to Btcreft na Mocbb*? wb yBpaHHCBHXx ropoAfe-b? 
]i^ roBoparb: msl nero-Ae rocyAapb Cb TypBOMx saMHpajica? TypoBi- 
Ae 3*jio yroponíji-b orb Mocbbu. A caMH MHJieHbBie n^anyrb: Ba- 
WTca, HeBHAaxb-Ae lix-b AHeft, Ba6u-Ae lcK)Aa rocyAapb npHmarb! 



*) HasBaHie cy^ovB iuh jaxefi, otb Roroparo h nonua Hama ^^saTopra*. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



198 BI^CTHHBl BBPOHU. 

JlaS-^e, Focno^ítí! A to rocy^apH-TO bi Hapt-rpa^í-B ateJiaiOTB bcí* 
TJTO Bóra! KaKi npopoKH XpEcrona as^aJH comecTBia bo a^i, xaK^E-io 
rocyji;apfl! A na HHyio Raxopry npHxeinB, raRi na EneiBflHa YspaHE- 
i](0Ba ^) n^HJiioTB, CB TypROM'B-;(e saMHpiLicfl, a Ha(rB-Ae a^^a ?ero 
HO CBo6oAHjrB, Mu-Ae 3a nero rocy^apa yMEpajra h npoBB cbok) npo- 
jiHBajra; TenepeBO-A^ HeBOJno Tepmoci; jifi, Rpnqarb JnaxoMaHu ne 
onacafOHH bo BecB fojiocb! A TypBH ho^th Bcb pyccRÍS asuR^b 
3HaH)TB (!), TaKT* MU onacacMCfl; a Hiťb AapoM^, a HHue saÓUTtiji 
roJOBu! a xypRe Besjsík noACJiyniHBaiorB, a mu yse hhi roBopnirB: 
norepiiHTe, mojix, Focno^a pa^a! KaRx npE^erb Bpena — Bort Ba(?B 
CBo6oAHT%! A OHH, MEjfeHBRÍe, roBopflTB: OŘ'jí,ey OTqe, Tepn&ra, j^a 
yjKe H Tepninia ne ciajio; xona 6H-;^e h RanenB — otb TaROsa Ha- 
cnjoH, HETB 6u'js,e pasc^icfl! Heoň CRasers: sL-^e na RaToprt copoKx 
jrbrhj HHO& xpHAAaTB, uhoS ;(Baž(i^aTB. Tojibro ysacB otb hxi 6a~ 
cen^B: Toro h oa^HniB, RaRx Tyn »e h leóa TypRH CBaxyrB. Th 
HM-B roBopHraB: Focno^a pajíH, noHCBycHÍe roBopHre, naiTB on sacB 
óy^erB 6íactbo; y:Ke mojix ohatb ri Bam ne iipH^eMi^ a ohh TypoK^B 
ÓpaHflTB, Aa OHH HX^B He 6oflTCfl. A Ha BCflRoň Jionai^ ^) neJOB^srb 
no HflTH, no mTH npHROBanu: rA'6 chahib, xyTB h chhtb, lyrB h 
npoxojTB nyn^aerB. Yme na cvkrk xaRofi Hys^tn HeJiBSfl 6ojiBine 
6bitb! TepnflTB MHJienBRÍe, a B^pu xpecmncROfi bx nopyranie ae 
npeftaiOTB: ^aft hm-b Bofb 3a cie crpa^ame níipcTBO He6ecHoe! A 
Ror^a nofi^eniB ^ojioň cb RaToprn, xaRB Bcb opoBoaukiorB ^a 6bh)ti> 
nejiOMi, HTO&h onflTB npnniJiH; pa;^H MHJieHBRie!" ^). Pasa^Baciy- 

^HJIOCB eny BCrp^THTBCfl CB MOHaxaMH CaaBflHCRHllH, ROTopuxx OWh 
MOPB nOHUHaTB, HO OH^ He nOCBaTHJI'B HITB HHRaROFO BHHHaHÍfl. 

FopasAO fiojiBnie roBopHTB oh^b o rpeRaxi, ROTopBre B086yxji(aH>rB 
vh HeifB TaRyK) sie aHrnnaTÍH), RaRyH) mu OTM^najH Bume y Kpn- 
auiHHqa, xoTfl sjsikch ona 6uja MeH'ée C03HaTejiBHafl. IlepBpe ctojib- 
HOBenie npoHBonuio hh 6oji%e, hh Men^e, RaRB cb caMHMx ROHcraerH- 
HonoJiBCRHM'B naxpiapxoM^. HamB najiOMHHRi npocHJťB y oaxpiapxa 
ReJiBH Ha BpeMfl CBoero npečuBaHÍa vh n.apBrpaA'^ (Úeckjsjai nijia 

?epe3^ nepeBOA^iHRa); naTpiapx^ oob^acmejioí, npHnecB jih eMy crpan- 

^ 

') Pyccidft oocja.HHHKi. 

*) T.-e. B€CJ*. 

») PyccKift ApxHFb 3a 1868 roAi, bsm,, 2. M. 1866, crp. 173, 182, 194—196. 
PyccKoe BeBOJBHH«iecTBO vb Typi^ÍH (h Boo6me bi nysnxi seuisíTb) emfi ne bh- 
asaio oco6aro HscxtxoBaHÍfl, saKoro sacjiyaKHBaerB. OTA'&jrBRHe <|>aRTH cm. wb SBBrt 
r. JíaMaHCRaro: „O cjiaBflHax^ bi Majioft Asíh^ b^ A<|»pHRÍ h BiHcnaBÍH*'. Cn5. 1859; 
Wh KHHraxi MaKymeBa: ^Hscjťi^xoBaHix 06% EcropHHecEHxi naMATHintaxi. h óuTonnca- 
lejuxi Ay^POBHHKa", 1867; „HTajBJíHCKie apxHBH h xpaHjnKiecfl vb bhxi Marepiara 
AJiA ciaB. HCTopiH*', 1870 — 71; vb cremA r. JTyHimsaro: „Pa6cTB0 h pyccsie pa6H bo 
<&jiopeHipH Vb XIV H XY B." Kievb^ 1886, h xp. 



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'■■^-t- ■ 



OBdOFB PyCCSHXl H3yq£Hlfi CJTABAHCTBA. 199 

Hixi sasie^HHÓyAB a^P^- «IyBBflHOBiy noHABme sHaneme Bonpoca, 
crpanrao pas^q^asucA h m^^naj^b ^iIjnimiHROft, Boropot nepeBOA- 
WTB ne fibmEJCSL nepe^aiB. „H naTpiapxoBU p6qu Tojma^ CKa- 
sajTb irai Bcb. H Tanib crajio mh^ ropBRO h ctuaho! a cani croa 
xyioac: ne cb yiia jih ohx cmejrB? ea noAapRn-xo HanaJiCfl? jiioah 
Bd npoxap^EJHCB, a Aopora en^e OesBOHeHHaa! H laso a. aojlvo 
owftry eiiy ne AaJPt; ^rb eiíy rOBopHTB — ne seaio, a ^ajrife ort 
ropecTH dionoHyjTB, ecTB qrp ne HCRycHO, Aft <(iitb laRi; HHsaiPB 
jíoJFh owh nbflHib, BaniT* naxpiapxx-TO? vbjífiLerh jm oh'b h cairB^ Trb 
roBopHTB? sHaTB MOJTB eMy icTb Henero, ^xo ysi cb Měna crpan- 
Haro H ch yÓoroBa HaiOBÍíca Aa noAapBOBX npocHTB. Tjíjb 6ujío eny 
meh crpaHHuxi npHsp^TL, a ohi* e nocj'lAHee Cb naci xonen 
ooxpaTb! y Hamero mojtb naTpiapxa h npHABepHHJCH TaRi HCsyCH^ 
loro npocflTb! a to e^aROMy crapoMy meryHy, RaRi ee copoiťB 
npocHTB-TO noAapROBi! snaTB mojtb y eero nponacreft-TO Majio! 
yvpen mojb, TaRi e to nponaxerB! H TOJoia^B Mens yHHMaeTB: 
noíHO-Ae, OTHe; TyrB-xe rpeRH nmie pyccaifi asbirx snaiorB. H a 
eiy moxb«'b: roBopH mojtb moh OMy p6hh. H naTpiapxB sapxHJCfl; 
rapTB, HTO TO^ma^B Měna yHimaerB^... Oh'b crajTB BBicnpaniHBaTB 
y Tojncana o CJiosaxi JlyRBflHOBa. „H TOJOia^ eMy CRasajrB moh 
Bd ýbva co ctuaomi; TaRi ohx mhjiiiě h nyn^e sapAHJiCfl, m h 
MoiBKrB TOúUíaHy: xa fl-Ae y Hero RaRHXi no^apROBi npomy? ne 
DpHBesTB jiH-Ae OH^B oÓpasROBi MOCROBCRHXi, fl-A^ y HOFO TOFO npomy. 
H fl eMy CRasajTB: hítb mojtb y moha o6pa8ROBi; octb mojtb, Aa toibro 
npo ce&i. TaR'B ohi CRasajTB TOjma^: wbn-js^e y moha eMy rcjibh^ ^). 

IIOBOeBaBinH CB ROHCraHTHHOnOJDbCRHMl naTpiapXOMl, JlyRBflHOFB 

He Aaii BfB o6HAy pyccRaro HMeioi h fb cbohxi óec^Aaxx ctb ApyrHMH 
rpexaMH. EMy He pasi csynajiocB cb hhmh ÓedAOBaTB h, Rone^HO, 
cjHmaTB 7BAJLo6u Ha HeBOJUD H HaAesAu^ ^tro pyccRÍe npHAyn hxi> 
oeBo6oAHTB. HanpHM^pB, OAnasA^ — „paBcnpaniHBajra y MeHfl rpeRH 
npo rocyAapn, juisi lero-A© rocyAapB saMHpHjicfl cb TypROMi? nero-Ae 
PMH OH-B HacB mrb hobojih h hsi HacHJÍfl ne ocBOÓosAaen? a OHi-Ae 
bíab xpHcriaHCRift i^apB; a offb-ji,ey safieAniHBoftHy, AaH3aMHpHj[Cfl, 
JMi H CB HHinrB-Ae crajTB Óetboa. H a hmi CRásajii*, hto b^ab bu 
HpHHJieTaeTecB rb nameMy i^apio, Aa en^e h yRopaeTe; b^a^ !^to ho 
BanrB uapB; bu y ceóa hm&ih CBoero i^apn Aa h norepajm, a 9to 
MOCROBCRift i^apB, a He rpenecRifl; y sacx cboK o^apB octb, a bu 
eMy H ciysHTe... pyccRÍft i^ipB ne RpinocTB BaMi AaJTB, ito6i> otb 
Typia BacB ocbo6oahtb' % 



') Orp. 178—179. 

')Oip. ao2. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



200 B-fiOTHHRl EBPOim. 

KaRl MU 3aM%THJIH, JlyEBJiHOBl HC OÓpaXHJll OOOÓeHHarO BHH- 
MaHÍfl Ha CJlHiB^BCRlSXh ÓpRTÍft, ROTOpHXl AOJ!tSeH'B ÓUJTB BCTpi^aTb 

B^b KoHcraHTBHonojri; ho h i^ Haó^io^enifl, kreúi ohi* A'^aerb, 
MorjiH 6li ÓBiTb He6e3noj[e3HU, ecmóu ne ocraBajiHCb b% pysomiCH 
H 6fiiJiH H^BOJíkBO tfojrle pasBHTEi; Hanpmri&pi, pojb rpeKOBT> otho- 
CHxejíkHO óajBaHCRaro cjiaBflHCTBa 6ujísl jsfi HOB^fimaro BpeneHH oneHB 
Majio H3Bto*Ha. dTHorpa^HHecBÍfl noBasaHia JlyBBflHOBa o EacejrenÍH 
H^apsrpa^a orpaHHHHBaiOTCfl BecBMa neMHorHifb. ^Typei^Kíe jno^H; 
uymecRTf noji, bíjo Epynna h npHrosH, — roBopHTL OHt, — a 
SOHBH ne laROBu; xypBH jí^jísí Toro npHrosH, hto otb pyccRBxi 
HeBOJBHni](i» pasaiOTCfl; y cyjrraHOFB imorax^ Maiepn pyccBÚí 6u- 
BaiOTB; ;^a y rypeiíKHxx cyjoaHOBi h bc* jrchu pyccBÍa, a xyp- 
ECHB H^TL^. OneBUAHO, JlyBBflHOBTi cjHimajTB Becbifa npeyBejHTOH- 
Hue pa3CBa3u. ^ajibnie: |,B'i> I],api-rpaA^ TypoR'B upaMuxi paset 
qeTBepraa nacTb, a to bcc norynapRH ^), pyccRie m rpeRH. TypoKi ^ 
MHoro y rpeRi, y cep(5oB^, y óojirapi y Ó^^íhhxi: ROMy neTOro 
AaHH jíaTb— TaRT> ont A*Teft oxHHMaeTB ^a TypraTs a* bx cjyan- 
Bue craBHTi. ^a t^-to y nero n csyssobuBj a orb TypoKb wbTh 
ciysHBuxi; a^ hsx rpeRi BOJiBHHiiy naRiHRaerB, Ror^a y nero 
BOĚna 6£iBaeT'B. Ki nani MHorie noryHapRH npHxasuBajiH; roBoparB 
(a caMH HJia^rb): Ror^a Óu-ne rocy^apn cio^a Borb npenecB, Bck 
6u-jifi MU HajiMa-TO jifijiovb nocRHAajra, a xypoR^-TO co6aR'B cbohmh 
pyRaMH Hxx Bcixt HOAaBHjH; qy^o — AJia •TOro-^e hojiho saMHpHJicfl; 
a yae-^e 6u;io BpeMa-xo npHnuo, tto yate TypRH bíjio ysacHyjiHCb 
OTB rocy^apa"... y JlyRbanoBa 6poAHJia h mucjib o aaBoeBaHÍH Roh- 
craHTHHonojifl npaBOcaaBHUMH: „Ror^a Borb I],apbrpaA'b npe^acn. 
xpHCTÍaHaM'b, rk Meneru nocBflTHTb na i^epRBH — ro yace XHBa laRoea 
wb HOACOJiHeqHott ho oópan^emb. Pa^ocrb 6u HeHspeneHHafl óujia! 
saóyAenibca orb pa^ocra!" ^) 

JlK)6onuTHUfl noApoÓHOCTH pasc^Hu vb nyremecTBiH sHaMenH- 
xaro najiOMHHRa Bacujiia BapcRaro, crpancTBOBaBniaro bo BTopoA 
qeTBepTH nponijiaro CTOJi^TÍfl; ero RHnra, Hd^annafl y»e mhofo cnycra 
no ero CMepin *), npío6ptjia BeJiHRyio noayMpHOCTb; eme npes^e 
H3AaHÍfl ona xo^Hja bi pyRouHCflxi, necMorpa nacBofi rpoMa^euft 

>) IIoTypuaKH HJiH iiorypáRH— noTyp^eHHe xpHCTÍaRe. 

') T.-e. iioTyp^eHHxi.. 

5) Cjp. 197-198. 

^) Bi 1778, n noTOMi híckojuro pasi neHaranHaji xo HOBiftmaro HS^aRÚi (c^eron 
cexBMoro, nojHaro, ee c^HTaji HaxaBaeinHxcii oTpyBKOBi): y^CrpaHCTBOBaHu Baciula 
FpHTopoBHHa-BapcKaro no CBsnmrb irlcTairb Bocrona ci 1723 no 1747 r. HsxaHH 
npaBOCi. najiecTnHCKBirb OÓmecTBOiii no noxiHHHog pyKonncH iiox'^ pex. Hhkojuui Bap> 
cysoBa''. ^eTupe ^lacTH. Cu6. 1885 — 89 (nocj'bxHÍ6 BHnycKB en^e ne xoxaHu). Co mho- 
secTBOMi pHcyHKOB^b H ^epreneft caMoio BapcKaro. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



OBSOFb PyCOSHXli HSyHEHlfi CJIABflHCTBA. 201 

o(!iafB. 3Ty nonyjuipHOCTB AOcraBHJiH efi n oaBHufi ea npe^Mei-B 
—oimcaHie CBaTHXi míctl, otb HTajÚH ao DajiecTHHH, — h opHra- 
HajibHUfl npHiLooqeHifl aeropa, BOTopufi OTnpasHJiCfl bi nyTb ioho- 
mefi, 6earb bcakhxii cpeACTBT», crpaHCTByfl XpHcroBEUfB lAuenewb, h 
«iepe3i» ABawaxB cjramROMi jiítb Bepny^ica aa poAnny, htoóu yne- 
perb. Ha nyra owb bcjpe cboh sanHCSH, cocraBJíflioiiúfl b% hoojAjí,- 
HeiTb HsxaHÍH nerupe 6oj[&inHxi» Tona. — Kasi* MHorúi jHTepaTypHUfl 
flBjeHÚi nepBOfi hojiobíthu XYIU B^Ba, sauHCBH EapcEaro ctoatb 
Ha nepenyrkš MesAy AsyMfl B^BaMH h AByMH pasHUHH jiHTepaiypaiiH. 
OfTb yqHJiCfl Bi KieBCRofi aKa^enÍH, ho Rypca ne bohhhj'^ sa 60- 
JÍ3HL10; Kh HayBaiťL oh'b Óujii OAHaso „JuoóoiuiTeHi^ h nocjt 
npoAOjatajix y^HTLca, ta* CJry^ajocB na nyra — bo JTbbob*, Bene- 
lUH, rpenecBHxx MOHacnipflxx; pascRasi ero ocraercfl Booón^e npo- 
CTOAyniHiurB pascKasoiTB crapiiHHaro naiOMHUBa h namercA no 
crapoMy odu^aio na nojry-ciaBaHCBOMx asukí. K'b nyTemecTBÍfo 
BJiesio BapcBaro sejiaHÍe nodniTB cbatua M'krra h BOo6ii^e bha^tb 
iy»fl crpaHu. Ob nepBHxx raaroBi CBOero MHororpy^Haro nyTerae- 
CTBÚi, nšniKOH^b H mHBfl no;(aflHÍJiMH, owb Bcrp^qaercfl co bcakhmb 
ciaBflHaMH — npesxe Bcero vh FajiHiýH Ch HaceseHieiťK pyccRHHi>; 
noTOiTB Bi BeHrpÍH, vh By^mri^, owh BCTp']^HaerB npaBOCJiaBHBixi 
eep6oFB (I, crp. 25 — 27); fb Phm% flaxo^Hrt noMKOBi, h lani 
se „ropBaTOBi*" (xopBaiOBx) h ^aJiMaTOBX (crp. 128); npa i^epKBH 
Ceprifl H BaRxa wb PHNtš HamjiHCb huobh oti rpeKOBi* h ocoójihbo 
on pyccoBi, ho dTO 6ujih ymaTU, OTCTOflBmie otb npaBOcaaBHofi 
i^epsBH „flBOse OTCTOflTi boctoi^h otb 3anaA'B h He6o otb seimiB*" 
(crp. 135). Hai BeeeipH BapcBaro TaHerb B^ JíaJiMai^iH), bi 3apy 
HJH SaAp^B: „Hatnane se cie Moe 6hctb ^) BejiuKoe senaHie. ee 
BHAeHifl pajH — noHese mhofo bh;í4x% Kpacna h qy^ecHa ^), — ho 
nocšn^eHÍfl pa^n Mon^efi yroAHHBa 6(misi CBaiaro GBMeoHa Eoro- 
npiHMi^a H HHHHXB CBflTBíXB, eme se Toro pa^H, abo xaifo BCioAy, 
Ha^eHme otb AftJniaxoBB, rapBara, cepÓH h Óojirape cjiaBeHCBHMB 
paarjiaro^CTByiOTB HapinieifB, a^e h HxaJiíflHCBitt Ao6p^ sHaiOTB, 
EjfíbasB Ao6p6 6h uwk 6eao mecTBOBaTH, snaion^OMy Ao6pli cJiaseH- 
csift fisuBB, noHese HTaABflHCBn He snaxB, hjiu Majio ?to, h MHoryio 
nperepn-bxB nyaAy, ne Moryme hh mhjiocthhh, hh Hon^eeaHifl, hh 
nyra, hh paseroflHifl rpa^^ otb rpa^a, hjih Becu otb BecH, hh ^ncjia 
BepcTBB HCBycH^ BonpocHTH H HCHpocHra^ (cTp. 151). Bi Bohoi^íh 
noMOTB ero MopcBOMy nyTeraecTBiio cepócsifi BannxaffB ByBOJia; bt> 
AajiMai^H OHi» MHMOXOAOM^ ynoMRHaeTB o cjaBflHaxi, Roropbie js^hjiu 

') T -e. 6hctl. BapcKÍft vb ceoeMi i^epBOBHOMi nzíHKh nocroanHo cÓHnaeTcx Ha 
ttiopyccEoe npoiiBHomeHie. 

') Offb 6hjii yse fl Biu*!, Phmí, ^lopempa, BeneipH. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



202 B^CTHHBl EBPOmi. 

eny mhjioctkíhk). Jí&jíhme nyrB ero Jieauurs na AeoHi, rfjb owb 
BBXOfijsTh 6o;irapcRÍe h cepócKÍe MOHacrapH — Sorpa^i, XiuaHxapb, 
rpHTopiy H Ap. (crp. 227, 242, 247). B^ CojyHH oh^ EBmeJth 
nijiQe CM^meHÍe aieMeH^ h asurobi (crp. 262). MeacAT npo^HiTB 

OH^ BCTpiTHJTB Ha AoOHÍ H COOTeHeCTBeHHHBOBX, BX ,,pyCCEOirL" 

MOHacTup^ CB. IlaHTejiefiMOHa: hhobh — pyccRHX'B Ůuio Bopo^eirb 
TOJiBSO ABa — npmuura crpaHHHBa Cb jiioÓobíh), h aja hhxi OH'b 
ocrajicfl FB MOHacnipi xpn ji^si. BapcKOiiy noHpaBHJOCb iipeBpa<^oe 
M^Tonojiosenie MOHacnipfl na caiioirB Bepxy ropu, ea poBHOirb 
wb&b^ cpe^H 6o;ibinoro jlca, — ho pyccRHXi MOHacnipb npERienaerb 
majio. „Otb PycH iiaiio npHxoAflTB, nuar an;e h npHXOXflTi noiuo- 
HeHÚi paAH, TO naBH čt^saii BocKopš, abo ahbío cepnu otb Te- 
Hera... Hama PycB He tobmo Táno, hh vh soeMb hhomb Cbatíh 
FopH MOHacTHpi He MOserB aojito npeÓHBani, pasB^ bto noApa- 
saeTB loBJíeBy Tepnimio. B'b Hamoft 6o crpani hhorh bi mohe- 
CTHpexb aKH cBflTÍe bb paio opeéHBaiorB, bb boucoitb aobojbctb^ h 
6e8MO;iBÍH, hh xpyAfln^ecfl hh o ^eMB, tobmo CBoeHB cnacemn, no- 
nese TaMO HMyro cejia h noA^annie ^), Hse bca norpeónaa MOHa- 

CTHpeB^ COA&lOBaiOTB. Bl Tofib TBB AeOHCBOft hrteoso otb cuxb 

HMyui,ifl, iffb pyBaxB Typei^BHXB cyn^e, hhobh TpysAaiOTCfl a6hho h 
Hon^HO, paóoraion^e cb HSjdflHÍeMB nora... h tofo paxn poccifin^iRH 
6^^sarB oTTyAy BOCBOpt, abo ne naBUBoma rpy^a seMJex^^JHaro" 
(cTp. 246 - 247). Rb ApyroiTB uicrb BapcBÍfl, xoia BOo6^^e Apy- 
acHBmift CB rpeBaMH, HanesaerB, hto A^ficTByerB h rpenecBasi 

„npHpOAHafl XHTpOCTB^, mt06u BIUBHBaTB Bffb aOOHCBHXl MOHaCTBI- 
peň HHOBOBl APyTHXl HapOAHOCTefi. 

Bx BOHi^'6 CBOHXi crpaHCTBifi H Bi nocjrÍAHÍe roAu CBoefi shshh 
BapcBÍfi OHflTB shjtb Ha AeoHi, h bi Apyrofi pas^, yse oqeHi> 
noApoÓHO, onHCUBaen MOnacrupH Aoohcboí ropu. GnoBa npoxoAflrx 
nepeAi* HHTaTejieMi MesAy npo^HM^ MOHacrupn h cbhtu Óojirapcúe 
H cep6cBÍe, rA'&0TqacTH en^e shjh hhobh drnxi HapoAHoerefi, oř- 
qacTH ÓBíJiH BUTtcHeHBi rpeBaMH npn homoh^h ynoMAHyroň »npH- 

pOAHOfi XHTpOCTH*' *). OrHOCHTeJIBHO MOHaCTUpfl CB. IlaHTejeftMOHa 

BapcBiž pascBasuBaerB no npeAamio, Boropoe cooÓn^tiH eMycepGu 
H6ojirapBi, H OTBepraiH rpoBH, — wo jrbn obojo cra nepeAi tém-b 
rpe^ecBie MonaxH HcrpeÓHJiH pyccBHX'B h caMH otb crpaxa horh- 
HyjiH MOHacTupB, BOTOpufi AOJiroe BpeMJi ÓuJii Bx sanycrbnÍH. 
C;iOBOM%, nyreraecTBie BapcBaro BacaJiocB ciaBHHCBHXi oamho- 

1) Bt> rb BpeMena pyccsie noaacTHpi en^e uaiijH noMicTunni h specriijiHaini. 

^) Gm. t. III, exp. 46, 49, 169, 175, 189, 194, 203 (BaToneAi), 228, 240 (Xhjuih- 
xapB, cep6culí), -^53, 259 (3orpa(|>i, 6ojn*apcKÍfi), 29<) h xai. (cb. naBrejeftHOBa^ pyc- 
csift), 354 H xp. 



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0B30P^ PyCCEHX-B HSyHEHifl CJIABaHCTBA. 203 

nieifeHHHEOBi TOJibRO orpuBOHHo: ohi Bcrpt^&irB uxi> ea cbohx^ 6oro- 
MOJiBjixx, B TOibRO cjíyHafiHO OH'B AA^rB noHflTÍe, Hanp., o(h> hxi> 
OTHomeHijix^B ci> rpesaifu na Aecnt. 



Depeue onuTu HayqHO-HCi^pu^ecKaro OTHomemfl wh cjiaBjíHCROĚ 
xpeBHOCTH noflBJAfOTCfl y HamHxx nHcaxejieĚ (ne roBopa oOb y^e- 
Huxi HibM^ax'b) jramk cb Toft nopu, Kor^a HaHHHaen oRasusaTb 
CBoe A'i&CTBÍe HOBoe o6píi30BaHÍe, bosmoshoctb Roroparo Aana Óuab, 
UerpoBCKofi pe4K)pMofi. Hacroflii^efi HayRH eiue ne Ohuio; aBa;(eMH' 
wauS yHHBepcHTerb cxajii^ ^^McTBOsaTb no3AHÍe, ho cb oahoí cto- 
{Mou n(y63ASH pyccKHXx sa rpaHHi^y bbo^hjiu jUOAei JiH)6o3HaTejii>' 
HHxi B^B HOBU& KpyrL jHTepaxypHux-B aoHflTÍft, CB Apyroň — crajia 
paenpocipaHflTBCfl Me;RAy pyccRHMH HHTaiejiflMEř HHOcrpaHHaa jihtc- 
parypa Cb o6pa3HHKaMH HacTOfliAefi HCTopHHecRod rphthrh. IIoai* 
TanofM BjdflHÍflMH paÓoxajiH nHcaieJiH XYIU BŠRa, RaR^B TaiHn^eBi, 

TpeABflKOBCRÍfi, JIOMOHOCOfil, RHflSB IK^epÓaTOBl , BOJTUHI. BiApy^ 

roMi uicrb mu yRasuBajiH totb oón^iň CRja^^B, RaROĚ nojyqajH 
9TH nepBBUi npo6u pyccROii HayRH bi> npHM^HeHÍH r^ H3yqeHÍH) 
pyccRofi crapHHu h napcAHOCXH ^). He noBTopafl CRasaHHaro, ao- 

BQIBHO SaifiTHTB, HTO JnOJSfiy HOSHaROMHBHlíeCfl ÓOJlíke HJIH Mefite Ch 

BasEffbftniHMH HCTopH^ecRHitH ipy^aMH CBoero BpeiienH, ne mofjih h 
«b npHirÍHeHÍH ri pyccRofi h ciaBAHCRoK Hcropin y^OBJíexBopaiBca 

esyXHUMH A&HHBIMH CTapBIXl RHHKHHROBl H TbMl HaHBHBUťB 6aC- 

HocioBÍeiTB, RaRoe Bi> npesHee BpeMfl CHHraxocB AOCTaxe^HuirB 
jm o&hscBemsi ciaBAHCRofi ap^bhocth. CaiíH noBue nncaTe.iH ne 
Beer^a yirbjíH npHM^flXB HcropHqecRyK) RpHXHRy, ho hsi* HHOcrpaH- 
HHxi odpasi^OBi OHH ysse TBepAO 3HajiH o&b es cytuecTBOBaniu ^). 
Ohh sHajH, HanpHM^pi, hto y HCTopnqecKHXi nHcaTe^ei ecTB no- 

SasaHÚi AOCTOB^pHBIfl H HeAOCTOB^pHlIfl, HTO Ha^O HCRaXB, HaCROJIBRO 

10TB HJiH Apyrofi HHcaTeJiB MOPB 3HaTB co6ciTÍfl, qio HaAO pacRpuBaTB 
araHUfl no6ysAeHÍfl h npHCTpacrifl h t. a* TaRHBfB o(5pa30irB otho* 

CIT&IBHO AP6BH0CTH CJiaBflHCROfi OHH CT^paiOTCfl COĎHpaTB CBÍbji,e- 

m Bi Tbxi> crapuxx Hcro^HHRaxi, Roxopue BnepBBie roBopaTi> 



i 



') ^Pyccsaii sayKa h sai^OHajiBHHft Bonpoci wh XYIU bíkí**, „Bícth. Esponiii*' 1884. 

') Cm. npexHCiOBÍe TaTEmesa ki ero y,HcT0pÍH*'. Khasl Il^epÓaTOBi Ha nepBuxi 
cípamaun cioefi KBHrii, ynoMJiHyBí o TpyxHocTH iiajaraTb xpesBi^miji epeMena pyc- 
ool ECTopifl, roBopan: „OAHaso b noriuyci, CKoibRO mh'! bosmoxho, o6pdbTaDii(iiicii b% 
ttaooBcmLxi (KOTopHe Mon» xocTaTL) A'bftcTBÍH H npnuDHeBÍH B% jyumfi nopaxoK^ 
ipDecfH, H cib noMomii) ÚesnpttcmpacmHou KpumuKu jxoBoe ci hcthhhod paiuHHBxb; 
Hňe yB0Tpe6jM4 aacBHAtTejncTBOBamH BHocTpaHHuxi. nHcarejiefi m» BtKoropuxx 
cqfiux^ nfiHUfl ophihbu xíjii npoBHuiyTb'*. 



^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



204 B^CTHHICL EBPOnU. 

o cjiaBflHax^, ííTh pascejeHÍH h t. a* Ilpas^a, ohh ne bi cfuaxi 
en^e 6ujih oaojištb t^xx ipjAHOcrei, icaKHMH ORpyseno (h jí,o chxi 
nopi) o6iflCHeHÍe AP^BH^ňmeá cjabCu lueMeHH, h ciHinROifB jerKO 
noAAABajiHCb HCBymeHÍK) BEjiíkub caasAHi bi Hapo^axi, HaceiABnraxi 
KorAa-Jiu6o vk crpanu, KOTopufl no3AH'£e saHATu Óum cjaBanaMH: 
TaR^ OHH Bcero ?an^e orosA^CTBJíflJiH cb njeMeneifB ciaBSHCBHirb 
u Aft^e pyccRHM^ — CRHOOBx, capMaTOBi, poRCOJani, ryHHOBi, 3a- 
rkwb xasapi, <5ojirapi, jsfi^e nojiOBi^eBi h t. a* Ho q[)aBHHTej![BHO 
Ch XYII B^ROiTB ÓujTh Bce-TaRH BejHRÍt ycni^xi: pyccRÍe hctophrh 
Bi nepBBiň pa3i oépaTHjmcB rx ApeBHHM^b nHcaieiflirB, RaR'b Fe- 
poAOTB, OrpaCoHi, nTOJiened, nHcaieji^Mi q)eAHeBtROBii]fi, icarB 
rejiBMOJ[BA'B, CaRCOHi PpaMMaTHRi u np., H B7» nepBBifi pasi boc^ 
noJbsOBajiHCb xpy^aMH HHOcrpaHHUxi* y^eHuxi, Roropue Racajracb 

CJiaBAHCROft AP6BH0CTH H HCTOpÍH BoCTORa. Cl dTHMl 6£IJI1> Hair&?eH% 

nyTb, Ha RoropoMi MOrjia OTRpuTbCfl noAJUHHafl h AOcroB^pnaa 
HCTopifl, HO TOJiBRO EBxb^eET^i HysHO 6ujio 60^6 npio6pto^ 66jBinee 
yM^HBe BJiaA'JkTB opyAÍflMH HCTopnqecRoft rphthrh; a RpoMŠ xoro 
TorAamHHiTB HscjrbAOBaxejflM^B ocraBajiacB HeHdBto^na i^aa nacca 

HCTOHHHROBl, OCOÓJIHBO CJiaBflHCRHXl. 

He MyApeHO nodTOMy, wo bi> 9Ty HOByro nopy namefi Hcropio- 
rpa4)ÍH MU emfi ne pasi Bcrpi^aeMCfl He tojibro cb RpETH^ecRHUH 
ooraCRaMH, He3HaHÍeirB mhofux^b HcroqHHROBi, ho h cb npflMUMH 
ocraTRaMH npeacHflro RHHSHHqecRaro npoHSBOJia. Jí^eunee caaBflHCTBO 
Bce en^e ocraBaiocB cjihhiromi CHyTHUATB, h o6i> Hem* c^HTaJiocb 
BOSMOSHBUf^ A^axB caMUfl cirijitiifl npeAnojo^enifl. 

ITo HOBOCTH AÍJia,y e^Ba ;ih ne canuirB saii^HaTejiBHUM^B npo- 
HaBe^emeiTB pyccRoi HCTopiorpa<{>ÍH nponuaro BÍRa Óiua „Poccift- 
CBaa HCTopífl" TarameBa ^). 

3to 6ujn> HCTHHHufi HHTOMei^i IlerpOBCROĚ anoxH. Bi TpyAax'B 
ero, HO 3aM^HaHÍH) r. 3a6^HHa, mu 3HaR0MHMCfl, bi jiyHmeMi 
o6pa3i^'b, H CB o6n^HMi» HanpaBj[eHÍeM'B IlerpoBCRaro spenenH, h cb 
cyMMOH) nosHanifi, BomeAHiHX^B bi o6oporB oÓn^ecTBeHHoi mucjh, 

*) Ohi yiiepi vb 1750 ro^y. 05i ero HCTopiraecKHxi coíHneBÍiixi cm. bi ynoMAHy- 
TuxTk CTaxbíixi „B. E." 1884, í»hb, exp. 673 — 581. yRazeMi eme HOBiftmiii Hsjuurla 
ero TpyxoBi h ontHUH ero xiflTejibHOCTH: „Ajkobesm Baciuiji HHKHTHHa TaraineBa'* 
Vb „n3BÍCTÍ3ixi OÓmecTBa apxeojloríH, Hcropin h 9THorpa<t>ÍH npHHim. sas. yHHsepcH- 
Terfe", T. III. KasaHB 1884, exp. 1 —87; „B. H. TaTHmeBa PaaroBopi o ooi&si Hayn 
H ymiuwni,!**' (tb npeAHCJioBieMi h yKaaaTeinMH, Hhjui UonoBa, vb „^Teniiixi" Mock. 
06m. HCTopÍB n xpeaH. 1887, kh. I, h or^ri^^bHo; ero se: „y^esHe h nrrepaTypRue 
TpyxH B. H.TaTHmeBa (1686—1750)", Bt „JKypn. mhh. npocB." 1886, fioHB, h otx%jii>ho; 
p*HL r. 3a6tjnHa no noBOxy 200-j*THiiro DÓHje^i poxxeniii TarameBa: „Hepsoe bo- 
XBopenie bi Mockbí rpeKOJiaTUHCKofi n oCmefi eBponeRcROM HayxH*, vb „^Temxrb** 
1886, KH. IV, crp. 1—24. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



0B30PT» PyCCKHXt HSyHEHifi CJABaHCTBA. 205 

a caMUM^ sa^ecTBoifB sthxi nodHamfi h co bc^hh 3anpocaMH h 
sa^a^aMH pasBHBaBineňc? yMCTBeHHofi h npaRTHqecBofi sshshh; Ch 
nOMOinbio rocnoscTBOBaBffleft Tor^a npaKTHKH canoy^enia oetb ca*- 
jaicfl yHeHtnrB hctophboitl, EaKi* ^pyrie flfbJíBJíiiCh aAMHHHcrpaTO- 

P&MH, ^(HnJIOMaTaMH, nOJIKOBOAAaMH, CraTHCTHBaMH ]í np. HhBTO H81» 

9THXI A'faiTejiei, KaE-B H caMi Ilerpí, — npHÓaBJíaeTB tot^ ace aBxop^, 
—ne BJiajd^ yneHuiiH ^^opMaHH npn HcnojmeHin cbohx'b A^krh h 

TpJ^OVh IIHCaTeSBCKBG&l, HO EaSA^fi BnOiIH^ BJ[aA'ba'B CaMOCTOflTeJIB' 

HOK) MHCiBK). B'L yHeHOMx CBOGiíT^ A^^^ Tor^a HOBOMX, TaxHmeB^ 
He 6wrb yjBe oahhoktb: ďujtb h^jvoA spy^OB^B JHO^eft, ero ceepcTHH- 
soBi, xbJusBmiíx^ ero HHTepecu, spysoKi Oeo4)aHa, rh. Cepi^ 
JiairopyEaro^ KaHreirapa, bh. ^epRaccRaro h ocoÓjmbo Bpioca, ko- 
TopoHy TaTHo^eBi iipHnHCUBaeT'B caMyio „npHHHHv Ha^aTÍft^ CBoero 
TpyAa: aro óujrb, no ciOBaiťB ero, „HejiOB^Ri Buconaro yica, ocr- 
páro pascysAeHÍfl h TBepAOft naMaTH, jí% hojbsí PoccificEoft bo 
Bctx-B oÓCTOflTeiiBCTBaxx peBHHTejBHutt panaTejiB" ^), MHoro pa(Jo- 
TaBinift wa naysi, Me»ji;y npoTOMi íJia pyccKoi reorpa4>ÍH, h OKa- 
saBinifi coA*tCTBÍe ipy^aMi TaTHn^eBa no pyccKoft Hcropin. G% ^py- 
raft CTopoHu, wb koehí jrhshh, TaTnn^eBi cb BejiHBBKTB conyB- 
CTBÍeiTB npHBÍTCTBOBajii TpjA^ .lio^et nocJi']&jD[yK)n^aro noROJi^HÍa, 
KorAa pascMaTpHBajTB HBHBmyioca Tor^a „GB($HpcRyH) HcropiH)'' Mhji* 
Jiepa. EcsE^ Ras^ mu BHjiíuni, wb khshh npaRTGraecRoi cJiaBancTBO 
Bi nerpoBCRoe BpeMa nepecraBajio 6utb rhhshok) orsjíeqeHHOCTBK) 
H pyccRie ysHaBajifí shbuxx cjiaBani b% no^HTaqecRHXi cnonje- 
Hiaxi, TO OHH Ha^ajiH BucTynaxB h3i ORpyrnaBrnaro hx^ MpaRa h 

FB REH^LHOITB 3HaHÍH — UO RpaftHe& M^p^ OTHOCHTeJBHO HX^B ApeB- 

HOCTH. TaxHn^eB^B no BpeMenn 6ujvb nepBuS h3% nncaTe^eft namefi 
HOBOfi jHTepaTypu, ROTopoMy npnnuiocB pa36HpaTBca bi Bonpocaxi 

3T0fi ApeBHOCTH H CJMlBaHO-pyCCRarO pOACTBa, H, BOOpyateHHHft CBOeK) 
Ha^HTaHHOCTBH) H SApaBBDTB CMUCJIOM^, OHI HO TOJIBRO yCH^^ m6Í- 

xaTB npHBu^Huxi 6acH0CJi0BÍfi craparo nojiBCRO-MOCROBCRaro rhh3R- 
HiraecTBa, ho yRasaTB AMcTBHTejiBHBie hctohhhrh CJiaBancRofi ncropÍH 
H nocraBHTB h^rojibro p^memS, npesBuqaftno JnoÓonuTHUxi am 
nepBoi HOJiOBHHu XVin-ro B^Ra. TaTHu^eB^ OTBepraen. ne tojibro 
Mocoxa H rpaifOTu AjieRcanApa MaRe^oncRaro, ho h cjaBaHCTBO 
CRHooBi H capMaTOKB, ROToptixt CHHiacTB TypRai&H H lyABH), ho 
BT» ApeBHeft Crhoíh h CapMaTÍu »hjih h cjiaBaHCRia njeMena hoa^b 
pa3HUMH HasBaHÍaHH (BeHeni, BenAu, j^rh, opaRÍfii^ii, hjijihpbi 
H up.). CRHeoB'L H capiíaTOBi OHi> RacaeTca tojebro no CBasH hxi^ 
CB eiaBaHCRoň Hcropiefi, h bx nepBoS, BBO^^nott tocth CBoeS KHHrH 



^) Bi npexHCiOBÍH ki „HcTOpÍH**. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



206 B^TTHUKl^ £dPOnU. 

npHBOAMTB noApoÓHoe Haaositenie CKasaHÍft FepoAOTa, CTpa6oHa, 
IIj(fHÍfl Crapraaro, IlTOJeMea, KoHcraHTHHa BarpflHopoAHaro h t. a.^ 
conpoBOď^Aafl bxi> cbohmh npHH^^amflHH. TojibRo y IIpoBonífl b*!* 
YI BtR'6 no P. Xp. HasBanu osaBAHe, u sax^irB ohh ABJífliOTCfl 
noAX Hxi HOB^bftfflUMH HMeHaMM — óojrapH, cepóu, 6ocHa, Paci^ia, 
MopaBÍfl, noMepase, saiirydu, hojiakh, padHua pyccRÍa n^ieMena. 
y TaTHu^eBa wh nepButt pa3'B ch iipH6jiH8HTejBHOH) To^HOcrbK) yKa- 
3aHu 3TH ApeBHÍfl OTHomeHÍfl cjiaBflHCRaro naeMeHH, otb Roropuxi* 
HeAerca coBpeMeHHOe hx^ poactbo; owh yM-tax saic^THTB upa aroiTB, 
qTO y»e b^b to ApeBuee speMa c^aBAHCKÚi lueneHa npeAcraBjrajiH 
OTJiHqifl, RaBÍa pa3A'i^aH)'rb hxi b% 'Hacroaii^ee BpeMfl. Bi „Pa3- 
roBop* o uojihsib nayK^" offB o&bsiCEsieTh^ on lero npoHCxoAHTb 
TaBoe paaA^ieHÍe asurobi h3'i> OAHoro Ropea, h npeBOAnrB npn- 
M^pu HUH'feraHaro pasjíH^ia Hap*«iift y „eact, cjiaBaHi". ITepe- 
iHCJiaa HUH^mma cjiaBaHCRÍa njeMeHa: „cep6u..., iSojirapu. Kuvípia, 
vflík hubí AOJMaTu, cjiaBOHti, RpoaTu H np., aRO se MopaBu h 
qexH h;iii fioreMu, BaHAaJu (x.-e. B^poaxHO BeHAu hjh jiysifiiiRie 
cepfiu), nojiaRH h Pyccia", — ohi* saMÍiaerB: „bc* cíh, RaRi bh- 
AHMO, OTB Ha^ajia oahovo poAa 6ujih, ho noroBtB m» TenemH TaR'B 
AajreRO Apyr^ orb Apyra pasA^iJiHJiHCb, hto OAHB'b Apyraro, Óesh do- 
eoAhuaio yueniH uau doAtnepeMenuaú npueuHKUy pasyMŠTb ne mo- 
acerb; MHoria ate, cobcšmx CBoft a3UR'b noryóa, lysHM-b roBopari, 
a MHoría OTb hhuxii poAOBi, pasHUMH ciy^aH ri* Haici npHCBoaca, 
ue TORMO HamHM^ sísuKOWb roBoparb, ho h orpoAÍe CBoe npesi* 
AOJirojrfeiCTBO aaóuBi, orpoAieirb cjaBaHCRHMX HMeHyHKrca" (o6py- 
c^BHiie HHopoAi^bi). H31 cjaBaHCRHx^b a3b[R0Bi TaTHn^eBi> bhojihí 
BjíaA'bj'b nojibCRHMi, h bhahmo HM^'b TORse noHaaie o crapoMi 
éojirapcRo&fb, cepÓCROMi) h qemcROifb. MesAy npo^Hifb, npe^HnaMH 
uaM-j^HeHia aaHRa ÓuBSJhTh oÓJiaAaHie Apyi^MH napoAaiiH hjh co6- 
CTBeHHoe HOA^HHeHie. „BaHAaJU h Óoeuu Hjni nexH otb H^Mei^'B, 
xoTa npesAe coiosomi OHux^b Ao6poBOJibHO rocyAapeft npHBBajiH, ho 
noTOBTb asuRi H HMa CBoe no^HTafi cobc^mi yracHJiH ^). Mu noA'B 
BjiacTb TaTapcRyH) npeA^ 500 jiítu Hec^acrieirb BnajiH, h orb hhx^b 
TaRO mi> MHoroe npHHajiH, HanpHM^pi, bm^cto: crpama, crpejHHi^a, 
HOHMyn^efir, ckji^jio, OAesAa, manRa, roBopHMi: RapayjT>, Óamna, 60- 
6HJib, apHaR'b, Ra$TaHT», ROJinaRx h np.; no (JjraroAapa Bóra, qro 
huhí 6ojrke Toro CMorparb, RaR^ 6u ony 10 mepsocTb HSBeprHyrE**. 
ÍTocjrfeAHee sairifeTOHie noRaauBaerb, KaR'b peBHOCTHO satfoTHjica Ta- 
THmeBi o msctorb pyccRaro aatiKa ^). 

') TaKOBO 6eíjio npexcraaieHie o ^emcKoň uapoAHOCTH bi nepBofi nojOBHHÍ Dpo- 
lOAaro ctojítU, Kor^a, ^taxoiro xo Boapox^eHÚi lemcsoit iHiepaTypa, HapoxHocTB x^tt- 
CTBHTejibHO KaaajiacB BHMHpaDii^eD. 

*) „PasroBopi.**, crp. 86—97. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



0B30FB PyCCKHXt H3y«IBfllM CJIABAHCTBA. 207 

B'b „HcTopÍH"' OHi> xaBSe roBopnrB o coBpeMeHHOirB naiosLemH 
ciaBflHCRHrb HapoAOBi, E% BOTopoMy OHH npEse^eHu 6R9H hcto- 
pneesmcH cyAbóanH. BejmqafiniHMx c^aBflHCRHifB rocy^apcTBOM'^ 
ocraercfl Poem. Ho „kojhko ciaBeHCRÍfi ssuiít, bx cisepy h boc- 
Tosy yMHOKucfl h pacflpocrpaHHJCfl, tojihbo bt» APymxx oďiacraxi 
iTB K>ry H sana^y yMajiascfl. Ha K)n» BejiHBÍfl h cjaBHUfl rocyAap- 
CTBa 6ojrapcBoe, cep(5cicoe h Apyria noA'B BJiacrb Type^KyK) nper- 
mejii BecbMa ynajiHJiHCB b yMajifliOTCfl, ho He ctoji&eo otb Maro- 
lero, CBOJBRO otb nanu yiícHfleifu. Bi BeHrpifl capsiaTu (x.-e. 
qyAB) flSHKB ciaBeHCRÍfi noHTH coBcbwb yse yracHJiH. Ha 3anaA'6 
Hacriio OTB CJia6ocTH cjiaBeHCKHxi rocy^apefi h otb Hecorjiacifl hxx, 
OTB ODJioniHOCTH, MesAoycoÓHOfi HenaBECTH H cpe6pojH)6ifl, óoji^ 
se Haci^ACTBaicH, Heace^H ciuok) repifaHCBHXi rocyxapefi, RopojiOB- 
CTBO BaHAajiBCRoe H ÓoeMCRoe coBCŽurB noA'B BJiacTB repnaHCRyio 
npHioeA^B, flBURi a npu tom^ h hma cJiaBflH'B, Ryneo co cJiaBOH) 
ApeBHeH) nory6iiJiH, h bi repMaHe npeBpaTHJHCB. xaRi tto e^Ba 

Crt^U 0H0& AP66H0CTH fl3URa OCTaK)TCfl. S. CÍe o npOHHXX CJiaBfl* 
HaXl BOCnOMBfHaJTB, H HXl 06j[aCTH CB yAOÓHOK) RpaTROCTÍK), flRO 

BecBMa HyjRAHoe rtt" AP6BHefi cjiaBeHopyccROfi HcropÍH npeAcraBiuii". 
Bb o6iiflCHeHÍe Toro, hto k^rheib CJiaBAHe yrHeraiOTCfl ho ctojibro 
MaroveTOirB, crojibro nanoft, oh'b pascRasuBaerB vb ApyroirB nšcrt, 
?ro fiec^AOBaji ctb SHaTHUMH jioabmh h3x JI|aiMai^ÍH o(řB yrHereHÍu 

lOZHUX^ C^BBSÍWbj H OHH eMy rOBOpHJH, HTO HBTHaHie TypORB ÓtIJIO 

6ii B03MOSHO, ecxvióu pHMCRifi HMucpaTopi HO muoAEsiJVb i,nane»- 
CBHXB^ noBej'6HÍfi H He npHricHflJTB npaBoaiaBHHXi h npoTecraH* 
TQBi, npHHysAafl hx'b ri npHHflxÍK) RaTOjnn^HSMa: npoTHBi cJiaBflHi 
npHAy]aiBaH>Tca yi^CHenifl, RaRHXi ne A^aiorB h 'rypRn; „a^a 
Toro MHoríe otb Rpaftneft ropecrn jy^me xotatb hoa^ BJiacrÍH) 
TypoBi 6uTB, HesejHi pfisi BJiacm OHaro anrHxpHcra Ebpy h sa- 
kohb npeMÍHHTB; a octb jih 6u ne la TpyAHOCXb, to 6^ rohc^ho 
Bdb cjaBflHe h Benrpu Boopy^sach, xypRaMB BocnpenaTCTBOBajiH 
6u**. ynoMHHafl o tomi, hto KapHjiji^ h MeooAÍft nepeuejiH cba- 

D^eHHUfl RHHFH Ha CiaBflHCRÍ& flBURl, TaTHH^eBX SaM^^aeTB, ^T0 

,9TB RHHFH HeTOTaeMu Bi Poccíh RaaíAoroAHO B-B BoJirapÍK), ^ajr- 

MaXÍH), CjiaBOHÍK) BHBOSaTb". 

Othochtojibho HasBanLi CTapbft Poccíh MocROBÍeft, TaTHu^eB^ 
AyMaeTB, hto 9to npoHdonino otb HCAoCpoxejiaTe-iBCTBa hjh otb 
,3jiocTH H saBHCTH** HOJiHROBX, ROTopue, OBJía^ÍBniH sana^HOK) qacTÍK) 
pyccKaro njeMenn, ne xotíjih Aaxb pyccRHMB RnaBBflM^B hxi ap^b- 
Hflro HaA^esan^aro THTyjia h paBHfljiH hx^b cb yA^&sBHUMH RHasbflMH 
H HasuBaďH HX^B uo MocRBŠ, „qero MU HHROFAa ne npHHHMajH^. Ho 
3aThrB ^RaRi ohh cero chjioh) yAcpataib ne mofjh, to ohh yno- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



208 B«0THHK1> EBPOUH. 

TpetfHJiH jiecTHoe BOBapcTBO Ko npejHrii^eHiK), crajiH m, ncropiflx^B 
BUBO^HTb, flKO 6u cie HMfl OTi Mocoxa, cuHa AeeroBa, npoHs- 
meAinee ecTi> ciapte, HeseJiH otb Pocca EseBÍeJia* . IIoHffrHO, hto 
6acHH o Mocox* h t. n. 6um TarameBy h no 9Tofl iipH^HH^ npo- 
THBHH. Ob Apyrofi CTopoHH, OTBeprafl no^oÓHoe ÓacHOCiiOBie bhobb 
npHAyMaHHoe, owb noHHifaerB BasHOCTB Hacroan^Hx^ HapoAHux'B 
npe^amfi: npHM^pi ToHepa cji^msTb euj AOsasaTejibCTBOiťb mx^h 
BasHOCTH, H OH'B Mes^y npoTOiTB ccHuiaeTCfl Ha 611JIHH11, san^Hn^ifl 

AOCTOB^pnOCTB loaBHMOBCROfi JI'£tOIIHCU. Oh-B TOBOpHTB SJSJbCb MeSL^J 
npOHHMX: „[1'k^HB AP^BHHXt, XOTfl OHÍ HC TaBHlTB nOpflABOlTB CBJfa- 

AUBanu, wto&h 3a ncropiio npHHflXb 6hUíO mosho, OAHaKomx mhofo 
HOSHO vb He^ocraTB^ HcropÍH m% ohiixi h^hto ri HsuiCHeHiiO h 
wb AonojiHRy ynoTpeÓHTb, RaRB bhahitb Oiiepa, d^hamh H']^qTo 
m> naHflTB ocraBHBmaro. CxpuROBCRift wb He^ocraTRÍ Hcropiu JIh- 
TOBCRofi cRasuBajii, HTO EI3X íňceHi* épaji^B. SI npeHCAe y cROMopo- 

X0B1> nŠCHH CrapHHHUfl o RHfl3']^ BjiaAHMUp^ CJILIXaJll, Bl ROTOpUXl 

7&eEi> ero HMenaMH, TaROS'B o csaBHUxx jiioAflxi Wjiiib MypoMi^, 
AjieKcrb IIonoBHHi, CSojiobb-í pasóoftHHR']^, JI|k)rš ^) CTe4)aH0BiiT& h 
u npoH. ynoMHHaiorB, u jifbjíB, hxi npocjiaBJUiforB, a b% HcropÍH 
BecbMa Maso hjh HHHero; wb upuwbpb ceMy o IlyTflTi... a hsib 

nŠCHH H3'BflCHHJIl>, HO fl XaJl']^K), HTO HUffb TaRHXl llbceE^b CIIHCaTb 

He AOCTaax" ^). 

Mu 3aM'&THj[H, HTO TaTHH^eBy, RaR^ H ApyTHMi ero coBpeiceH- 
HURaifB H HOSAH^finiBBťB yHeHuiTB jífi HaHajia XIX BŠRa, ne^o- 
craBajio snaHia MHomxx hctohhhrobi jí,asi Bsynenifl c^aBAHCTBa, 
RaRie 6ujH OTRpuTu bhocjiíactbíh ^). Ob ;tpyrofi cropoHH, xoTa 
OH^ o6paiAaeTB BHHHanie ea ÓUTOByio CTopony ucropÍH, eiiy ouatb 
HeAOCTaBajio noHHMaHia craparo 6uTa, h eanpHM^pi, HSJíarafl ApeB- 

') 3% lencTb ero K0He4H0 oneiaTKa: „^ojutt*. 

') „HcTopia PocdficEíw", RHHral, nacTB I, M. 1768, exp. 44 — 46. Ha crp. 50-ft 
OHI. Ao6aBJuierb no noBoxy THcaiMUiro IlyTarH npH BjiaxHMHpi: „O nyraii kbtm,^ He* 
CTopi> He ynoMfiByjii, ho ecTb Uyrsirb (sic), tormo HHofi, bi ntcHaxi CTapHHsaxx o 
yeecejieHijixt BjiaAHMHpa raso hodtl: npomttďb deopa nymamuna^ npomueh me- 
pcMa 3u6amuua^ cmapaio HyniHmu mcMHoň AtbCh; wďb ^tvo moxho sHAtrb^ hto 
3HaTUufi Myjťb ÓHJii. THceAKofi ze hbui> 6iU'k uaxi BcbMH boSckh aro <}>ejxMap- 
maji**'... 

s) Ho TamnieBi xopomo anaerb jt^tooiich. IIpeBosHOCJi HecTopa — bi> nepBufi pa3% 
YLWh yRaaaHHaro bo Bcefi mHporb ero sRaHeHÍa — ohi roBopBTi>: „Ilpo^e cjaBAHciue Ba- 
poAH, HRO JliixH, ^exH, BenexHipi, HjuHpiaHe, XopBaru h Bochhrh, HH^ero Tasoro He 
HM-feion., HTO 6h Ch naniHirb pocciiicKHMT,''jitTonHCi;eMT» cpaBHHTBca momo... A xora h 
6ujiH ifbROTopHe nHcaT&iH rjih cospeMeHRue HecTopy, bjih Mentrne nesejni b%komi> 
ero MOJiosRe, oxnaRO Bct ouh nscajiH na JiaTUHCROHi* íhurí, h hxi coHHHeHin, Óyxy^H 
HaiiojiHeuu 6a6bHMH CRaaRaMH, ue wAnrb vh ceói Toft ^chocth b tohhocth, Kasaji 
TpeÓyerca". 



Digitized by 



Google 



05dOFB PyCCRHX-B ESY^BEIŘ CJIABHHCTBA. 209 

HDio MHoojionio, OHX Maso OTj[H?aeTCfl OTB HHHOBeHTÍfl Fnseju H 

mfftCSl Kb 9THIf0JI0rHHeCRÍfl 0(^CHeHÍfl, npOHSBOJIBHBIfl H ^Mh' 
imiBBUi. 

Bonpocb o ciaBAHCRofi crapHni najio pasiacHHJicfl y ÓojAe 
no6AHflro nHcaieifl, bhasa Ht^epÓaiOBa ^). 00*^ npHJiosHji r-b a^ 
ÓoiBinifl crapaHÍfl, ho MyApeHufi Bonpoci o ciaBJíHCBoft ApesHOCTH, 
o(Si OTHomeHijixi pjccrhx^b co csaBflHaMH pbmaeri tojbbo 6e8no- 
pUOHHiufB HaKoiLi€HÍeMi CBŠ^eHÍfi, iTB KOTopcoLi HO Hosexi paso* 
SpaTbCfl, xoTfl H81 TorAameefi jiHTepaiypu, sasi paHBme ero Ta- 
mnQVb, OH-B 7CB0fL!i'B H^KOTopoo CBenTEHecKoe HeAOB^pie Ki jribió- 

mCHOMy 6aCH0CJI0BÍK) H naBiLOHHOCTB Bl pai^OHaiHCTH^eCBEMl TOJIRO* 

BamflíťE. IIpaB^a, ^to CBHeo-capiiaTCBifl h ryHHCBÚi BpeMena h xo 
CBxi nopi cocraBjífliarB ajia HayBH BaiieHB npeTBHOBemfl. B^ísh 
II](ep6aT0Ba — PocdficBafl Hcropúi; owb HaHHHaerE ee oneHL Hsxa* 
leia 0, He BscBasuBaflCb noj02KHTeji&HO, wtoóu xpesme oÓwiekTejai 
no3j(HMnie& pyccBoft seiiJH, cbhou, capiiaTu, poBcojanu h t. a- 

(ttlH HMOBHO npflJOie npOABH pyCCRHXl>, OAHaBO BXOAHT& o HHXl 

BB Tasifl noApoÓHOCTH, HTO noBH^HMOMy y Hero 6ujia ara mhcjeb. 
HcTopífl Hxi cocTOErb y nero fb iiexaHHqecBoirB coÓHpaHÍH cbš- 
xenifi, BOTopBui OHI HSBJíeBaerB 6e8i pasóopa h3i bcarhxi hctoh- 
HHKORB. Jlfisi Hero ojigraaBOBu h nscaTeiH BiaccHHecBofi ApeBHoera 
(bii nepeBOA'^^; nanp. HpoAOTB, KeponeAÚi, Kbhhti Kypipft, ^io* 
revB JlaepAXy JEyipaui h np.), h HecropB, h „Hciopúi ynoBep- 
caiBHafl, co6paEHafl yHeniiMH judabmh", MapxHHBepa ^JIobcebohi^ 
reorpa$HHecBÍĚ", aÓÓarB Bepro, JíerBHWBecB (De-Guignes, ^Hcxopia 

PyHHOKB^), nOTOlTB GrpufiBOBCBifi „SljifiO poccificBofi HCTOpÍH'' 

H T. A. OffB noHHMaen, HanpeM^pB (crp. 30 — 31), hto CBHOCBaa 
vcTopifl ^Hiťien MHorífl HecoBepmeHCTBu"^, ho sto ne M^maerB 
eMy nepexoAHTB otb ap^bhhxi nHcaiejiefi npflHO bi BÍeBCROBiy 
.CHHOncHcy", 1131 BOToparo ohii aaHMCTByerB CB^Aonifl o rpa- 
Moxi, AftHHofi ciaBflHaiíi AjioBcaHApoMi MaBeAOHCBHMB, xoTfl sa- 
niroerB, oto: „noHease cero HHnero bi AByxi Jiyx^inx-B nHcaie- 
ux'B SH3HH AjeBcaHApoBoft, TO-ecTB Appiane h Kbhhtš Eypi^ÍH 
He o6p^TaeTCfl, to BŠpoflTÍe o cewh npiiBJiH)^eHÍH ocraB^eifB na 
padcyzAeHÍe naniHxi ^HraieJieft". Bi ApyroM'B mšctí ohi noja- 
raera (crp. 37), hto „Ajisme — napoA^B, BOTopuMi HMeneM-B npeasAe 
Maiopocdfii^OBB HMeHOBanH^ h np. Bi pyccBofi ap^bhocth owb 
(oyjKAaai Baai b% ApeMynem Ji'6cy. Baparn, no ero mhšhík), óujivs 
BBipox^^ ,coiHH;iK>núň CHJiBHBiit BSUK^h Kh ApeBHeft PoccÍH H Aasmíft 



*) „Heiopiii PocciĚCBaa on xpeBHifimHxtb vpeuawb, Ck>HHHeHa khasb MiixaftioMi 
niep6aiiOBiiiťb<'. T. I. Cn6. 1770. 

To» m.— MAft, 1889. 14 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



210 fi-bCTHHBl EBPOnU. 

efi nepBaro BeJiHBaro khasa^; hsi CBHA^xeJiBCTBa „GreneHHot BHHrs" 
eny „acho AMflercfl^, tto axo Óelih h^mi^bi h b^poatho třese E'h 
IIpyccÍH, „h6o eAHH£ifi HanrB nBcaxejiB npycaROM^ PiopHBa nasKi- 
BaerB^. B'b TMwb ,o npEinecTBÍH Kia h o Haqajit KieBS^ (no 
OpHftKOBCKOMy OHX CTOTacTb »T0 B^ 430 ro^y no P. X.), ohtb 
c^inaerB Kia npHmeJbi^eM^ h, onnpaflcb na nodHanúi nbKoero Ba- 
CHJiifl OeAopoBH^a BpaTH^eBa, ÓuBmaro AOJiroe BpeMfl b% IlepcÍH 
H „pasyM^ioa^aro RaB^ ce&, Tasí h apancBOft asube^, ohi oóiac- 
naer^ hma Kía h Xopesa hsx nepcn^CBaro AstiBa, a Ht^esa hsi 
apaCcKaro (crp. 118 — 120). 

TaTHii](eB'B H m^epÓaTOBi ne Óujie nacTOfliuHMii yneHiíMH jioabmh; 
HO TO se crpannoe noHHManie pyccBO-ciaBAHCRoi Apeenoern mu 
BcrpSqaeMi h y yqenux-B no upo^eccÍH, — npaBxa, nacToameft npo- 
^cdei Hxi ne Óujisl Hcropiorpa^ifl. Mu roBopHMi o TpeABflROB- 

CBOMl H JIOMOHOCOB^. IlepBUtt ROCHyJICA CJiaBAHCROtt CTapHHU FB 

CBOuxi „Tpex'B padcyaRAeeiflxi o Tpexi rjiaBHMmHxi Ape6H0CTAX'B 
poccifiCRHx-B^ (o nepBeecTBi csaBancRaro flsuRa nepe^^B tobtoh- 
CRHMi; o npoHCxoaLAenm poccoBi; o Baparo-pyccaxi h hxi cjia- 

BAHCROlfB pOA% B fl3ilR%). XpeABAROBCRÍft HHCROJIBRO He ymeXB OlTB 

óacHOCiOBÍfi XYU-ro B^Ra, tojibro nepeA^^faJiuBaerB uxi na ceofi 

JiaA'B. npHMimBBaA MEHMyiO ^BJIOJIOrÍK). CjiaBAHCRÍft flSHRl eCTB 

nepBeHCTByK)iiii& Mes;i;y bc6mh AsuRaMH, npoBcmexníHMH otb la^- 
TOBa njeneHE, h wh apobhía BpeMena Óujtl H3B'6cTeH'B noA'B na- 
SBanieMi CRHocRaro. Crhou 6use cjaBHHe, laRse h ReabTH (aiH 
líOJiBTu), H 9T0 AORasHBaerca o^ent npocro hx-b HMenaMH. „SHaio, — 
roBopnrb Xpe^BaROBCRift, — hto npoHSBeAeme nneHt (x.-e. araMOJtoria) 
ecTb TaRoft AOBOA'B, ROTopafi onacHo (t.-o. ocMorpHTejiiBHo) h (Liaro- 
pasyMHO npHBO^HTB A0JI2RH0; h5o oho cxodcmeeuHUAa aeouoMZj vh 
caifOMi qy»AOM'B uduvíb Hsotfp^iTaeMEmi, cnoco6HO h npejiBCTHTB, h 
060JIBCTHTB MoaROTB. Ho esejH laRoe upoBSBe^enie saROHairB cbohitb 
npaBHjiBHO cíš^yen, to eABa.iB cero AORasaTaiBCTBa, bi cem cjy^a^, 
B03M03BerB 6uTB Apyroe B^poaTHŠe". OAnaRO ero ^ÓJiaropasyMHoe" 

CIOBOnpOH3BOACTBO OrpaHHqHJIOCB TOJIBRO CXOACTBeHHBQťB SBOHOlťB 

H RaRi 6yAT0 noAĎHpaJiocb na cirifexi. „ÍToaii SHaMeHyerB CRHTe'B? 
Crhto-b ecTB „Crhtb"; h cjíía, Crhtou cyTB „Crhth" otb CRHTaaiH, 
T.-e. OTB CBO(5oAHaro npexosAeHÍfl cb irkrra na m'6cto; a ciona „ckh- 
Tame" h „CRBTaiBca" cyTB tohhua cjOBencRia^. TaRHMi ae otipasoirb 
^eJIBT^ ecTB »e;rrB, ^eJIBTBI — Hapo^^ CBÍTJiopycBift; pa3H£ifl Hasna- 
Hía CRHOCRHX^B ujTeMeH-^ — HHCTO cjrafeflHCRÍíí, Hanp., MeccareTH — m4- 
CTOHOTH, T.-e. oÓmecTBa, npexo^amia no MicraMi; HCceAOHH — nme- 
AOMu; capiiaTu 6ujíe TO»e crhobi; A&3Re HasBaHÍa i](ej[BTH^ecRHxi& 
HapoAOBi 6uAE cjiaBflHCRÍA, Hanp. THcnaHifl octb Bacnania — otb 



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0B30FB PyCCKHX^B HSyiEHlft CJABflHCTBA. 211 

,BHcna*, 0CTp0B'B (KaKi óyftTO Hcnanifl ecTB ocrpoBi), ^eJrBBe^ia 
— Fo^OBÍrifl, „OTb Majíaro scmot cea iMO^OHOcia"; BpHraHÍa ecTB 

EpaTaHÍfl, 0T£ pOACTSa ÓpaTaHCBHX*}. I](eJIBTOFB Kh raJJIbCKHMH, HJIH 

npecraHÍfl, „tok^ HasBaHHafl nepBUMH^ npHCxaBniHMH b'b Heft, npi* 
foaBniHMH CB Mopfl nocejieHi^aMH^. HasBanie repMamn TaBse hcho: 
ero TO.iKyiOTB BaB'B sevjno, eacejenHyio BOeHHUMH jnojKbMH, „ho 

HaiTB MHHTCH, TTO eft ^OJITHEO HpOHCXOAHTB OTL CJIOBeHCBarO flSUBa; 

oea ecTB hjh otb xojhobi „XojiMaHifl^, hjih „ApnaHÍa^ otl apsia, 
03Ha?aioniaro Ti^YA0A^6muxT> 3eMJieA']^i>i^eB'L, hjih „RopMamfl" no 
o(5h.iík> Bopna h nacTBH** ^) h t. hoj. IIpoHCXOSAeHie „poccoBx* 
TaK»e acHo: ohh h^íytb otb Pocca-Mocoxa, ce^tMoro cHna Ia$e- 
TOBa, ynoMHHaeMaro npopoBOifB Ie8eBÍHjieií'B, h np. 

Heiiy^peHO, ^to b^ xaBOM-B ae po;^•fe pascy^AaJi'^ Menie y^e- 
HHfi CynapoBOB^ vh CTaTB']^ „o npoHCX03BjieHÍH poccifiCBaro na- 
poia* *); no ero mh*hík), pyccsie h „hoith bc* sHaraMniie eBpo- 
nefti^u^ cyTB „i^ejrBTii^, a btotb HapoA'B, coBpeMeHHuft Bontaii^ h 
CKBoairB, BBíme^ii isbt> Asíií h pacnpocrpaHHJicfl b% Ma.i0JiH);^H0& 
Torw EBpon*: rajura HasBana otb „ryjiaio", T.-e. ryjiffBH hjih 
<npaHHEBH; típnianu, bi npoioBonojiOJBHOCTB TpeABflBOBCBOiiy, otb 
tfpHTiiixi rojiOBi; BaHAajiu— otb Toro, tto bhouh ^boh-b ji,e^^ h np., 
BOo6nte BecBMa npocro. Me»Ay npo^njiťB, CynapoBOBi bi AOBa- 
^STejBCTBO „líejiBTHqecBaro** npoHCxoa^eHia eBponeftCBHx-B asubobi 
xbiaeTB cpaBHenifl cjiowh pyccBnx'B, JiaTHHCBHxi, ni^Mei^Bnx^B h npH- 
sejB TeBCTB MOJHTBBi FocnoAnefi Ha H'6cB0JiBBErx'B flsuBaxi, a HMeHHo: 
sHO-BapHÍftcKH, no-.iyBaTffqecEH, no-HeracBH, ho-hojibcbh, no-cjia- 
BeHCBH, no-BpoaTCBH, no-;íajiMaTCBH, no-ÓojrrapcBH, no-cep6cBH, no- 
BaH;íajiBCBH*' — BaaBniH bto, oqeBH^Ho, h3x BaBoft-nnňyAB nojrarjiOTni 
aroro leBcra ^). 

YAHBHTeJiBH-fce, TTO no^oCHBie npieMH paBcyrn^enift mu Bcrpi- 
^aeHX y nHcaTejia, Boropuft óujvb y HacB e^Ba jih ne caMBiMi 
^ďBHUifB yMOM^ H yqeH^fimHifB ^ejiOBÍBOMi hojiobhhbi npomjiaro 
CTOjIm. JIomohocob-b TaB»e ne AajreBx e^e oti „CHHoncHca*. 
HsB^bcTHO, CB BaBHMi osecTOHeHÍeifB OHI npoTecroBaJEi npOTHB^B 
AHCcepraiíiH Mnjijiepa o npoHCxoatAeniH pyccBaro napo^a, fa* pa3- 
BHsajacB cBaHAHHaBCBaa xeopia, BucraBJíeHHafl en^e paHBme Bafte- 

pOlťB; H3BÍCTH0, ^TO Aa»e TpeABflBOBCBitt OTHeCCa TaB»e B^ 9T0My 

jctiy ropasAO pascy^aTe-iBnie. Me»A> npoqHMT>, JIomohocobi cra- 

*) CoHBH. TpeiBiiBOBCKaro, t. III. 

') CoTOH. CynapoKOBa, t. X, M. 1782, cíp. 120— 1? 4. 

*) IlepsaH Tasaji noiBrJOTra mojibtbu t,One eaiirb" <5Hia noiitiiieBa yse vb rpaii- 
va-TKii cjOBeHCBaro asHKa Axaiia BoropH^a. BEnnexníett wh 1584 roxy bi BHiTeHÓepri: 
JLrcticae horulae succisivae, de latino-carníolana litteratara etc. 

14* 

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212 B^CTHHBl EBPOnil. 

BETL vh BHHy Mouiepy, HTO owh ne npHHmiaeirB npoHCxosxeHJff 
pyccRiorB (yn* Pocca h Mocréu otb Mocoxa. Bi CBoett co6cTBeH- 
Hofi HCTopÍH, HsxaHHOĚ yse nocjsfb ero dcepre ^), JIomohocobb npE 
BceĚ ero Ha^uraHHoerH wb crapBixi iiHcaTejiflX'b h npH Bceft pas- 
yiraocTH H^KOTopuxi OTA$Ji>Huxx Baifi&^aHift, OTHOCHTejiBHO npo* 
HCX0SA6HÍfl H pacnpocrpaHeHÍfl njeMenn ^aen crpanHiifl oqihÓse 
H noBTC^pflen xoAfl^a óacHCCJiOBui. Ohi» nojaraerB, Hanp?HtprB^ 
HTO ciaBflHCKOMy njieMeHH npEHa^iiesarB ne tojibbo IIojBina, 60- 
renifl, MopaBÍa, Bojirapifl h np., ho h Awíbsl % B'b ApesHOcnr 
capnaTu h poRCOjaHEi 6um ciaBflHe. A en^erjiytfse vb aP6bhoctb^ 
OHI HaxoAHTi ciaBflHi Fb MaioasiftcKHxi 6eHeTax'B, npoHcxosAeHÍe 
KOTopHxx ítocTHraerL ;^o TpOH; jtpeBHHXií mocxobi oht* ne piraaerca 

,6631 AOBOJBHarO CBHA']&TeJIBCTBa npHHHHaTB 3a CiaBflHl MOCBOB- 

csHxi" (cTp. 15), HO CHHTaeri ciaBflHaMH mh^ahi h aiiasoHORi; 
rpaMOTy AjeRcaHApa BejiHRaro ki> ciaBAHCEOMy nápory ohb ne c^h- 
Taeri BipoaTHoft, ho no-iaraera, hto Bt hojiobhh* Vl-ro BÍKa Jlexi 
H ^ex^B AepsaBCTBOBaiiH HaA'B MHoroHnciennuicE cjiaBflHCBHirB Hapo- 
jíflwb; npoHCxosAeHÍe PH>pHKa orB pHMCBaro ÁBrycra secapa ohs 
CHHTaerB neiHmeHHuiťB b^poathocth. 

TaBHurB o6pa30Mi, js,o nocjAABaTb j^ecaiEJiiTifi npomjiaro b^ke^ 
vb Hameft jHTepaTypi Maso noABHHyjcfl Bonpoc^ o npoHCxozELAeniH^ 

B8aHHHiIX'b OTHOmeHiflXl H CaMOft HaJIH^HOCTH CJiaBflHCRHX^L Hje- 

uewb. OrHOCHTeJiBHO nepBaro e^e npoAOjrsajiHCB ÓacHOCJOBHue pas- 
CBasu XYU-ro B^Ra h ,,CHHoncHci^ c^nrajicfl aBTopHTerHoft rhh- 
roft. ILieMeHHUfl oTHomenifl cnaBancTBa ocraBasHCB Rpaůne neflCflUMB; 
CJaBflHCRÍfl HJieHeHa, RpoM^ fijiHsafiniBxi hojarobi h qacrÍK) cep- 
6oB*b, 6ujia HSBto^u hotth tojebbo no HMenaiTB. BuBaJiH HspŠARa 
nyTemecTBeHHHRH, nona^aBniie bi cJiaBflHCRÍ)i 3eiLiH, RaRi uojioxae 
ABopane neTpoBCBHX'B Bpeifeni, RaR'L óofomojbi^ij bi po^i Bap- 
CRaro; ohh HcnniuBajiH npiflTHyio HeosH^anHOCXB npn Bcrp^^*]^ cb 

pOACTBeHHBIMH HapO^aMH, ROTOpUXX OTiaCTH MOF^H HOHHMaTB, HO 

dTH BneqaxjrlHifl ocraBaJiHCB pasposHenniiiMH, hohth ne npOHHRajni vb 
JíHTepaTypy h ajisi ÓOJiBniHHCTBa oiaBJíHCRoe poACiBO ocraBajiocB bi 
Tyiianš. jlj^ase lypei^RÍfl bo^hbi, Roropuxi TaR'B mhoto BeiocB wb 
TeiOHie XVin-ro B^Ra, ne yBenH^aiui wb MaccA CBÍ^eHÍtt o (Saj- 
RancROM^B cjiaBflHCTBŠ; o6mHpHoe nepecejienie cepóoBi b'b Poedio 



') ff j3j)eBHjiii PocciftcKaa EcTopia on ea^iajia PocciftcKaro napoxa xo koh^hhh Be- 
iHKaro KBH3JI Apociasa Ilepsaro hih xo 1054 roxa, connHeenaa MHxaHJon Johoho- 
coBHMi". Cn6., 1766. 

^) ...„KypiaHxiíH, KiíyxB, JiHTBa, ocraTKH crapHxi npyccoBi h MCMeMÓyprcKHxv 
BeHxoB^, KOTopHe Bci ciaBeHCKaro njieMeHH, xotji mhofo otuíhi vl asHsazi HMinrb". 
€Tp. 7. noxpoÓHOCTH o&h 8T01II Bi riasi o BapHraxi-poccaxi, cTp. 43 — 47. 



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0B30P% P7C0RHX^ HSy^BHlft CJIABimCTBi.. 213 

vh nojOBHHi nponuaro CTOJitiifl xasace ee otfpaxHJio oco5eHHaro 
BEHManifl, H cep6cKoe Hacejieme HesaiciiHO cjihjiocb cb mí^cthumx 
pyccKHMiy He npotfyAHBiDH HHxepeca iffh cyA^tí^ i^aro cep5cRaro 
HapoAa. O ÓOJirapaxi* ejiea hmíjih noHfliie; tojbbo bi bohii'^ cto- 
jkÍ2 vb dTOiTB OTHomeBÍH Ha^HHaexcfl híhto HOBoe. BĎJiBinafl cre- 
neiL sHama Morja Óutb AOCTErHyra Asyiifl nyrflMH: 6ojrbe BEHica- 
immarh EsynemeM^ HcropHiecBHMi h shbumh CHomeHiflMH; nep- 
Boe BOSHHRaen napajuejiBHO . cb (Sojríte cepfbeBHiurB mjHeEiewh pyc- 

WA HCTOpÍH, BTOpOe npHBOAHTCfl MaJO-nO-Majiy nOJHTH^eCBHMH co- 

ŮumnE H iipo6ysA6HÍeM'B naiúoHasBHEixi HHiepecoBi vb cpexh ca- 
Jíoro pyccBaro oÓn^eciBa. 

A. nuniiH'B. 



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H3T> BEHrEPCKHXT) nOBTOBl. 



CMEPTL. 

Ahapea Cabo *). 
CseJierB 6e3o6pa8Hu&, xeófl hh sa tto a 

BOflTBCfl He CTEHy Cl BOCOK) TBOeft! 

He TH HacL noAEOCHniB — Bce 9to nycroe, 

HeBHHHUfl CKaSBH fl^íZ MaJIUX'B A'^Tefi... 

HanrL crpax-B sjíeBeroio c^HTaio a, TflXRofi, 

Cm'6iIIHIIHH — yClUBfl ÓOpOTBCfl CL T060&, 

H casajflCB na^x CMeprBio, HaA'B axofi Ó^AHJUKsoftr 
XoHy fl, ?T0(5i jiiOAH ei a^^ noRoft. 

MeHfl He yóbenib tu. ípyrofi, (JesKonenHO 
CHJ[BH']&fimiĚ, HcnojHHTB saAa^y tbok>: 
Ohi — pflAOM^ co mhok) maraio^ifi b^hho 
H BpoBB oeryAHBmifi HaBŠBH moh>, 
OffL — TpH yai AecflTKa (lasejioe ÓpeMa!) 
yciriBinifi Ha tuighe moh naBajiHTB... 
Moft nepBiifi ryÓHTejB onacH']kftmift — Bpeiffl; 
Ohi Tyro, a sa CMepTBio Aa^CEO xoahtb... 

XoTB rojtOBy Buwk necy a. h ropxo, 

npeA'B BpeMeneiTL rposHUMi cBJOHflacB oahhitb, 

n Kh i^H maraH) yBŠpeHHO TBepxo, 

Otb p^bocth jiHHiHefi npHJHHBeMi xpaHHMi; 



*) A. Caóo o6paTHii na ceóx BHAManie eme n paHHeft moaoxocth (pox. 1849 T.y 
CBOHini nTpeMj caTBpam**. BnocitxcTBÍH o«h cx^iajca corpyAHHKom loxai n ero 
caTHpnecKOMi sypnaii „KoMeia**, a n nacroimee BpeMa obi ctohti bo riart oxBoft 
Hsi řasen bi Ilemrb. 



m 



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H31 BEHrEPOBHXl n08T06'B. 215 

Ho TH^BOMl fl BTaftB^ OBUiaK) DOpOK), 

Kor^a HeBOSMCMSHOtt ÓHBaerx óopBÓa.^. 
& CMepxH He Tpyiny, ona 3a ropoio, 
BjHsafimift ryÓHTeJiB MOfi — 3Jiafl cyABÓa. 

BcTpi^aK) Aa s. Mesi TOJinoio ÓJiecTfln^eft 
KpacaBHi^'B CBiksM h npejecTHift i^b^tobi, 
H, cjrama evl aenevB, xaKi h'Isho SBywo^ft, 
He Fb Cfuaxi c^epsais a hh BBopoBi, hh cjobi, 
H ecjH (a 9T0 — CBasaTb Mea^y naiíH — 

06hAH0!) 6edCHJIBH£I H BSOpU MOH — 

Mhí CMepxb HeonacHa, ona sa ropaiíH, 
Ho ropmyH) rnóejib a bhsj wb j[K)6bh. 

HAy JIH Ty;(a a, r;ri& SBOHsia napu 
Bhhomi HeKpOMeTHmi-B nojom xo BpaoBi, 
H Hocaica vb tBsnfiSfb BeceJiua napu 
IloATt qyAHHe BByKH BOJiraeČHuxi cmhhbobi — 
& paA^B Óu xyniOK) OTAaxBca saÓaB^! 

yBU! He nOSBOJIHTl AOCTOHHCTBO MHt! 

Oho yrpoauiTB HairB nornÓe^iBio wh npaBŠ, 
E& Bory, co CMepxBK) caMoft HapaBH^! 

KoHeHHO, KB Tfkuowh noaoseHBH nenajiBHOMi 
Oaho ecTB jieBapcTBO HSBtonoe — 6paR'B. 
Ho jíflsíe H Kb cpef,crvb TasoMx paAHRajBHOirB 
EcTB laRse noM^xa... bohouo, nyciaB^.. 
Ho Bce se rposan^ifi norE^ejuBio HOBOfi: 
H cb Mysoi H pHOMOfi npocTHca yai xyrL! 
yBH, He oóiaxia CMepm cypoBoft, 
A BpHRH peCeHBa — noara yfiBroxx! 

Dosyta y^apa mi sxeifB poBOBoro — 

O, CMepTB! HBi norHÓHyTB yenšem ho pasi: 

Ror^a HH^iero ne ociajiocB shbofo — 

leny yMHpaTB 6b[, Basajoca, fb nacB?.. 

PaaciaHBca se, CMepxB, tbi c7» cbook) bocoh), 

HanpacHO m eio nyraeniB, hob^b! 

H jsi> sepTBaMx tbohmi noaBjattca cb MerjOK), 

?To5x BUMecTH OK) ocTaTBH sa ABepB! 

O. M. 



I Digitized by Google 



HAyqHAfl KPflTHKA 

H 

EH nPHM-BHEHIE 

*— EmUe Hefmequin, Etudes de critiqae scientifíque. Ecrivaíns fraDcUés. Paris, 1S89. 



UojiroAa TOMy Ha3aA'B mu nosHaKOMiuH Hanmxi HETaxeJieft Ch 
coAepacameifB HHrepecHoft EEKni FeHHeReHa: „La critiqae sdenti- 
fiqae^. BcBopš nocii Toro mu npoHJH fboahomx H&iei^BOMrB syp- 
esjA mwbcúe o CHepre dxoro nucaTejifl, Ha ABaAi^aTB-AeBflroMi 
TOjs^y OTB posAeHÍfl. Bi Hawjii HUHinraflro ro^a HanenaTaHi b% 
IlapES-^ cÓopHHBi ero BpHTsqecBHrb craiett, noAx opurííHaiBHmrB 
BarjotaBieMi: „Ecrivains francisés**. IIpeAHCiOBie K^ o5opHHBy nofl- 
nHcaHO caMHMi aBTopoM'L; hh hsi qero ne bh^ho, hto^h 8to 6euio 
nocMepTHoe mjs,9me. O&knjB^wh bíixoa'b b'l cbštb en^e abjx^b c6op- 

HHKOBl, nOA1> OÓn^BM^ HM^eMl „OlIHTOBl Baj^HOft KpBTnSH*. 

Bonpoci o TOMi, yMepi jh TeHEeReH^, ocraerca ^Ju nacB, TasHMB 
oCpasoM^y HepimeHHUMi. Xopomo 6ujio 6u, ecjosúu bšctb o CMepm 
MOJiOAoro KpHTHBa OKasajiacb BmiumjieHHO&; ero abÓioth nosBOJUS 
osHAaTb OTB Hero BecbMa MHoraro ^). 

„Oij^paHiicyseHHUMH nHcaxejíflMff^ reHHeBeHi HasuBaon ne t&li, 
BOTOpue ycBOEJiH ce6% ^panriyscBift asub^, ^^P^^T^^T^ xy^ose- 
CTBeHHyK) TexHHKy, a t^xi, Eoropuxi* ycBOiuio c&6b (j^pani^yscRoe 
ofipasoBaHHoe o5ii^ecTBO. TaBHxi nncaTeJieft aBTOpi HacmuBaerB 
mecTB, isarb BOTopuxi ic&iafl nojiOBiraa npHxoAvrcfi na aosk> Poccíh. 
JQI^HKEeHCB, FeftHe, Hoa, TypreneBi, Jl^ocroeBCKift, JleBx Tojicroft — 

*) HsV&CrHHĚ KpHTHKl BpDHeTBepl, paSÓHpafl, Bl OXHOft H31 anpilbCKHXl KHH- 

mevb „Revae des deax Mondes*', MsiiHie reHHeseHa o A^^KKesci, lasse ae roBopHTb 
■■ ciOBa o cMepTH reHHeseHa. 



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HAT^HAfl KPHTHKA. 217 

Bors poMaHHCTEi HJiH no3Tii, ycuHOEieHHEie Bx nocjAjí,Eee BpeMfl 
^paHi^yscBOK) HHTejíJiHreaipeĚ. HsT^enie nxi npeAcraBJífleTB ocoCnfi 
iHrepecB HueHHO cb to& to^bh sp^HÍfl, na Roropoft ctohtb „nay^- 
aafl KpHTHRa^ FeHHeReHa. Ha nepBui njiaHx dra spHTHKa buj^bh- 
faen> bjiíshía, HCxo;^iilífl otb xyAOSHHBa hjih xyA03BecTBeHHaro 
npoESBexemfl. XyAOsecTBeHHoe npcEssexeme — TasoBa ocHOBHaa 
^pMyja FenneBeHa — íMcTByen> to.ibbo na tíx-b, ^hitb BHpame- 
meiTL OHO cjiyatHTB (une oeuvre ďart n'émeat que ceux dont elle 
€8t le signe). Ecjih aHrjiiĚCBie mm pyccRÍe povaHu, ecm wk^eujíisi 
nicHH HJH aicepHRaHCRie (j^aHTacTH^ecRie paBCRasu HaxoAflTB Ó-iaro- 
flipHyio noTOy bi {^pani^yscRHxi ywax-B, to 9to SHaHHTB, qio Me»Ay 
tÍMH H ^yrHMH cymecTByeTB Bnyrpennee poactbo; snaROMCTBO cb 
nepBHvn Mosers a&tb bjhohi r% noHEMamio nocjrbAHHxii. damana 
FeHHeReHa, no coÓCTBeHHUiirB cjiOBain* ero, npHMO upoTHBonojiosHa 
not, HaíTB BOTopoS TpyjíHJCfl Tbht*. TsffB HCRaJTB npH^HH^, ort 
KOTopQX'b saBHCHTB HOflBJíeHie BeJiHBaro nHcaxejifl— HCBajii utl fb 
HacjrfcicTBeHHoeni, bb BjdflHÍH pacu, cpemj o(5cTaHOBBH; FenneBenB 
ocTaBiaerB bx croponi BonpocB o npnqHHaxi, npHsnaBafl ero vh 
HacTOflDo^yH) MHHyry HepaspimHHuirB, n cocpe^OTO^saeiB CBoe 
BHHHaHie Ha tobtb, BaBB H Ha Boro A^ĚCTByiorB se^HBÍfl nponsBe- 
iema. Go^epsanie Hcropin — Bce paBHO, nojiHTH?ecBot, pesHiiosHOft 
MH iHTepaTypnott— CBOAHTCa, no mh^hík) FenneBena, b-b rpynnH- 
pOBst MaccTB BOBpyrB jhhhocth, bb HHHipaTHBÍ& OAHoro, yBJíeBaio- 
n^^ líHOFHXB. II,eHTpocTpeMHTeiBHoe ABHseHíe He BaiciiBaeToi bb 
ipaHHi^u roeyAapcTBa, Ha^iH hjh pacu; repofi h ero noci^AOBaTejiH 
cmoniB H psAOifB npHna^^JiejRaTB bb coBepmeHHO pasJísrafiiMB c4>e- 
paiiB. dBcnaHCHBHOCTB H^eH, ÓesnpeAtjiBHafl pacnpocrpaHHMOCTB ea 
qapcTBa — botb jmómmlk TesHCB „Oubitobi HayHHOfi bphthbh^. 

HTaBB, FeHHeBeHB — cosnaTOJibHHft hpothbhhbb T8Ha. T4mb 
ivfioBUTHÍe q)aBHHTB Hx*B, BOP^a OHH BacaioTCfl o^Hoft h Tott se 
TeMH. Sra TeMa — JI^BBBeHCB, BoropoMy nocBameHu Erferaa oaBEi h 
BB „O^pani^yseHHuxi nncaTejiflxx^ , h bx „HcropiH aHTJfiftcBoft 
JurrepaTypii^. Mes^y BBrjiHAaHH oCohxt* bphthbobx ho iiajio o6n^aro. 
CoTjracHO cb TanoMi, FeHHOBeHB bhahtb bi ^HBBencb Bpaftnee 
pasBHTie HyBCTBHTeJiBHOcrH, sacraBJfliomeft ero nocroflHHO bojho- 
Barsefl, BiiíniHBaTBCfl bb xoa^b pascBasa, bhochtb bi nero cboh jon- 
BHa on^yn^eHifl. H T8hb, h FeHHOBeH^ 0TBa3UBaH)rB JI^HBBeHcy bb 
yviHBi H8o6pasaTB BpacHBoe h BeJiHBoe; h totb, h ipyroft no^;- 
HepRHBaH>rB OAHOOÓpasie, o^hoi^b^thoctb, npeyBejra^eHHOCTB ^^nrypí, 
cosxaHHuxi aHTJdftcBHiTB poiíaHHcroMB. HerpyAHO sairbiETB, OAHaBo, 
^To y T9Ha npeotfjiaAaerB atejiame o6^HCHUfnh JI^uBsenca, y Fen- 
Heiena — seiame aurbuumt ero. TdHB CBo6oAeHB otb bcaboA npeji- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



218 BftCTHHRlí EBPOnH. 

B3flTofi mucih; OHI He CHflTaerb OAHy JurrepaTypnyiD naHepy ^ími-to 
ÓesycJiOBHO JiyqmHMi, ^ŠMt jupyraa. reHHeKeei HaxoAHTCfl, ao h3- 
BŽCTHOft creneHH, bo bjircth moahbixi HaTypaaHCTH^ecBBXi AOsrpaHi; 
eMy He ?ysAft Teopifl „MpaMopa h ĎpoHau*". ^HanpacHO ^bjio (h 
HCEaTB y ^HKKeHca, — roBopHTB TeHHeKeffB, — xotb OAHoro pascBasa, 
BnojiH*! cxepsaHHaro h neBosMyTRMaro (contenu et impassible); na- 
npacHO 6ujio 6u HCRaTB y nero xotb oaho& ci^eHu, bi> BOTopoi 
npoflBHjiocb 6u euctuee ucnyccmeo (Fart supérieur) — HCEyccTBO, 
npe^ocraaiflioii^ee coÓuTÍflBťB h H^eaM^b roBopHTB caMHifB sa ce6i, 
OKasuBaTB AftBJíeHie tojibbo coÓCTBeHHUBfB CBOHiTB bícomx''. Kto 
npH3HaeTB cyH^ecTBOBame „Bucmaro HCRyccTBa", o6yc;iOBJiHBaeiiaro 

ae HHTeHCUBHOCTBK) HJIH FJiyÓIlHOfi A^pOBaHÍfl, a HSBtCTHUlfB CHOCO- 

Qowh BBipajKeHifi, totb sapaste ciicHeHi cbohhb HanoCjieHHuirB 
Macmia^OMi; Hsi-sa „npBKHA^BaHBfl ir6pBH^ owh cjihiobom^b jenu) 
MOserB npocMOTp^TB oco6eHHOCTB, He noAAftionUflCfl B8H']kpeBÍio. 
MacmiaGoBi y FeHHeKeHa ii^^uxi ABa; BpoM']^ xoro^ BOTopuft ^ani 
eMy 3oja h ^JioÓepoM^B, pyROBOACiBOM-B jun nero ciyaHTB eme 
Apyrofi, sauMCTBOBaHHiifi hsb coBpeifeHHofi ncHxoioriH. MopaiB, 
jesan^ýH) bi ocHOBanÍH Bcero HanHcanHaro JI^BeHCOHi*, mojloaoě 
4)paHi;y3CRÍ& BpHTHBB npHSHaeTB „<{>aJiBinHBofi H fiesnojiesHoft", Basi 
H BCflEyH) ApyrjH), „cosAaHHyK) nosejaHÍfliiH, Me^iaMH, crpeiue- 
HieMi) BB HAeajiy, npeodoa^ameMi BejiHBOAynrifl Ha^i ohuthoctbid''. 
„DpeAnHcaHia, — HHraeicB mu AaJiBnie, — npeAnHcaHÚi, npoHcre- 
Baiooúfl ne h3i^ naiypu nejostBa, ne hsb HHCTHHBTHBHaro noHH- 
Manifl ero norpeÓHOcreft, a nsi cji']kno& h Tpe^OBaxejiBHOfi jhoÓbh, 
Hd'B crpacTHaro nopuBa bx coBepmeecTBy, ctojeb se neAtficTBHTeiBBU, 
BaBB H ciHniBOMi cTporíe saBOBu, cjiHniBOMi MHoraro TpeCyioii^ie 
OTB j[K)Aefl, Bajiaraion^ie Ha hhxi cihoibom^ mhofo orpaHHqemft. 
npon3BeAeHÍe HCBycciBa ne MOserB 6eitb npoBOAHHBOMi MopaiH, 

BB OÓUHHOMB CMUCJl^ 3T0r0 CJIOBa, HOTOMy TTO CB CaMHMl 4>^IKT0MB 

efl npoB03rj[ameHÍa HepaspuBHO CBflsaHH onmóoHHUfl, nenaiHiia, 
BpeAHBifl npeAcraBJíeHifl o £H3hh. HciHHHOft MopaďH noBHHyiOTCfl 
6e3npeBOC/iOBHO h ÓesMOJiBHO; nonuTBa yfii^AHTB bi cnpaBeAJHBOGTH 
HpaBCTBeHHaro ynemfl CBHAÍTejiBCTByeTB o ero jurhbocth. Hanni 
A^ttcreifl Bii8iiBaH)TCfl, HesaM^iiHO msl naci caMHxi, coBOBynnocrBK) 
HeoTpasHMuxi ycJiOBÍfi; tohho TaBi se h MopajíB xyAOsecTBeHearo 
npoH3BeAeHÍH Ao^iama Óbitb noApasyMtBaeMoft h OHOBHAHOfi. He bu- 
paseHHafl npflMO h Bce-TasH yfitAHTOJiBHafl, ona Aouma BureKaTB 
caMa C060K) HBi Bp&nm^a, pasBepriiiBaeMaro nepeA^ naMH. XyAO- 
secTBeHHUfl npoH3BeAeHÍfl — dio yMEpoTBopennoe oipasenie shshh*' 
(rimage apaisée de la vie). 3a^b, htí) hh ciobo, tí> hoboax b-b 
caMOMy cepBesHOMy pasHorjacÍK). He óyAeMB fobophtb o a^ctbh- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HAyqHAfl EPHTHRA. 21^ 

TeibHOCTH H3H HeAi&CTBBTejiBHOCTH HpaBCTBeHHuxT* npaBHjEi, npo- 
BOsrjamaeMBixi bo hma HAeajia; ne Óy^ewi roBopoTB o npHSHaRax'^ 
^HCTHHHod MopajH'', O xapasiepi noBEHOBeHÍa ea Tpe6oBaHÍflMX. 

Bdb dTH BOnpOCEI CTOflTb BWb OÓJiaCTE dCTeXHRH H He MoryT^ 6UT1> 

nopimeHU mhmoxoaomii, H'bcROji^BUMH noqepRaMH nepa, npecji']kA7K)- 
n^aro xyAOJsecTBeHHO-RpHTH^ecRifl sahana. KonenHO, 4^hj[oco4>cro& 
Mipocosepi^ame RpHTHRa se Moseri ne bjiíatl ea ero jiHTepaiypHua 
qa^eHifl, — ho noci']&AHÍfl ee B£iHrpuBaK)n> poBHo HHqero ot^ no- 
DUTRH CBflsaTb Hxi, fla CRopyH) pyRy, CB nojiomeHiflMH coBepmeHHO* 
HHoro nopflAKA. JI,onycTHMi>, hto BcaRoe HpaecTBeHHoe y^eele, co- 
SBaTejBHO HcnoBŠAyeMoe u nponoBi^AyeMoe, aojisho 6iitb npHBHaHO^ 
ffb CHiiy 8Toro OAHoro, omafioTOHMi h speAHUMi; CJvk^jerb jih ot- ' 
€K)Aa. HTO npoBOAHHROMi TaROFO y^eHÍfl ne MOMemh ABHTbCfl xyxo- 
secTBeHHoe npousBejieHie? Jl^aete óíajii, cosHaTejibHuirL npHBepseH- 
TSfiwb RaTOJiH^ecRoft MopajiH, Mhjibtohi — TaRHMi TRe npHBepseBi^eM'^^ 
MopasH npoTecraHTCRofi, h 3to, fiesi comh^búi, BupasHJioeL B^ hxi^ 
jiHTepaTypHoft jííbsiTejihROC^a; ho pasBt „BosecTBeHHafl RoMOAifl'' b 
,IIoTepflHHiifi Pafi" — He npoHSBeAemfl HCRycciBa, vb caMOMx bh- 
coRoiTB CMHCJii 8Toro cjiOBa?.. MopajiB xyAOiTcecTBeHHaro npoHdBe- 
ACHia, — roBopHTL renneReni, — AOJaKHa Óhtb HeBupaseHHoft KpaMO- 
H Bce-TaRH y6ÍAHTejibHož. ^Tb BTO laRoe — saROHi iBopnecTBa, 
ROHcraTHpyeMuĚ nayqHUMi nyTeM'B, hjh oaho hsi tíxi npoHSBOJiB- 
HHxi acreiHHecRHXi npaBHjix, Roxopfiifl npH8HaK)TCfl oahhmií, OTBep- 
racoTCfl ApyrHMu, ycTanoBjaiOTCfl ceroAHfl, OTM'&HfliOTCJK saBxpa? Bess 
C0Mfl'ÍHÍfl — TOJibRO nocai^AHee. CxpeicflCB CA'&iaTi> hbi nero Htqxa 
(Ruikniee, FenHeReH^b sanyTUBaercfl bi i^íiomi paa^ npoTHBopt^ÍH. 

Hai* 6e8C0dHaTeJLBH0fi BaBHCEMOCTH HamHXl A'&fiCTBÍfi OHI BUBOAHTb... 

Tr6? Be3C03HaTejiBH0CTB Mopa.iH, npoHHRaion^efi xyAOsecTBennoe 
npoHBBeAenie? HtrB—TOJiBRO ea noApasyiiiBaeMOCTB h o^cbkahoctb. 
9tď oieBHAHO A^fl HHxaTejiefi, to, cnjioniB h pjiAOMi, o^eBHAHO b 
AM aBTopa — a oneBHABoe, b-b amhoitb CJiy^dAy paBHOCB.iBBO coanau- 
HOMy. JI^pyrBMB cioBaMB, xyAOJRBHRx, AajRe cb tohrb spiaifl Fen- 
HeReHa, MOsen coauaeamh BpaBCTBeHHufi cmucjii CBOero npoHSBe- 
AeBÍfl; OBI AOJUseBi tojibro aaÓpocBTB Ba aero apxBCTBqecRH-co- 
TsaBHoe noRpbiBajio, BacrojibRO bjiotboc, ^to6u sB^ero ae ÓpocajiocB. 
VB rjiasa, aacrooiBRO npospaHBOe, ^To6fii Bce, bi robi^^ robi^obi^ 
6u.io AOcryBBO a.ijí Bpbaifl. He aobojih, ^to mu aaxoABMCfl ba^cb 
He Bi o&iacTH BCBxojiorflqecRBX'B aa6jiK)AeBÍtt, a bi o6iacTH acxe* 
iH^ecRHx^B coBÍTOBi>? Kx HCMy ae 6hjio TpeBOJRHTB aayRy, HSBJíe-" 
lafl orryAa noiíOxeBie o&b ycjOBÍflxi, RoropuMi^ aeB86^flo a Cea- 
co$HameAhHO noAHBflfleTca aama A'^TeJiBBOCTB? KaROBa 6u na 6ujia 
creneHB AOCTOB^bpBOcra dToro noJioseBÍJi, rx Bonpocy, daaaMaiOQ^eMy 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1220 B^CTHHR^ EBPOHbl. 

TeHEeReHa, oho, bo bcaromi c.i7?a'b, HenpHM^HHMO; aHajorm, b^ 
KOTopott KpHTHSi viinfiTb jíjiz ce6fl TOTOH OHopEi, oOpaiE^aeTCfl Vh 
opysie npoTHBX nero, noTOMj hto cpaBHHBaeMiui BeJiHHHHU OKasH- 
BaH)TCfl cyn^ecTBeHHO pasjH^HUMH. Ri rjiaBHO& sa.mmb FeflHeKeHa, 
3aRjio?aH)n^eficfl b^ nsy^emn jHTepaTypHtixi» BJii^Hift, HscjrbjíOBaHie 
Bne?aT.iiHÍfi. ^i^ficTBHTeJiBHO BosÓyffliAaeiffiix^B TremeHi JI^HBReHca, 
uo^xojiMJio 6u ropas^^o 6jiHse, ^iwb aÓcxpaRTHoe ocys^enie ero 
„MOpajiH^. EaiHÓu naini aBTopx crajTB na Cojiie npaBTHHecRyio no^y, 
OHX yÓi^^MCH 6h, 6uTb MoaerB, íto ne HanpacHO — bi aroMt cjiy- 
HB.% lasus/b H BO MHorexi ApyrHxx — pa3;i;aBa;[Cfl rojocL „cjrinoft s Tpe- 
<5oBaTeJiBHoft jik)6bh^, He óednio^eex 6iurb „crpacTHufi nopiiBi b^ 
xiOBepmeHCTBy'' (npaBHJibH^ 6ujio 6ii CRasaiB: ^ri coBepmeHCTBO* 
BaHÍK>^; sa fiesycjnoBHUMi coBepmeHCTBoiťB ^HRReHcrB ne roHHTCfl 

BOBCe). ^HRReHCB, 6631 COMfi'lHÍfl, COeAHHflJTB Bl 066*6 XyJCOXHOEa 
<yh npOnOB^AHHROATB -^ HO CTOJIB ai6 H6C0BfHÍHH0, Bl HaiDHX^B TJíSL' 

^ax^B, H TO, TTO nponoBÍAB 6ro H6 nponua 668círlAH0. Cjc&uiHHoe 
HM^ A</ifl yjiyHin6HÍfl aHrjrificROft niRoiu, aEmficROft 6j[aroTBopHT6i[B- 
HOCTH, aHrjiittcRHXi^ a;(MHBHCTpaTHBHuxi HpaBOBi MoserB 6£iTb yBa- 

^aHO H 0Iipe;i^6H0, Ch npH6jIH3nTeJ[BH0B) TOTOOCTBB) H nOJHOTOK); 
H6y.l0BHini, HO tImI H6 M6H^ BHOJHÍ poaJBHBI „;(06piI2 HyBCTBa', 

npo6y;Kj[6HHua h npo6yaflaeMua hbtb bi C6pAn;ax'B TOTaTeJi6ft. Or- 
pHi](aTb Hxx a priori, b^ ch^ sapanite cocra&ieHHaro y6&RAeHÍfl 
81 6e3cnjiÍH HA6aj[bHuxi> crpewiemŘ — npieBfb, najio cooTBtTCTBjrH)- 

miŘ HayqHOft RpHTHRt. 

^HRR6HCX, (TB TOHRH 3plHÍfl TOHa — n0p0SX6HÍ6 CB06& CTpaHU 
U CBOOrO BpeMeHH. OTCB0;^a CHCT6MaTHqeCR06 HFHOpHpOBamO M3B*CT- 
HUXl CH)SeTOBl, BdBtCTHUXX CTpaCT6fi; OTCiOAa RpafiHflfl OCTOpOS- 
flOCTb Vh H306paS6HÍH J[K)6Bn, OTCK)jia THrOT%HÍ6 R^ AOKaiOHeMY 

o^ary, HxoajiEBai^iH 6paRa h ceM6&H0& shshh; OTCH)Aa 6HTOBaHie 

Hai^iOHBJIbHUXl nOpOROB^ — JHI^6MÍpífl, FOpAOCTH, Ayni6BH0ft CyXOCTH 
H ^epCTBOCTH. ^Jlfl r6HH6R6Ha »HBafl CBflBb JI^HRReHCa Cb aHFjift- 

<5R0ft noíBOft RaRx 6yAT0 ne cym6CTBy6TB; ohi Hscjri&AyoTB hcrjio* 
^HTeJibHo TeMn6paMeHTB xy;^osHHRa, a h6 ero oÓcranoBRy, h cra- 

HOBHTCfl, BCJAjí,CI!BÍe BTOFO, He TOJIbRO OAHOCTOpOHHHMX, HO H HC- 

cnpaBeA^BUMi. Or^ yxBeps^iaerB, HanpHM^pi, ^rro Q6RChh4^'b h 
J^om6h— njioxÍ6 o6pa3i^b[ cbo&ctbi, oJiHi^eTBopoHieicb Roxopuxib ohh 
csyxarB. Hna^e, h ropaB^o npaBHJiBHie, cmotphtb na hhxi T9b%; 
€ro npoAOxpaHHerb otb oraHÓRH hm6Hho to, tto Offb nmeT^ h 
eaxoAHrB tohrh conpHROCHOB6HÍH MesAT <|>HrypaMH, coB^anHEiiíB 

JI^nRR6HC0afb, H COBpeMeHHUMl 6My aHfJliňCRHMl 06n^eCTB0M%. ]íflu6Uy 

&b rjia3ax'B Tana — cneiíH(J)H^ecRH-aHrjrificRÍft ^opA6^^, IleBCHH^ý-B 
— cn6n;H(í>Hq6CRH-aHrjiiftcRÍft jnujifiu^pi*, Tdwb H^eTi eme 4;ajn»nie h 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HAy^HAfl KPHTHKA. 221 

E^pTB Bi JÍ^TSKRencb nepiu flai](íoHaiBHaro ay^? npoflBJíflioiiúflcs 
n caMUH paHHifl anoxH mtmřckoí HcropÍH, Hcnesaioiuifl, no spe- 
leHaifi, cpeAH noaxH^finiHxi HaaiioeHÍ&, ho Taaii^iflCfl bi rjyÓHH^ 
H ii3E3eBaeMUfl orry^a iBop^ecTBOMi BeiHBaro nacaieM... Bdojhív 
Hc^epiiHBaioiiieK) xapaBTepecTHsa ^HBBeHca, AaHHafl Tsbomi, ne 
Mosers 6uTh HadsaHa yse noTony, ^ro OHa nanHcaHa jítl 3& 
lec&n ^0 CMepTH poMaHHcra, npesj^e BuxoAa bi cbítl nocj^AHHxi 
ero upoBSBe^emfi; bo Bce-xaKH bi nefi ropas^o MeHbme npoÓ^OB^^ 
Umí vb craTb^ FeHHeEeHa. y noci^AHaro, HanpHM'6px, Eivb hb 
Offoro ciosa^ nocsan^enHaro ;^tcbhii'b ^nrypant ^HRReeca, — (|)Hry- 
pan, opHrHHajiBHaa npejiecrh BOTopllx^ TaE'B FlpHO noHATa h TaR'B 
spio ocvkasfiiiB, TdHOM'B. Tbh^ padCMaxpHBaerB ^HBBeHca RaBi oih<v 
m> sBeHbeex ajhhhoK i^toe, cKOBaHHofi renieMi aHrjíficKaro Ba* 
po^; reHHeBeHi Hsy^iaeirB bx Beiíi CBopte oahbi^ hsi buj^ob^b^ 
ncExonaTÍH, bo3mosbbixi> bi» oÓJiacrn HCRy^cxBa. CraiB JI^HRKeflca 

lf030j(0fi EpHTERl BaSUBaeTb yrpHpOBaBHUMl, BUqypHHM^^ HSBH- 

iHCTHiTb, xeBCTBeHBO-HecBORoflHHMx; ero (í>a6yjiu — CesyMBO-neB*- 
poflTHuuH H AO RpafiBOCTH 0.10X0 nocxpoeBHUMH, ycTynaH)n^HMH, Bl^ 
mwb OTHOmeBÍH, nocjiiAHeMy ^ejiberoHHOMy poMaay; no6y»A*íBÍflr 
noxi BJiijiHÍeM% ROTopuxi A'bftCT6yK)'rB ero repOH, — BiiMEnnjieBHiiMH, 
EOJíeÓJioniHUHCfl Mea^iy He.iinoft AOÓpoxoft h dednpeA']^bHOft aiocTbio, 
xes^y BeBoaMOSHofi ;RaABOCi*bK) h crojib se HeB03HoacflUMi> ÓesRO- 
paciieirb. ^HBReBCb „ae sHaerb bh caMoro ce6a, bh Apyrnx-b Jiio- 
^teft*^; ero A'^&CTByK)n^ifl jHua CBo;(flTCfl Bcei^^o Ri OAHony CBofi- 
CTBy, oiHoft rocnoACTByion;ett Heprb, o^Bott $pa3i, (Jesi Roropuxs 

OHH COBCtMl 6U H Be CyO^eCTBOBaJIH. Offb BOBCe BeSHaROMl CL. 

Tbn, Tr6 Hsotípaataerb — hh ci ĎojibniHM-b cbítomx, bu cb aRie- 

paMH, BH Cl pUÓaRaMH, BH Cb paÓOqBMH, BH Cb npHCyrCTBeBBKIMH 

MicraMH, BH Cb aojiroBofi TiopbMoft. Micro onncaBÍtt y Bero saBH- 
nen jh($o nepe^enb .luqHBix^b Bne^aT.i'£BÍ&y ďH6o HOMeBRjiaTypa 
iipe;uieTOB'B, HanoMUHaion^afl nporoRO.ii ayRi^ioBHcra. Ofl:b Be npn- 
Ha^esHrb hh ri peajiHcrairb, bh ri HAeajiHcraMi>; ero BeJib3fl 

HaSSaib BH HaCTOJiIUQM'b pOMaHHCrOMl, BH, TŽMl MeBŠe, XyAOSBH- 

som... Ckojbro orpni^aTejibHuxi cbo&ctbi, crojibro Be^ocxaTROBi^ 
I saBHxi RpynBuxi)! Tjiíb aie, BaROBei^x, nojiosHTeJibBfifl cropoBu 
ÍHKeBca? He MO»erb ae hx-b ne Óunh BOBce y nncaTejia, 3BaTO- 
Hie H RiiflHie ROToparo — se tojbro wh cpe^t cooTe^ecTBeBBHROB^^ 
HO H icesAy ^y»HMH — npnsHaeTb caM^ FenHeReBi. JI,McrBHTejibBO, 
08i ^asbiBaiOTCJi Ba-jHi^o, xota h ne bt» 6ojíhmom> ^ucjA. JI^hr- 
smi — Macrepb AÍa^sora; B'lcRO.ibRHMH cJOBanH obi* yM^erb otep- 
mi víksuA xapaRiep-b, rtMi 6o.iie, wro xapaRiepti y Bero Be- 

H BeH3M']kHBU H ^TO Rl RaS^Olíy HSli BHXli OpBI^^BJíeBl^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



222 B'&CTHHBX EBPOnU. 

RaR0&-HH6yAB flpjiuR'B, (5e3npecTaHHO BOsoÓHOBJífleMíift wh nanATH 
^HTaiejia. Y^aíOTca ^HRKency, noeroMy, bx ocotfeBHOcra jonsfl, CMÍin- 
BUH HJiB ROBapHUfl, MejiOApaMaTH^ecRÍfl; bi> u3o6paseHÍH q)eAHHX'B, 
otfBiRHOBeHHuxi Jiío^eŘ owb ropa3AO ciafi^e, h ^axe hx^ pasroBopu 
BUXOAflTB y Hero q)aBHHTe.iBHO 6aHa.ikHB]MH h HedHa^nrejESHiuiH. 
B^ nocJiijíHHXi ero poManax^ (^BojiBinifl oatH^HÍa*, „Hannb 
BBauMHufi ;^pyl1»^), ROTopae TeHeeReH^B npe^noqHTaerB hdbwb ^py- 
FHMi, 6ojibmoe Bne^aTj']&HÍe iipoH3BOj(flTB ({^nrypu, HapncoBaHHUfl 
HeonpeA^eHHUHH, HeacHUMn mTpHxaMu; oh-í ocxaiOTCH b'b nojy- 
MpaR']^, caMafl TanHCTBeHHOcrs ROToparo saRJnaqaeii bi> ce6i mhofo 
iipnBJíeRaTeJibHaro. Bcero 6ojibme hoaxoahti R'b JI^uRReHcy Ha3BaHÍe 
HappuKamypucma. Oh-b BipHO cxBaxHBaert ly mh Apyryio ^epxy 
;i;iftcTBHTejibH0CTH, HO nepcAaerB ee wb H3Bpaii;eHH0Mib bha^, TaB'B 
qTo6u OHa cpasy Ópoca^acB 6*^ r.iasa ^HTaxejefi h ee ocTasjífljia 
Bi HHxi HHRaRoro coMH^HÍfl HacHeTB HaH']^peHÍft aBTopa. POJb 
JI,HRReHca B% jiHTepaTyp* HMŠerB mhofo oCmaro Ch tok), Roxopyio 
Hrpaíoxi b^ atHBOHHCH JÍOMLe, FaBapHH, FpeBeH-B, JIhtb (coxpy^í- 
HHRT> anrjiiftcRaro lOMopncxHiecRaro atypnajia „Punch")... B*b Apy^ 
roiTB wkcrb FenneReHi npHSHaerB JI^HRReHca lOMopiicxoMi, ho onpe- 
jííkisíerb wMopi, — CBfl3£iBafl ero axEMOJiornnecRH ch ij^pani^yscRHirK 
cjiOBOWb humeuTy — RaR^ naRJiOHHOCXB H3x-8a Bcero npnxoAHXB m> 
BOJiHenie, ns^-sa Bcero HcnuxfiiBaxB a<|>({>eRXi», HecoBM']&cxHuft Cb 
HHCxo-pascyAOHHEiírB oxnomenieirB r-b A*ftcxBHxejBHOCXH. IOmopb- 
cxenecRHiTB uHcaxejieMx, cb dxoň xohrh sptníji, sBJíflexcfl xoxii, ro- 
xopuft Bd CBOH OH^yn^enifl, A^se csluus ÓespasjíH^HBiA, nepeAaexi> 
B^B (|)opMŠ HyBCXBi — co»a.i4HÍfl, oxBpamenia, cxpaxa h x. h. Co- 
BepmeHHO HHa^e oxhochxca R'b lOMopy Tbhb (bii diiojsik o Rap- 
jiefiji*). AHrjíiftcRoe cjiobo humour T^hi cqnxaex^ HenepeBoaHMBnn> 
Ha (J)paHi^y3CRÍft ashri, noxoMy hxo y 4)paHiíy80B'B bobcc h4xt> no- 
Hflxia, cooxB^xcxByíomaro axoMy cjOBy. Oxcio^a neBOSMOatnocxB xo^- 
Haro H HOJinaro onpeA']^JieHÍfl, Roxopoe otfHHMajio 6u co6ok) neb 
xapaRxepncxHqecRÍfl qepxu lOMopa. TdHx orpanHHHBaexcfl x^mi, tto 
jRasuBaexi H^ROxopBifl nsx hhx^: (fesi^epeiiOHHoe o6pan^eHÍe Cb 
TOxaxejiflMH, npecxpacxie r^b ROHxpacxaMx, cm^cb pfeRoft BecejrocxH 
CB rjiyfioROft MeJiaHxojiíeft, xopaecxBeHHocxn — cb uhhhsmomx, pas- 
cy»AeHÍa — cb noaxHHecRHMi hopbibom-b. H saícb, RaRi HaMX Ka- 
sexcfl, npesMyn^ecTBO na cropoH']^ Tana. Yopon^aa h o6o6ni^, 
FenHeRCHi^ oxAaiaexcfl ovb hcthhu. lOMopecraMH, no ycraHOBJTfle* 
TáhíWb BifB npndHaRaMi, CJvk^OB^o 6u npnsnaxB bcí^xi caxHpnROBi, 
noxoMy qxo ohh bc4 ^aioxi bojih) cbohmx qyBCTBaM-B, BH^ax^ npe^- 
MexH CRB03B HpHSMy HeHaBHCTH H Hero^OBaHÍa; k Me»Ay rtiis 
HOJiBBa ssuQ npHHHCiHXB Ri lOMopHcxaH^ BapÓBe HJiH Sepne, lOse- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HAyHHAfl BPHTHRA. 223 

Haia HJH TIoJSfl-JIyH Kypse. BjimKEWh ki lOMopy oimsaiECfl 6Uj 
Ch ToqsH sp^HÍfl TeHneReHa, h jHpnsMi, bscb upoHERHynift jBJíe- 
femeiTB — h HaoÓopoTB, nejnasi Ówio 6ii Bnijiíinh lOMopiKCTa b% Fo- 
rart, noTOMy hto y nero amcko ee Bce oÓjeRaerca bx (|)opMy 
HjBCTBa. KoHeHHO^ flflKRencrb npHHaAJiescHTB ri rpynn^ aHrjiificRHX'B 

DMOpHCTOBX, HO 6e30IIIH(50HHOe SaRJHOHeHÍe BUBe^eHO reHHeReHoiTB 

HJB aBHO-oniHtfoqHHxi MOTHBOB-B... ^TO RacacTCfl flo iipoB03rjiarae- 

HÍ2 JIJHRReHCa RappHRaTypHCTOlTB, TO 3AÍCb O^HHaROBO HenpaBHJIBHll 

H MOTHBEi, H 3aRj[H)qeHÍe. y JI^RRReHca, (SescnopHOy scTpi^^aiOTCfl 
BappHEaTypu, ho ne wb hhx'b ero rjiaBHafl cnjia, ne vb nnx^b 
HCTOHHHR^ ero sHaneHifl. Hh wh MBcrepi JI,om6h, hh vh Fajih^ 
HHSRďe^H, hh fb ^sonacš ?e38JibBHTT6, hh bt* rpaArpafiHA'i^y hh 
vh jtpyrnx^b rjaBHuxx ^McTByion^EXi^ jiHuaxi* ero pOManoBi hItb 
HH^ero RappHRaTypnaro; axo noprpeTU, bi ROTopuxx EHor^a <j[)opcH 
poBana Ta bsb Apyraa OTA'&ibHafl nepra, ho ne nacrojiLRO, htoCu 
Mooa 611TL p^% o&h HsypoAOBaHÍH (déformation) A^fiCTBHTejbHOCTH. 
EcTb JIH HTO-HHÓyAB oÓH^aro Ch RappHRaTypoft vb HCTopin Maienb- 
saro nojíui JífiuÓvij bb AOMamnHxi h mROJBHuxx MyRax'B JI^aBE^a 
RoQnep4»HJiBAa, bb saÓpomeHHOCTH jOH^OHCRaro ^^yjHHHaro MajiB- 
HEuniH" JI,ao, Bi (|)Hryph TepnÍJiHBaro CTe4)eHa hjih nsMynenHOtt 
nposoK) SHSHH Jlyasu BayHAep6H?.. Ha ^eu^h ocHOBan^, Aajríte, 
6e3aneji.ifli(ioHH£ifi npHroBopi, npH3HaH)n]^i& JI^ERRenca bhhobhumi 

Vh „CO^HHHTeJBCTBi", B^ HeSHaHÍH TOFO, ^TÍ) OHI pHCyeTB? PaSB* 

FenHeReHi caMi nBynaJii; bx Ahfjiíh, bcš c^epu oÓH^ecTBeHHOit 

S1I3HB, SaTpOHyTUfl JIJHRReHCOftTB, H yÓ^AHJICfl, HpH STOHl, B^B He- 
rtpHOCTH KOnift CB OpHrHHaJOMl? IIpHHHJll* JH OHX Wh paSCHeTB 

pasHHi^y Mes;iy coBpeMenHOft ÁHrjiefi h Anrjiefi TpHAi^axEixi h 
copoBOBHX^ roAOB^B, H30(5pa»aeMott wh „OjHBept Tbhctí", b-b „IIhr- 

BHRCROMl BJiy66'', B^B „XOJIOAHOMX Jlflwb^?.. ECJIH BB OnHCaHÍflX'B 

^HRRenca nepneHCTBysoni^aji pojib nacTO npHHaA^esHTi jihhhbim^ 
BoenarjiŠHiHM^ aBTopa, to sto bobco He HexocraTORx; thhbi oneca- 
lift 10 óesROHeHHOCTH pa8Hoo6padHB[, H OHHcaTejiBHafl Manepa 3ojia 
H $jio6epa — ne eAHHCXBeHHaaí, y^OBjerBopaiomaa TpeÓOBaHÍaMi 
icsyccTBa. „PascRaBi o RaTacTpo(j[>'fe, bb ROTopofi nornČaerB CxHp- 
ÝopTB, — roBopHTi reHHeRenx, — Ram^OMy coBpeMCHHOMy iHTaTe^K) 
noEasercfl cjHnTROM'B Majo rnaBonncHUM^B, cjinniROMi nepenojiHeH- 
moťh Bupan&eHÍflMH cocxpa^anifl h ymaca, HcnBTTUBaeHEixx caMHM^ 

paSCRaSHHROMlb". Ob dTHACB MOSHO COFJiaCHTBCa TOJIBRO BT> TaROMl 

ciyqai* ecjiH noA'B HMeHem coBpeMeRHaro HETaTe^a pa3yH']kTB ca- 
Moro FenHeRena hjih Apyroro noRJiOHHHRa HOB^ftmefi <{>paHi^y3CRofi 
6ea;ieTpHCTHRH. Ha uuxz onBcanie Óypn bi ^^aBH^* Konnep^HabA*" 
ittcTBHTejBHO jí,0Ji7RE0 npoH3BOAHTb BHe^aTjiiHie lero-To nepes^-^yp^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



224 H^ďHHRl EBPOnU. 

cyÓ^eKTflBHaro h, cj^xoBaxejiBHO, HexyAoasecTBeHearo, HecoBq>niefl* 
Haro — HO dTO, o^eBHAHO, ^"^0 jm^naro Bsyca, hh a^a kofo ne 
o6fl3aT&si>Haro... B^b onHcamflxi HOMeHKaaiypHaro csoftcTBa ^bb- 
ReHCx Rasexcs Haní BOBce HenoBHHHuiťB, hjh, bo bcakomi ciy- 
qa'&, BHHOBHincE Heq)aBHeHHO MeHBme, hím'b 3ojia h soiaBciH. He 
MOseii^B MU, HaBOBei^'B, npESHaiB H Toro, mtoúíi ^hójjai ponaaoBS 
JI,HBBeHca rptaiHJH, cmomB h pA^om, „fiesyííHOH) HeBŠpoflr- 
HOCTBB)'' iLiH Rpa^He luioxofi nocrpoĚKoft. liTb HeBŽpoflTHaro, 
HanpiurIpB, bi> ^6yjii j^^aBE^a Konnep4»HJiBAa^? Ecjh6u dran^ 
poHaH^ 6hun> ao BpafiHOcra ilioxo nocrpoeffB, Mon> ja 6n oh3> 
noM^psuBaTB AO Ronaa, na npoTflsemH Tpexi» tomobi, BHHMi^e 
qHTaTeaefi? Bescnopeo, ecTB bi uewb h a9hhhotu[, h mmmsí jum^a, 
H jHiDHifl CAeHu; HO cpeAH Bcero aroro BpacHoft hhtbk) npoxo* 
AHTB aBTo6iorpa<j^ifl repofl, BOBce ne ctojb 6e3i](BÍ&THaro h Canau- 
Haro, BaBi axo Raseicfl FeHHeBeHy... Mea^y JI^HBBeHCOirB h ero 

HOBUITB 4>PAHAy8CKHM^ BpHTHBOMl CTOHTB, AyMaeTCfl HBMl, H^HTO 

Bi poA^ HAÍocHHBpasm, HŠmaion^efi noci^AHeMy OTHecTHCB bi» nep- 
BOMy npocTO, 6e8i» apeAy6^AeHÍ&. IlHiiia, opeAJiaraeMafl Jí^zseB- 

COITB, CSHmBOirB UfibCMB, H 6e3BByCHa flASl TOrO, BTO npHBUB'B JPh 

npflHOCTflMi ,,aBcnepHMeHTajiBHaro^ poMana. 

KaB'B me pa3p'6maerB, OAHaBo, FenHeBeEx rjiaBHyK) ^aciB CBoeft 
saAa^H— HscjtAOBaHÍe h oíSiacHeme BHaneHifl, npiofiptTeHHaro ^hb- 
seHCOMi BO ^paHi^H? H TOMy, H ApyroMy ohi otboahtb oneHB 
Maio irbcra (bi saBjnoHHreiíBHott rja^b BHHrH; vb craTB^, nocBfl- 
meHHofi cnei^iajiBHO ^HRsency, o b^íabíh ero Ha ({^pani^ysoBi BOBoe 
HtrB piqH). B'B (|)paHi;y3CB0M'B HHcaTeiBCBOMi Mipt ^HBBeHeB, no 
ciOBaM'B reHHeBeHa. iiíhetca ne bucobo; nesAy ^^paHi^yacBHMH 
poMaHHcraMH H'frrB hh oahofo, Boropufi 6u Heny-HHfiyAB y Hero 
HayHHJicfl HJH B'B ^em>'RB6yAh CA^Jiajca eix> nooJi^AOBaTeieMi. YBa- 
SEiBaioTi. HHOFAa, na cxoactbo MejsAy ^HBBeHCOHi H A^Ad; ho 8T0 
cxoACTBO — HCBjíiDHHTejiBHO BHifflHee. ^0A9 — npeKA© Bcero Ha6ďH)- 
AaTejiB, TOHHuň u BHHMaTejiBHutt; qyBCiBO h MopaiB HrpaiorB y 
Hero 6óJiBniyK) pojB, ^m^ y ApyrHX'B Bopn^eBi coBpeMenHaro 
(|>paHAy8CBaro ponana, ho HecpaBHeHHO MéHBmyio, ^ím^b y ^im- 
RBEca. 6JIH3B0 B^B ^HBBeHcy ^OAB HOAXOAHTB pasB^ TOFAa, Bor^a 
pascBasuBaeTB npHBJUOHeHÍfl „Taprapena hsi TapacBOHa**; h 8a:6cb^ 
OAHBBO, pasHHi^a iiesAy hhmh Bce se o^enB BejHBa. HecoMnbHHO, 
saxo, BJiiflHie JI,HBBeHca na 4>pftHi^y3CByH) nyÓJiHBy, wh oco6eHHOcra 
6ypa;ya3HyK), h b'b ea cpejsíb npeHMyn^ecTBeHHO na senn^HHi h Ha 
MOJiOAesB. UlHpoBOfi nonyjflpHOCTBH) CBoeio vb aToft o&iacTH J[hb* 
BencB oóflsan^ BaBi i^'&jiOMyApeHHOfi CBoeft hhctoií, TaB'B h ho- 

CTOflHHBIMl BTOpxeHÍflMl CBOHMl Bl XOA'B A^&CTBÚí, qeCTHOCTH CBOHXIb 



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HAy^Hlfl BPHTHRÁ. 225 

CHimaTift H aHTHnaTift, myMHUMi napoRCHSMaMi h^^shocth, neroAO- 
Bamii, BecaiocTH, yaaca, KoropiiMH HsofiHJiyiOTB ero poBiaHH. Mhofo- 
HHCieHHafl rpynna ^paHi^yscRHXi^ ^Taxeieft h HHTaTeJIBH]I^^ npn- 
mpaercfl, botb yse noJsi^Ba, Cb Henojrauirb, BappEKaTypmiirB 
isofipaaseHieifi xbsbe h CB-ira, npBMHpflercfl Ch hhitb H3i-8a AO(5po- 
lymk, KOTopuiTB oho npoHHBHyxo h corpixo. 9to nosasuBaei-B, 
TTO uesRAj otipasoBaHHUMH ^paHitysaMH HHoríe Aoposarb ae 
CTOibso FJiyÓnHOio HadaK)AeHÍfl h anajiesa, coBepmeHCTBOMi romho- 
mífB, apTHCTBqecKOH) HeBOSMyTHMOCTBK) H 6e8CTpacTHOCTBH> (ímpassí- 
bilité) npoHdBexemfl, cbojbro yM^HBeMi asTopa orsBiBaTBCfl na na- 
crpoenie HHTaTejefi^ B086ysAa^^ hxi ^jBCTBHTaiBHOCTB h nocroflHHO 
AasaTB efi HOByio nmi^y... 3thiih HeMHormiH saiťiqaHiflMH orpann- 
HHBaercfl Bce CRasaHBoe reHneBenoMi o&h „0<{>paH]^yaieHH0CTH'' 
JIJHsseHca. HysHO m BucraBJuiTB ea bha^b hxi HeACcraTOiHOcn^ n 
maTBOCTB? Ha neiTB ocaoBano npeAnojioseHÍe, hto JiHBseHca ^h- 
TaiDTB npeHMym^ecTBeHBO xeHiDíHHii h MOJiOAue juoah? Cotiapaji jh 
FeHHeEeBi sama-JHÓo CBi^Aema no droicy npexnery, h eeiH co6h- 
pui, TO BaRHiTB iiyTeMx? EcTB JIH y aero, no BpaitHefi wbpb, 
xaHHHfl o sojHnecTB^ dBseMndiflpoBi, bi BOTopoMi pacxoAflTCfl ^paa- 
iiyseBÍe nepeBOAu ponaaoBi JIJHBBeHca? Ha RaBoft bhcotí ^epsarcfl 
m npoAaasa, peiHHHBaercfl jih oaa hjih yifeaBrnaercfl? En^e Baas- 
íáe 6ujio 6u saaTB Aa^pii, OTHOcan^iflCfl si BaasAOMy OTA'kiBHOMy 
poMaay; OHÍk Morjra 6u x^tb a^^BOTopoe noaflTÍe o tomi, mfb 6ojiBme 
HpaBHTCfl 4^paHi;y3CKOft ny6jiHR'6 — paaaifl jih npoasBeAeaifl JífiK- 
seaca, hjh nos^aMmúi; tí jh, bi Roropuxi npeoÓjaAaerB bomh- 
lecRÍfi aienearB, hjih t6, bi BOTopiixi Bcero dojBme TporaxejiB- 
Haro. ^HBBeHCB „DHBBHBCBaro BJiy6a^ pfeBO ouiaHaerca otl JIJhb- 
Keaca „^aaHAa Konnep$HJiBAa", JÍHBBeaeB „TaateiHxi apeMeai"* — 
(yn JI^BBeaca „Tafiaii dAaaaa JIjpyAa''; AaJieBO ae OAHaaBOBu 3a- 
SBOHeaifl, BX BOTopiiM'B uoMEO 6hUío 6u npHATH Bi BHAy pacnpo' 
crpaHeaaocTH loro hah Apyroro hsi aasBaHaiixi aaMH ponaaoBi. 
JI.oaycTHiťB, OAaaBO, ^to <{>aBTHqecBaH cropoaa Boapoca Óujia 6u 
pa3pa6oTaHa ropasAO nojiH'6e, q'&M'B axo CA'&Jiaao reaaeBeaoiii, h 
vto npeHHya^ecTBO nonyjispaocTH OBasajiocB 6hi apH 8tomx sa t^mh 
poMaaaMH ^HBBeaca, b% Boropuxi Bcero Óojite saM^THu ^eptu, 
noAHepBHBaeMUfl reaaeBeaoifB. Jl,ase h vb xaBOMi cjiyqa'^ aejiBdfl 
óujLO 6u npjiMO yTBepsA&TL, hto ycnixx ^HBBeaca bo ^paai^H 
oGiflcaflercfl HMeaao 3Thmh nepraMH; aysao Óhjio 6U npe^BapH- 
TejBHO pasysaaiB, nyxeMi pascnpoca bosmosbo 6óJiBniaro HHCJia 
^RiaTejett, htď npHBJíeBaerL hxi bi JI^HBBeact, mib yAepsHBaerB 
Hxi vb cpejííb ero hobjiohbhbobi. HeJiB3fl, npHTOM^B, ynycRaiB hsb 
BHAy, HTO HumameAh h noHumameAh — BOBce ae o;!I,bo h to se. 

Ion UI.— MAft, 1889. 16 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



226 BMTHHKl EBPOnU. 

MosHO AoposHTb KHHrofi, nBJVh cpeACTBOMi pasBjeqeHifl, h craBHXb 
ee o^eEh HeBUCOEO, Bani xyAOs^CTBeHHoe npoedBeAenie. Bi 
HacTOfln^eMi* CBoeirb bha'6 MHime reHHeReHa o&b Hero^HHBaxi no- 
nyjiflpHOCTH ^HRReHca — ee 6ojL'6e, KaRi» Aora^Ba, He BnoaH'6, vb 
AofiaBOBi, rapMOHHpyioiDiafl c^ oi^^hboS, BOTopyio AaerB AmcBeHcy 
caMi BpHTUBi. EcjH ^BReHCB BpaBHTCfl <|>paHi^y3aM'B Be óAaiodapH 
BappHBaTypflocTH cosAaBaeMux^b hmi bÓpasoBi, a necMompn na axy 
BappHRaTypHOCTB, ecjiH 4)paBi;y8CBÍe ^HraxeJiH to^lbo npuMupMomai 
Ob seK), TOJbBO ee mepnsfm^ to Be caš^yeri jih 3aBjifoqHTB orcto^a, 
^TO Be ofla cocraBJíaerB „rocnoACTByH)n;ee CBOftcTBo" JI^HBBeflca? 
EcaH JI^HBBeBCB Aopon HHTaxejiflMX HMeBBO T^M^; ^TO OBI yMierL 
Hxx TporaTB, BOJHOBaTb, BOsfiyaAaTb b% bhxx ,A0(5pua ^yBCTBa*, 
TO Be axa jih ero cnoco6flOCTb h AOJisBa 6uTb BUABHBpa na nep- 
BHfi BJaB^b Bi ero xapaRTepHCXHR^? CBaseirb 6oji%e: eciH ^bctbo, 
flH?'6iťb Be CAepiBHBaeMoe, 6bK)mee ^epesi BpaK, saBoesBiBaerb 
uHcaTejiH) rjy6oBÍfl, npo^BEifl, HCRpeBBÍa CHMnaTÍH, saBoeBHBaerb 
Hxi^ wb Maccš otfpasoBaBBMxi jnoAefi, HMÍion^HX'B nepeA'b coóoio 
npesocxoABue oópasi^u coBepnieflflO hbo& JiHTepaxypBOft icaHepii, 
TO Be roBopurb jih sto bi nojibsy saROBHOCTH cy(ÍieBTiiBH3Ma, npo- 
THBi eAHBOBjacTÍfl BaqajTb, npoBOB^AyeMuxi TeoperiiBaMH Baxypa- 
jiHSMa H dBcnepHMeHTaj[H3Ma?.. 

Mu ocTaHOBBjíHCb TaB'b AOJLTO Ba CTaTbš reflfleBefla o ^uk- 
Beflcš, noTOHy hto HBiesBO 3A^b OTpasoHCb cb BaB6ojn>nieio 
apBocTbH) ocoÓeBBOCTH H He^ocTaTEH ero MeTOAa. IlepexoAHirb xe- 
nepb Bi ero OTsusaMi o pyccBHX^b „OiJ^paBi^yseBBsixx'^ BHoaxe- 
jiflxi. BcrynHTejibBiifl CJiOBa aTio^a, nocBan^eBBaro TypreBeBy, cbh- 
A']^Tej[bCTByK)rb o tohi, BaRi Tpy^BO cocTaBHTb ce(^ npaBH^bHoe 
noflflTÍe o BBŠBiBeft ^^opiťb np0H3BeAeBÍ&, HByHaeMuxi TOJibRO bi> 
nepeBOA*. w^HTaa vb nepBuft pas^ poMasH TypreBOBa, — roBopHTB 
reBBeBeHi,— BeBOJibBO coMB^BaembCfl B'b tom%, Moryrb jih obh 6£iti> 
BasBaHU npoH3BeAeBÍflMH HCByccTBa^ TaBi BaBiyBacx ciobo Hcsyc- 
CTBO conpHRacaeTCH cb bobhtúímh oÓi^ HCByccTBeBBOCXH H yroH^eH- 
BOCTH (artifíce et raffinement). Mu Be Baxo^HMi y pyccsaro nnca* 
Tejia oÓuHBUxx CBOftCTB-b BaniHxi „cpeíHHXi" BHHrb— acnaro cno- 
co6a BupaseBiů (fa^ons de dire nettes), óucrpiix^, 3aB0BqeBH£ixi>, 
pbmHxejibBfiixi pasroBopoBib, onncaHÍS bi bha'& nodTHqecBHxi Bynjie- 
TOBi (?). y Bero BecbMa najio BB']k[nHHX'B AOcroHHCTB^b, OTjmqaK)* 
B^Hx^b Jiyqmifl npoHSBeAeHÍH Hamefi jiHTepaTypu. EMy se^ocraerB 
BOJiopHTBaro, BepBBaro CTHjifl, npHCTpacrifl kt> bobasb^^ BHpaaKeBriň, 
jffb 8HaMeBaTej[bBUMi co^eraniAMi^ ciobi, noroBH sa sByqBOCTBio vi 
pHTMOM-B — OAHHiTb cjiOBOMi, BCCFO TOFO, OTÍ) ecTb onpeA^JieBHaro H 
TOHHaro Bi^ MacTepcTB*]^ Bamnxi nepBuxi coBpeMeHBHxx nposaH- 



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HAyqHÁfl RPHTHRA., 227 



soB^. ^pasa y TypreHesa totoo saiiKaeTCfl q Taii^HTCfl, ^acxo 
^ocraercfl HeAOBOH^eHHott; ÓaeajiBHafl na Bsrssji,!,^ HH^iero ne roeo- 
pflmafl npsMO, ona TOibRO HaMeRaerL, sacraBJíflerB AyMaxL, Aora- 
lUBaTBCH, npeA^yBCTBOBaib^. 3a iiCBJK)qeHÍeai'B nocjvbjs,BETb cjiobi>, 
nasofi A^iHHHuft p2Ai> HeAopa3yMÍ&fii& h omvi6oKi>\ HanrL BejiHqafi- 
núft CTHJiHCTB, 6ojsine <išm'b kto 6£I to hh 6újio AopomHBmifi xy- 
^OKecTBeHHOft OTA'i^Bofi cjioBa, rjiyÓOBo npoHHsmift bo bcI TafiHu 
^3(isa H BjaA^Bmifi hitb ci HsyMHTejiBHmfB coBepmeHCTBOMi, cra- 

BHTCfl, (n» TOHRE Sp^HÍfl <{>OpMEI, HHSe CpeduUQCZ COBpeMeHHfilX^ 

^panqydCKBxi nHcaiejiefi! dia oniHÓua TaR^ BeiiHRa, ^to ^e Hanbsa 
otfiflCHHTb OAHHMX HesHaHÍeMi pyccRapo flSfiiRa; ciyM'&rB 2se U366* 
saib efl BpaHAecB, xota h HHTaji'b TypreHesa lOJibRO b^ nepeBOA*]^. 
HafiTtf efl pasraARy mo;rho, RaRi naMX Rasexcn, bi cJiOBax'B canoro 
TeHEeKeHa o 6jih30Cth ucnyccmea ri ucKyccmeennocmu. Kto bochh- 
TaJi CBoň BRycB Ha 3ojia, FoHRypaxi h $jKo6ept, TOMy Kanepa 
TypreneBa uemÓ^íRBO AO.i%iia RasaTBCH cjiiimROMi 6eaiflCRyccTBeH- 

HOED, CJHUIROM^B „npOCTOH)''. Ha CaiffOMl A'^1Í 8Ta npOCTOTa (OTHfOAB 

He ncRJio^aioii^afl hh o6AyMaHHOCTH, hh Tpy^a Hax^B BH^mnefi ({)op- 
noft) cocraBJíflerB HMenno Bepxi ncRyccTBa — ho HCRyccTBa, ne 
HMtion^aro HH^ero oón^aro cb HCRyccTBennocrBK). Hctohhhr^ ohihCrh, 
vh ROTopyio Bnajix FenHeReH^b, CTanerB ji^Jisi nacB en^e ncn^e, ecjin 
MU oÓpaTHMi BHHMaHÍe. na cy^R^enie ero o KOMnosuuiu TypreneB- 
^KHXTb poHanoBi — T.-e. o TaROÉ Hx^ cTopoffi, A«íH npaBH.ibHaro 
noHHMaHÍfl ROTopoft wÍTi> ^ase na^oÓHOCTH wh sHanÍH pyccRaro 
flsuRa. Owb naxoAHrj* ee ee^ocraTO^HO CBfl3Hofi, cjhhiromi ^acTO 
npepuBaejAOK) oÓpan^eHÍAMH Kb npomeAnieMy A'&ScTByfou](HXi jihi;^, 
noAaejieHHOH) OanajibHUMH coóbrriflMH h o6biRHOBeHHBiMH CTpacrflUH. 
H 9Torb ynpeR^, ao RpaftHOCTH CTpaHHuft, MoaoT-B 6uTb oóiac- 

HeHl TOJbRO npHBUHRoŠ Rl ŘOJIOCCaJlbHUM^b HOpORaMX, ROTOpUMH 

OTMiíeHu repoH 3o;ia h BajibBaRa, rx HenpepuBHOCTH jiíbicvsisi^ 
cocraBJífliomeň OTjuqHTeJibHyro qepxy poManoBi $Jio6epa h S^Mona 
ToHRypa... SanjiaTUBi, TaRiiM^ o6padOMx, AaHb cnei^iajibHUHx BRy- 
caMx, npHBHTQM'b Ri> Heftiy ORpy-iRaiOH^eK) ero jiHiepaTypnoK aTMO- 
C(|^poft, FeHHeReffb nepecraerb npoTHBHTbCfl BHyraeHÍaMx CBoefi 
apTHCTHqecROft Haiypu — h npeR-iOHAeTca nepcAi MacrepcTBOMx, cb 
BOTopuMX TypreneB^ coa^aerb cboh (j[>HrypH, cjomnufl, HSMÍHqH- 
BUfl H bmšctí cb tímx HOJiEBifl 3ÍH3HU. Bucuiaro CBoero paei](BÍTa 
AapoBanie TypreHena AOcrHraerb, no mrí&hík) FenneRena, bi ohh- 
^híh 6ojr]teHe& bojih, bi H3o6paxeHÍH esi aTpo({)ÍH, hoa^b BJiiflHieM^B 
ipesMÍpnaro pasBHTifl pascy^Ra. HepByio CTeneHB 9T0ft axpo^in 
npeAcraBjaerB co6ok) BasapoBTi, BTopyio — Py^HHi, TpeTBío, caMyio 
íiojHyio — HeatAanoBx. BonpeRH 6o»iBraHHcrBy pyccRHX^ rphthrobi, 

15* 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



228 MCTUHK^B EBPOnU. 

TeHEeKeHi CTaBHrE „Hobl** — h, no Hameny y(íÍ2By^eHÍK), coBep-- 
meHHO cnpaBeA^HBO — na pa^y ci HeMHorHMH nepBOcreneBHiiMH 
poManaMH XlX-ro Btica. TypreHeBt— roBopnrB TeHEeKeHi — npH- 
HaAJesHrB bi micjiy t6xx p^akhxi h BaiHKHrB xyAoq^HHBOBi, ro- 
Topue sHaiorb ne nejiovbBA BOo6ii](e, a OTAt.iBHiixx, KOHBperHuxx 
jio^efi. OffB He TOJiBKO sHaerB hxx, ho h .iioÓBrB; offB othochtca 
B'B HEHi He CB cypoBOCTBH) BopH({)eeBi ^paHi^3CBaro poMana, a 

CB COSaJ^BÍeiTB, nO^HUlTB H^bSHOCTH H MflrBOCTH. ErO Ha6^K)AeHÍ2 

AumyrB bpotoctbk) Myxpeita h nenaiBK) cocrpa^aTejBearo cepAiV^. 
Ero ropiisoHrB orpaHHqeni; jíasi nero ocraercfl HeAOcrynHUMi bc& 
TO ^Tb ecTB vb HejiovkK/k cHJiBHaro, pi^BO BupaseHHarO) cboí- 
CTBeHHaro nopoA*)^. Owh ne bhahtb roro, qrb bbiboaati hsi sbhshii 
xoJOAHue, fiescrpacTHue yMsi, napan^ie na^^ iripoH^. Eiiy ne- 
AOcraeTB onpeA'^eHHtixx npeAcraB^eHÍfi o ÓyK^mewh qeiOBJb^ecTBa... 
PasÓopi dTiix'B nojosenift yBjesi 6u nap cjHinBOM:B xajeBo; sa- 
míthmi tojibbo, qTO o creneHH h íipHqHnaxx «o4)paHityseHHOCTE^ 
Typrenesa reHneBeni roBopHTx en^e MeHBme, i^iwb o crenenH tu 
npH^HHax^ „0(|)paHi^yseHH0CTH'' ^aBsenca. CjAjsfi bjiúihU Typre- 
HCBa OHI Haxo;iH'rB jehib y MepHMé h y MonaccaHa; dsrkwb owh 
cooOn^aerB, hto nepefio^u TypreneBCBHxi poMaHOB^ Bu^epaiajH bo^ 
$paHi^ÍH H'lcBOJiBBO HSj^aHÍft H ^TO TypreHesa bucobo craBflrB rjiaB 
Hue ópranu ^paHAyscBofi nepiOAHqecBott nedaní. „XapaBTepnsyio- 
n^aji TyproHOBa chícb oneqajieHHOfi jíftÓpoThi, ;iiejHBaTHaro nafijiio- 

Aenifl H BOSBUmeHHOfi MEICJÍh" — laBOBX OBOH^axeSBEUfi, BHHtMlr 

HO AOBasaHHuft BiiBOA'B FeHHeBeHa — noHflxa h oi^iflOHa SHanaTejB- 
HOH) rpynooK) ^HTaTaiefi, BOTopuxi csfb^jerh HcaaTB vh cpe^^ 
Óoraxofi 6ypaBya8ÍH hocjiíahhxi xpexx AOCArajL^iiifi. 

„HdyMHxeJiBHyK) HOBHSHy'' JI^ocroeBCBaro FeHHeBeHi BHXHrB b^ 
BOHTpacit MesAy peaj[H3M0Mi otaíjibheix^ noApoÓHocrefi h ýania- 
CTH^HOCiBK) iv&iaro. nHor^a ctojb ^e Tonnufi bi* cbohxx BaÚjm- 
Aemax^, BaBi h coBpeneHHHe (JpaHityscBie „HaTypaaHCTu**, ^o- 
CToeBCBÍfi CMorpHTB Ha SH8HB TOHHO Hs^ajieBa, HcnyraHUBíMH rja- 
saifH, H cjrbfjsTh sa ea fiescBASHUMi Te^eHÍeni, ne nuTaflCB o(5:b- 
flCHHTB HH A^ficTBÍJi, HH HyBCTBa CBOHxx repoeBx. AcHO A-^fl Hero 
TOJBBO TO, qxo Bc£ crpa^aiorB h sacraBJífliorB crpa^aTB Apyrnxx, 
H dTH crpaAaHÍJi x^ficTByiOTB Ha nero vbíii> CHiíBH']^e, ^rbwh MeHBme 
eny nonaTHu hx'b npHHHHii. B% ero jí^juA HamjH otfojiocobx bc^ 
SByBH qejiOBJbqecBoft xa^oósi. Eny snaBOMU npecrynjieHifl, bbisu- 
BaeMUfl By»AO^ h AonycBaeMua saBOHOiTB; ohi> hsmíphjtb bch) ypo^- 
JHBOCTB HHH^eTii, Bce 6ed0($padie BUHysAeHHaro hjh npHpoxAeHHaro 
HopoBa, Bcb MyBH MopajiBHo!t aroHÍn, cjr6AyH)ii]^efi sa naxeHÍeux. 
StnsHB Baiiercfl eMy BEfiíkEhewh^ nopasHiaiBEuirB h HenoABsiBHUMX^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HÁV^HAil RPHTHKÁ. 229 

fl OHX BOCnpOHSBOAHTX 66 FB H6MÍHHK)II](BXCfl 3pŠJ[HQ^aXl, BX BCer^a 

paBHuxi^ ce&b óópasax^, bx nocroflHHOMi 3aMHpaHÍB (perpétuel 
suspens) jhi^i h np6AMeT0Bi. Ero KHHra — noBTop6HÍe oahhxi h 
TfecB se nojios6HÍfi, npoAOJjReHÍ6 OAHoro h Toro S6 ysaca, o^^Hoft 
H Toft se Tafteu. Bx íijihhhiixi MOHo:ioraxi hjih bi M6Aď6HH0 abh- 
syn^Hxcfl pasroBopax^B nepe^^B naicH pasBepTUBaeTca OAHa h xa :e6 
<rropoHa ^qih, bi CesKOHeHHO-Apo^Hux^ ^erajiflxx. HanpacHO 6u;io 
<u HCKaTB y JtocToeBCKaro i6ro-HH6yAb noxoasaro na Hcropiío pas- 
BHTÍfl .iHiHOCTH, efl p6aBi^ift Ha scHSHeHHEiA BjríflHÍfl. B'B ero nCBXO- 
jorífl BOo6pa,ifieHÍe np60($jiaAa6TB HaAi» H3yH6HÍ6M'B; OTCH>Aa oicyT- 
CTBÍe npocTOTii, OTCioia .mxopaARa, BJiaA^&ion^afl bc^mh A'iftCTByH)- 
mfiVR .iHi^aMH H qaero rpaHB^ao^afl cb fieByícíeMi. Ohh Henop- 
jcubHu, OHH cocraBjflfOTB ncHxojiorHq6CR06 HCBJiK)^6HÍe; HO aro ne 
iiiina6Tb HMi npoHBBOAHTB BneHaT;i'&HÍ6 shbofo q6JiOBÍq6CRaro Mflca. 

^yBCTBHTeJIbHOCTB Bl A0CT06BCB0M1^ 0CTaBJfl6TB MaJO M^CTa A^fl 

pascyzRAeHÍfl. Ohx b6Cb npoHHBHyrB comaT6HÍeM'B, jih>6obbh>, crpa- 
XOMB 3a ^ejOB^Ra; ero ornaame, 6ro Tocsa, 6ro Aponan^ifl uojihóu 
oCrh HCKynjieHÍH ctojb se TparH^Hu, BaRi h 6o.i'l6 CAepsaHHBiA 
My^enifl Uacsajfl... T^ hjih ApyrÍH ^epru 3T0fi xapaRTepncTHRH mo- 
rvTB 6uTB npeAMeroBfB cnopa, ho eft neJiBSfl OTRasaiB b^ noaiH^e- 
CKOicB 0AynieBJ6HÍH. Ha stotb pasi FenHeReHi ho^vth coBepmenno 
ocraBHJii Bi CTopofli cboh oÓu^Hue npieMEi; owh HepeAa;i'B tojibro 
coBOBynnocTb oniy^eHiň, B03(5y»AeHHUxi vh newb HTeHieMi Jí^o- 
croeBCRaro — h Rapinna Bumjia, bo bcaromx c;iyHa'6, RpacHBOfi h 

94HͻeRTH0&. 

Bi Jbb* TojiCTOMi FenneRena nopaasaerB, npea^e Bcero, hih- 
pHHa saifucjiOBi, fioraiCTBO co^epsanifl. Ob droft to^rh sýbsisL 
laniB poMaHHCTB jsfljiiRewh 6uTh nocraBJíeHx na pa^y ci JIIeRcnH- 
poMB H BajiB3aR0Mi». „Boftna h Mhpb'' — 3to »h3hb i^ijiaro napo^a, 
3T0 HeJOBi^ecBaH HHpaMHi^a, BEiAepncHBaiOQ^aji cpaBnenie cb caMUMH 

rpOMa^HUMB H BfilCORHMH HOCipofiRaMH TOFO Se pOAa. TOMHOCTBH) H 

noipoÓHOCTBK) JiH^HUXi Ha6jiio;^eHÍft, opnrnnaJiBHOCTBH) h shbohhc- 

HOCTBH), CBOfiCTBeHHOH) HORasaHÍfllTB O^OBHAHia, TOJLCTOft 0<$HOBJI£erB 

cainui o6uRHOB6HHUfl, caMfiifl anaROMBifl RapTHHu, sacraBJíflerB hxi 
xtftcTBOBaTB co BceH) CHJIO& Horo-To HeBHAaHHaro npesc^e. TaROBO, 
flanpnirbpi, onucanie pannefi BecHu vb j^AsEb KapeHHHOfi^, xa- 
soBa cílena rocb^ei vb xoatb sce poBianb. ^'i^ficxByion^ifl JHi^a y 
TojcToro oxjra^aioxcfl oco6eHHOK) SHBHenHocxBB), Cjiaro^apa AByifB 
rjaBHEUTB ycJiOBÚíifB: oÓujAjo AexaJiett h paBHOB^ciio nesAy x^mi, 
ht6 cocxaBdiflexi neHSMŠHHyio ocHOBy jihhhocth, h xí^itb, Ťr6 hoa- 
Bepraexcfl bx nett hocxoahheimi Hs.^rbHeHiflACB. Okb ne 6oHxcfl hh 
Aihhhoxi, hh oxcxynjieHifi, ne cxpeMHxca, hoaoOho ^pani^pcRHMS 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



230 raCTHHKi EBPOnu. 

H anrjifiCKHMl pOMaHHCTaiTB, RI npflMOJHHe&BOCTH H 6e30CTaHOBO'?- 

HOCTH pascREsa, n cos^aerB ^jimnulk pflA'B ^^i^i^yp^? noJiHux^b abh- 

HeHÍfl U SH3HH. CpeACTBOM^ Rl AOCTHSCBÍK) I(&1II CJyacaTl AJS 

Herc caMue pa8HOo6pa3Hue TexHH^ecRÍe npieMU — b ^.evoHCTpai^k 
nyreM^ AÍftcreift h nojiojReBift, CBoficTBeBBaa ApaMaxypraMT.. h mo- 
HOJiorB k la CxeHsajib, h JH^noe BirtraaTejiECTBO, no o(5pa3i;y HAea- 

JIBCTHHeCRHXl pOMaBHCTOB'B. ^.T06u BOCnpOBSBeCTB ^'^ftCTBHTeJIBHOCTB, 

poMaH-B AOJiaKeH^ 6utb, naRx ona, cjioaenx, f»6mHpemi, npo;íOJi3RB- 

leJieB-B — B HMeHBO TaROBT* pOMaBX ToJlCTOrO. Oe^ CXaBOBHTCfl, BCJVb^' 

CTBÍe aroro, Mentě saROB^ienatiM^, MeH'1^e coq)eAOTO^eBHfi]irB, Meste 

n.^I>BIlMl>, BO CTOBTt, 3aT0, Ba OABOfi BHCOTt Cb ÓeSKOEe^EhlV^ 

padBOo6padieMi> sfl3BB. CoHBBflerB b nainerB ^pa(|)^ TojictoS ne* 
ČpeďLBo; BTO saifixBo Aase b b'b nepeBOA'^, no BesuA^psanHOcni 
cpasBOBÍft, no BepaBBOMŠpBocTB 0TA'bJiBBEix^ HacTeft pascRasa, no* 
noBTopeBiflMx B npofiÍJaMi. Ha RaasjíOMi raary nncaiejb tohbo co- 
6BpaeTCfl Cb CBjíaMB, protíti oónaib CBofi rpoMaABuft CH)sceTB — b sa 
RaKAOM^ máry cnafíierL, fipocaerB CBoe naMipenie. KpBSBCH, nepe- 
SBBaeMue AtficTByK)n^BMB jim^aiiB, BaBťJ^^aiOTCfl bi BeMHornx^, Be- 
onpeAtj[eBBEix'B cjiOBaxx; onncaBifl, BanaTUB ci jBxopaAOHHuirB 
sapoMX, saRaB^vBBaiOTCfl cnyranBUMB ({ipasaiiB; bo Bceirb Bupa- 
aaexcB CTt)aniHafl ycrajiocTb, aBTopx BsneMoraeTT* noAx ÓpeMeneM-s 
CBoero npoBSBeAenia. Sp^jraníe »b3bh to npBBjreRaenb ero, to orraa* 
KBBaerL, ocraBJíBfl ero to paBso^ymnuirB, to pa3oqapoBaBBi)iM'B. Bs 
rpoMaABOMi) BAanÍB ponaBa HBTaTejib CBa^iajia qyBCTByerb cefia 
RpinRo cxBaneBBbíMX pyROio BOJimeÓBBRa — bo OBa 0CJia6tBaerb, Bce 
BORpyrb TeMB^erb h nycrherb; CMyxBO o^^yn^aeTca yrpoxaion^afl 
6jiB30CTb TpaBCi^eBAeBTajibBaro BsrBJíBSMa. CxpoBTejib, o^eBflXBO, pa- 
6oThjn> BaA'b nocrpofiRoft fiesi yAOBOJibCTBifl b ^Bje^veBia; iieA^ienBO* 
B Be bbojibí^ ee obobhbbi, owb pascHaTpBBaerb ee pa3CbflBHUM'b^ 
saAyMHBBUHii B3rj[flA0Mi, TO^BO OTp']&niacb orb Mipa b otb coticTBeH- 
BHxi CBOBxi co3AaBÍft, TO^BO co3epaaa ta^-to BAajB ApyryK), fiojrifee 

BaKByH) B COJlie BeJIBRyiO AÍftCTBBTeJbBOCXb. ^ÍJIO Vb TOMl, TK> 

AJifl ToJCTOro HeJiOB-i^ecRaa ansBb BcerAa Óujia Be tojk»ro npeA' 
MexoM^ Ha5jK)AeBÍfl, no b xeaTpoiťb aMctbíb BpaBCTBeflnuxi saRO- 
BOB-B. BpaxAetfBufi, ch canaro Ba^ajia, BCflROMy Bx^ BapymeHiio — 
dTO BBABO B8i> TOFO, RaRi Majio HŠCTa 3aBBMaK)TB B^ ero npoBS- 
BCAeBiaxi npecTynjenifl b nopoRB, BcnopnennocTb b sjo — offb 
ROB^BJíi vbhih, qTO Becb OTAajiCB cjiysenÍB) CBoefi MopaJB, ysROft, 
CiABOfi B Tpefiyiomeft BeneA^eBnaro ocymecTBJíeBia. Kx nocjrfcAneMy 
4^adBcy A^BTejibBOCTB Tojicroro FeBBeReFB otbocbtcb tfeaycJOBBO- 
OTpBi^aTeibBo; ob^ AyMaerb, ^to cobmíctbumb cb lítibio, ROTopyH> 
Tenepb npeoťiAyerL Tojictoě, ORasyTca, BonpeRB mbíhíh) asropa. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HA7HHÁfl RPHTHBA. 231 



TOAKO npesHifl ero xyAoacecTBeHHBia npoH3Be;i^eHifl... l^asoHpaxb 
mMe TeHReseHa o TojicroiirB, 3HaHHJio 611I pastfflpaTB caMoro Toji- 
cioro; orpaHHqHMCfl tojbro oj^hhmi 3aM^qaHÍeirb. FoBopfl o poMa- 
Haxi» TojCTorOy reHueReH'B esHmKOMi xopomo noMHHjrB HapoAHue 
ero pascRasu h (|>iLioco<j[)CRÍe TpaRTaxu. BescnopHO, sa^aTRH nos^- 
Htftmaro MÍpocoaepipkHifl Tojícroro RopeHflrcfl rxj6oiKO bx ero npo- 
meAOieMi; ho TeHEeReHi noA^^epRHyjTE hxi CJtEmROMT^ pfeRo h 
dTHMi HtcROJbRO HSBpaTiiďb HCTopHHecByK) nepcneRTHBy. 

»OÝpaHi(yateHHOCTB" JíocToeBCRaro e Tojicroro TeHaeRee-B npn- 
iiHCiiBaerB Tofi se npHqaH'6, otb Roropoft saBHCHTB nonyjiflpHOCTB 

3,HRReHCa: CIUBHOMy HTB A^ftCTBÍH) Ha "TyBCTBETeJBEOCTB ^HTaTejiefi. 

PoMaHu Jl^ocToeBCRaro nopasHJH ^paHi](y3CRyK) nyfijiHRy cbobbtb roh- 
TpacTOMi Cb HeB03MyTHH0CTbK) coBpeMeHHuxi (|>paHi^y3CRHX'b pea- 
íhctobx, cbohmx CTpacTHBiM'B OTHOQieHÍeMi R^b Ba^a^aiTb HpaBCTBeH- 

HOCTH H 3KH3HH. OhH paSOniJIHCb Vb H^CROJIbRHXl HBAaHÍflXl, Cpe^H 

iiy6.iHRH, coBna^aion^efi, no Bceft bí^poathocth, c^ BepxHHMH caoflMH 
HHTaTejefl J^ERRenca — cpe^H jíOcraToqHOft h oÓpasoBaHHOft (Sypaya- 

3ÍE, Bl OC06eEHOCTH HpOTeCTaHTCROtt. Hxi TOpKeCTBO — EpflMOe 

imxbAcrúe exb caHTEMeHTajibHOCTE. Tohho xaRi me ofi^flCHaercfl 
H ycD%xi» TojiCToro. Men&e TpeBOsmie h MeH*e BOJiHyion^ie, vbuT> 
poMEHu AocToeBčRaro, npoEBBeAesifl Tojicroro opoHERHyru, napaBH^ 

CB HHMH, 3a(50TJlHB0CTbH> B0np0CaXl>, RaCaK)n^EXCfl CMUCia »H8HE 

H cMepTE, j^otipa B aaa. ABTopi HaxoAHTca bi nocroflHHOirb oÓn^eniB 
ci qBTaTeJTflMH, otijia^an, CBepxi Toro, nopaBHTeJbHOfi cnocoCHOcrbio 
aH&iH.sflpoBaTb E osEBJUTb coB^asHiifl EiTb (f)Erypu. OrcioAa MaTe- 
piajbHuĚ ycH^xx ero co«iHHeflift e bi iiy6jibjí% e MesAy xyAOSR- 
HHRaME, He MeHbme, BoponeMi, oi^hebeieme e ^ocroeBCRaro. ^jb 
ny&niRH rjiaBHafl nepra Tojcroro b ^ocToeBCRaro — ex^ crpacr- 
floCTb, Hxx HpaBCTBeHBbifl crpenieHÍfl; ji^jia xyxoiRHEROBi BasHte 
EBTepeCT HHTpHra E crpaHHOCTb A*ftCTByH)n^Exx jusni — y ^ocroeB- 
CKaro, o6niEpHOCTb ROMnosai^iE e yAEBETejibHiitt ^api anaJiEBa — y 
TaicToro... HxaRi, ^ERRenca ^nraerb e jho^etb npeBMyo^ecTBeHHO 
,6ypKya8ÍE", TypreneBa — ^tforaTaii" 6yp»ya8ÍH, ^ocroeBCRaro e 
ToicToro — „AOcraToqHafl e otfpasoBaHHafl ÓypsyaBia^, ujiioch ap- 
THcra. ^pyrHME eiOBaME, j^Jisi qerupexx HEcaTOJieft, cyn^ecTBeHHO 
paaBWHHX-B, nojyqaercfl, vb liOEisíb rohi^obi, hotte o^na e xa »e 
ny&iBRa. Bo hto se oópan^aercfl, 3aTtMi>, leopia cooTHomeHÍB 
xesAy aBTopoiťb h ero ^ETaTeJEME? Mhofo je ocraeica ocHOBanift 
jUfl 8aRjiH)qeHÍE otb nepBaro rx nocjrbAHEMX eie om nocjrbAHExi 
Vh nepBOMy? He npaBU m mu Óíiie, ycoMHEBmECb, ifl nepBoft 
mmb o reHHeReHi, bi i](^ecoo6pa3HOCTE npieMa, ROTopuMi mojio- 
lot RpETER^ npeAJaraeTb saiiŠHETb MeTOA'b Tana? Mu ne OTBep- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



232 ncTHHBi EBPOim. 

raeiTB CesyeiOBHO ocHOBHyH) mucjib TeHneBeHa; mbi roroBH Aony- 
CTHTB, TTO CTEpHHHafl ^^paHi^ydCBafl noroBopRa: dis-moi qui tu 
hantes, je te dirai qui tu es, Moseri coxpaHHTB HtbKomapyw CEjy 
H vh HOBO& peAaBn.ÍH: dis moi ce que tu lis, je te dirai qui tu 

e^ — HO TOJIBKO npH TaRnX'B yCJOBiflXl, BOXOpua UpHlC^HUMU, H TO 

He Bcerjia, HCKJnoTOreJiBHO b^ OTxkJihEouY Jiimy. Majio duaTB, tto 

TEBOS-TO HHTaeTB TOFO HJH APyrOFO aBTOpa; HySHO 3HaTB eCtbXi aBTO- 

poBi, BOTopux^ owh HBTaerB; HysHO 3HaTB, no^eify esr ns^-sa 
nero OHt Hxt qnTaeTB h Basi ohh ua Hero A^ficTByiorB. IIo ot- 
HonieniK) b^b Maccš xasafl nocraHOBBa aonpoca coBepmeHHO ne- 
MiicjiHMa; ÓesBOueiHoe pasHOCÓpasie B0M6HHa^itt ycrpauflerB sjíich 

B08M0SH0CTB BaBOFO 6u TO HH 6uA0 Otfu^rO OTB^Ta. B'B BaBOtt 

cpexb pacxoAflTca Bcero fiojiBme, eo ^paHi^in, poMauu 3ojia? Besi 
C0HH'tHÍti — Bi (Jypxya^HOft; tojibbo obe, BaBi nB,vi603Íbe mhodohh- 
CJieBHafl HacTB qHxaion^efi nyÓJinBH {&bji,EUTb BJiaccoBi uacejeHÍfl 
He npHHHMaerB vb pasc^erB h FenHeBeHi), MOserB BucraBHTB rb 
jiecflTBH THCflHi noBynaTejieft, BOTopue cocraBHJH {j^opryny „Eořeh" 
HJiH ,,HaHa^. EeiH sto TaB'B, to cpe^a, ^HTaion^afl Sojia, OBasH* 
BaeTCfl, im Grossen und Ganzen, toh) »e cpe^oft, Boropan ^HTaerB 
JÍHBBenca, TypreneBa, JíocToeBCBaro, Tojieroro. Bi ^eTBipext no- 
c.i'6ahhx'b nncaTejflxi FeHHeBeHB mofx, xota h ne Óesi HaxflSBH, 
ycMOTpixB OAHy o6n;yH) nepTy (npeo<ÍJia;íaHÍe ^yBCTBHTaiBHOCTH), 
0(5xflCHflH>n;yH) pacupoerpaneHie hxi* b'b oj^Hoft h toA r&e c4)ep%; 
HO vbjs,h rocnoACTByiomaa lepTa 3ojia — npAMO npoTHBonojioaHaro 
CBofiCTBa, H npiypoHHTB ero Kb o^HOň rpyno^ cb „o^^paui^yseH* 

HBIMH*" pOMaHHCTaMH ptuiHTeJBHO HeBO^MOSHO. . . OtA'Í^HTB HCTHHy 

OTB oniHÓBH. BOcnojBSOBaTBCfl Tiu!by Hib OCTB BJbpHaro Bl» xesHC^ 
reuHeBena — sahana CyAyn^aro; bhhi^, lesan^eft nepeA'B uaMH, droro 
He yAajocB AOCTHrnyTB. HsoÓHJiyfl m-Í^tremh saiťlHaHiflMH, xyAOse- 
CTBeHHBíMH crpaHHi^aMH, ona ne MomerB 6utb OTuecena bi oÓjiecth 

^Hay^HOtt BpHTHBH^, Vh TOITB CUUCJÍ% Wb BaBOMl nOHHHaeTB dTO 

BBipaseuie cemi FenHeBen^B. 

He Baca^iCB cyo^HOcrn aTioiOBib o Hod h o Fe&ie, npHBeABM-b 
TOJEBBO, MSI nojiHOTu BapTHHBi, OTSUBI FeHHeBeHa 06% „Oij^paHi^y- 
seuHOCTH'' dTHXi AByx^ HHcaTeiefi. MeuBme Bcero nonyjuipeH'B bo 
^pani^ÍH Iloa; ho ecin ny6jiHBa bi neify paBHOAyniHa, ecíR uepe* 
BOABi ero coHEHenift uaxoAflTi Majo noBynaTejiefi, to t^itb Bunie 
OHI i^tHHTCfl snaTOBaMH — jiHTepaTopaMH, apTHCTaMH. IIoA'B ero ne* 
nocpeACTBeuHUM^B B.iiflHÍeMi HaxoAHiLCfl BoA^api; mi> HHCsa coepe* 
MeHHHBOBi no ero CTonaMi^ HAyrB BajuBe ji.e-Jliisb-Ají.H.wby MopncB 
PojuiHHa (nooTB H BOMHOSHTopB), OnHJOHB PeAOHx (rpaBopi). Cjia- 
($afl pacnpocrpaHeHHOCTB Hod o&mlcesl&hcsi^ no mhíhíh) Fenne* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



T^;- 



HAy^HAfl RPHTHBA. 233 

sena, pkmrrejiBHBiBťB iipeo(5;iaAaHÍeMi» pascy^o^HOCTH na^^ ^ye- 

CTBOITB, HCKyCCTBeHHOCTLH) $OpMU, OpHFHHaJIbHOCTbK) BEOfBICJia, 

T.-e. HMeHHO Bcbwh tími, m:b y nero ecTB o($ii;aro cb Jiyq- 
flnocE coBpeMeHHUMH ^paHayscBHMH nHcaTejiflMH. Or^ero se, cnpa- 
mHBaercfl, HisoropuirB h3x hocj^ahhx^b yAajiocb sasceBaib naccy 
vraieiefi? Ha dnorb BonpocB FeHHeReffB He jífierh oraŠTa... 
Fetne ÓojiBine msvbcrewb ýpaHi^yscROft nytfjiHK^i, vbwb Ilod, ho 
HaciofliKiĚ jeíAx'b owh TaB»e jhíě^jvl h nuierh nesAy nHcaiejiAME 
H lyxosHHBaMH (tojibbo He MesAy peajiHcraMH). Ero ocunaiorB 
noxBajaMH Teo<|^HjL Foibe h Xshl; cjs^ji^u ero BJiianifl mohkho HaftTH 
y BaHBHjjfl H y FoHRypoBX, y „napHacci^eB'B^ (bi» poA'6 KaTyjuia 
MeHi^eca), y ^ancya Konné h y Uom Bypaie. BojBmHHCTBy ýpan- 
ityscRoft ny(5jiHRH „npaBHTCfl ne HpoHÍfl Fetne, ne MeJiaHxojiiji ero, 
He ero HsiicRaHHOCTB, a ero rpaitiosHEift n tohrí& yms, ero no9- 
TinecRaa BecejiocTb, ero saóaBHaa AynieBHafl hoabhshoctb (sou amu- 
sante mobilité ďáme), T.-e. t6 ^epru, vh ROTopaxt xora h oipa- 
zaercfl, ho cb HanMeHbnieft CHJioft, xapaRTepHcreqecRafl hsm^hhb- 
BOCTB ero BHyrpeHHflro crpoa". „Sxa HSMŠHqHBOCTB — laROBO 
3aKJK)qeHÍe FenneRena — cymecTByerB, cjitíOBaxeJibHO, y mhofhxx 
4^Hity3CRHX'L HETaieJiefi, ho CMflFHeHHafl, 0CJia(5jieHHafl, BupasaH)- 
n^uiCfl TOJBRO vh R0Jie6aHÍflX'B nesAy p^RO-pasjíH^HEiMH AymeB- 
HHHH cocTOflHÍflMH'' (réduíte k ne se manifester qu^entre des 
états ďáme par trop divers). HeJEBsa CRasaTb. hto6u aiOTB bu- 

mXh OTJHHaJICil OCOCeHHOH) AORasaTeJBHOK) CHJIOfi. 

BnojiHl ROMnereHTHBíMH cy^bsuňn jiHTepaTypnoll Manepu neca- 
Teiii MoryTB 6utl, Rone^ino, tojibro ero cooTenecTBeHHHRH; ho cjion 
FeHHeReHa TaRi CBoeo(5pa3eHB h bm^ctí chvbwh laRi xapaRTepn- 
enraeHi, hto mu ne Moseirb ne oCpaTHXb na nero BHHMaHie na* 
I^Hx^ TOTaTejieft. Bi npoTHBonojoxHOcrb acHOMy. csaiOMy, npo- 
croMy flsuRy Tana, FenneRen^b jiEotfHTB AJinnHua ýpasu, HsucRaH- 
HHe o6opoTEi, M&ioynorpeCHTeJiBHUH csOBa. Brb dTOM'B oiHomeniH, 
en^e ÓoiBine "rbwh bi cbohxi dcrerRHecRHX^B BsrjiflAaxx, owh ae- 
Jflercfl HacTOiin^HirB coBpeMeHHHROifL 3ojia h FoHRypoBi, m> oco- 
íeraocTH FoHRypoBX— BJiH, Jiymne CRasaTB, S^MOHa FoHRypa. Oh^ 
pasj^^exB ch nocJt^AHHirB npEcrpaciie rx „p^arhmx anHiexairB'' , rb 
HeoCinHofi pascraHOBRŠ CJiOB^b ^), rx MOJiRnifB mipExaii^B, narpoMOs- 
xaeMmrB ojs,eb% na Apyroft bi BH^axi hojihotii n.n d^ýeRTHOcra Rap- 
THHfi. Kor^a OHL HasuBaeTB poMani Tojictofo (Bo&ny h Mhpb) „ud 



^) TaioBa, HanpímipB, ii3JiE)6jieHHaA 9. loHRypoirB nociixosaTejibHOCTi* xsyxi 
ipexioroBTL, oTBocaiQHxcji Ki pasjíHHHHMi cyn^ecTBBTejiBHinrb (avec prěa du poéle 
qaelqoe malade geignant). 



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234 BfharBOKh Eipoim. 

livre ďhumanité, de nombre, de pák épanouissetnent dense de 
vie^^ Kor^a ohx roBopHTi o6i apiucTiiqecROirb TeMnepaMeHxi, tto 
FB HeifB, ^comme en une corde tendue, comme sur un papier 
sensibilisé, on en un réactif chimique, se répercutent touš les 
bruits, toutes les visions, toutes les odeurs, le cri ďun aviron 
contre les toquets, Us délidmses effluves ďune passante au teint 
muincé, tout le flot de physionomíes et de rumeurs qui roule et 
fracasse entre les fíles de devantures ďune rae", to mu jerBO 
MoateMt BOoCpasHTb ce6t, hto HHTaeM^ ne KpHTHqecBift 9th)ax, a 
„Chérie" EJivL „laFaustin*, aiy EBHHT^-^cceH^iK) (sit venia verbo) 
^HCKyccTBeHHaro HCKyccTBa". Hjih boti» eme ^pasa, Eoxopaa Horja 
6ki 6uTb noAnticaHa FoHKypoMx: „Ce sont des étades esquissées 
d^une singuliére délicatesse de traits menus, diffus cependant et 
noyés ďombre, qui tentent cette curiosité de connaítre, que sus- 
cite tout mystěre, qui la récompensent de sou elfort. par Tinté- 
ressante compléxité de la physionomie. qui surgit peu-á-peu de 
Tombre, par la sympathie émue qu'elle inspire, comme elle se 
révéle véridique, portrait et non academie, étre tout semblable 
á SOD spectateur et mirant dans ses yeux le charme et la tris- 
tesse qu'il a coddus et subis"* . B% 9T0M'b cnoco6t Bupasemt ecTB^ 
ÓescnopHO, MaciepcxBO CBoero po^a, ho MacxepcTBO, BOTopoe mu 

nOSBOJIHMX Ce6^ HaSBaiB BHBaHTÍftCRHMl, MaCrepCTBO, Kb BOTOpOM^b 

ecTb qxo-TO crapqecRoe, íto-to OTSHBaiomeeca npecim^eHieMi. 3to — 
TO^HO KymaHbe ajib H36ajiojaHHaro sejiy^Ra, OTRasuBaiOH^aroca npH- 

HHMaTb OÓUKHOBeHHyfO HH^y, H.1H H36UT0R'b 3aBHTK0ffb, CBOfiCTBeH- 

Huft apxHTeRxyp^ BpeMeui yna^Ra. Krb c^iacrifo jua TeHneReHa^ 
BTa Manepa Bjia^^erb nwh ne Bceii'kao; OH'b cdpacuaaen, no Bpe- 
MeHaMii, saHMCTBOBaHHoe luaTBe, crj^Hflioniee ero ABHsenia. Tipe* 
RjiOHHjiCb nepeAi^ ^HeBosMyrimocTbio" coAepa^uifl, FeuHeReHi, RaR'B 
Mbi yse BHA'^H, noHHMaerb saROUHOCTb h SHaneHie cy({MRTHBHaro 
BJieMeHia bi» RCRyccTBt; yBJíeRaflCb, HHorAa, „yTOH^eHHOCTbco^ 4^Pmh, 
OHI yMieTb roBopHTb H npocTUMX flsuROMX rjiy6oRo ydJbsA^HHaro 
HejiOBÍKa. 

K. ApOfiHbEBl. 



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CTHXOTBOPBHia 



HB A. 



rjiy60R0fi OCeHBK), O&hBTS, THXHMl CHOITL, 

rioHHiua UBa HaA'B py^beni. 

Et rpesHTCfl secea, ee cTpamarB Moposu, 
S jHCTBfl na^aiDTi, RaKi cjfesii. 

T6 jHCTBfl MHHTB py^eft Kx nojyAeHHOtt CTpaH'6, 
Kasi 6u npHBi^Tx ea BecHŠ. 

noci^AHÍft JHCTi ynajii— Bce sacti H^imafl BBa. 
H Birb OTB^xa, híti npesuBa... 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1236 racTHHKi EBPOim. 






H TU Bi rpoóy?.. H ÓjrbAHufi oÓjuiki* tbo&, 

['soft OÓJÍBKh OKpjXeWh BeCeHHHMH I^B^TaMH? 

I TU, crpa^ajiHi^a, noA^ JierRoft sHceeft 
^SHMaemB mšahuA RpecTB sacTUBinnMH pyRaMH?.. 

To BKpypB TeÓA yeiiJiitt ^psjsjb CB^^eft 
ifepuaeTX uiaMeHeirB CescrpacTHaro nponviHBfl? 

?0 Ha TBOHX'L yCTaX'B CHOITB COJIHeHHUXl Jiy^eft 

^opHTL, RaK'L noqtiiyft noai^AHflro CBHAaHSfl?.. 
To BbeTCfl HaA'B TO(k)& iipospaTOuft auitb Ra^arB? 

reOfl-JIB, MOft APyn, TBOH JH CB^TJIUfl MrHOBeHBfl 

(oBerB Ty^a, bi totb crpameuft pa^^ ^ysExrb mofej^, 

^^jyxoft eaiÁBi nenajibHaro ÓoroeiyseHBfl?.. 

l^B^TaMH HyAHHMH iu BHOBb OKpyacHa — 

^a^xx se He AposaTi tboh i^b^tu, RaB'B npesA^^ 

is^rbwb He AunierB rpy^B vh o&bsmMX^ mhphiix'l CHa. 

(anŠMi TH ne Bs^oxneniB bx OTB-feTx Moeft na^esA^, — 

To He TBOfl JIH SH3HB BX T^Th npH3paHHHXl BOJIHaX'B, 

[to HaA'B TOÓott HjiuByTB, ÓJiaroyxafl, TaiOTB, 

?o ne TBOfl-JiB Aynia vh tíxi corae^HHxi .lyqaxi, 

[to TaBi Te(5fl i^yiorB, oÓHHMaiorB?.. 

Ez. HBAniREBHH'B. 



Digitized by VjOOQI^ 



qEPHAH CTP^JA 

HcT0PH9ECKáA nOB^OTB, 00?. POBEPTA CtHBEHCOHA. 

t>h aHriiicsaio. 



npojiorL. 

JSflMWh MOTHTeJEB. 

Bi OAHHi npespacHiift achb, nosAHeft secHofi, bi ^epesH^i Tsh- 
cmíB pasA&acji KOJiOROJtbHuft sbohi cobcíitb fb HeoOu^Hoe BpeMfl. 
nocejUHe, paÓOTaBinie b% jiicaxi h Ha nojiflxx baojb p^bh, no6po- 
c&iH CBOH pa6oTii H nocniniHJiH ki M'krry xpescrH; fl caMOft Ae- 
peBHt sHTejiH en Tanse Bucun&iH Ha y^iHi^y h jAHBJfljiHCb, ^16- 
(Sb TaBoe osHanajii btotl naÓarB. 

61 CMyTHoe BpeMfl, vh i^apcxBOBaHie yse npecrap^aro Tor^a 
xopojfl Fenpexa YI, bo BTopoft hojiobhh^ XY-ro BŽRa, bx caiiufr 
pasrapx boShu Ajioft h Bijioft posu, ^epeBHfl Tshctojib Óujia co- 
BciiTL laBafl se ci bhaj, RaKi h huhí. JJjecflTRa ABa aomobi, rpyóo 
CKOJioHeHHiJXi E8X Ay^OBuxB 6peBeH'B, CTOflJiH vb (5e3nopflAR^9 pas' 
(pocaHHue no sejienoft aojihhí, cnycRaBmeficfl rx p'6Bt. B% MEnjb 
xepeBHH Aopora yonpajiacB m> moctb, daitiii, noAHflBniHCB na npo- 
nBonojosHBift 6eperB, xepflJiacB bi Jitcy, no Haupasjeniio kx Moot- 
raysy, h AaJBme— kt* aWaiCTBy TojHByA^. IIocpeAH AepeBHH bhch- 
Wh itepBOBB, OKpyxeHHafl thccobumh AepeBBfliiH. IIo o6š croponu 
pisH noRaTOCTH es, sapocJiH sejníeniiMH BflsaMH h Ay^^MH. 

y caMaro Mocra na xojimhk^ BucHjrcfl RaMeHHuft Rpecri; sgbch^ 

COÓpaiOCB H'ÍteROJIBRO SeHE^HHl, E B&ťiCT^ Ch HHMH SAOpOBUft UBJIUŘ 

Bi specTBflHCRofi (5jiy3%; bc6 ohh pa3cysAa<3H o npnTOHaxi neo^ii- 
^atoaro 3B0Ha. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



238 B^CTHHSl EBPonu. 

3a nojí^aca nepe^i tími qepeax ^epesHio npoixaxb roneiíx; 
oin> laR^b ToponHJicfl, hto hwiiíjrb no^aHnyio eiiy RpysRy nsBa, 
He cjrisaji cb cš^Jia; ho can^B oh'b Hnqero He 3HajrB o CBoeMi no- 
py^eHÍH, TaRB RaRi nesi sane^aTaHHoe necBiio otb cspa ^anidjui 
BpsRJiH R-B capy Ojneepy Oicy, naxepy, yopasMEmeMy MooTray- 
SOMB BX OTCyTCTBÍe BJiaA'i^si^a. 

Ho BorB nocsHmajiCfl CHOsa lonoTB jioma^n; na onyniRi shcn 
noRasaJiCfl Bca^esRB h npocRaRajiB ^epesB moctb; to 6uji'h MOJO^ofi 
MHcrepx PH^apAB IIIejiBTOHB, HaxoAHBmi&Cfl noA'B oneRoft capa 
JífiEidjisL. Tojina npHBtTCXBOBajia ero RpHKaMH h npocHja pascRasaxB, 

BB ^eMB A'fejIO. OhX OCTaHOBELlB ROHfl AOBOJBHO OXOTBO; 8T0 ÓU-l-B 

MOJOAOfi ^eiOBŠRi, He AOCTHrinifi eo^e BOceMHaAi^aie JťlrB, sarop^- 

JLUfi, CB CŠpUMH rJia3aMU, Wb RypXR^ EBB OJiebBCft ROBH CB qepHuiTB 

ÓapxaTHUMi BopoŤHUROMB, BX sejieHofi nranoHR^ cb crajBHuicB 
^aMOCTpi^oiirB sa cnoHofi. FoHei^B, RaRB oRasajiocb, npHBe3% BasHiia 
HOBOCTH. npe;i[CTOfljia 6HTBa. CspB X&hí8jib Tpe6oBajix, htoÓei RasxHfi, 

RTO MOFB HaTflHyTB JIJRB HJIH BJia^^TB TOnOpOlTB, RaRB MOSHO CROp&e 

aBMca RB K9TTJIH, HO^B CTpaxoM^ . aecTOROfi onaju, wb cjyqa* 
^CJiymaHÍJi; ho Tjsik h cb r^mb osHji;aj[acB ($HTBa, o6'b dwwb flflK% 
HHqero ne 3Hajii. CapB OjiBBepB xotIjb BCRopi caMB OTnpaBnr&cfl, 
a, BeHHeTB FaiTO y»e BOopy»a.ica, xaR^ RaRB AO-i»eHx Óelitb BecTH 

— 9to ^HCToe pasopeHBe wa cípaHEi, — CRaaajia RaKaa-TO 
aeHD^HHa. — IIoRa naniH ÓapoHu boioiotb, mu, RpecrbflHe, AOJaiHH 
^seBaTb RopeHBfl. 

— HÍtb, — CRasaji^ JI^hr^b, — bchríě, rto noft^eTB, Óy^exB nojy- 
^axB mecxb hohcob^ wb cyxRH, a cxpbjíRH no ABina^itaxH. 

— JífiLj xoponio, ecJH ohh ocraHyrca »hbh, — BOspasH^a xeH- 
mHHa, — a ecJiH hx^ yÓBioxi! 

— EŠTb CMepxH Jiyqrae, RaRx nacxb sa CBoero npHpos^^eHHaro 
jop^a, '-'CRadaj['B JI^hrb. 

— A y Měna xaR^ wbvh npnpoKAeHHaro Jiop^a, — saMŠxHJTB Majufi 
Bi 6jiy3i. — CHanajia a mejiB sa Yo-ibcaHroMaMB; mu Bcb msb na- 
mero OROJioxRa cxoajiH sa hhxb b'b xy nopy. A xenepb a AO^seei^ 
croaxb sa BpdRjiii. TaR^ oho buxoahxb no saRony; RaR^ BaMX axo Hpa- 
BHxca? A xenepb, boxx capi Jl,aHÍ3J[b h C9p'b OjiHBep'b, — sxoMy Óoibine 
snaROMH saROHH, hímb qecxb, — mhí ohh bco paBHo; y Měna wkrh 
jiopAa, RpoMŠ 6%;i;Haro Ropoja Fappn niecxoro; Aa ÓJiarocJOBHTE ero 
Bon>: OHTí, 6'6AHara, xaRi npocxB, hxo hc CByMiexx oxjnraHTE 
npaByH) pyRy oxb jiíboě. 

— y BacB sjíoS asuR-B, MOft Apyri, — oxBinaji-B ^hrx: — bh na- 
upacHO CM'lexecb HaA'b cbohmb AoópuMX rocno^HHOMX h MHjiopAOir& 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HEPHAfl CTP^JIA. 239 

sopojeM'B. Kopo.4 FappH— cJiaBa cbstumi! — xenepb onpaBHJica u 
yjttíHTB B<A (Jesnopa^íKH. Bon> capi JíaHÍaíiB, — xaE^ bíab bu xpa(5- 
pgrecb y nero sa cnnHoft. BnpoHeMX, fl He AOHOCHHEt, — h ^o- 
BoiBHO o<h» arojiťB. 

— O Bacx, MHCTBpi PnqapAi, a ne roBopio HHqero xy- 
jíoro, — BoapasHJix KpecrbflHHHt. — Btí eo^e mojo^h, a botb no^po- 
creie, TíLVb n ORaserecb cb nycnnix sapifaHOMi. BojiLine HHqero 
ee CKasy. Jl,a noMoryrB CBaiue cocžaami capa Jl^amajfl h Aa sa- 
TUBTHTE IIpecBflTaji Í^Ba CHpoTi, KOTopue HaxoAHTCH HOA^ cro 
oneROfi! 

— EjnincfiH,— CBaaajii PHqap:^^, — bh rOBopHTe TaEÍa pšqa, 
loropufl H He AOJiJReHib cjiymaTs. Capi A^^^*^ i^<>^ rocnoAHHi u 
narpoHi. 

— Hy, xopomo; paspimHie-Ba mh4 aara^Ey, — BOspasHjrb 
ÍJnmcÓE: — Ha HBeft CTopoH'6 TenepB canx capi JíflEidJih? 

— He SHaio, — OTBiqajit Jíhrx, ciersa noEpacatBX, xaEi EaEi 
ero onesyffB to-h-aíjo nepexowjii otb gahoS napTie ki> Apyroft 
ffB aro CMyTHoe BpeMfl, h EasA^ifl xasofi nepexoA^ yBejiHqiiBajii 
ero cocTOflHÍe. 

— Ara! — sBM'bmjťhKjaiui^in: — ne SHaeie; Aft h hheto He sHaerB. 
OffB bíab CJiysHTB pasoMi H HaniflMi, u BamHMi, h .laHEacTepaMi, 
H lopsaMT^, H Ájio% fl Btjiofi posi. 

B'B ary MHHyTy Ha Mocry ohatl nocjHifflajicfl cryEi EonurB CEa- 
Hymeft JiomaAH: bc* oíJepHyjiHCb h yBHA^JiH caMoro Bennera TaTqa. 3to 
(Sbiji CMyrjuft, BAopoBuň A^^THea, cb npoÓHBaion^eiocfl yme dA^Hoft, cb 
TflxeJiuirB syjaEOiifB h CBep^otiMi BsrJiflAOMi, Boopysennuň EonbeMi 
H MeqoirB, vh Eosanofi EypxEt h CTajiBHOM'B mjieM^. Ohi Óujtb 
BaxHOK) ocoGoft B-B aToft MÍCTHOCTH, — HpaBafl pvEa capa Jl,aHÍajia bx 
MEpi H na BottH]^, H Bi> TO ase Bpeufl cothhr'b. 

— KjiHncĎH! — EpHEHyjix owb: — crynaft Ei Mooxrayay h nomjiH 
tyxa Bdbx'B ocrajiBHuxi. TaMB no^yqHnib mjiewh h EOJBqyry. Mu 
AOJXHfii OTHpaBHTBCfl DpesAe, q^i HaqHyrB TymHTB ornH. CoópaTBca 
y i^epEOBHOfi orpaAw; eto aanosAaerB, xoMy AOCxaHexca! CMOxpa ae! 
SL BHaio, TU qejiOBÍEx HenaAesHufi! HancH, — npHÓaBHJii ohi, o6pa- 
iqaflCB EOb OAHOfi H8i seHn;HH'B: — qx6 cxapufi AnnjiefiflpA'B Aona? 

— Ka»excfl, AOMa, — oxB^qajia aenmHHa. — JíojiaHo 6uxb na 
oropoA*. 

Uocjrk axoro xojna pasonuacB; KjiHnc6H jiíhiibo noópějii qe- 
pe3i MOCTB, a BeHHexx h mojioacS lUeJiBxoHx noixajiH paaomx ne- 
pesB AepeBHH). 

— HysEHO noBHAaxBCfl cb axHMx cxapuMX ÓojixynoM-B, — CEa- 
aaaB Bennexi. —Owb 6yAexi ÓpioaataxB h Bopqaxs o Fappn IlaxoMi 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



240 raCTHHBl EBPOnU. 

TaEi AOJiro, ^TO Apyroň bi dto BpeMH ycnten noAROBaxB i[oniaxi>' 
A Bce nOTOMy, hto yqacTB0B&9i> bi ^paHi^yscBHxi BOftnaxi. 

^OM^b, Kl KOTOpOMy OHH TenepB nOAVbXBJSEj CTOflXB Ha CaMOlTb 

Bpaio AepeBHH, cpe^H cupeEeft, noo^aib on xp^vuji^ aobi;ob'b; ci 
Tpex^B CTopoHi owb 6iui> ORpyseHi^ oÓmnpHmrB JiryroiTB, npocTH- 
paBmHMCfl AO jrbcsL. 

TB,wh cjsjbs^ cb JiomaAH, npHBflsajii noBOA^B kl saóopy h, npH* 
AepacHBaa ^asa sa jokotb, nomejKi vh oropo^^B^ vjíib crapuft coj- 
jífl,Tb BonaJiCfl B^b rpflAdX'B sanycru, Han^Baji chuiumi rojocoirs 
BaByio-TO ntcHK). Owb Óuji^b oxbvb b% Kosanoe luaTBe, tojbko 
manEa h boPothhki óujsu hsi ^epHofi ÓafiRH cb RpacHiiirB niHTBeirB^ 
jiHi^o ero HanoMHHaJio CKopjyny rpei^Baro op^xa BasrB abítoitb, 
laKx H o6HJiieM'B MoplAHHi; HO cšpue rjiasa ao chxx nopB coxpa- 
HHJiH ÓJiecKb H CMoTp&iH 6ofiBO. MoseTB 6uTh OffB 6iui> rjyx'B, 
MOserB 6uTB c^Hrajix HeAOCioftHuiirB js^si craparo fiofii^a npn AsHHRypi^ 
oÓpan^aTB BHA^anie na Tasie nycTflRH; tojibro hh SByRH Ha6aTa, hh 
npH6jiHseHÍe raTHa h mojioaofo qejiOB^Ra, noBHAHHOMy, ne npoHs- 
BejiH na Hero HHRaRoro Bne^aiJi^HÍfl; ohx npoAOJsaJTB poTBCfl bi 
CBOHxx rpflAaxi, HanlBaji n'lceHRy. 

— Hhri AnnaiaftapA^! — CRasaxB FaTqi: — capi OjiHBepib npH- 
RasuBaerB BaicB HeneA^ieHHO OTnpaBHTBCfl bi Mooiraysi h npBHflTK 

TH,Wh ROMaHAy. 

CTapHR'B nocMOTp&ii Ha nero. 

— DlyTHTe, rocnoAa! — CRasajn oh^, ocRaJHKB syCti. — Kyxa 
oxnpaBJífleTca MHcrepB FaiTB? 

— Mnciepi FaTHx oinpaBJífleTca m KdTJH co Bcftira Bca^HH- 
RaMH, — oTBiqajii BenneTB, — Taní* roTOBHTCfl ĎHTBa, h jopAi* Tpe- 
ÓyeTB noARpinjenifl. 

— Jía, BOTB TTo! — OTBinaJii AnnjsftapA^B. — KaROft aRe rapnn^ 
30HI Bu im'6 ocraBHTe? 

— niecTB hcjiobír^, h RpoM* Toro capi Ojihbopb ocraercfl. 

— 3Toro Majo, — CRasaj^ AnnjaftapAi. — Mhš nyano ABa a^- 

CSTRa* 

— Hy BOTB en;e! mu ne ms. toto npHnuni ciOAa, ^to6u cho- 

PHTB CB BaMH, CTapHft ÓOJXyHl! — BOCRJHRHyJB FaTTO. — Ha TOO 

BaMi TaRofi rapHHsoH^B fb TaROM'B MajieHBROiTB yRptuenÍH? 

— A ht6 a 6yAy A^JiaiB c^ 9tok) ap^hbio? — BOspasHjrB Hhei. — 
Hh oahhb hb^b dTHXX JHOAeft ne yir&erB cnpaBHTBca cb i[omaABK> 
HJH BJiaAi^TB TonopoM^B, a ^rro Racaerca ao ctp&iib6u... cb. Mh- 
xaHJii! ecjiB6hL crapBifi Fapps UsltuSí BOCRpecB, ohi n03B0JE.i'B 6u 
BaniHMi CTpfciRaiďB CTpi.iflTB Bi céófl no $apTHHry 3a BHcrp^j^B. 



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^lEPHAfl CTPMA. 241 

— HÍTB, Hhki, ecTB H TenepB jio^h, KOTopae CByiiiiorB ůa- 
TflHyTfc jiyKi, — CKaaaJTE BeHHerb. 

— HaTflHyTB jryK^! — BOCMHKHyjii Annji9fiapffB. — JI,a! Ho c^i- 
im> xopomift Bucrp^i! Hy botb, Hanpniitpi, ^Tb bu nasoBere 
xopomHMi Bucrp&ioirB, BeHHerB FaT^i? 

— JífiL BOTB, — cRasaji^B BeHHerrB,— OTCK>Aa ^o Jiéca. 

— JI,a, 9T0 Óy^erB nopHAO^Hiift BucrpijB, — CKasaďB CTapHK'B, 
B3rjiflHyRB no yRasaHHOMy HanpaBJíemK). Sax^irB owh npiiRpEiji'B 
riasa pyKOH) h npHHfl^Cfl pa3CMaTpHBaTB hto-to. 

— Hy, mi> BU TaMi yBH^iÍJiH? — HacM^mjíHBO cnpocHJii Ben- 
BCTB. — yax ne FappH jih HaTaro? 

BerepavB upoj^ojissAJVb MOJ^ia cmotp^tb bx toitb ase HanpaB- 
.ieHÍH. GojiHi^e flpBHMi CB^TOMi osapfljio Jiyra; hšcbojibko 6apauoBi 
n^Hn&iH TpaBy; 6e3MflTesHafl THinHHa HapynaiacB tojibko or^ajieH- 
mwb sbohojtb BOJiOROJa. 

— ÍTb TaM^ TaKoe, AnnjiaftapAx? — cnpocHJii JlflKb. 

— HTHi^fii, — cKasajii* AiinjiaftflpA'B. 

H A'&fiCTBHTeaBHO HaA'B JI'6C0M'B, TaMl», rA'6 OHI MUCOMl B^a- 

Bajcfl Bi jíyra, saRaHHHBaacB napot npeBpacHux^B 3ejieHux'b bb- 

30BI, HpH6j[H3HTeJIbH0 Ha HOJieTl CTp^KI 0Tb TOTO M^CTa, Tfllk OHH 

croajffl, BHAH&iacB craa ethicb, jieTaBHiHxi b'b pasHua cropoHU bi 
OqeBHAHOlfB 6e3DopflAKÍ- 

— Hy, HTHqu — TaKx nTHi^u, — HT0-3Bt H3X 9Toro? — cRaaajii 
BeHHeTL. 

— ^a! — BOspasHji^ Annji9ííapA'B: — bh yMHO c^^ajiH, ^to ot- 
npaBjífleTecb Ha Bofiny, Macrapx BennerB. Hrai^u — xopomaa crpaaa; 
Bi ^HCTuxx artcraxi oh4 ceftTOC* yKaatyrt na boScko. Bort 
CMorpere, ecjus6u mu xyrB croajH jiarepeMi», h laMi bx jiicy 
cnpflTaiHCb CTpIjiBH, HaMi» 6u npHmjiocB hjioxo. 

— ÍTÓ sa B3Aop^, crápaa copoKa! — BOCOHKHyjTB Fai^-B: — 

&IHXe Kl» HaM^B H^TB JIK)Aeft, BaR'B BOHHU C8pa JÍ^SLlAdJlH, J KdTT.lH; 

^ŮCh BU TaKi* ate 6e3onacHu, KaKi* wb ToyapcKoft CaniH*, h no^u- 
Maere nycryio TpcBory H3'L-3a KaKHXx-TO 3a6jiHK0BT> h BopoÓBeBt. 

— TojTKyftre! — npoBopqajn> AnnjiattapA^. — Ckojibko MoraeHHH- 
KOBi 6ujiH 6u pa^u sacrptjHTB Koro-HH6yAB h3x nacB! CBaTofi 

MHXaKTB! JSJBL HaCTb HeHaBHAaTB, BaK'B AByXl BOJBOB^. 

— HenaBHAflTB capa ^aHÍ3Jia, — saMÍraji FaTHX, cjenta 3a- 
AlMaBmHCB. 

— Hy, ja, capa JI,aHma, a sa o^ho h bcšx*, bto eaiy cjy- 
WTB,— rfoapasHJTB AnnjiaftapA-B: —HnpeatAG Bcero Bennera Faiqa h 
cmparo HaBOJiaa. ÍIocMOTpHre cio^a: ecjiHÓu Taw^ na onymBi 

Tom ni.— Maí, 1889. 16 



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242 B^CTHHR^B £BPOira. 

CTOflJi^ BaRoft-HH^yAB viOJíojífinjhj H Bbi H fl croflJH 6u sfljhcbj Rasi 
MU lenepb ctohmi — soro 6u hs^ naci oh^ BuÓpajii. 

— BacB, roTOFB ÓHTBca o6h saRia^^! — OTBŠqajTB TaTOB. 

— CTaBoo CBOK) EypTKy npoTHBx RoacaHaro noaca, hto BacBÍ — 
BOCBJíHBHyjrB crapufl crp&iORi. — Bh cosrjH rpHMcroGTB, BeHaeri, — 
8Toro BaiTB HHBorxa ne saCy^yrB. íto ao MeHa, to a, cjtasa Bory, 
cRopo ompaBjnocB bi noRoftnoe iribcrO) rA'i 6yAy AaJiORO on bu- 
crp&sa H on juoACRofi sjio6u. S. crapmci h ctoh) ea Rpaio mo- 
nuui. Ho BH, BenHOTB, ooraflerecB sx^Cb, h ocih AOSHBere ao 
MOHX^E jdrB, TO, sHaHHTb, ^jxi> CTapofi ÁHTjriH iipoiiajii. 

— Bh caMH& HecHOCHHfi crapnft ÓojTyffb bx T8hctojiji4! — 
Bospasnn FaTTb, bhahmo CHyo^eHHHft stemi npeAOcrepexeflieifB. — 
OrynafiTe sa opyaúeirB, noRa He npHmejii capi OjiHBepB, h ocraBbxe 
xoTb Ha Bpeiffl 6o;iTOBHio. Ecih bh ctojibro 3Re TOjmoBajH cb 
FappH IlflTHiirL, TO KB ero ymaxi SBen&io 6ojibine, ^utl vh RapnaB^ 

Bi> dTy MHHyTy crpijia npocBHcr&ia bi B03Ayx'i& h BOHsujiacb 
MesAy JtonaTORTb craparo AniuiafiflpAa, npo6HKb ero eacRBOSb. Ohi 
ynaJTb hh^rom^b cgefji rpax'^ cb RanycTOfi; FaT^B BCRpHRHyji, 
6pocHjica K% AOMy h cnpflTajicfl noA^ ero san^HTOfi. B'b Ty se MHHyxy 

JíflKb nieJIBTOH^ CXBaTEJTB CBOfi CaMOCTp&Il H, npHIiaBl Ha SeMJIH) 

3a RycToiTB CHpeHH, HaTflHyjirB ero, BHCMaTpHBaa Bpara. 

Bce 6hjio thxo. Bapann Mnpno n^HnajH TpaBy, hthi^ ycno- 

ROHJIHCB. A MeSAy T^lTB CTapHRX JlOSajTB, npoHseHHuK CTp&IOfi, 

TopnaBmeft hsi ero chhhh; FaTH'B npaTajica sa aomoh^, h JI^hri, 
yRpHBaacB sa RycroifB cnpenn, AepsajiB Ha-roTOB'6 caiiocTp&iT^. 

— HHRoro ne bhaho? — cnpocHJTB TdLTWb. 

— HhROFO, — OTB^HaXB ^HRrb. 

— Cthaho ocraBHTB ero TaR%, — CRa3a.11 BennerB, Hep^niH- 
TejBHO npHÓJiHSRaflCB Ri crapHRy. — Ha6jiH>AaftTe xopomeHBRo sa 
ji^^iTB, MacTapB niewiBTOHB, He cnycRaftTe cb Hero tjíB3^. ^a 

COXpaHflTB HaCTB CBJlTHe! BOTB M^TRÍft BHCTp&ST>! 

BenneTB npHnoAHfljn> craparo crp^^jRa Ha cboh roj^hh. Ob% 
6ujn> eusfi shbi; no jihi^ npotftrajia cyAopora, r^asa OTRpuBajHCb 
H saRpHBa^iHCB RaKi 6u MexaHH^ecRH; noMyTHBnrifica B3rjflA'B bh- 
paauuB aRecTORoe crpaAame. 

— CjHHiHniB JIH TH MeHH, CTapHtt Hhrx? — CnpOCHJl FaTTb. — 

BHCRaSRH CBOK) nOCJlÍAHH)H) BOJUO HOpeA^ CMepTbH)! 

— BHTan^H CTp^y h a^^ mh% yiieperb, bo hma IIpecBaTott 
Jl.feu! — nporaenrajrb AnnjidftapAi. 

— Macrapi. JI^HRi, — CRasajTB BennerB, — noAHTe ciOAa h bh- 
AepHHTB crpfcay. B^AHari npHmexB rohoiji^b. 

fl^viiffb noAomeJix h, Aepnpi sa crp^, BHTan(HJi% ee hsb paHu. 



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"XT" 



HEPHAfl CTPtJA. 243 

KpOBb 6p£i3Hyjia cxpyefi, crapuRi onpoRHHyjca h, yaCMaHysii en^e 
paai HMfl Bóra, yMepi. FaTTB, cxoa na KoaiHaxx cpe^H Ko^nefi 
RanycTu, ycep^HO uojnuics sa ay^Y yconmaro. Ho e bo speaifl 
MOiHTBu OHI nocnaTpuBaJTb Ha onymBy Jišca, OTRy^a óujtl cjí!b^9iM% 

BUCTp&Il. OkOHIHBI MOJIHTBy, OWh BCTaJTb, CHflJIl CB pyBH SOJT^S- 

HjH) nepqaTsy h orepi CBoe 6jAji,Eoe Jimíflj na BoropoM^ Bucry 
nut noTL 0T'B yasaca. 

— Hy, — cKasaji^ ohi, — lenepL, flOJiSHO Óhtb, moh oqepoAt. 

— Kto 6u Morb aio CA^fe^iaiB, BennerB? — cnpocMi* PHqap;i,x, 
eo^e AepsKaBmig fb pyB^ crp&sy. 

— BoPB ero snaerL, — cKaaajKB FaT^x. Majo jih xpHcriaHCKHxt 
AynTb MU BBirnajH hb^ AOMa h JEmHjiu HMyn^eciBa! B^ahuh Óojltjb^ 
noEiaxHJicfl XI13HBK); TenepB qepe^i^ sa MHOň. Cdp'B JI^aHidJib cjiHm- 
KoiTB yffix crporL. 

— - CrpaHHoe ap^bko!— cicaBajit ronoina, paacMaipHBaa crp-kay. 

— HMeHHo!— BOCKJiHBeyjrB BeHHerb.— íepHoe h cb lepnuM^ 
onepemeiTB. 3to CKBepHo; roBopflTi, Hepatifl i^bítb npe^BintaerB 
noxopoHU. ]ífi TyTB KaEÍa-T0 CJiOBa! OipaTe KpoBb! %í) lyrB na- 

OHCaHO. 

— „AnnjiaftflpAy opb Jl,3B0HaMcTHTejia", — npoiejni HlejiBTOHx. 

?TÍ) 3T0 SHa^ffiTb? 

— He BHaK), HO 3T0 Mfli He HpaBHTCfl, — OTBinajix raTq-B, no- 
KaqHBaa rojiOBOtt. — ^jkohi McTHTejtB! 3to, 0HeBH;i,H0, yciOBHoe hma! 
O^naBO, TTO se mu ctohmi sa^cb. BosBMHxe ero sa hofh, MacrdpB 
IQeJbTOHi, a fl 3a njie^H, h nepeHeceMi> wb aomi. Boo6paxaK>, 
UK-b ysacnercfl Ó^ahuS capi OjHBepB! 

Ohh noAHJiJLH crapHBa h snecJiH ero bb aomi, vjíik ohi seji 
o^HHi. TyT% ohh nojiOďLHJiH ero na hojtb, CTapaacB no bosmos- 
HOCTH npHAaTB eMy opHJiHHHyH) no3y. 

^omi» Annjia&flpAa OTJiHqa.^cfl npocroroK) yÓpancTBa. Bb homi^ 
6ujia BpoBaiB CB TOJiyÓuwb oa^jiomi, niBa^i p^B nocy^u, 6ojb- 
mofi cyHAyB'B, napa Ta6ypeT0FB, ctojib m> yrojiBy nepe^i BaMnnoMi), 
H pa3BÍmeHHoe no cri^HaMx opysie craparo crp^Ba. FaTH?* cb 

JK)(k)nUTCTBOMX OCMOTp&ICfl. 

— y HBEa ÓBiJiH AeHBFH, — CBasajii on^. — HaB^pno, lyrb cnpa- 
TaHO ni-HHÓyAB $yHTOBX niecTBAecarB. He Aypno Óti OTHCRaiB 
HTb. KorAa TepaeniB craparo apf*, MacrapB PnqapA^, jiynniee 
yrimeme — CAÍ^aTBCa ero nacJiiAHHKOMB. HocMorpEre-Ka na 31011 
cyHAyíci. Ji roTOBX ÓHTBca o6'b saajaAB na htí) yroAHO, ^to bi 
HeMB jieauiTB Byqa sojioxa. Crapbifi Annji3fiapA'B juikjrb Ao6uBaTB 
AeHbni, a xparaTB Óujtb ne oxothhki. YnoKOft, Fochoah, ero Ayniy. 
noHTH BoceMBAecarB jAtl ohi Ao6biBajrB aohbfh, ho xenepB eMy 

16* 



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244 BfiCTHHRl EBPOnU. 

HHHero He HyaíHo, h ecjiu ero HMymecTBO fliOcraHerca ero Apyry, 
TO HEBipHoe ero ^yma nopa^iyerca vb neÓecax^E. 

— riojiHO, FaTTB! — CKasaj-B JlflR^h. — HM^fire yBaaeme Bt no- 
KoftHHKy. HeyaejiH bu b% coctohhíh oCospaciB crapaKa nepeA'B 
ero TkiOMi,? H4tb, ero Ayx^ ne m^i^ 6u eaiTB hokoh. 

FaTTB fficBOJiBKO pa3x nepeKpecTHJica, ho oÓh^hoc Hacrpoenie 
yse BepHyjiocB R'b neify, h owb ne xot&ii oxBasaTLCfl otb CBoero 
HaM^peHÍfl. Oh^ 6u BSJtouajrb cyHjiyBí, ho bi bto BpeMji Bopora 
aacRpHH^H, a BCRop^ sSLvkwb ABepB OTBopKiacB H Boniej'B qejio- 

Vhjffb JrkTb HflTHAeCflTH, BfilCORÍft, HOJIHUfi, pyMflHUfi, 6% HepHUUH 

TJiasaMH, FB CTHxapš H qepHofi pflci. 

— AnnjraftapA^B! — CRasaji-BBOraeAniift, ho, yBH^ÍBt ipyn^, ocra- 
HOBHJca BX oiíineH-femn: — Ave Maria! Jífi coxpaHATt naci CBaTBie! 

^TÍ> TyTB CJyHHJOCB? 

— Cjy^HJiacB 6i;ia Cb AnnjraftapAOMx, capi nacropx, — otb*- 
Hajix FaTTB coBepnieHHO paBHo^íyniHO. — SacrpkieHi y nopora CBoero 
AOMa H TenepB HaxoAHTC^ y sparB THCTRjrHn^a. 

Capi OjniBepi ^oCpajsca ji,o TaCypeTa w onycTHJCa na nero 
6jrkjí,EUŘ H pascrpoeHHuň. 

— 3to yae^CHo! — npocTonajTB ofb h nana^rB iHTaTB mojhtbli. 
FaTTO noHTHTejiBHo CHflJTB nijeM-B H crajTB na rojt^hh. 

— nocaymafi, BennerB! — CRasajrB naTepx, neiraoro onpaBHB- 
niHCB: — BTO 6u Mora 9to c;í*JaTB? KaRoft Bparx yÓtrjTB ero? 

— BOTB CTpijia, CBpB OjHBepX. IloCMOTpHTe, SJíjbCh HaAHHCB, — 
CRasaJTB JIJHRX. 

— H4tb, — BocRjiHRHyjix CBfln^eHHHR'B: — Tynb hto-to ne hhcto. 
JUatOHx McniTejiB! 9to noxose na napojB JiOjiJiap;íOB'B. H oRpa- 
měna bx nepnuft i^bítb — tohho npeASHaMeHOBanie. Focno^a, 8Ta 
npoRjTflTaa erp^a mhš ne HpaBHTCfl. Ha^o xopomeHBRo o6cyAHTB 
3T0 aíjio. Kto 6h mopb ero yÓHTB? IIo^yMafiTe, BennerB. V nacB 
MHoro BparoBx; ho rto hsi hhxx pšniHJCfl TawB narjo BHcry- 

HHTB npOTHBX HaCB? ChMHOJIB? COMH^BaiDCB. Yo^rBCETHraMBI? Hirb^ 

OHH eme ne jhohijh w 9Toro; ohh eme na^íaTca, tto saROFB <Jy- 
ACTB na Hx-B CToponi, Ror;ía Bpenena nepeBri&HaTCfl. MoaerB (Íbitb 
Chmohx MajiBMc6epH? KaR'B bu AyMaoTe, BennerB? 

— A wrb BH ^íynaeTO, cspB, — CRaaaji Bennen, — HacqerB 
9jjHca ^aHBopra? 

— HtTB, BenHOTi, HHRor^a. Hítb, ne owh... BoscTame hh- 
Ror;ía ne na^Hnaerca cnnsy, BenneTT. — bi 9T0irB corjiacHu ecfe 
.s^tpaBOBíHCJiamie jiio;íh: — oho bjíctb CBepxy bhh3%; h eciH J(hb%, 
ToMx H Fappn 6epyTca sa Tonopa, — Bcerw nn^HTe Jiop^a, ko- 
TopuS TyTB ;ítftcTByeTB. Capi JI^aHÍdJB ne paai npncoeAHnajcfl kb 



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HEPHAfl CtnJlA. 245 

naprÍH KopojieBH, h btebte pa3Apa3BHJii iopKCKHxx Jiop;íOBi. OrryAa- 
TO H HaHeceffB y^apB, Bennerb; He anaio KŠMt, ho ysipeHt, qTo 

8T0 TaKl. 

~ KaR^b BaMi yroAHO, c^pi JíaniajiB, — cKaaaji-B BeHAert, — a 
no MoeMy oroHb ymi ^asHO pasropaerca b'b dTOĚ crpani. £ ^asHO 
yse qyfliii dxo, Aa u Ó^AHflra Aniuia&flpA^B TO»ce. C'b samero no* 
3B0JieHÍfl, — Bcfe jífl Toro HacTpoeHu npoTHBi Haci, HTO He KT* qeMy 

HCRaTB npEHEHU Wb IopRaX'B HJIU JlaHRaCTepaXX, BOTB HTb fi 

AjHaH): Bu, naTep'B h capi Jl^amajík, ROTopuň Bcer^a AepsHTB 
HOCB no Bi^Tpy, AíHorHxi» jiEiniHJiH uMyn^ecTBa, MHornxii u36hjiíi ejih 
noBicHJifl. BoTB xenepL h npHmjio upeMfl pasciera; JUOfljiLy y ro- 

TOpBIX'B BU OTHflJIH HMyn^eCTBO, OÓOMVLJÍVLCb Ha BaCl H BBflJIHCb Sa 

— HtTb, BeHHeTB, bu omnCaerecb, — CRa3aji'B capB Ojihbcpb. — 
Bu 6ojTyHi>, BeHHen, bu nycroMejifl, y BacB aaofi aburi^. HyacHO 
AepJKaTb ero sa ayÓaMH, Bennerb. 

— Hy, xopomo, a 3aM0;iqy. JíyMaftie qxb xoTHre, — CKasajťb 
Beraerb. 

IlaTepx BCTajTb, BUHyjii hbi an^EHRa, BHCŽBmaro y nero na 
met B0CR'b, CB^qy, RpeMCHb h oraHBO, h najioaHJi^ ne^axa c% rep- 
6oM^ capa ^anísjEfl na an^HRi h mRa4)i». FaiTb CMorp^i Ha Bce 
9T0 cb oqeBHAHUM'b HeyAOBOJbCTBÍeMi». Ssrbwb ohh BLiniJiH mi* jsfluy 
H HanpaBHJiHCb rx jiomaAflMi. 

— Mh 6h Tenepb yai (Jujih bi Aoporh, opi OjiHBepi*, — 
CBas&ai FaTqi, noAA^p^KHBafl crpeiui naxepy. 

— JUa, Bennerb, ho oCcroaTejibCTBa nepeMinHJiHCb, — BOspasaiiTb 
OjfflBepb. — AnnjiBfiapAa y»e eítl — ^a Ďy^ero MHpx ero jsyml^l — 
H HeROHy npHHflTb ROMaHAy HaA'b rapHH30H0Mi. & ocraBJíK) Bacb, 
BeHHerb. & AOJiasenx hmÍtb npn ce6^ Ha^e^KHaro qeJiOB^Ra &h 
TaKoe Bpena. „Orpijia, nymennaa bo ahk)**, — roBopHTL nHcame, 
He noMHK) xopomenbRO TeRcra... pimHxeJibHO, a cihhiromx npene- 
6peraK> MOJiHTBaMH, ciHniROM^b norpysHJica b'l MÍpcRÍa A'^a. Hy, 
^AeiiTe, Macrapb FaTTB. BcaAHHKH xenepb jífiJHRmu Óutb y i^epRBu. 

Ohh nošxajTH o6pamo, ri> i^epRBH. Menc^y t^m-b no^najica 
BÍTep% H TyqH crajiH Bacmsaib AHCR'b saxo^an^aro cojran^a. MnHOBaB^b 
HlcKOJbRo AOMOFb, OHH fBHA&iH nepeA'B C060K) i^epROBb. Orojio 
AK)SHHii A0M0Bi» .T^nHJiHCb no^Ji^ Hea, HO nosa^H i^epROBHaro ABopa 
Ha^Hnajuicb yse Jiyra. Bobjí orpaAU croajio qejiOB'lR'B ABaAi^aTb 
BcaAHHROB'b; H'ÍROTopue cnžmHJiHCb H Aepsajm jEomaAen noA^b ycn^u. 
Boopysenie h jiomaAH HX'b orjiHqajiHCb paBHoo6pa3ÍeirB: y oahhxi» 
6ujiH Ronbfl, y Apyrnxi lonopH hjih JiyRH; HHue cha^íjih na jio- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



246 B«OTHiIRl> RBPOim. 

raa^ax-Bj B3HTHXX np^MO OTB coxH. 3to 6ujm homohkh HacejreHÍH: 
Jiyroiie JHOAH h opyatie naxOAHJiHCB yae^npn C9p4 ^aHÍ3jrfe. 

— Mh CA'3&JajiH htí) MorjiH, luaHycb rojHByACKHMt KpecroMx! — 
BOCKJíHKHyjii naiepi*, MiicjreHHO nepeCTHTHBaa i50hhobx. — C9p'B ^a- 
HÍ3JB AOJrateHX ocraTtca ;^OBOJIeH'B. 

— Kto jiji,eTh? cToft! — KpHKHyjii* BeHHeTB. KaRoŘ-TO ^ejiOB^Ki* 
BH^íHMO crapajica npocKOjiBSHyTB HesaMŠTOHHUMi* no ABopy, cpe^H 
THCCOBX, HO, ycjHfflaB^ OKpHKi BeHHeTa, nycTHJica fiteuiTB no na- 
npaBJíeHÍK) kx Ji4cy. llojiMSíJi&Ch cyMaioxa; BcanHHKH ÓpocHJiHCk vb 
noroHTO, HO min, npnnijrocB ^'fe.iaTB o&vkBjí,i> BOKpyrB ;íBopa, h 6hjio 
acHO, ^TO JS,o6u^eL ycKo.iBSHera otb hhxi: TH,Tm> xotéjtb nepecBO- 
1HTB TOpes-B H3ropo;íB, ho jionia^B saynpaMHJiacB, Bcrajia na jsjn6u n 
c6pocHj[a Bca^HEKa na senjno. Xoto ohx TOT^acB «e BCKoqnjix Ha 
Honi H nofiMaJTB yajíy, ho BpeMS Chjto y»e ynyn^eno n (řferjeiíi 
npHÓJiHawucH K-B ^cy. 

BjiaropasYMH-fee bcžxx OKasajica ^nB'B nie^BTOH^. Bmícto Toro, 
^toCh TepflTB BpeMa na fiesnojieanoe npecjrikAOBanie, ohb cxbethjix 
caMOCTpiji-B, npm^-fcjiHjrca h cnpocnjii y BeHnexa, crpíjaTB jih eny. 

— CTpijiflflTe! crp^krafire! — KpnKHyj-B naiepi. 

— BajiaftTe, Macrapx JIjhk^b!— cKaaajrBBeHnerB. — XoponieHBKo 
ero! 

B-ferjiem yate naxoj^fJica bx ntcKOJíBKHXx raaraxx on* jica, 
HO jiyrB Ex 9T0MI mícté Kpyro no^HHMaJiCfl, h ohx (JtflMWB Me^jen- 
H4e. CyMepKH h nepoBHLia ^BHíBeHia 64rjieiía sarpy^najiH BHcrptax; 
npHTOíTB JíflKi> neBOJiBHO no^iyBCTBOBajTB TTO-TO Bx ^ojííb yrpBi.sema 
cobícth h noTTH »ejajrB npoMaxnyrBca. Crpkia nojierijia. 

Birjiei^x ocraHOBHJica h ynaJTB; pajíOCTHiifl KpnKí Biipea^ca 
H3X rpy^HH TaTqa h Bca^HHKOBx. Ho onn cjinraROíTB noropomuiHCB 
pa^OBaTBca. YnaBrniň cnoBa bceo^h^tb na Horn h, Hac&fi^mjHBO MaxHyBi> 
HJiaTKOMi, qepeax híckojtbko MrHOBenift CRpujrca kb jiífecy. 

— ^oprB 6u xeófl noópajx! — BOCRJiHRHyjix BennerB. — Botb 
BopoBCRÍH nora! ynierB (JiraTB, nevěro CRasaiB. Ho bh ero pa- 

HHJIH, HaCTdpX lÚeJIBTOHX, HaB^pHO! 

— %í) 6u owb MorB A-fciaTB na i^epROBHOM-B ^Bopt? — saii^THjrB 
C9px OjHBepx. C^aeTca mh*, wo xyTB ůujii, RaRoft-HH6yAB ajioft 
YHLucejiTy. KjDfncÓH, CA'^afi OAOJi»ieHÍe, cjňsh cb Rona h nomapB 
TaiTB, He^RAy jiepeBBaMH. 

KjiHncCH noBHHOBajica h qepesi^ h^crojibro speMenn BepHyjca, 
Heca B-B pyRaxx jihctor-b CynarH. 

— BoTx RaRaa-TO sanacRa; ona ÓBiJia npnjri&njieHa Kb jiep- 
ROBHEnffB ;nBepairB, — cRasajTB owh. 

— 9to npocTO Ron^yncTBo! — BOCRJHRHyji-B C9pB OjHBepx. — 



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lEPHAa ctp^jia. 247 

Ao6po 6u eme npHBiít mh Jiop^t, a to KaKoft-HH6yAB Cpo^ara 
oori^HBaeTCfl npHJ^njiflTb samrcRn bi i^epsoBHiiirB ABepflifb — H^rb, 

3T0 nOlOaHTeJIBHO naXHeTL KOmVHCTBOMX! Ho HTb TJTB MOateTB 

(fciTb HanHcaHO? Si ne MOry pasoÓpaTb vb cynepRaxi. ^o6pHĚ 
MacT9pi> nieiBTOH^, y BacB MOJio^He oasa; noaRajyficra, npo^THTe 
mhí 9Ty CoroMepsByK) sanHCRy. 

^HKt niejiBTOH^ BsajTE ($yMary h npo^ejrt ee BCiyx^B. 9to 

$IUH H^RQjIbBO nJIOXO pHeilOBaHHEIX^B CTpO^eR^B, HaniICaHHUX'B 

spynmnrB, HeyKjno^HiTB nOHepBOirb h rjiacHBniHxi cji'6AyH)ii^ee: 

Bi MoeM^ KOJiMaH'^ TeTHpe ^epHHJi crp^u, 

^empe crptm 3a Tt npHTtcHeHÍH, rotophh & Hcnurai^ 

Herupe crpijiu juh rbx^ ajniixi* JDxefi, 

RoTopue rnaiH mchíi npes^e n renepb. 

Tlepsaa nymeHa; ona hítro nonajra: 

OrapHfi AnnidfiupAi yóHTB. 

BTopaJi— wa MHCTepa BenHera Taxqa, 

KoTopufi cserb IpHiícTOHi co B<rfeMH AOMaMn h janysRKaiifi. 

TpeTbfl— AJUi capa OiHBepa Orca, 

RoTopHfi Depepi^saiii ropjio FappH UlejikTony. 

Cdpi AaHÍdJiB, BaM'b npejunasHaTeHa qeTBepTan; 

KaaxoMy cBoft Hepe^t. 

K&SAiifi HBi BacTb nojryqHTB aa cbod .iojiu) 

no erp&iŤ wb HepHoe cepjwel 

CtaHbTe Ha kojíhh h MOJiHTecb— 

npHmarb Banrb nocjitAHifi naciil 

OniXH noAnHcauH: „JI^skohx McTHrejn*, hbx Sejiesaro aíca, h 
ero Becejnie TOBapím^H 



u 



BHHsy 6yMarH iipnÓasjíeHO: „Y Hacb HafiAercfl AOBOJibHO crp^^ 
H xoponiHX^ neHBKOBuxi BepeBOR^E H A<afl ocTajibHoft Bameli ÓpaTÍH^' . 

— Boto 6ftAa! — ataioÓHO BOCRjraRHyjii C9pb OjrHBopb. — C9pH, 
9T0 nHCbMO coAepsHTb FHycHyH) RjeBeTy. SI roTOFb noRjrflCTbca 
ipecTOin* rojiEBy^CRaro aÓ^aiCTBa, ?to HenoBHHeHi FbCMeprH Toro 
pm^pa, HH cji0B0M'b, HH A&ioin>, TaRx se HenoBHHeni, RaRi hobo- 
posj^eHHufi Hja^tenei^i. Hhrto He nepepfisajix eny ropsa, 3to 
Bsxopi; ecTB AOCTOB^pHue CBH^'6Te^H, ROTopue MOryrb noATBepAHTb 

MOH CXOBa. 

— He CTOHTL roBopHTb o(5x 9T0MI, capx, — CRasajTb EenneTb. — 
Tenepb He spěna x^a xaRHX^b pasroBopoBi. 

— H^TB, nocToftre, Macidpb BeHHerb!— BOspasHjrb narepi. 

— He ic^mafirecb ne vb CBoe flÍJio, Ao6pbifi BeHHera. JI xony 

JIOSasaTB CBOH) HeBHHHOCTB. & IipOmy BCŠX^b BaCBH^r^TeJíbCTBOBaTb, TTO 

lOB pyRH ocraiHCb ^hctumh bx stomi jsjkrk. SI jifiSRe ne 6uji% 
wxa BTB Moorraysi. Měna nocjiaiH cb nopy^emeirB... 



jjj^; Digitized by GoOgle 



248 B1&0THHB'B EBPOHU. 

— Capi OjiHBeiKb, — nepeÓHJTt Fai^x, — ecjH BaMi hc yro^HO 
npepBaTB 9Ty nponoBÍ;i,L, a npHÍtrHy ki ApyrHMi cpexcTBairL. 
FoCTHpX, TpyÓH KX BucTyiuieHÍio! 

H Bi TO BpeMfl, RaRi SBy^aia ipyóa, ohx noA'BÍxajrB kb pas- 
crpoeHHOMy naTepy h hto-to npcmenrajiTb eMy na yxo. 

JíflK^h niejbTOHi 3aM']&TiL!rB, ?T0 riiasa narepa ea MrHoseme 
ocxaHOBHJiHCb Ha newb. EMy 6ujro HaA'B H^ifB sa^yMaTECs, no- 
TOMy ^TO arort FappH IIIeJiBTOffB 6ujL'b ero oiei^-B. Ho owh hh- 
Heru He CBasajn* h aspujvh CBoe BOJineHÍe. 

raT^'B H C9px OjiHBepx noroBopHJH en^e h'I:crojbbo BpeiieHH, 
oÓcysKA^, Rasi hmi nocrynHTb bi BH^y HSMŠHHBniHXCfl oficroa- 
TejibCTB7». P']^ineHO 6iuio ocraBirrB a^catb qeiOBŽRi ne tojbro ajia 
oxpaHu Moorraysa, ho h ;^ Toro, hto6ii cohpobosaatb naxepa 
npH nepeisA* ^epesx jrfecB. TaRX RaRx Ta,m> ocraBaJca^ to 
naqajiBCTBO na^x BcnoMoraTejiBHHMi orpa^OMi 6buo nopy^eno 
nieJiBTOHy. JI,pyroro BtiÓopa ne 6ujio; bcš 8th jhoah óujiii HapoAi» 
HeoTecaHHufi, ÓesTOJROBLitt, nenpHBUHHBiž ri boSeš, Tor^a Rasi 

JI^HRl He TOJIBRO HOJBdOBaJICfl nOnyJíflpHOCTBK), HO H ÓWll* p^OTH- 

TeieHT* H cepBeseHi ne no A^TdMi>. Xota ero mojioaoctb npoTesjía 
Bi dTOMi saxojiycTB']^, HO cdpi OjiHBepn^ nepeAajrB eny bc£ cboh 
RHHSHUfl nosnaHÍfl, a raTq'B can^ o6yqaj'B ero B^DEHCRony HCRyc- 
CTBy. BeHHeTB Bcer^ OTHOCHJca r-b neny jiacROBo; oh-b 6ujii> 0AHH'b 

H3l T^Xl JUOAefi, ROTOpue CypOBU H SeCTORH CB BparaMH, HO 

roTOBu noMO^ h CA'&iaTB Ao6po ApysBflMi. H TenepB, nes^y t^itb 
RaRx cdpx OjiHBepi BomejiT* b% ójrasafirnyio HSÓy, ?to6u nanHcaTb 
o cjiy^HBnieMca capy JI,aHÍajiH) Bpai^H, BennerB no^omeji-B kb mojo- 
Aony ^ejiOB^Ry nosejiaTB eMy ycnixa h noMon^e Bosiefi vb ero 

— BaMi npeflCTOHTB ;íOJirift nyTB, MacT9p'B DlejiBTOHi, — CKa- 
sajn> owb. — BBirajiHTe páSBi^íHRa, nycTB oh-b í^íotb maroBi na 
HflTBAecflrB BHepeAH. By^BTe ccToposnu wb jišcy. Ecjiu MomeHHHRH 
nana^yTi na Bací, 6poca%TecB na hhxi; ocranaBJíHBaTBCfl xyace... 
H npoÓHBaflTecB Bnepe^^B, MacTspx DleJiBTOHi, ne Bs^yMafiTe OTcry- 
HHTB, eoíH flopo»HTe »H3HBK); wb TshctojtS bbi hc Haftflere no^orH 
— HOAyMaflTe 06% dTowbl A TenepB, TaRx RaRx bh OTnpaBjaerecB 
Ha BejiHRyK) Boftny 3a Ropoja, a a ocranycB saícb cb Bejraqafi- 
meŘ onacHOCTBH) js,Jis. shbhh, h Bofb snaerB, BCTp^THMca jih mh Ror^a- 
HHÓyAB, — TO a xo^ BaMx ^aTB nocjiiflniň cobítb. He ^OBipaftrecB 
C9py JI,aHÍ3Jiio; onx qejOBŠRx Hena^eatHEifi. ]ífi h naTepy ne b^pbtc: 
caMX-TO ohx He saMuenHrB Hero-HH6y;^B xy^oro, ho ohx HcnojiHaeTs 
bojik) ^^pynix-B: onx A&iaeTB Bce, htí) saxo^ePB C9px JI^anidJiB. Ho- 
erapafiTecB naftTH ce6t xoponraxx spyseň. H ne noMHnaftTe jhxomx 



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TOPHAfl CTMJÍA. 249 

BeHHera raTqa; npaeo, ecrt MoraeHHHKH noxyae ero. Hy, ÓJiarocaoBH 
BacB Bon! 

— H Ha^ BaMH jífiL ÓY^evh mhjioctb Boaria, BeHaeri! — otb4- 
WJE Ji^BKb. — Bu 6iuiH MH* xoponiHM^ jspjTOWb^ SI Bcer^a 9T0 CBaay. 

— H BOTb HTb eme, Mácrap^, — npHĎaBHjrb FaTTt cb híko- 
TopuiTB BOjraeHieMt: — ecaa arorx McTHTejiB yjio»HrB Mcea crpfejioft, 
He noacaj^ĚTe sojoroft MapRH hjh ^yexa na noMHH'B Moefi fii^Hofi 
xymH; mh% bíxi> iuoxo npE^ercH bx hhcthjihii^. 

— PasyirfceTca, b ncnaiHio Bame aceianie, BeHHen>! — Bospa- 
3iLrB ^HB^B. — Ho BorB CB BaiíH, saq^MX bu tmí% roBopeie? mu 
en^e BCTprfrrHMCfl, h Tor^a noHa^oÓnrca CRopM nuBO, ^ími naHHXHA^. 

— ^aň-TO Bon, nacr^pi JíflK-bl — OTBi^aJTi BeHHen.. — Ho botx 
H op^ OjraBepB... H owb BJiaA^'B Jiysoui Hexyse, vbwb nepoMi; 

ISgh HerO MOFb 6U BSUŘTE CJaBHBlfi B0HH'B. 

Capi OjHBepi OT^ajTL Jí^kj 3ane<iaTaHH£iň naBen cb cjiiji,yK>' 
mfiv> Ha^nHCBK): ^Moeny ;^0CT0n0HTeHH0My rocnoAHHy, capy JI,aHÍajiio 
BpauH, pm^apio; nepe^aiB Kasib ufiXEO CBopie^. 

^HKX nOJIOSHJrB dTOTB naReTB Wb RapMaHl RypTBH H, OTAaB^ 

opiiRasi, noixajTB na sana^^ ^epes^ AepeBHH). 



KHHrA HEPBAa. 

iOHonm. 

L 

Bb rOCTHHHHU-^ „COJIHUA*' B')> RdTTJIH. 

B^ ary ho^b cap^ JI,aHÍajiB pacnojio»Hj(CH cb cbobitb bo&ckomx 
Bi KdTTiH H ero OKpecTHocraxi. Bohhu ero 6ujh xoporao no- 
irbi^eHu, HO capi ^aniajiB npHHaxJieauuii b'b qncjiy r&xi> JiiOAe&, 
BOT(^ae HH Ha MHHyry He MOryrB ocraBHTB mucjib o npio6pikTeHÍH 
xenerB; h A^ace TenepB, HaBanyH*]^ BasHaro h onacHaro npe^opÍATÍA, 

OBB BCIUrB BO BTOpOlTB qacy HOHU, HT06U npHT^HflTB &bjS,EUXT> 

eocixefi. Oh^ HasHBajCfl b'b jsibjíBJLi> o cnopnux^ Hac^'i^ACTBax%; 
DOBynaiTB npaso y caMaro coMHHxejBHaro npeTen^enTa h uoTOiťB, 
qH noMon^H bjiíabíh, KoropuMi owb h Apyne BasHue Jiopxu hojib- 
9MUHCB y Ropojfl, BuxjfonaTBTBajix HenpaBoe p6meHÍe cy^a bi» 
nojnbsy, hjh ecjiH axo rpoBHJio cjiemROiTB ao^himh npoBOJi04- 
, o&u^x^teaJťB cnopHBUfB sáHBOirB CHjiofi opysifl, bi Ha^esA*^, 



dk^. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



250 BfiCTHHK^ BBPOniI. 

OTO ero BJiiaHie h SHanie saKOHOBx C9pa Ojiireepa y^epatarB to, 
^Tř) eMy yjifiaocb saxBaraTB. Kbttjih úujio oíhhm-l h3x laKHXt Mtcre- 
^eRi; OHO He qpasy nonajio bx ero Jianu; ao chtb |nopi» ohi 
BCTpk^9uvh conpoTHBjreme co cropOHH »HTejiefi, h HeyAOBOJibCTBie 
emfi ycHJiHJiocB rkwb, mo ohi* pacnojiomHji'B sj^h BoftCBO. 

B'B ABa ^aca yrpa cspi ÁamajiL cmfiiki% vb foctehehi^ y 

RaAfHHa, TaR'B BaRT> CpeAH 60Jl0Th Wb KdTTJH 6UA0 B% 3T0 BpeMfl 

xojoAHO. Bosjrk Hero crojura Rpy»Ba nHBa, npHupaBJíeHHaro npa- 

HOCTflMH. OlfB CHflJTB DIJieSTB, OÓESLTRliVb CBOH) JTUCyiU FOJIOBy H, nOj(- 

nepeBi yrpiOMoe JiEisft pyRofi, óujii Becb saRyraH^ bi Tenjifiifi RpacHufi 
njiaiAx. Ha npoTHBonoj[0»HOMT> rohi^']^ ROHHaTu h-^crojiero ^ejroB^Ri 
Hs^ ero CBHTBi CTOflJio Ha CTpaacb. jO^pyrie cnain, pacTflHyBmRCb 
Ha jiaBRaxi. HšcROJibRO 6jinme r'b oojiy jiesRsuvb^ saBepnyBuiHCB bi 
njian;T», iiaJiBHHRi .i'lT'b AB^Ha^i^aTH hjih TpHnaAi^aTH. IlepeA^ cdpoirB 
AaHÍajieMi CTOflj['B xo8jíhhi» ^CojHi^a^. 

— SairtTbTe moh ciOBa, xioŮesuuŘj — roBopífjn> capx JI^aHÍajB: — 

BCnOJIHflfiTe TOJIbRO MOH npHRQ^HÍfl, H fl 6yAy JÍ,M BaCB AOÓpUlTB 

jiopAOM^. Mhš Hymno, wro6u crapniHHU Ówifi Ha^easnue jhoah; 
H s xo^y, HTo6u A^aMi-a-Mop^ 6ujix rjiaBHtiMi ROHcra^JieirB; 
CMOTpHTe »e!.. Ecjíh óy^yrB BHÓpana Apyrie jiioah, — 9to Bain> 
He HOMomeTB; HanpoTHB-L, BairB »e fíy^erB xy»e. OTHOCHrejiBHO 
^4x^, RTO sanjiaTHJix peniy YojiBCHHraMy, a npHMy cboh irbpu... 
Bu TOKe H3% HX^B HHCJia, JiH)6edH']^finrifi! 

— BejiHROAyniHBi& puuapB, — cRasajix ipaRTHpmHR-B, — a totobt 
noRJiacTBca RpecTOira rojiHBy^CRaro a66aTCTBa, hto sanjiaTHjrB tojibro 
no opuny^AemK). Eirb^ xpaópufi puuapB, a He jmójm MomeHHH- 
ROB'B yojiBCHHraMOBi; OHH HHH^íe H HJiyTU, xpa6pu& pui^apB. SI 
paA'B CJiyaraxB TaROMy JiopAy, RaRx bh. Hítb; cnpocHxe uchxi co- 
c^Aefi, a CToajoTB sa EpdRJiH. 

— MofflíerB 6htb, — CRasaji-B capx JI|aHÍ9JíB cyxo. — Bx TaKOM*B 
cjiy^a'6 sanjiaTHTe btoph^ho. 

TpaRTHpn^HR'B cRop^HjTB CTpaHiHyH) rpHMacy. Ho 3T0 6hiÁ% em,e 
jiyqmift hcxoax, RaRoro mofb osH^aTB ^^epnepi b^ btr CMyrHua 
Bpenena, h obi> nosajiyfi Óuji^h pa^^B, hto 0TA'6jiajica TaR'B Aemeso. 

— BBeAH BToro ^ejiOBfata, CeJB^en^! — RpHRHyjTB pimapB. 
Oahhx H3i cojíAaTB BTOJiRHyjTB vh ROMHaiy sajiRaro ciapHRa, 

ÓJi^AHaro RaR^ hojotho h ApossaBniaro bcžmh HjieHaicH otb Óojiot- 
HOft jiHxopaxRH. 

— BesA^JiBHHRi! — CRaaaJix c9pTb JI,aHÍ3JiB: — RaRi xefia soByn.? 

— Ob no3BO;ieHÍa BameS mhjiocth, — orsi^ajii crapHRX, — Moe 
HMa KoHAajiJíB — KoHAajTJB IIIop6H — rt* yejyraM'B Baraeft mhiocth. 

— Sí cjiHxajix o Te6i mhofo AypHorOj—OTBŠTOJii pui^apB. — 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HEPHAa CTPMA. 251 

3aiíHinjH!erai> HSMiny, MoraeHHWBt; Ópo^Hnib no CTpaH^ h ckemh 
CMyTy; Te6a chjibho noAO^pieaiorB wh CMepra mhofhx^ .. KaK^ tt>t 
ocBffcjiHjica na TaKyio AepaocTb? Ho a ci> Totíott pacnpaejiiocb. 

— BjiaropoAHug, AOcronoHTeHHuft jiop;^^! — saKpHMaji^b crapHKT.: 
— 9T0 KaKaa-Hn6yAb oranÓKa... ,fl óíahhŠ Hejř0B*KT> h HHKOMy ne 

CA&ULTB 8J[a. 

— mepHij^i ^lonecB mhí o Te6i mhofo ^ypnoro, — ' CKasaji^ 
pHi^apb. — ApecTOBaTB 9Toro THHj^ajia HIopíÍH! 

— RoHAajuia, ]í,o6puŘ mpjiTyl HionjsjBLJiJih Moe 6í;íHoe hmh, — 
nonpaBHJ!^ HeciacTHHft. 

— KoHAajiJib HJiH Ti{HAa.ib, 3to Bce paeHO, — xojioj^ho BOspasHjn. 
capi ^aHÍ9Jb. — lÍJiaHycb Moeft Aynioň, a CHJibHO no^ospisaio Te6a. 
EcjH xoiemb cnacTH cboh) meio, HaniiinH mhš ceiiqa(rb »&e seKcejrb 
Ha ABawaTb 4>yHT0B^. 

— ^Ba^I^aTb 4>yHT0BT>, MOfi AOťípuft JIOp^^l! — BOCKJÍHKHyjI-b KOH - 

laxib. — 9to CesyMÍe. Bce Moe HMymecTBO He croHTb ceMH^ecaTH 
niB.9jniHroBi. 

— KoHABJíJib HJIH THHjiajib, — B03pa3Hjrb C9pi ^aHÍ9;ib, CBpnn- 
Hyei 3y6aMH: — HanHinn MHfe BOKcejíb Ha ;i;Ba;maTb 4>yHT0BT., h a 
fiy^y wa xeóa ^oópbiMi Jiop^OMi h npomy bcí tboh bhhh. 

— Ybu, BejiHKOAyraHbi& jrop;rB, — CKaíJajTB KoHj^ajíJb: — bto ne- 
B03MO3BHO; a ne yii^H) nHcaxb. 

— Hy, He^ero jíÍJiaTb, — BospasH.Tb pimapb. — CejB^eH'B, oiBe^H 
9Toro craparo Bpajia ki ójiHKafinieMy Basy h nOBicb ero ocropom^ 
Bte sa raeK), too6e a Mor^ BH^^b ero, Kor^a noi^y. CiacrjiHBaro 
nyra, Ao6ptifi Macrapb KoHAajJib, ;ioporo& iiacrap^ THH^ajib! Bh 
ornpaBHTecb na hottobmxx wh i^ipcTBO netfecHoe — CKaTepxbK) ^opora! 

— Hirb, MOft Aoporofl Jiop^i, — OTBi^ajTb KoH;iajiJib, sacraBjaa 
cefia yjiuÓHyTbca: — ecjiH yacb Baifb yro;íHO TaKX rayrHTb, vrb o^enh 
npHcrajo BameSi mhjiocth, to a nocrapaiocb, RaBi ynŠH), nanHcaTb 
Baifb BeBcejib. 

— A, Apyrb,— CKasajii capx ^aHÍ9jrb, — xenepb th corjiaceHi na 
ABajWaTb 4>yHT0B%. To-To! TU cjHinROM^ xHTepx, hto6h HMŠTb co- 
CToanie ne Cojibrae ceMH^ecaTH raHJJiHHroBx. CejibAeHi, nocMOTpn, 
TO)6i OHx nanHcajTB no Bceft 4*^?^*? » ítoCu pacnncaJiHCb cbh- 

Ob 3THMH cjiOBaMH csi^Tb ^aHÍdJib, ROTopbitt ÓbUTB, BHpoqeiTb, 
BecejbHaK^, ojijiwb hbi caMtix'B Becejraxi Jiio^eft vb Ahfjiíh, xjie6- 
Hyjii rjTOTOKi HHBa H OTEHHyjica Ha CHHHBy CTyjia, yjiM6aacb. 

MexAy TiiTb Biajib^Hirb, jreawtBmiíi na nojiy, nomeBejHjica h 
Bcxajpb, ooaAHBaacb Cb Hcnyro»rb. 

— Cio;ía! — CKasajii capi Jl^anisjíb; h Kor^a Majib^iHK^ Bcrajrb 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



252 BI^CTHHKl EBPOnU. 

H Me;iJieHHO no^^oineit kb neMy, — owb pacxoxoTajica bo Bce ropjo. 
— RjiflHycb pacnarieM-L, cjiaBHufi najifc^yraffb! — BOCMHKHyjii oh%. 
MajbHHKi noKpacH'ki'B RaRi mowb h cb HeHaBHCTbK) BsrjiflHyjii 
Ha pHiíapa 6ojn>raHMM HepHHMH rjiasaMH. Tenepb, Kor^^a oht. Bcxajrb, 
6hjio ropasAO ipy^nbe pasoópaTb, ckojibko eMy jAtb, JIhi^o ero 
BasajiocB H^CROJibRo crapme, ho 6ajio h^&kho, RaRX jihc^o pe6eHKa. 
OraH% ero 6ujub ciohiromi hojihi a^ MajibHHRa; bi noxo^R*]^ sairii- 

qaJIOCb ^TO-TO HCJIOBROe. 

— Bh SBajiH Měna, capt JI,aHÍ8jb? — CRaaaji-b oh-l. — Ka^b MO^ere 

BBI Clf^TbCa HaAO MHOfi! 

— Hirb, no3BOJibTe mhí CM^aTbca, — CRaaaJii pimapb. — JíflópiAŘ 
MaJibHHRi, no3BOJXbTe uffb CM^Tbca, npomy Bacb. Ecasóu bu 
MorjiH BEjíikrh C66a canoro, bu 6u nepsuS pascM^jiHCb. 

— Xopomo! — BOCRJiHRHyji^ Majib^HRi: — bu OTBÍTHre aa 9to, 
Ror^a ójjífiTe oiFÉMaib h 3a Bce ;i.pyroe. CMiftrecb, noRa Mosere. 

— Hítb, ;i,oporoň Ryseni, — BOspasHJii capi* JI^aHÍ9J5b H^CROJibRO 
óojrfee cepbesHUMx tohomi: — ne ^ynafiTe, hto a CM^K)Cb HaA'b aaini. 

IIOCM^TbCa OTb AyiUH Cb pOACTBeHHHRaMH HJIH JiyqniHMH APySbflMH 

— 9T0 Apyroe kíjio. & xoqy Bacb Bu^aTb sa nejiOBÍRa ct» Tbica^bio 
4)yHT0Bi. HpaB^iia, a AOBOJibHO rpy6o OBJía^iJii BaMH, norony ^ito 
9Toro TpeÓOBajiH oÓCToaiaibCTBa; ho cl sthxi nop'B a óy^y saCo- 
THTbca o Baeb h csysHTb Bairb caMUMi ycep^HUMi otípasoM^b. IIoji'- 
Hoxe! He cep;^HTecb na necrnuft cmíxi; owb pasroflaerb rpycTb. 
Kto CMÍerca, Torb ^ecTenx, ^oporoft Ry3eHT>. JIioóesHufi x03flHH'b, 
AjdAre noicrb Moeny Ry3eHy, Macrapy JI,aROHy. Ca^HTecb, iíhjiuh Mofi, 
H inibTe. 

— Hirb, — CKasajix iiacTapi Jí^siowh, — a He ^^oiponycb ao nao^H. 
Pasi* BU MeHa npnHyaR;^aeTe Ri laRony rp^xy, a 6yAy nocTHTbca 
paAH cnacenia CBoefi AyniH. JlioÓesHuft xosanHi, 6yAbTe xaRi* Ao6pu, 
— safixe MHŠ craRaHi HHcroft bo^u, bu mceui oqenb 9mu% oóaKere. 

— HoJHOTe, BU AOJanu ^aTb ce6* pasptraeme noicib! — boc- 
RjiHRHyjTb pBn^ipb. nosAH^e noRaerecb bo rp^xaxi, npaBo! Y^^o- 
BOJibCTByfixecb noRa bihmi h ^mbie. 

Ho lOHoma yuopno cxoajix na CBoeMi, buhhjli craRani bo^^u 
H, saBepnyBniHCb vb HiaD^'b, ebjrb bi yrojiRy ROMHaxu. 

^epesT* ^acb hjih ABa vb jifi^eBwk nocnumajiHCb orjihrh qaco- 
Buxi, SBOHi opymia h xonorb Ronefi; r^ rocxHHHHi^ noA'b'&xa3a 
xojHia BcaAHHROBx, H ^epes^b H^CROJibRO MTHOBeHifi Pa^apA^b Ulejib' 
TOHi, Becb 3a6pu3raHHufi rpasbio, BomeJi'b B^b Roiraary. 

— 3ApaBCXByůxe, capb JíflaidJib, — CRasajrb oh^. 

— RaRnb! Jí^nK^ Hlejibxoei! — BOCRJHRHyjn* pui^apb, h npH ^Toirb 



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HEPHAa CTPIOA. 253 

HjieHH MajibHUKi, CH;^ŠBinifi b^b yrjry, cb JiK)6onuTCiBoirB nocMOxp&ii) 
Ha Borae^raaro. — A hto »e BeanerB FaTHi? 

— ^OTpy;^HTecb npoHHraTb 9to nacLMO, C9pTb pui^apB, — CKasaJit 
Ph^P^: — H3i Hero bh y3HaeTe 060 Bcewh CJiyqHBracMca. He y^o;^HO 
JH saiTb xaiWKe óy^ert nociriraHTb K'b PafisHHraMy; no ^oport mu 
Bcrp^THjH roHi^a cb nHCBMaMH, n owb cooúmfljvb naM^, hto hhjiopa'b 
PafisHHraHi wb Rpatee saTpyAHHTejiBHOMi noj[oa;eHÍH h ny^B^aercH 
61 Bamefi homoh^h. 

— KaKi TH CEasajit? Bi saTpyjíHHrejiBHOJirB nojíO»eHÍH? — no- 

BTOpHJl ptlI^apB. — Hfeb, eCJIH TaK^B, TO MH ÚyjSfiWh TOpOHHTBCfl, 
CiW 3A^B, JiOÓeSHBlt PH^apA'B. no HUH^mHHlTB EpeMOHaiTB — THme 

i^eniB, Aa^nie 6y;íeraB! ToBopaTB, tfy^TO 3aMe;íJieHÍe onacHo; 3to 
BSAopi; HanpoTHBX, HaiHraHaa ToponaHBOCTB ryfínrB jnojsfiŘ — saMÍTB 
9T0, JíflKb. Ho fl xo^y CHa^ajia uocmotp^tb, mb sa HapoA'B bu 
npHBejH. IIocB^TH-Ra, CejiBAeH^B. 

Cdyb JífluiBJíh BumeJii na yjrni^y 11 npH RpacHOMi* cvbrb ^aneJia 

OOMOTpŤJI^ HOBHft OTpji;^^. Owb RQ DOJIBBOBaJICa nonyjflpHOCTbK), 

KaKi cocbjí;h h rocnOAHH-B; ho KaK^B BoeHaqaJiBHHKí> 6ujrh jhoÓhítb 
iímh, rto cayasHJTB noA^ ero 3HaMeHeM'B. Ero aHepria, HcnuTaHHoe 
MyaecTBO, saĎorjiHBOCTB 06% y^oícrsaxi coJwarB, ^SMe ero rpy6ua 
ocrpoTU HpaBHJiHCB xpa6pei;aMi b^ mjeMaxi h Bo;rbHyrax'B. 

— íopn noóepn! — BOCiUHKHyjii ohx: — íto 3to aa cCpo^^! 
Hnofi coray^icfl rph)^boh'b, HHofi TOii],'b KaR'B Bonbe. JI BucraBJíK) Bac^b 
aBaHrapAOirb, npiflTejiH, noTOHy hto xaRBXi bohhobx mh% He msusb. 
ÍTO 8T0 sa ncHTiox-b Ha niroň jromaj^a? JI,Byxjifoni& ÓapaHi Bep- 
xoirb Ha CBHHb*! rjiflA^jii> 6u BOHHCTBeHH^e! A! IUhhcCh! h tu 
3;rifecb, crapafl Rpwca! Be8T» Tetín a oxotho 6h oóomejica; tu nott- 
Aemb BnepeAH Bcix-b u Óy^erab cJiyatHTb Mumenbio jim HenpiaTejb- 
CKHyB BHCTpÍJ!OBT», tíesAÍJibHHR-B; TU Cy^emb HORaauBaTb mh* Aopory. 

— fl roTOBi yRaauBaTb Bani BcaRyio Aopory, capx ^aflia^ib, 
KpoiA Aopora nepeóimqHRa, — AepsRO OTBÍHajTB Kjhihcóh. 

Capi jQJ^aHiajiB pacxoxoTajica. 

— Xopomo CRasano! — BOCRJiHKHyjii owb. — Tu, a BHay, 3a cio- 
BoiTB Bi» Rapnani ne noji'63enib! Ilpon^aio tboh bhhu 3a 3Ty myrRy. 
Caib^eHi, no3a(5oTbca o tomi, htoÓu hxi HaRopMHJíH: .líOfleft h Roneň. 

Pjui^apB Bepnyjica wb rocTnnmmy. 

— Hy, jiH)6e3Huft JI^hri, ca^HCB, — CRasajTBOffb. -Borb^oříputt 
3.1b H oRopoRi. ífflb, a a noRa npOTry nHCbMO. 

C3p^ JI,aHÍ3Jib pacneiaTajiTi ROHBeprb, a Ror^a npoqeji-b nncbiio, 
6poBii ero HaxMypajiHCb. HicROJibRO BpeMeHH oh-b ci^íji^ wb sa^yn- 
TOBOCTH, noTOjrB ÓpocHJTB 6ucTpuft BSFJiaA^ Ha nieJibTOHa. 

— ]lfaffb^ — CRasaTb oh-b, — ^HTSLJVb tu 3TH BHpniH? 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



254 B%CTfiHK1> KliPOUU. 

MojiOAOft HejiOB^Ri> KHfiHy.ii> rojioBOfi. 

— Bt HHXt ynoMaHyro hma TBoero oma, — npoAOJsarb pu- 
i^apb: — H eanrb ó^ahuS capt O.iHBépi oÓ^BHHaercfl RaKHM'B-TO eero- 
j^aeiťb El ero y6iftCTBÍ. 

— Ohi d BejíH^afiinHMTb Hero^OBaHÍenrb OTpHi^ajrB 9to, — sairfe- 

— Ohi roBopHJTB 061 aioiTL! — BOCMHKHyjTB ptmapb. — He npe- 
AaBafi 3HaHeHÍfl ero cjOBaMi>. dTOxaROtt 6ojnjm>\ botl yaix asuRi 
6e3i ROCTeS! Kor^a-HHÓyAB, bi CBo6oAHoe BpeMfl, a caMx pascRasy 

Te(5Í, JÍHRl, 061 9T0MI A'5fejlÍ. BUJTL TyTL HÍRÍS JI,9RB0pn», ROTO- 

paro CHJiLHO o6bhh2.iu bi stoitb yÓittcTB^, ho BpeiieHa Cujie CMyi- 
HUfl, H Hej[b3H 6ujio AOÓHTbeA npaBOcyAifl. 

— 3to ciyHHJiocb Bx Mooxrayst? — cnpocHJiT) JI^hr^, noAaBJWji 
BOJiHeHÍe. 

— 3to cjyHHJOCb Me»Ay MooTrayaoMi. h Fo-iEBy^oirb, — xojioaho 
BOspasHjii cepi Jl^auidJib, épocaa HCROca noAOspuTejibHBig BsrjflA'^ 
Ha MOJOAoro ^ejOBŠRa. — A xenepb, — npHÓaBHjrb offb, — noTopoimcb 
cb ÍAoft; TH ji^ojimewh Bepnyrbca bi» T9HCT0Juib et saoHCRoň otb nena. 

Ha Jiiiu,^ JífijiSL BupasHjiocb pasonapoBanie. 

— noatajyftcTa, capb JíaHÍ9Jb, — BOCRJiHRHyjii ohx, — nom.iHTe 
Roro-HHÓyAb H3i cojAaTx! Ilpomy Bací, nosBOJibTe mh4 y^acTBOBarb 
Bi cpa»eHÍH. Bu, yBHAHxe, hto a yM'£H) nanocHrb y^apu. 

— He coMHtBaiocb wb 9tom^, — Bospaanjii capb JíaHia^b. — Ho 
ocraBaTbca sfljkcb Ma;io lecxH. Si tfy^y croaTb b% K9itjih, noRa ae 
nojiy^y píniHTejibHHxi HaB^crift o xojijb BoflHH, a Tor^a npHcoeAH- 
HH)Cb Ri no6ÍAHTeJiK). He c^Taft 9Toro ipycocrbío, — 9to TOJbRO 
6jiaropa3yMÍe, JI^hri. Hama Óí^AHaa crpana xaRi norpacena bo3- 
čraHieMi, RopojieBCRaa aaacxb laRX ^acio nepexoAHTb h3t» pyR^b 
Bi pyRH, nw hhrto ne MOseTx 6biTb ys^peni bi 3aBTpaniHeHi» 
;íhí. CyeTJHBHe h ÓespascyAHue jiioah ToponaTca, ho MHjiop^íx-pas- 
cyAORx CHAHTb choroSho h Busu^aerb. 

G% 8THMH CJIOBaMH Cdpi ^aHÍdJIb d^ Ha APy^Ml ROHI^ii A^HH- 

Haro CTo;ia u Becb norpysasca B^b iracbMO, xaRi RaRi* npHR.iioqeHÍe 
Cb 4epH0§ crpijiott 6hjio eiiy oqenb ne noHyxpy. 

TiM-b BpeMeneirb MOJO^oft IIIejibTOHi ycepAHO npHHaJiCfl sa 'fejiy, 
HO BApypb noqyBCTBOBajx Hbe-xo npHRocHOBeme h ycjiuraaji^b neft-TO 
rojioci, menTaBmiSí eny na yxo: 

— He noRasuBafixe BH^a, hxo co mhož pasroBapHBaexe! YRa- 
WHxe MH* npaMyio Aopory Kb ro.iHBy;^CROMy atíóaxcxpy. Rpomy 
Bacb, noMorHxe nejiOBŠRy bx RpaSneft HyniA* h onacHOCXHÍ 

— Cxynafixe no xponuHR-fe k% B^xpanoi MCJibHHi^š! - monoTOMi 
OTBfcqaji-b JI^HRi: — OHa npHBe^ex^ Bacb ri nepeBoay; xanx cnpocHTe. 



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HEPHAfl CTP^IA. 255 

Offb cHOBa npuHjiJiCfl sa ^Ay^ ne noBopaqaBaa tojiobu, ho, asrjifl- 

EJVb HCKOCa, JBHAÍ^I, ESLKb MaCTBpii JI,KOH'B OOTHXOHBBy BUJiO}lflň% 
H31> ROMHaTU. 

^epesi nojiqaca capi AaniajiB Bpyqiíjii) JI^Hsy iracbMO h oxnpa- 
BurB ero otfpaTHO bx Moorraya^. A eme qepesx nojTOca abmcji 
nociaHHuft 0T% MHJiopAa PafiBHHrana. 

— Capx JíaHÍ9jii», — CKasajix ohx, — bh ynycKaere CJiyTOfi otjh- 
wTBCfl. EHTBa Ha^aiiacb aepeA'B pascsí^TOirB, mu pasÓHJiH hx'b asaH- 
rapAi H CMfljiH npaBoe Rpiuo. Tojibko i^eHTpL en^e Aepa&HTCfl. Y 
Bacb ecTB CB^xie bohhu; ch TaBUMH cumun mu onpoBiiseMi> uxx 
B^ piKy. ÍTO aie, (»px pui^apb? HeyjEejiH bu óy^exe nocjriA- 
HiUTL? — 8T0 He BflseTCfl CT> Bamefi cjiaBofi. 

— H'ferB! — BOCKJHKHyjTB puiíapt: — fl tojibko-íto coĎHpajica oř- 
npaitHTbca. CejbAeffB, xpytfH Kt BucryiuieHiK). Capi, a cefiiaci 
6yAy roTOBx. Moh rjiaBHUfl chju npu^ujiH ciOAa ne tíojbine qaca 
TOMy HasaA^b. ?ero se bu xoTHre? niuopu — xopomafl Ben^b, ho hmh 
MOSHo H sarnaTb boha. ^HB^e, pe^axa. 

Ha SByRH Tpy6u co bcšxx cropoHi noflBHJiHCb jiioah capa Jífi- 
HÍaj« H BucrpoHJiHCb nepeA'b rocTHHHsi^efi. Ohh coaJH, He CHHMafl 
opysifl, noAJi^ ocbAJiaHHUxi Ronett, h bi» RaBÍfl-HH6yAb Aecflib mu- 

HyTB COTHfl XOpOmO BOOpymeHHUXl H AHCI^HnJIHHHpOBaHHUXl JIK)Ae& 

CTOflja ub nopaAB^) roTOBan rx BucryiLseHiH). BSjíbmafl nacrb ho- 
CHJH i^B-fera capa ^ania^fl — TeMHORpacnuft h rojiy6o&, Tr6 npHAaBa.io 
orpiAy RpacHBud bha^. Jly^mie bohhu ctoajih BnepeAH; nosaAH 
Béinh noMŠcTHJiHCb BHOBb npHÓUBmie. Caprb JI,aHÍ8j[b cb yAOBOiib- 
CTBÍeMii oraflHyji'B orp^A^b. 

— 3th mojioaiíu noMoryrb saMX wh (54a*, — CRa8aji'b ont. 

— HapoA^b HaAeaHufl, vrb h roBoparb, — OTB^qajrb noeaaHHuK. 

— fflbaJlb TOJIbRO, ^TO BU He BHCTyUH.!IH paHbffle. 

— ÍTÍ) A*.iaTb, — CRasajfb pu^apb, h cb 8thmh cJiOBaMH ohi 
BCRoiHii Ha JiomaAB. — 9í, }í,viOWb\ ^2R0hx! ÍTb sa AtaBOJiBmHHa! 
By^a OHa BanponacTHjacB? Xo8flHHi>, vxb A^BymRa? 

— A'6ByniRa, capB ^aniajiB? — BOCRJfHRHyjii TpaRTHp^^HR^. — 

CspB, Ji He BHAaJI'B HHRaROi A'*BymRH. 

— Hy, MaiBHHRi, 6oJiBB,B%\ — RpHRHyjix pui^apb. — Hey»ejiH bu 
ee AoraAajiHCb, qro aro A'*BqoHRa? Bx RpacHOMTi njian^-i — euHHjra 
craRaHx boau h OTRasaJiacb otb nH^H — fa* ona, óeaA^JiBHHRT*? 

— Maci^pi JI,soH'B... TáwB bu ero naauBajiH, capi, — OTBiHajix 
losflHHi. — OniymeJB. Si eroBHA^JTB — qacx xOMy nasaAT* — bhaíuii 
ero BB Koeionifffi; offB ckjí,Ji9,jrb cipyio JiomaAb. 

— íopn. uoóepH! — BocRJHRHyji capB ^ania^B: — A^BHOHRa 

CWWn Mff6 OflTbCOTO ^yHTOBl. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



256 BftCTHHBl KBFOUU. 

— Capi, — aaMtiBJx b^cthmkx cb rope^bio: — ^noKa bu x^ono- 
qere o nsimcrasjh ^yHxaxi. pimaercfl y^acrb aerjiiftCKaro Bopo* 
jieBCTBa. 

— Xopomo cEasaHO, — oiBiqajrE capn^ JI,aHÍdJ[B. — Cesb^eHi, 
ocraBaficfl Ch mecTbio crp^naMH h pa3tiii;H iíwb ee! ?to6i 6uja 
3A*Cb, Kor^a í BepHycb! Cmotph jBe, rojiOBOft OTB^qaemb. A renepb^ 
capi, 'lAeMi. 

Orp^x^ ABBHyjica RpynnoH) pucbH), ifesAy Ttsrb RaRi CeJb^eHi 
Cb fflecTbK) cojiAaTaMH ocrajicfl ea jjiián% cpeAB tojíiiu 3tBaR'B. 



IL 

Bl BOlOTIi. 

Eujo OBOJio mecTB nacoBi yrpa, KorAa ^bk^ BU']txaji» aa rarb, 
npojioaieHHyio nepesi 6ojioto. He6o 6ujio bcho; AyJi'b AOBOJbHO 
CBŠďiiĚ B']^Tep'b; Bpu.!ibfl MeibHBi^u eepi^BCb; bbu, pocmifl no 
6o.ioTy, KO^uxajiBCb, b no HBirb npo6^raja pfl6b, RaKi no hhb^. 
Ji,\íK% bch) HOHb npoBejTb Ha ROHŠ, HO cepAi^e ero 611^0 hhcto, 
rkm sAopoBO, h owb ^xbjiim Becejo. 

/I,opora Bce Óojvhe b óojsíbe yrjyÓJiBJíacb bi» óojoto; AepeBHn 
yjice Bcqcana H3'b BB^a, h TO.ibBO RpbiJibJi b^tpbhoíí MeJibHHi^u bha- 
utjiHCb nosa^H, lor^a RaRi Bnepe^H pncosajiHCb BepxymRB t^h- 
cTOJjbCRaro jiícsl. Ho o&k cropoHu orb Aopora TBHyjBCb sapocjH 
UB^ B RaMuma; npeAaiejibCRifl tpbcbhu npBBjeRajiB nyrHBRa HayM- 
pyAHOK) 3ejieHbio. Farb, no ROTopoĚ nua Aopora, 6uJia ApesHaro 
npoBcxosA6HÍB: ee ycrpoBJín en;e pBM.iiflHe; cx xe^eníeirb BpeireHH 
oHa M']keraMB norpysHJiacb in> 6ojoto b xairb b caifB 6ujia saron- 
jeHa ero nyTHiíMH BOAaMB. 

IIpo^xaBi OROJio MBJíB, JI,BR'L HaTRHyjcfl Ha xaROo saTonjieeHoe 

M'6CT0. TpOCTUBRl H BBU, pa36pOCaHHBie B'b BEfiík OCTpOBROBl, c5h- 

BajiB Cb TOiiRy nyTHBRa. HesHaROHuň cx M^THocrbio JierRo mopb 
cÓBTbca CbAoporB, h JI,aR'b HeBOJbHO no^yBCTBOBaďb ÓesnoRoflcreo, 
BcnoMHBBX o MaJib^BRt, ROTopoMy OHX yRasajTb Aopory. CaMOBcy CMy 
AOcraxo^HO 6ujio ópocnib B3rjiflA'b Ha MeJibHBqnuB Rpu^bg, ptsRO 
BUA'^flBniíflCfl na ro^yóoiťb netft, b na BBAni^Bniificfl BAaJui t9h- 
crojLSbCRÍfi Ji'6cb, HTotfu Torqacb se opienTBpoBaTbCfl b nanpaBHTbCii 
no saTonjieHHOfi Aopori, vfl.li BOAa AOcrHrajia rojišh^ JomaAH, taxxe 
yB^penno, RaR-b no cyxony nyra. 

Ha nojiAoporl, RorAa yse noRasajiCfl npoTBBonoJosniifi Ronei^i 
raxB, cHoea BuxoABBmifi na cymy, owb yarumajTE CBJbHutt uecRS 



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p^ 



HEPHAfl CTPUA. 257 

HanpaBO otb ce6a h ysHA&ii ctpyio JLomaAB, norpysHBinyiocfl no 
(Sp»xo Bi 6aiOTO. E^AHoe asHBOTHoe, RaRx 6yAT0 noiyflBX 6jiH8RyH) 
noxoii](B, crpaniHO saCMOCb npn ero npHÓJieseHÍH. BHRaTHBmiecfl, 
HajETsie RpoBbK) rjiasa CMorp&ui cb BupasemeiťB yxaca, h Ror^a 

OHO CyXOpOSHO SaÓHJtOCb B1> TPACEHÍ, XyHH HaCŠROMUXX nOAHfllHCB 

1 3a3syauKajni BORpyrx nero. 

i^Ybm! — noAynaj^ JÍhrx: — HeyaseiH &bjifiuŘ MaitHHRi no- 
ni(h»?— 3x0 ero JiomaAb, naBtpHoe. Hy, Ci^AHflSRa, eciH tu laRx 
npocHinB iieHfl o noMon^H, si cpibjíňjo qrb nory. CoRpan^y tboh ny- 

Ohx HaxflHyjx caMOCxpbs-B, h cxptjia npoÓBja rojiOBy irhbot- 
Baro. 

nocs^ dxoro aRxa cypoBaro MMOcep^ifl AbR'b notxaJTb Aa^bme 
He Óes^b xpeBorH h BucMaxpHBaA xoxb RaRie-HHÓyxb cjrbxsi CBoero 
xeflie CHacxoHBaro npeAmecxBeHHHRa. 

,EoK)Cb, ^xo fi^AHufi MaJiufi yxoHyjix b*b xpaCHH^'', noAy- 

HMh OWb. 

Ho Bi axy MHHyxy rxo-xo eaaBajrb ero no HMenn, h, orjiflnyB- 
iQia, OH^b yBHA^^b jusup MajibHHRa, BUTJuiAHBaBmaro H8'b rycxtixi 
laxiímefi. 

— Bu 3A^? — RpHRHyjii niejibxoHi. — ^a bu laRi^ cnpflxajnicb, 
TTO fl npoixajii-fiiLio mhmo, ne saiiixHB^ Bacx. Si Bujiíbjrh Bamy jio- 
maAb vh 60J10XÍ H HsCaBHJTb ee oxi cxpaAanifi; Bairb 6u cirí^AOBajo 
Cffibjaxb 3X0 caMOMy. Hy, BUJi^fixe hsi CBoero y(^sHn^a. Tyxi 
HHRTO ne xponexi Bacb. 

— y Hena hšxi opysifl, Aa ecsuóu h 6wlo^ xaRx a ne yMÍK> 
BjaA^ HiTb, — oxBŽxHJTb MajibHHRx, Biui'68afl Ha raxb. — Ho nosa* 
jyficia, Ao6pbiž nacxdpi PnHapA'b, noMoraxe mhí Banmiďb cob£- 
TOirb. EcjiH fl ne nonaAy bs rojiHByACRoe a66axcxBO, sl nornCx. 

— RiThy — CRa3aji'b AaR'b, orbsafl Cb JomaAH. — á noMory Ban^ 
fioibme Thrb coBŠxoifb. CaAHxecb na Moero roha, a a noĚAy nim- 
KOM*b, a ROFAa ycxany, mu noifi^nfleMCfl M^cxaMn; xaRX un CROpifi 
Ao6epeKCfl. 

Maib^HKb ckiTb BepxoicB, h onu oxnpaBiuiHCb RaR^b homh CRopo 
no nepoBHofi raxH, npnqeMx JíflK% mejrb paaomo^ ci jiomaAbio, no- 
JuasBKh pyRy na roji^ho CBoero cnyxHHBa. 

— KaRx Ba(rb aoByrb? — cnpocaJi'b ^hri. 

— JÍ.XQKh MaxiasTb, — oxBiqajx MajibqHRx. 

— A aaniirb Baifx bi. rojiHByACRoe a66axcxBO? 

— & umy y6&RHn^a orb nejOBtRa, Roxopufi npHT^cnaerb 
xena. JI,otiputt a6Čaxx FojnsByAa — fižpnafl onopa ajisl cjcaóuxi. 

— A RaRi BH nonajin R:b capy j[|,aHÍ8j[H)} nacxapb Max^airb? 

ToMi UL— Mjkft, 1889. 17 



L 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



258 BMTHHKl fiBPOnu. 

— OffB OBMXkJÍ% MHOH) HaCHJBHO, — BOCRJmSByJTB MaxuMi: — 

saeraBHJii Měna HaA'frrB aro luaibe, caf&ucx na^o MHoft, KWff^ sl 
iLiaBaJTE, sacraaiflji uessí iiATb sepsoirb laBi aoifo, ^o í co- 
BCŽMi BEiÓHJicfl Hsi CHJii; a ROf^a irbROTopue b8% MOHX'b xpydefi 
rnajsHCb sa naiin, hto6ei ocBotfoAfiTb Heu, iiomíiivíjcb Měna wb 
appbeprapA'i^ noA^h hx'b Bucrp^aMH. OAHa cíp&ia A&se aaxi^ja mok) 
npasyio Hory, h mh6 xenepB xpyAHO xoahtb. Rirby ku eiite pas- 
cuTaeMCfl, OH'B saniaTETB sa Bcel 

— ÍTO-ai BII cb HHirb CA^aere, — csasaji Jljsas.^. — Ohi 
xpaópufi puAapb, ch sejr63Hofi pyBofi! Ecjíh ohi ysnaeri, hto a 
noMorajTb BameMy dircray, uwb npHj^ercfl luoxo. 

— Axx, ÓiAHHft lOHoraa!— 'CKasajTb MaTnasrb. — fl 8Hax>, ohi 
sami onesyHi... 

— K)Honial — BOspaBHJii ^hbi. 

— He HasuBaTB se mhí BacB A^Bin^eft, Ao6piiĚ FaqapA^B? — 
BaM^THJii MaT^aiťB. 

— Pa3yMÍeTca, wbi^b, — OTB^naji-B ^hki. — TepirifeTb ne itory 
jíjbBw^h. HHBorAa a o bhx% He jíjum). ^opn 6ii hxi no6pajrB! 
Oxora, BOfiHa, nHpymRH, botb htó mhš no Bsycy. S. HHRorxa ae 
ciHxaJix HHqero nyTHaro o jrliBHi^axi, Bpoiřl oaho&, m h Ty, 
GiAHHaucy, cosrjiH sa sojaobctbo. a sa to, ^to OHa BonpeKH npa- 
poA^ BdAynajia hochtb naBTajioHu. 

MacxdpB MaT^aMx nepeapecrajicfl h noBHAaifoify MucieHHO 

CTaJTB ^HTaTB MOJIlITBy. 

— ÍTó 8T0 Bu flíbJídL&te? — cnpociLii JI,hki». 

— Mojuocb sa ea Aymy, — OTB^mn lOHoma ciersa ApMsa- 
vofiwh roJocoMi. 

— 3a Aymy BOiAyHBH! — BOCiuHBfiyjrB ^hbi. — BnponeiťB, mo- 
jiHTecB, eeiH Bani yroAHo! osa óiijia .lyunaa A'bByinBa vb Espon^, 
8Ta ďSLaHHa A'ApBi. Orapufi AnaztafiapA^B, crp&ioB^, Oiauka^b ne- 
peA'B Hefl, no ero CMaairB, BaBi nepeAi BejraBanoirB. ^a, xpaópas 
tioia AÍBHi^a! 

— ToJLbBo CJiyraattTe, MacrapB PHHapA'B, — saMixHJi-B MaTHajn> 
— ecjiH BU TaBi ne jnoÓHie A^symeBi, to bu ne nacToanúft MysHHHa.. 

— BsAopi! — CBasarb ^hbx.— Bu pascysAft^re sasi mojioko 
cocB. A ecjE BU AyMaeTe, iro a ne nacioanUft nysuna^ — cj^- 
sa&Te Cb Bona, e a sairB AOsasLy CBoe MyisecTBO na ByjaBaxx, hjii 
na mnaraxi, hjh h3'b JiyBa... 

— Hétb, a ne yirÍH> fiHTBca, — ÓoasjmBO CBasaji^ MaTqaM'E. — 
iS H ne AyMajiBacB o^haítb. SI tojbbo nomyTEdiTB. A ecjin a ro 
BopD o senn^HHaxi, to tojibbo noroMy, hto ciumajrb, 6yATO bi 
CBopo »eHHTeCB. 



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^BPHAa OTMJA. 259 

— E seHiocb! — BOCMHKHyjTB JÍ^JAKh. — Bh nepBuft, OT-b Eoro 
j ciamy 06% axoirb. Ha romx ;Ke? 

— Ha JI^seHHH CawH, — OTBtnaji MaxqaMi, spacHta. — 
^0 xbjío capa ^amejui, obi nps 9x011% nojiywrB cboed Btiro^y; h, 
opaBO, fl CAHinaAi, ^to (S^AHaa x^BymRa onjiaBHBaerB cboh) yqacTB. 
JífiímEO ÓhSTh, OHa AepTRíímcs TaRHXi se BdrM^owh^ bab,i> bu, hjh 
flO^eify-jniCo ne jiioOhtb sBeeHxa. 

— ÍTí) A'i^aTb! OTB ópasa, mbi h otb CMepTu, hhkto hc y(í*- 

SHTl, — CRasaJl JI,HE% TOHOlťb nOBOpHOCTH CJAh&b. — TaEt OHa 

onjiaRHBaeTB cboio ynacrb? Hy botb, csasHie, pasBÍ ho ?enyxa vb 
roJiOBax^B y dTHX'B A'6BynieK'b: oiasaTb^ Rorxa oaa en^e h He bh- 

JKIm Meu! ?T0-2R'E, H MHŠ OOJiaBHBaTB CBOH) y^aCTb? H'lrB. ECJIE 

yasx HysHO TRenuvrhcsí, a seHiocb c^h cyxnnH rjasaMH. Ho ecjie 
Bu ee SHaere, cRa»HTe, nosajyScra, saBOBa ona cotfoft? BpacHsa 
MJM virb? n noTom, cepAHxa hjih JiH>6e3Ha? 

— Hy Boxi, BaRoe Bani jifkjio ao axoro?— CEaaajTB Max^ani. — 
BaMi HysHO seHHXbCfl, h bu seHHxecb. KpacHBafl, HeBpacHBaa, 
He Bce JIH paBHO? Bijs,h 8xo Bce nycxasH. B^a^ bbi He MajiEHHoiBay 
nacTdpi PHqapAi, h noftAexe B'b B-i^Hi^y cb cyxHMH rjiasaMH, He 
upaBAa JIH? 

— CoBepmeHHO BŠpHo, — CBasajrb PflqapA^: — cxany a xynaxb o 
XaBOlTB BBAopi! 

— Xoporaaro ce64 Jiop^a nojiyqHrb b% cynpyrn Bania JI^;^H- 
:xeHa, neqero cRadai^! 

— TaBoro, Basoro noniJierB eft netfo, — BOspasHJii PHqapA^. 

— Axi, ($ibAHafl A^ByniBa! 

— HoqeMy C^AHaa? 

— BhSth 8a o6Hxaxe;ifl jtIcob^! — oxB&qaxb MaxqaMi. 

— í[-To, noJiosHiTb, oóflxaxesb jiícobx, — CBaBajrb Ahbt>, — a botl 
a (S^ry itíhibomi, xorAa BaB% bei ij^ene na Moefi jomaxv; aojtsho 
4§m jdiGHbie SHxeJH ne xaBi jmi^ bju. 

— ^HBx, npocxHxe iiena! — BOCRjraBHyjix ero cnyxHHBi. — 
Wserbj BH Jiyqmift qeiOBiBx vb Ahejiíh! a Ájij> xojibbo nomyxHJTB. 
HpocxHxe nena, rnuani jO^hbiI 

— Hy box%, etb qeMy cxojibbo cjiobx! — B08pa8HJi'B JI,hbi, h*- 
•esoASO CMyn^eHHufi ropavHOCXBH) CBOero cnyxHHBa: — qxo sa Bas- 
hoctb! a BOBce ne ycxajTB. 

Bi »ry MHHyxy Bfeepx Aoneci ao hhx-b SByBH xpyÓH C9pa 
jJ^H^aa. 

— CainHHxe! — CBasajTB JI^hb^: — xpyCan! 

— Axi, Boae MOft! — BOCRJiHEHyji^ MaxqaMi: — ohh ysnaioxi, 



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260 0MTHHRI EbPOnU. 

^TO fl ($&Bajrb, a y ueEsi hštb jomaxe. — H ohx no6jÍAHÍ(J'B sasi- 

CMepTB. 

— nojmoTe. ^TÍ) Bu 6oHTecb! — CRaaajii JI^hri. — Mti yate ne- 
Aajieso QVb nepeB03a. A hštb jiomaAH 6ucrpbe Moeft. 

— O, Měna cxBaxaTB! — npoAOJiiBajii ero cnyreHicB. — ^bki,. 
MHJiiiĚ JI^HRi, He Ópocafire MeHJi! 

— ^a nojHO, Hero bu Óonrecb! — csasajii JI^hri. — KoHe^HO, 
fl noMory Bani. JI^ocaAHO BEjsfbub xasoro Ma^o^yniHaro lOHomy! Hy^ 
ffi, Bce paBHO, csymafire fl,xdK% Mainairb — ecie 9to Bame hma — 
a, PmapA^B ŮleibTOHi, bo qro 6h to hh craio xoqy, ^to(Jb bu 
XO<JpaJiHCB HeBpexHMHMi AO rojBByACRaro a(5tfaTcrBa. KsAHycb Bdím 
CBflTHMH! HaRaaiH uensi Bovby eene a Bani bsm^hh). Hy, oÓOApn- 
Tecb! Aopora crajui jy^me, npHmnopBTe ROHa. SBíHBibft! xhbží! He 
xyMaftTe 060 hbtI, a nory C^^tb, RaRi jaHL. 

TaRHiTB oÓpasoMi, MesAy tím'^ RaRi JiomaAB nycTH.iacb pucbio, 
a ^HRi fi^buuii paAOMi c^ eeft, ohh ocraBsuiH sa C060Ř 6ojoto h^ 
AOCTHrjH 6epera ptRH orojo XHsirabi nepeson^HRa. 



m. 

Ha nEPEBOSft. 

P'£Ra Tajtab, mapoRaa, xaxaa, ifyrHOBOAHaa, BUTeRaia hb^e 60* 
jsora H Bx dTOMi míctí Apo<$Hj[acb na h^rojbro pyRaBOBx MexAy 

SapOCmHMH BBHaROMl ocrpoBaMH. 

P^Ra tfiua He ocoÓeeHO RpacHBa, ho bi aro acHoe, C6ÍTJoe 
yxpo Bce Rasajiocb npeRpacnuirb. BixepoRx paÓHJi noBepxHOCTB 
BOAi, H apRoe He6o oxpasajocb bs ejstb MHJi.iíoHai[H ecRpi. 

Ha caMOifb 6epery cxoajia XEsana nepeson^HRa, CA'i^aHHa2. 
Hsi B^xBeft H o^MasaHHaa rjiHHOfi; na Rpunié ea pocxa seoieHaa 
xpaBa. 

JíflKb oxBopHj'B ABepb H BomejTb wb ja^sRy. Tairb jesajx, 
noAOcxjiaBx noA'b ce(5a rpyÓHft, cxapufl AepeBencRifi njianíi, nepe- 
B08HHR'B, Apoasa oxi jiHxopaARH. To ÓBiJďb CHJibHufi Mys^iraa, ho 
jHXopaARa, CBBpšncxBOBaBmaa wh dxofi mšcxhocth, HCxon^Hjra ero. 

— A, Macxapb mejikxoHi, — CRasaJTL ohx, — bu xoxhto nepe- 
ixaxb? Iljioxia speneHa, njioxia. nepeteA'^ ne CBofioAeHi. PasSoft- 
HHRH npepBaJH cooóqeme. Cxynaflxe-Ra Jiy^me Kh Mocxy. 

— HHRorAa, — oxBÍqaJx Jíhri*. — BpeMa Aoporo, Fyrb. ^ 
oneHb xoponjiiocb. 

— 3RÍft ynpaMufi! — CRasa^x nepeBon^HRi, BCxaBaa. — Ecih bm 



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^nSPHAfl CTPMA. 261 

;^o6epeTecb iííjihm-b ji,o Moorraysa— cnacTBe Barae! Hy, ^a mki 
lOTHTe. — H, BsrMHyTO Ha MaiHaifa, npH^aBHJi: — A 3to eto? — s 
ocraHOBHJicfl ea noport xhshhu, npHn^ypHBi rjiasa. 

— 3to Moft poACTBeHHHKi, Maciapi MaTHaniy — OTBiqajTB Jíhki. 

— 3ApaBCTByft, nepeBomHKx, — CKasaj^ MaTqaH'b, BOTopuft 
TbrB BpeMeHeirB cjňsi> cb boha h no^BeJS ero b^ xeshhÍ. — Iloma- 
lyficra, nepeBesa eaci; mu onenb xoponHMCfl. 

IlepeBOii^HB^ iipo;(OJ[sajrB eroHTb, pascMaxpHBafl EDHomy. 

lipaso! — BpHBHyj'B OWb H 3aCM^JCfi. 

ManaMx noBpacH^x AO ymefi h HaxMypHJCfl; Jí^kl cepAETO 
Bsaii nepeBon^HKa sa njieHO. 

IIOJIHO myTHTB! — BpHKHyJIX OH^. — J1,^B& CBOe xbjíol 

FyrB Bopna OTBUsajii ja^Bio; JíflKi> bbcjx b^ nee boha, Mht- 
qaiTB no€Ji']k;^OBajr& 3a hhm^. 

— He cepOTxecb, Macrep^ IIIeJiBTOHi. SI He xotíji-b BacB o(5h- 
jlkthj — cBasajix nepeBOiUHB'B^ 6epflCB sa Becia. 

— ^OBOIBHO (JOJITaTb! — BOSpaSEIl jH^HBB. — OCTaBb MeHfl B-B 

noBO^. 

MeaijKy tímx ohh cnycrouHCB no Te^eniH), e nepe^B hhmh 

OTBpUJCfl BHA^ BHHSl H BBOpXB HO p^BÍ. P^Ba 6BUia yC^AHa OCTpO- 

BaMH; BHAH&íHCb nec^aHHfl OTMejH, hbu BOďEixajiHCb, BaMiimE my- 
jdiH, imn^Ei n^efieTaJiH h ul^xa; Rnvjíik ee saiii^ajiocb cji'Iaobi 
neiOB^Ba. 

— MacTBpx, — CBasajix nepeBOiUHB^, paBHOirtpHO rpe6a oahhmx 
BeciOM-B, — fl yB^peHB, tto JÍ,7B,owb íeHHx Ha ocrpoB*. OflB HeHa- 
BE^Hrb capa JI^aHÍ9Jifl h bc^xi, bto Cb HHifb Apya&eni. %6 ec;iH 2 
noBepny BBepxi no ýbiA h Bucasy Bacb Ha nojerb crptjni otb 
raTH? ^yHme 611 HaBfb ne BCTp&HaTbCfl Cb jO^aBOHOsrb ^enHoiirb. H 
iiacTdpi MaiqaMB Óy^erb i^'|ji')^I — h oh% onaib Baciri^JiCH. 

— Hy, xopofflo, Fyrb, — OTBÍnajii J^hbb. 

— Cjiymafire »e, — npo^ojiatajrb nepeBoníHB'b. — IIpHi^biecb B'b 
MeHfl H31 Bamero caMOcrpijia — Borb TaBi; najosHre crp&iy — xo- 
pomo! JI^epsHTe ero TaB'b h CMOTpHre na MeHfl CBHptno. 

— ÍTi) 9T0 BHaTOTB? — CHpOCHJll JI^HBI^. 

— ÉHAHTe, Macrapi, ecjH a nepcBesy BacB, to ^ojatenB ca*- 
JBTb 8T0 BaBi 6yAT0 noAX cxpaxoMi cMepra; Haa^e Msh npE^eiCfl 
luoxo OTb J|,soHa $eHHa. 

— HeysejiH 9te óesA^bHHBH xaBB naxajrbHU? — cnpocEJrb 
J^HBi. — HeyxejE ohh BOManjtyioTb hba^ nepenosoMi capa JI,aHÍ9Jifl? 

~ A BH BaBB xyMaJíH? IIonoMHETe Moe cjobo: capy Jl^amajio He 

<!X06p0BaTb. 



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262 B^CTHHBTb EBPOnU. 

Ohh noxHfljiHCB no ip/bvb, saBepHyjiH sa ocrpoEB s ue^ÁeoEi^ 
noAQjiu;iir b% upoTEBonojiosHOMy tfepery. 

— ň Bucaaty sacB spibcb vb hbhhk*, — CKasaji Fyrt. 

— JI,a TyTB wbvb Aoponi; Tyn tojibbo Cojioto ffik TpflCHHa, — 

— MácT8p'B nieJBTOHi, — BOspasHJTB FyrB, — a He nory npa- 
^aiHTL HHse paAH Bamero se cnacemfl. Ohx crepeserb neprosí 
ch CBOHiTB JtjKOWh H y^HBaerB Bcbx-hj BTOCJiyaLBrb capy Jl^aalejK)^ 
KaB'B BpojiHBOBi. ň cjiiimajii, HTO OffB DOBJEfljicfl pacnfliieMT. ECIK 
6hí SI He SHajTB sací ch aabhhx^ nopi, a Óii ne cra^s h (Jepe^B^ 
BacB, HO pa^H namero craparo 3HaR0MCTBa h pa;^ aroro nreHifa, 
BOTopufi, Basercfl, ne npHBUBi bx panairB h Buerp^aiix, a pn- 
CByK) rojiOBoft, hto(5ii tojbbo AOcraBHTB Bacx vh h^ocie h coxpaH- 
HOCTH. jQJ^OBOJiBHO Ch BacB dTOfo; 6ojibme a ne MOry HH^ero ca^- 
jiaiB, efi Bory, nenory. 

FyrB emfi fobophjtb, naierafl na Becjia, Bor^a nociumajcs^ 

CHJIBHBI& TpeCBl Wh EBESKÍ Ha OCTpOB^, BaBl 6yAT0 6U BTO-HHÓyXB 

uociAumo npoÓHpaJca cpejíji BycrapHHBOBi*. 

— Axi, MomeHHHBx! — BOCBJíHBHyjTB Tjvh. — Oh'b Chjtb Ha Bepx- 
neiíx ocrpoB^! Ohb nonjujTB npflMO bx 6epery. IIpHi^bdiLBTecB fb 
MeHfl, AoCpufi JI^RB^B, npHi^tiBTecB npflMO B^B MeHfl! Si nuTajcs^ 
cnacTH BacB — cnacere h bu neHa! 

JÍAf,hB Cl ipeCBOlfB Bp^&3aJ[aCB BX HBHflBl. MaTIBMl, 6j'&AHBlft,. 

HO npoBopHuň H THCBifi, BNCBO^HJ^ Ha 6eperB; JlflKb cxBaTHJix noKh- 
ycnsfi JomaAB h xorfcii noci^AOBaTB 3a hhbtb, ho aro OBasa^íoCB He 
TBBi-TO jerBO: jioraa^B saynpaMHJiacB, a rycraa bštbh eme 6ojAe 
BaxpyAHfljiH BUJiasRy. JIoma^B ynapajiacB h ÓEiacB; jiOAsa crpamno^ 
pacBa^HsajiacB. 

— TyTB HeBOSMOKHO BUJifeTB, FyrB! — BpHBHyjx A*^*^) cra- 
paacL, BnpoMeifB, yBJíe^B 3a co6oio jomaAB h or^TpaHaa Bycni 
CBOCOAHOfi pyBoft. 

Bi dTO BpeMfl na 6epery ocrpoBa noRasajUca ^ejOBÍB'B buoo- 
Báro pocra, cb pacBpacH^BmHMca otb Óucrparo (5^ra jthi^omi; w^ 
pyBaxi y Hero 6wn> ajihhhhS .lyBX *); KOTopaS ohb TOTnacB na- 

TflHyjfB (TB 601BniHMX yCH.!lÍeMX« 

— Kto HJHBeTB? — BpHBHyjTB OHI. — Fyri, BTO njuBerx? 

— 3to MacTdprB DlejiBTOffB, JíaoHx, — OTB^qaji-B nepeBon^HBfB. 

— Crofire, Jíhbi IHeJiBTOHi! — BpHRnyjx Jl;mowb: — Bjanyc^ 
BpecTOMS, fl ne CA^iaio Bani BpeAa. ČToftTe! HasaA^B, Fyre! 

JI^HBX OTBi^ani pyraxejBCTBOiTB. 



*) LoDg-bOW — MJVh B1> BHmBRy pocTa CTptlKa 



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HEPHÁfl CTPIJÁ. 263 

— KojH TaiTB, crynafire nimsoirB! — otbí^nuii HesHaROMeicB h 
nycmrB crp&iy. 

JomaxB, paHenafl crp^oft, on 6ojh h ysaca psanyiaob hsi 
jo^sh; jiOAsa nepeBepnyjacB^ h bcí MOMeHraiBHO norpysfUHCb bi 
BOjy. 

Korxa J^HiTB BHiuHjrB na noBepxHoerB, owb 6ujn> na pascroflHiH 
jipxa OTB 6epera, h, ne jarkvh en^e CMErnyrb BOxy ch riasx, cxBa- 
Tuca pyROK) sa BaBoft-TO TBepxutt npexMerB, soropuft Tornacib 
XBíHyjKfl Wh Óeperj. 9to 6iurh xjiEicrB, soiopiift MaT^am, bso- 
6paBniificfl Ha HaBncmyio na;^ p^Roft HBy, npoxflHyjTB eny. 

— RjuraycB Meccofi! — BOCRJiHRHyji Ahrb, Rorxa TOBapen^i 
noMon eMy Bii(SpaTBCfl na 5eperB: — a oOflsaHi Bani shshbk). Ji 
oiaBaK) Rarb lonopi. — H fb xy se MHHyry ohi» noBepny^cfl R'b 
ocrpoBy. 

TjTh nepeBon^HRi hiujte Ty^a pn^OMi ci nepeBepHyTOft JiOAROfi^ 
a B35%meHHiifi JI,soHrB ^hhx RpnajTE, ^To6u owh Toponuicfl. 

— Tybtumrb, JI^sdRi, — CRadajrb niejBTOHi, — Ošseitb. IIoRa 
Pyn Ao6epeTCfl ao ocrpoBa h noRa ohh nepanjiuByTB p^Ry, mu 
ÓjABHi Aa^eRO. 

H, noARpiiLiflfl CBOH cjiOBa npHirlpoirB, owb 6pociiscfl ÓtoaTB^ 
yrjy&uaeB bx HBOByio Han^ h npurafl cb ro^rh Ha ROHRy b^b 
TonsHxi iriberaxi. Eny HeRorxa Óujio pascMarpuBaTB M^bcTHOCiB; 
ocraBaiocB tojbro noBepnyrBca cnHHot ri 6epery u CtoaxB hso 

HaROHei^, OABaRO, noHBa crajia noBBmaTBCfl, h dxo noRasaJO 
eify, qio OKB ne onratoi bi HanpaBJBremH; BCRopb ohh Bii6pajiHCB 
Ha eyxoe iťbero, rxb rtb HBaiťB crain npiiMtoiiBaTbCfl basu. 

Ho Tyi-B MaTHaifB, Roropiifl sHaHHrejBHO orcrajrB on TOBapHHUt^ 
vb HdHeMOseHÍH noBajiHJiCA na 3eMJiH). 

— BpocBTe MeHfl, Jlfiwhl — RpHRHyjx OHX sajioÓHO. — fl ne 
Mory 6ojn»me hath! 

JI,HR^ noBepnyjicfl h noAfi&Raix ri csoeny cnyTHiiRy. 

— Eirhy JífliBKbj SI ne Cpomy Bac^B! — BoeRJHRHyjďB oh-b. — 
3io 6u20 6u HH3R0 uocjA Toro, RaRi» By pHCROBajiH 6iiTB sa- 
CTfrbieHHiDťB Hjra ynacTB vh BOxy h yxonyrB, cnaeafl mchh. SI 
H TO yAHBJiflH>eB, TTO He yran^HJCB Bací 3a co6ofi b% BOxy. 

— H^&n, Áhri, — cRasajTB MaT^am*, — a yiribo HJiaBaTB h cnacB 
5h fiaci oÓOHXi. 

— Bh yiebere njaBan? — BOCRJiHRHyjTB JÍ,EWh cb BsyM^enieirB* 
3to 61U0 exHHCTBeHHoe nyscRoe ncRyccTBO, Roropoe 6uio eiiy 

^SXO. Bl HHCJÍ nOXBVrOBl, ROropiIMH OHTB OC066HHO BOCXHH^aiCfl, 

noci* HCRyccTBa b-b exHHofiopcTBi, CTOJMO yiiteBe njaBaTb. — Bon, — 



i>ť.-. 



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264 BMTHEKL EBPOHH. 

CBasaJTL OHI, — STO MHÍ ypOBl, TCOtfil He CBCtfiTBCfl HajTB jnS>ABMH. 

S. oCibmfiLjrh satfoTHTBCfl o BacB, noBa mu ne xoft^eMi jio FojniByxa, 
HO, BJuiHycB BpecToiťB, ^saBi, Bu, Easercfl, CKOpte Mosere 3a6o- 

TBTBCfl 060 UJA. 

— Htebi, Abk%9 mu TenepB aptsba? — CRasajii MaxqaifB. 

— Jl^a MU H ne (Jujh HHBorja BparaMH, — OTEi^aJii j(hbi. — Bh 
xpaCpuft MajiuĚ no-CBoeMy, xota neMHosBO mojiobococb. SI emje 
HHBor^a He Bcrpt^ajTE xaBoro, Bass bu. Ho, noauuiyficTa, orxox- 
HBTe CBOpi&tt H no&AeMi Aft^nie. Sjsjich ne mÍcto j^jui pasroBopoB^. 

— y MeH& Hora secroBO 6ojiHrB, — CBasaji MaTqaMB. 

— JljBL, VbjSib fl H SaÓUJTB 061 aXOM^, — OTEi^aiTB ^HBl.— Hy, 

MU nottxeMi noTHme. Xor&irB 6u fl snaTb, vjsib mu HaxoxHMCs. 
A noTepAJTB H8i BHAy Aopory, jí,9l oho, Moasen, h b% jy^meMy. 
EciH OHH creperyTB nepeB03i, to HaB%t)HO creperyrB h xopory. 
Xopomo ($u, ecsEÓu capi AamajTB Bepnyjicfl Cb ABysui xecflTBaini 
coirAATB, — OHH Óíi pasornaiH Bmxi> ÓesA^JiBHHBOBi, BavB Btxep^ 
pasroBflen jihctla. Hy, J^zrbbb. (í6ffHflra, o6onpHTecB na Moe 
HJie^o. H'6tb, bu en^e ne ffopociH. Cbojilbo BaifB jvfam!? ji^- 
nawATB? 

— HÍTB, mecTHaAi^aTB, — csasaji Max^aMi 

— Hy, TaBi BU Majiu ne no jiixaMib. Ho BOssMHTe mok> pysy. 
Mu nofijieMi nornxoHSBy. ň otfflsaFB BaifB shshbh), Jl»dBB, a s 
yM^H) pacHJia^iHBaTBCfl h sa Ao6po, n sa aso. 

Ohh craJiH noAHHMaTBCfl no CBáOHy. 

— HaMib HysHO BuÓpaTBCfl na xopory, pano hjh hosxho, — 
npoAOJisajrB ^hb^. — Boase, BaBaa y Bací CJia(^ pyBa, ]í,7K&b^; nwb 
6ujio 6u CTUAHO hmítb TaByio. A snaere, — npnÓaBHXB ohi, BHe- 
sanno pacxoxoraBmHCB, — a fotobi no6o3BHTBCfl, hto FyrL nepeso* 

TSÍflBl> npHHflJTB BaCB Sa A^BOHBy 

— Hy, botb! — BOCBJíHBHyii MaT^aMi, chjbho nospacH^ei. 

— IIpaBo! J(a Tro-s'B! bu h bx caMOMi jiikvb 6oj[bme hoxosh 
na A^BymBy, ^Wb na Mys^ny, h SHaere, ufl Majcb^nBa bu He 
cobc6mi-to roAHTecB, ho a^a ^tí^bo^h — o^enb nevypnu. IIpaBO, 
H3i BacB 6h BUHiJia npeMHJiafl A^BHOHBa. 

— HojHore! — CBasajTE MariaMi: — bu bíab snaére, ^to n He 

ffi^BO^Ba. 

— Rone^HO, 3HaH>; a toibbo my^, — CBasajTB j^hbi. — ít6 sa 
BasHOCTb! Hsi BacB Butt^erB cJiaBnuft pytfaBa. Xortji 6u a snaTB, 
BTO ESI nacB nepBufi Cy^erB nocBanteHi vh pui^apu; a a 6yxy 
puivtpeMib, HJH HorBÓHy, AoCnnaacs Toro. „Capi PnwpAi IIIejiB- 

TOffB pUI^apB'' — 9T0 SByOTTB HOAypHO, a? Ho H „capi JI^BB MaT- 

HaM-B** — Toae xopomo. 



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^l^HÁfl OTPUA. 265 

— nosaiyficra, Ahki, noxoisAHTe, nona si HanLiocB, — CRasairB 
MáTWťB, ocraHasjíHBaflCB y pyneftEa, Bu($JbraBmaro b'b oihoitb 
iri^CTŠ ciuoHa. — H BOTB Ttl) eme, J(hbi: ne Hafixercfl jíh y Bací 
Hero-HH6yAB n&bcn>: si crpaniHO vojio^ewh. 

— EaiPB, HeyjKejiH bh HH^ero ne íjih bi KerrjiH? — cnpocHjrs 
Jifneh. 

— SI jífiUTh o&bTh,.. H He MorB ero HapynurB, — npofiopMoran 
ManavB, — ho Teneps .. si 6ujn> 6u pajiTB h HepciBOMy xjňúy. 

— Hy, TaK-B caAHTecB h iniBTe, — CKasa^rB JíflKb^ — a a noKa 
npoinY Bnep^A^, noHn^y Aopory. — Ob btemm cjiOBaicii ohi 0TBfl3aj'B 
OTB noflca cyMRy, wb BOTopofi 6ujie zjá6i> h BerwHa, h nosa 
ManaiTB yroiflJirB fojojte, oitb yriyóiucfl xaJBme bi jpbcb. 

HeMHoro jsfiLJiie HaxoxuacB puTBHHa^ vh Roropoft pynefi Hcie* 
sajB cpe^H rHHjnixx jnrcTBeBi, ycBinaBnnacB seiiJH); a sa Heio 
^epeBBfl onsTB paspocxajHCB chjibh^ h Bume, h basu cmíhajihcb 
CjKOĚE H xyÓaiiH. Bfoepi, myifiBmifi bi vbiBsiTb^ b mejiecTB jiHCTBeBx 
sarjymajni marn JlnBa; tíitb ne Men^, owh meirh oeroposHO, 
ocMarpiiBaflCB spyroMi h npjraacB sa CTBOiaiiH AepeBBCBi. B^pyrB 
iiq)e^ HHiTB HffB BycrapHHKa BucROHHJia jaHB H, noxoÓHO iÍhu, 
ic^esja Bi jrítey. ^hb'b ocranoBEJicfl. dra nacTB jica 6ujia o^e- 
BHXHO nycTiiHHa; BiriteTO Toro, htoCu hath aaaii^6, oitb noj^omeJEi 
BB &iHsa&meMy jo^epeBy h noifei na nero. 

Ay(^, Ha BOTopuS OHI BapatfBajcfl, OBasajicji caMuirB buco- 

BHITB SepeSOlTB Wh 8T0fi ^CTH iT&Ca H BOBBUDiaJICfl Ha^l COC^A' 
HHHH AepeBBflMH <|)yTOBl Ha XeCflTB. jI^OÓpaBOIHCB AO CaMOfi BUCOBOň 
pi^HJniHU, Jl,HEl OCraHOBHJICfl H OCMOTp&Il OBpeCTHOCTH. OhI BH- 
JC&TB BClO ÓOJlOTHCryiO paBHHHy BnJOTB AO KdTTJTH, H ThJIJIB, H3BH- 

BaBmificfl cpejtH jr^CHeraxi ocrpoBOBi; a BnepexH BHAH'&iacB C^aa 
HHÚi Aoponr, mejsmei nep&yh jsfbeh, JIo^Ba, npHBeAeHHafl BiHop- 
MaiBHoe nojoseme, croa^ia y nepeBOsa. HoBaBHxi Apyrnxi cxb- 
AOFB He^iOBtnecBaro npHcyTCTBÍfl ne 6ujio saifibTHO. JI^hbi yase xo- 

lin CX^^TB, BOFAa, ÓpOCHBl nOCJlÍAHÍ& BSVJlSlXh Ha OBpeCTHOCTH, 

wriTfljTB no^TH vh cpeMflwb Óojiora pflA'^ ABHsyn^HXCfl Hepnuxi 
T09eR'B. OneBHAHO, He(5ojiBmofi OTpflAi* npofiepajica no hjiothhš. 
03a(k>HeHHiift dTEWb 0(kT0flTejBCTB0irB, jI^HBX cnycTHicfl cb xepeBa 
I Bepeyjicfl vh CBoeiiy TOBapHni(y. 



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66 B%CTHHK% EBPOIOl. 

rv. 

jI^CHAA KOMnABIfl. 

MesAj tímti MaTHaMi OTAOXHyjďB h noARpinujca, h o(Sb 
lOHomH, o6e3noKoeHHiie tíitb, míb bea&tb ^hb^, nocn^nmo bíi- 
6paiHCB Ha Aopory, nepecŠRJH ee h crajiH no;i(HHifaTF>cfl na xoswby 
no KOTopoMy poci TdHcrojuiBCKifi jícb. Jl^epeeBfl sA-fccb tfiUH pas- 
6pocaH£i rpynnaMH; Hacro nona^aJHCs ne<riaH£ifl, cyxki nporaiHHH, 
sapocmifl BepecRoiTB h crapuMH THCcaMH. IIoHBa craaoBEjaes Bce 
6ojr6e H Cojr^e HepOBHoft, yc^HHofi puTBHHaMH h BO^ncami. Bí^p^ 
ch RasAOft MHHyrofi BpbnqajTB, h a^P^bbs rnyjiacB noA^ ero Ha- 
' nopoMT». 

Ohh TO-iBRO-^TO BumjiH Ha OAHy uarb npovAJinwh, nsi% sxpyrt 
^HB^b npHna.li bi seujsfb h craji ocroposHO noji3TH na^A*^ nox^ 
san^Hiy Jii^ca. MaTqairB, HsyMJieHHufi dTHii^ 0TCTynjK6HÍe]i<&, amb 
BOTOparo OHI ne BEnjkrb npH^HHU, iioji^a uocjAffiBejn> npmri^ 
CBoero TOBapan^a, h tojbbo sor^a ohh yBpiuiHCB bi nan^^, cnpo-- 

CHJTB, HTÍ) 9T0 SHa^ETB. 

Bkkcio OTB^Ta JI^HBB yBadajTB eny naiiBi^eirb na npoTHBonojios* 
Hufi Bonei^i nporaiHHu. TaifB CToajia BucoBan eiB^ x^JeBO nepe* 
pocmafl coc^AHÍfl AepeBBH h pfeBO Bti^i^flBmaflCfl na rojiyóoirb 
He6^ CBoeft leMHoft sejienBio. ^tobi na hatbaocatb otb seiura 
CTBOJi^B efl HOAHHMajicfl npflMOfi h crpofiHufi, BaB'B BOiOHHa, ho Ha 
8Tofi bucot6 padA'&ifljrcfl na ABa orpoMHiixi* cyBa. Bb pasBHjnaA 
MeaBAy hhme ctoaji ^ejioB^E^, OA^TBift bi sejenoe njiaTBe, h, to^bo 
iiaTpoc^, c^ BepmHBu Ma^Tu ocMaTpHBajrB ospecTHOcra. dojiHi^e 
OTpamaJiocB na ero BOJiocaiii; oahok) pyBOio owb npifBpuBaji rjasa. 
H MeA^eHHO HOBopa^HBajTB rojOBy hsi eropoHu bi cropony, cs^ 

npaBHJIBHOCTBK) MamHHU. 

MojiOABie JiiDAH BsrjiJiHyjH Apyn> na Apyra. 

— nonpoOyeiTB o6ofiTH bjiíbo, — cBasa^i ^uíí%, — Mu ^yrB* 
6BL2IO ne nonajHCB. 

JifiCATh MHHyTB CHyCTfl OHH BUHUIH Ha TpOHHHBy. 

— 9Ta HacTB A^csL MH'b coBepnieHHo nesHaBova, — CBasajrB* 
jHJHRi. — KyAa BeAerB aia TponnnBa? 

— IIocMOTpBiťB, — CBasajii* MaTiaii^B. 

HeMHoro Aa^e xponanBa npese^a hxi na BepniHny xojMa, 
OTByAa Bpyro cnycBa.iacB b^b BorjioBHHy. BHH3y, cpeAH rycroft sa- 
pocJiH iiB'6Tyntaro 6oflp£miHHBa, bhah&ihcb ocTaxBH ciíhb, no^ep- 



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TOPHAfl CTPMA. 267 

HiBinie KaK% 6a otb A'i&CTBÍfl orefl, h BucoRaji ne^Haa TpyÓa^ 
jRasuBaBrnafl ea ÓHemifl sjííbch KorAa*To nocrpofise. 

— ^Tb 6u 8T0 Morjio ÓUTE? — nporaenTaji^ MaiHaMi. 

— KjiflHycb Meccofi, ue SHaio, — OTB^^ajii JíflKb. — Meefl o^o- 
ibsaerB desnoRoficTBo. ÍIofiAeifB ocropoacHO. 

C^ ÓBion^HMCfl cepAi^eMi cnycTHJiHct ohh bi ROTJiOBHay. Taiis 
H CiiMi BHAH^HCb (^A^ He^asHefi RyjibTypu; njio;(OBUfl ^epeBBfl h 
oropoAHua pacrenifl pocjiH ^hro b% qam,*; cojHeHHue ^acu BaM- 
íhcb Bi TpaBi; RasajiocB, qTO ohh npoxoAHJH qepesi Barjioxníit 
caA'B. IIpofiAfl en^e HeiiHoro, ohh oqyxHJiHCk orojo pasBajinni. 

Koria-TO sjífkch oíobhaho 6100 neóojibmoe yEp*njieHÍe, OEpy- 
zeHHoe rjiy6oRHMi pBOMii, Roropuft xenepb BK[eox^ h 6hun sasa- 
lewb RaifHHMH H 6ajiRaMH. Jífiib nojiypasBajHBniHxcfl ct^hu e^e 
eroflJH, H coiiHe^HEie jry^H npoHHRajiH crbosb orohirh cb buÓhtumh 
panaMH, ho ocraJbHafl nacTb nocrpo&Rn npeAcrasjífljia rpy^y o6yr- 
jHBHiHxcfl o6jiomrob%. BHyTpH ^OMa y»e npoÓnBajiHCB mi n^eJieft 
sejenufl pacremfl. 

— Tenepb a BcnoMHH.ix!— nporaenTavn JI^hri: — aro, ji^ojitreo 
(htb, rpHMCTOHX. Ohi npHHaffJiesaji^ H'&R0CBfy CHMony Ma.iBMc6SpHy 
apa^y C8pa JiflmdJisi. Aivb hatb xoMy HasaA'^ ero ciReri BenHeri^ 
FaTTi. ^.ib, npaBo: bto óujtl cJiaBHBift js^owh. 

Bi kotjiobhhí, san^HHJ^eHHOfi oti B^xpa, Óelio thxo, h Max- 
HOMi, TpoHyBí jI^HRa aa oneno, npnjiosHJii najiei^i Ri ryóaifi 

— Tccc...— fflennyji-B ohi. 

IIocJiumaJiHCb crpaHHue sByRH, ROTopue ohh ne cpasy mofjih 
pasotipaTb. Kaaajocb, rto-to oiRanuHBaJicfl, hotomi xpnnjiufi h 
Hesipnufi roJiocB sanijiii: 

Then up aod speake the master, tbe kiog oí the outlaws: 

Wbat make you bere, my merry men, among tbe greenwood sbaws? 

And Gamelyn made answer — be looked nevěr adown: 

O tbey mu8t need to walk in wood, tbat may not walk in townf M 

n^Beicb ocraHOBHJicfl; nocj»miajicfl c^t/ihA swwh aseji^, BaT^Mi^ 
HacrynHJio MOJiname. 

Maioxue jiioah MOJina cmot^íih jipyn na Apyra. Kto 6u obi> 
01 tfujii, ho HeBHXHMfiifi coeb^,i> naxoAHJCfl TOT^acB sa nocrpoft- 
Koft. Bnesaimo MaxqaifB osHBHJicfl, nepemarHy.rB nepesi ÓajiRH ir 
ocropoaRHO noji^-h 00 Ryii o^jomrobi, sarpovoTRAaBmHxi BHyipeH- 

1) Torxa BCTajii npeABOXHTejb, Kopojib BOJibHHxi JDxeft, h cKaaajii: 
Htó bu zjk^ch xijaere, hoh Becejue jdah, sjíicb, bi seienoirb jiicy? 
H FaiiejiHHi, KOToput oHKorxa ne onycsaji riasi, oTBtTsjrB: 
Tony npixoxHTCfl sbtb vh jicy, sto ne Mosen shtb n ropoxtl 



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268 B^CTHHKl EBPOmi. 

BOCTb AOMa. JI|HR^ xovbJii>'6ujio y^epsETE ero, ho He ycirkrB h 
Tose OTnpaBHJicfl sa ahmi. 

Bi yrojisy sAamfl ocraBaJiocib CBo6oAHoe mí^cto, sani^HiiteHHoe 
^syiíH CajisaMH, ynaBmHMH RpecTB-Ha-RpecrB otb o6jiomsobi. Cfo^a 

OCTOpOSHO IipotípaSHCB lOHODIH. TyPB OflH 6tIJIE COBepmeHHO CRpBITBI 

OTB nocTopoHHHxi BsopoBi H MorjiH Hatf^io^aTB sa ORpecTHOCTbH) qe- 
peai Tpemeny vh crbwb. 

BsrjflHyBx fb nee, ohh na MrHOBenie oi^ineH^JiH ovb ysaca. 
OTcryiLieHie tfujio HeBosMOSHo; ohh e^Ba cm^h AuniaTb. Ha BpaH> 
pBa, ne jtfiurbe copoBa maroBi oi-b hhxx, BBntjTB h nŠHHJCfl bo- 
Teji, npHB^meHHufi na^^ Bocrpoirb; a noAJii nero CTOflJi'b buco- 
BÍfi, sarop&iEifi njfOTHuft qeJiOB^Bi; bi pyR% y nero 6tua sejete- 
Hafl JoaBBa, na noflci bhcšjih porx h orpoMHufi BHHauurB. Rasa- 
JiocB, owb npHCjyniHBajCfl bi BaBOMy-TO noj^ospHrejiBHOMy myicy. 
OHeBHAHOy 8T0 H ÓWFh jAsen^b; oneBHAHO, OH^ MŤmajii JosBoft fb 
BOTJii, Bor^a mywb^ npoHSBeAenHufi naniEMH nyTHHBaMH bi pasea- 
j[eHax'B, npEBJieB'B ero BHHMame. He^ajieBo otb Hero ^ipyroft ^ejio- 
bí^bi jiesajTB Ha xpas^ e ApeMaj['B, saBepnysniHCB bt> njan^i. 

HasoHei^i, naiOB^Bi, CTOABmifi y Bocrpa, nepecraii npHCiy- 
iHHBaTbCfl, HOAHecB JosBy BO pTy, nonpo6oBajrB, noBanaJix roaoBOft, 
H CHoea craji^ M^maTb h nan^BaiB híchk): 

Oh, they must need to iralk in wood, that may not walk in towD! 

nOBTOpEJIl OH'B nOCA^ABiU CTHXl. 

O, 8ir, we walk not bere at all an evW thing to do, 

Bttt if we meet with the good king'8 deer to shoot a sbaft into ^). 

Han^Bafl híchh), owb BpeMfl oti BpeiieHH hoahochjtb Jiossy 
BO pxy, AyjTB Ha nee h npotfoBaii BymanBe, Basi saBSATiifl no* 
Bap-B. HaB0He^^, offB, noBE^EMOMy, pfcmEJTB, hto oCtjix roroBi, h, 
<;HflB^ CB noaca pora, npoTpyfiEJi^ b'b Hero ipB pasa. 

ToBapEo^i ero npocHy.icfl, npEnoxHfljicfl e nocMOxpiJi na nero. 

— Hy, BBBi jsíbjídLj ÓpaTB? — cnpocHJťB oh'b. — 0(JtA'B? 

— ^a, o&bxhj—ombHdJi-h tot-b:— e cyxoft o6tA'B, Cesi nHBa 
H 0631 xjiíóa. TenepB iiajo yr&xE setb vh jribcy; nponuro Bpeiffl, 
BorAa Ao6pu& M540Aeiti Morx setb SA^CbHexyse jno6oro a66aTa, 
He oOpan^aa BHHMaHifl na AoasAB e Moposi, noTOMy ?to e nsea, 
H BHHa 6uio y Hero baobojib. IIjioxe HUHBie crajE jih)ae; e dTOTB 

Jí.mOWb McTETeJIB... 



') o, capi, MH siBeMi sx^b ne juia Toro, ^to6h xii&Tb ^ro-BBÓyxB xypHoe, 
Ho ecin nam* nonaiercji jau Ao6paro sopojui^ mh nycmn bi nee crpijy. 



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HEPHAfl CTPSJA. 269 

— Th yjKb CiramEOMi jnofinniB icTb h neib, JlayjieccL. Ho- 
TepnH, npHAyn h xopomifl BpeifeHa. 

— EaBse! — BOSpasEJU Apyrofl: — a bck) anses floatHíMca araxs 
xoponnixi BpeMeHx! Beijii a h ^pasi^HCBaHii.eMi, h BopojieBCRniťB. 
crir&iKOMi, H MaipocoMi, sHBajii h bi Jiicy, cípkiBjrh BopojieB- 
CKHxt jaHeA, a nero aoCejca? Hn^ero. Jyqme ($ei 6ujio mhí ch- 
xfob Bi MOHacTupi. jQ^xoHy A66aTy sHBercfl Jiy^me, n'bui> jQ^sony 
McnnejK)... HHBaRi H^yii Hama... 

Ha nojiflHy ojiflwh 3a ApyrHMi buxoahjih poc^ue mojioai^u. 
EasAiifi H3ii HHxi AOCTaBaj['B Hosi n poroByio ^amKy, sa^epniiBaJi'^^ 
Ha^ soTJia H, ycŠBiDHCB Ha ipaBy, npHHHMaJCfl sa ijij. Boopyseme 
H OAexAa Hxi» OTJiiraajiHCB pasHOOÓpaaiesi^: HHue óvjiíh vb iipocruxs 
Ójysaxi, H Bce hxi> opyaúe coctoajio h3i> HOsa h craparo jiyKa*^ 
Apyrie n^erojiajiH bx dojihoA a^ceoíi ^opM']^: B^b sejenuxi ujian^axi 
H saMdOJiax^B, ci u^huowb KpacHBuxi crpiji^B sa noflcOMi, ch po- 
roiťB, BHcJ^BniHiťB Ha nepeBfldH, Ch BHHsajioifB h MenOMi na Óokj^ 
Bcb noAXOAHiH Mojraa h, e^Ba nodAopoBaBmncB, naÓpacuBajiHCB 
Ha i^y. 

Hxx Ha6pajiocB yse hcjiobíbi ABa^i^aiB, BOPAa bi coc£ahhx'b^ 
BycrapHHRaxi nocjiEinia.iflCb Becejitie rojioca, h na nojiAny buhuih 
HejtOB^Bo^ HflTB ejih mecTb, HecmHxi HOCHJBH.^BnepeAH BC&x:b mejTB^ 
Ch HanajiBCTBeHHUMi BHAOM^, BUCOBÍ&, s^opoBufi Mys^Ha, 3aro- 
p^Bmifi OTE cojiHAa, BaB'B canorB, ch jiysoirB sa nje^aMH h pora- 

THHOfi Bl> pyB*!. 

— PeCaia! — BpHBnyjii ohb:— Ao6pBie mojoaiíii h moh Becejiiie 
TOBapen^H, ao chxi nopi Baiii npnxoAHJiocb Tyro. Ho norepnare^ 
^opiyna ĎHCrpo noBopaiHBaexca. H botb ea nepBHft noAapoBx — 
AoCpoe HHBo! 

nionoTB OAo6peHÍa npHB^TCTBOBaji^B HOCHJibqHBOBi, BorAa obh 

CHflJffl Ch BOCEJiOKh H OTRynopBJIH GOHeHOBl. 

— A xenepb ToponaTecb, peCaxa! — npoAOJiaMux npeABOAHxeJib. 
— EcTb A*JíO BnepeAH. OrpaA^ crp&TBOBi lOJibBO-qTO nOAomejTb bs 
nepeBOsy — 3to Hama AO^H^a; bc* nonpoCyiOTb nanraxi crpbji% — 
HH OAHHi He nepefiAerb nepesi* STorb jňch. Bcb mu, CBOJbBO nacs 
een>, secroBO o5HseHu: HHue noxepajH seBuio, HHue Apysefi, mho- 
rie HarnaHu — bcí yrneTenH. A bto hphhhhhjii naMx bto sjio? C8p'b 
«S^BÍdJib, Bjanycb pacnatieM^! HeyxejiH ohi BOcnojibsyeTca dTHM'b? 
HeyseiH oh^b 6yAerb choboSho xhtb bi nanraxi AOMaxi? o6pa- 
6aTiiBaTB naniH nojia? "Ictb xjií6x, ornaTufi y nacB? HHBorAa. 
Ofl'B rnerb saBOHU na cbok) CTopony, BunrpbiBaerb A'^a, ho aioro 
A&ia He BbíHrpaeTB; a noBjíajica otomcthtb eMy. 

MesAy tími Ahyjiecch npHHHMajica yse sa Bxopofi pon cb. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



270 BlbCTHHKB EBPOnU. 

nsBOiTB. Owb Bcraji h KaBi ÓyxTO xot&I'l npe^JKOs^Tb toctb sa 
opsTopa. 

— MHGTepB dMBCCby CMSaJll OHX, — BH XOTHXe MCTHTb — 

seJiaiD BaM'B ycnixa; ho HaaiT» ÓparB, jšchoS sHrejib, y boto- 
paro ne 6íijio hh seiiejib, hh Apy^eft, AT^aeTi Óoisme o Buro^i 
A&ia. Ero 6ojihme HHrepecyerB BOJioxoft Eo6jib ejih BpysEa xanap* 

CBarO, RiWh Bd MeCTH Vb MÍpt. 

— JlayjieccB, — OTBiqajii npeABOíUTejib, — htoCíi Ao6paTbCfl ^o 
Mooxraysa, cdpi ^aniaib AO^aseni npofixfl qepe3'b jácb. Biaro- 
Mpa Haifb, diOTb nepexoA'B o^ofiA^Tca eny Aopose, ^ižmi fiaisa. 
A ecjiH OBI ycKOJbdHerB ote HacB cb ropcTBio ooji^axi, ero Bas- 
HBie Apy^Bfl OTBepHyTCfl oti uero; mu ocaAKiM'b Tor^a ciapyio jb 

i^HIiy H yHHHTOmHM^b ePO Wh ROHei;^. drO a^HpHUfl OJeHB — XBaTHTb 

Bcbwb HaiťB na oÓía'^. 

— 3, — BoapasMi JlayjieccB, — a yae ía^Jtl laRÍe o6tAu, 

TOďbSO BapUTB-TO HX^b Xpy^HO, AOÓpufi MaCTdpi djUHCb. A nOBH 

^Tb MU A^ÍJí&eMi? MacrepHMi ^epnuH crptju, co^HHfleMi cthxh h 
uBeMi HHcryH) BOAy — HeBaatHuft HaniiroKi! 

— Tu HeHaAeatHufi ne-iOB^Bx, Ba^jib Jlayjieceb. Hsi reCa He 
6umeď'b en^e Banyi^HHCBiK Ayxi^ ofiasopcTBO leós noryÓHTK, — otbí- 
H9^% duHCb. — Mu Ao6ujH ABaAi](aTb 4^yHT0Bi OTb Annjidftapxa. 
^o6ujiH ceMB MapoBi OTb BicTHHKa ceroAHfl HO^iol A HaBaHyB*]^ — 
BflTBAecarB orb syniiia. 

— A ceroAHa, — CBasaj-B oahbi HsxpasfíoftBHBOB^b,— a ocraBO- 
BHj'b npoAaBi^a HBAyjbreBi^cifi, "IxaBniaro fe roj[HByA'b. BorB ero 

BOBieieBi. 

djíMCb nepec^HTajTb Aenbrn. 

— Cto niHJiJiHHroBi! — npoBopHaJx oh'b. — Jl^ypajefi! y aero 
<$ujo tfojibme cnpfliaHO bi» caBAajriH bjie samHTO b% njaisi^b. Tu 
peCeBOBi*, ToMi KyBoy, tu ynycTMi* AoCu^y. 

T£m% ae MeHdte, djiJiHCb aeÓpesHO onycxH^ BomejeBi bx Bap- 
MAWb. Owh cTOfl^i, onepniHCb sa poraxHBy, h CMOTpiix sa ospy- 
saion^Hxi. Bdbj B^b pasjíHHBUxi nosaxx, Óum saBSTu %Aofi bjh 
^BHBajiH ee bhbomi. CeroABa Óujii* cnacTJHBUft AeBb; hm'l no- 
Besio, HO npHxoAHJiocb ToponHTbCfl. PaBbme npHmeAnrie yxe ycni^ 
HacuTHTbCfl. Hi^BOTopue JiesajEB wb ipaB^ h ApeMajie, boaoóbo 6oa; 
Apyríe pasroBapuBajH hjih nepecMaTpHBajH opysie; HHue, ÓojFbe 
Becasaro xapaBxepa, b&ih, norarHBaa hhbo: 

Here is no law in goodgreen show, 

Here ís no lack of meat; 
'Tis merry and quiet, with deer for oar diet, 

In summer when all is sweet. 



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UPHAfl €TP«J[Á. 271 

Come winter ag&ÍD, with wind and rain — 

Come winter, with snow and sleet, 
Get bome to yonr places, with boods on jour faces, 

And 8it by tbe fire and eat *) 

Bce aTO Bpeiui MO.iOAue jiioab cha'6jih, ne meBejflCb, b^b CBoeM^ 

yfibKHII^i, TOJBKO PHHapA'B HSTAByJI^ CaMOCTp&TB H A^psaTB Ha* 

roTOB^ TexHBy, npH noMOiUH Roropoft cnycRajTS crpijy. Bca axa 
d^ena .i^Hofi xh3hh npoHCxoAHja nepeA'B hhmu totoo Ha Tcaipi. 
HeosHAaHHoe otfcroflTeibCTBo naiosEJO efi kohcicb. Kasi pas^ 
eaxB ^&bsBUifim> Hamexi repoeBi BOSBumajiacb ne^Hafl rpyóa. 
BHesanuo bi BOSAyxi nooLumaJCfl cbhctb, 3artMi> SByKi ja^PA, h 
OCKOSBH crp^til noc£iiiajiQCb ea rojOBu lOHomaMi. KTO-HHÓyAB, 
flaxoAHBndficfl vh Apyrofi nacTH jiica, MOserB Óbitb, qacoBOft^ roto- 
paro OHH BJUKbsEy nycTHji crp^ b% Bepiymsy ipyCu. 

MaTiaifB CB TpyAOiTb noiiaBHJii BOCiuHi^aHie, n A&3Ke JI|bb!B otb 
yjVBjeHÍa BBipoHHJi B3i pysi TeTHBy. Ho amsí jrbcEsa% oÓHxaTe- 
jeft 8T0TB Bucrpi^ ÓUÁi^y noBHAHMOBfy, AABHo osHAaeMuiTB CHrna- 
jioiTB. Ohh TOTHac^ BcrajiH, Ha^ajH noATArnBaiB noflca, iipo6oBaTB 
leniBy JyBOB^ h npHroTOBjflXBca bi oropaBB^. 3jjibcb noAHfljTB 
BBepx^ pysy; jusjsfi ero qpbhbjio Bup^nKeBÍe jpisofi dHepria; raasa 
6iecTÍjfl Ha sarop&iOMi jiBi^ib. 

— PeÓaia, — CBasai-B ohi, — bu SHaere BamB míctb. Hb oahhi 
^ejiOB^Bx He AOJiseHX ycBOJBdHVTB orB HacB. Annj[afiflpA'B 6ujvb 
taiBBo saKycBofi; lenepB Hawercfl Hacroanufi o0tA'B. Ectb Tpoe 
jnoAeft, sa Boxopux^ « noBjuuicfl otomctbtb: FappB OejiBTOffB, Cb- 
MOHx MajiBMcCepB B — OHB yAapBJíi ByjaBOMi vh HiBpoByH) rpyAb — 
B 3jjíflCB Jl,dBBoprB, lUBHycB Meccaft! 

Bb dTy MBHyry na hojuíhí BBBJícfl ^eJiOB^s^, saAUxancB otb 
(Sucrparo G^bn. 

— 3to ne capi JlaHiajiB, — CRasajTB ofb.— Hxx Bcero ceiiepo. 
Bba'&ib crp&iy? 

— ^a, ceflnacB,— OTBi^aji dxiBCB. 

— To-TO, — saMfeBJTB bícthbki. — SL Hocrapajicfl, a B^ narpaAy 
uab opBxoABTca batb 6en o&busi. 



*) Bxicb Hin 3aKOfloa%— Kb tíhb aejeHaeo «lci^— 

dx^h Hirb HexocTaTsa vb mmt. 
JiioiTb, Korxa Bce 6jaroyxaeTB, 

3AÍcb sEBercH Beceio h chokoUho, jiaHB ciyxHTB o6ixoirb. 
Bpflxerb 8HMa ei xosxem h atrpom, 

npHxen sána ci ceirom h iioposoiii, 
Torxa B03BpaQaftTecb AOMoft, sasaHyBí na roiOBy sanDooui, 

CaxRrecb y ornii h imbTe. 



Digitized by 



Google 



272 B^GTHHKl EBPOnU. 

MHHyTy cnycTfl, TOsapHii^H ^epnoft crp&ai pasonuncB kto &b- 
roMi, KTO noTBXOHBRy, CMOxpfl no TOiiy, BaKoe mícto bto AOiseni. 
6£Lsi saHATB, H TojiBBO ROTejiiy ocTaBmiftcfl HaAi* en^e xjciBiinurb 
ROcrpoiTB, H ocraTBH y^HToft JiBJSE vh Bycraxi csHA^TeiBCTBOBan 
o Hxi npe({HBaHÍH sjííbcb. 



MoJIOAUe JIK)AH CHA^JIH CMHpHO, nORa He SaTHXl nCCJE^XHÍft 

SByBí maroBi. Tor^a ohh BcrajiH, neperbaiH Mepesi* pasa&iHHH h 
Bu6pajiHCB Ha nojany. Max^airB noAHBJíi xeniBy h nomejrb Bne- 
peAH. ^HBi* cJi'ÍA0Baji'B sa hbm^ ch caMOcrp&iOMi wh pyBax'B. 

— TenepL,— CBasajTL MaT^ani, — vh ŤojBByAi! 

— Bi ŤojiHByAi! — BOCBJíHBeyjrB JI^hbi: — Korxa moh TOBapnniK 
noABeprnyTCfl Hana^efliH)! Hy, nin... 

— HeysejiH bu xoTHie ocraBBTB MenB? — CEasajrB MaTqairB. 

— KoHewo! — OTB^^aái Jlfovb. — Ecjh b ne ycnÍH> bxi npeflj- 
npexHTB, TO yiipy BMŠcrt ch hamb. Kasi, bu xoTHTe, iroóu 2 
ÓpocBJTB TOBapan^eft? HeBorAa! 

Ho MaTHaMx BOBce ne 6ujrh cb hhiii corjiaoeHi. 

— Abri, — cRadaj'B ohi, — bu noRJuuHCB, ^rro AOBe^ere uesM 
AO FojsHByAa. Heysejiu bu xothtc napynniTB KJiaTByl HeysejH bh 
ocraBBTe Meefl! 

— H4rb, a ne xot&tl HapymaTB BJiflTBy, — BOspasHai ^hbii. — 
S. pbniHJCfl BcnojUHBTB ee; ho TenepB... Cjymafire, jQ^sdRx, ndl- 
AeMTe co MHOK). fl npeffocTepery sthxi JB>Aefi; a ecra ne yxaci^ca^ 
cpasycB BM^bcrb c^ hhmh; Tor^a Bce BUBCHHTCfl u b npoBe^y BacB 
Bi FojiHByai. 

— Bh ciť^erecB na^o MHott! — otbíthjii MaT^aifB. — 3th jhomm^ 

ROTOpUMl BH XOTHTe nOMO%, rOHflTCfl 3a MHOfi. 

jQ^HRi sa^ynajcfl. 

— JI He Mory homohb bbmi, Axbkb, — CRasan owb. — TyriB 
HH^ero ne noA^aemB. ?to bu xothtc! BaifB ne yrposaeri 6oxb- 
mafl onacHocTB, 8 stb jiioah bc6 na xopori kb CMepTH! no^yMatre 
o&b BTowhl He xopomo ciBameft cropoHu yxepsBBaTB MeHB. Cba- 
T0& Feopríil! Heysen ohh bc£ noni6HyTB! 

— PBqapA'B niejBTOHii, — CRasajii MaT^aiTB, BsrjuiHyBB eiiy 
npflMO B^B rjiasa, — neysejiH bu ÓyxeTe sa-OAHO cb capoMi ^ama- 
jiewh? PasB*! y bbcb h^ti ymefi? PasBŽ bbi ne ciumaJiH, wtb roBO- 
pHJTB stotb 9jijihcb? hjb b£i CTaBHTe HH Bo ^T0 RpoBB Bamero OTI^a? 
„FappH niejiBTOHrB",— CRasaj-B ohi, — a vb]s,h capi Fappn HlejiB* 
TOHi 6uAi> Bami oTei^i. 



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HEPBAfl CTPMA. 273 

— '9x6 BU XOTHTe OT^ MeHfl? — BOCRJHSHyJTB jQ^HBX. — Bfl XO- 

Tffre, mioOh a noB^pHjrB BopaifB? 

— Bifn^ fl cjumui o&h droiTB en^e paBBme, — Bospassjíi 
M&TqaMi.— 3to Bdmi> hsb^^ho: CdpE flflWdja yóaix ero. VCejvb 
laifiHHHiecRH, npanuTB HesHEHyio spoBB vb ero oo6cTBeHHOM^ 
AOmí. He(k> nocKLuaeri MCTHTejie& sa nee, a bh — chse jÚvtílto — 
cniiniTe nOMoraTb h san^an^iTB j6iinj. 

— JI|3B8B'b! — BOCRJtHEHyjTB PHqapA'B: — fl HH^ero ne SHaio. Mo- 
šen 6uTB, laBii H 6bjio — no^eiTB sl SHaK)! Ho ciymafire^ míb a 
csazy: aroTB ^cjiobíki BCKopMHJi^b h BOcnHiajii Memi, cb ero j[K)abmh 

I OXOTUCfl H BeCeXEJICfl, H 6pOCHTB HXl Bl HHHyTy OnaCHOCTH — 

o, Jí^jTbj ecsH fl eniJiBso dro, a Óyxy Bcer^a CHEraiB ce6a Óes- 
HecTHuirBl H^TB, BII He AOJSHu TpeÓoBaTB STorOy BH ne saxo- 
mře, ^ito6u a CA^^iaJii noAJOCXB. 

— Ho BanrB OTenrB, Jí^hk^? — CKasajii MaxqairB, hícsojibbo 
Qfyn^eHHHfi. — BanrB OTeAB? h EJUiiBa^ soropyio bu mk& jmjiBÍ Bu 
npusuBaJH CBflTflxi vb CBnA'ÍTejiH Bamero oGbn^amfl. 

— Moft oreA^l — BospasHJTB IIIejiBTOirB. — Ecjh capB J^aHÍdXB 
ylkrbero, — arapyKa yÓBerB cdpa JI|aHÍ8Jfl; ho hh ero caMoro, bx 
ero JH)Aefi, a ne nosHHy bi onacHociH. A hto Bacaercs xo icoeft 
siaiBu, Ao6pufi JI|s9Bi, TO BU ji,0Ji7BMa 0CB060AHTB icena on hoa. 

PaxH cnaceHm ctojibbhxi jiiDAefi, pa^n Moefi necTH bu aojshu Měna 
OCB060AHTB. 

— a, JI^uRi? HHKorAa! — B0dpa8Hj['B MaxiaMi. — Ecjih bu ueRS, 
(poGHie — BU uflTBonpecrynHHBi; a Bcer^a csasy axo. 

— Bu MCHa (MfecHTe^-^CKasajii jQ^nsi. — Ox^afiTe mok> xexiiByl 

— He Aam,— CBasaji Maxiairb. — Si xoqy cnacxH BacB, xoxa 
6h flanepesopi Bameny seJiaHuo. 

— Hítí? — BaspaHajii Jífljsrb. — TaEi a Bací sacxaBJuo! 

— nonpoóy^xe, — CKasaji^B MaxqaHi. 

Ohh cToaJiHy rjiaAa bi rjasa xpyr^ Apyry, icasABitt na-roxoBt. 
]lfns:h cA^ai'B ABiuKeme — Max^ani noBepayjica h Ópociuca &bma,Tb 
BO ffb OAHO HTHOBeHie ÓUJTB HacxHTHyrb, ÓpomeHi* Ha seiuiH), xe- 
xHfia 6uďa BupBana y nero m% pyBí, a JíflVh cxoajrB HaA'B HHirb 
Ch danecenHuiTB KjMJiowby pyraacB h yrposaa. Maxiam jiesaii 
yriHyBinHCB jihaoii^b vb xpaBy, ne jiynaa o conpoxuBJieHÍH. 

JI^HKrB onycxHJTB ByjiaE'B. 

— Hy Bací coBCÍMil — csasai^B om. — Ksajica a hm Bjbvhy 
uce paBHO yÓapafixecB orB iiena. 

Ohi noBepnyjica n no6&Kaji'B. Maxiani bcko^hji:b h CpocHJca 
sa HmrB. 

Toxi m.~MAft, 1889. 18 



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274 BftCTHBRL EBPOnU. 

— ÍTO BEiťB HysHO? — RpHBHyjii JÍHK^, ociaHaBjraBaflCb. — 3a- 
HŠMX Bu roHExecB sa mhoS? yÓHpaftrecBl 

— noTOMy Mff6 ne cjišxoBaTB sa BaHH, ecjra a xoqy? — otb6- 
tbjtb MaT^aif^b. — BcflRift MOsen xoahtb no dTOMy ^'itey. 

— OrciaHBTe otl MeHfl, nop-PL bosbmh! — CRasajTB ^hbi, Ha- 

TflFHBafl CaMOCTp&rB. 

— O, BaBofi BH xpaópufi! — BospasEJCB MaxiaifB. — Crp^iatie. 
]íflísi> cserKa CHyTHJCfl h onycroii opysie. 

— CjsymatTe, — csa3ai'B owb. — Bh mhí Hajco^fl. Orynaftre 
sy^a xoTHie, Hjni a ^oiaceEx Óy^y sacraBHTB Bací yfini. 

— Xopomo, — ynpflico cicasaii ManaM^B, — bu chjiibh^ MeHJi. 
J['&iaĚTe, ht6 xonrre. £L 6yAy ci^AOBaTB sa to(5o&, ^hsi, noRa tu 
He yÓBeniB uensí. 

}iflKi> Buxo jifljn> H3i ce6fl. Bhtb Taxce tfesnoMon^Hoe cos^ame 
eny 6um cteij^ho, a Meac^y t^mi ohi ne bhx&tb xpyroro cnoco<$a 
OTj^aTBCfl OTB HasofijiHBaro H, MOseTB 6EITB, HeHaxesHaro cnyrmoui. 

— Bu npocTO CB yna comin! — daspHHaJTB owb. — Ejr^niift! 
vbjsj> fl cn&ny s^b Bammci Bparani... 

— Bce paBHO, jíhbi, — BOspasMi Ma-iBTOKi. — Ecjih bii Óyxere 
yÓHTH, fl Tose yiipy. SI Jiy^me noftjty Biri^crl cb BaiiH bi jli^hi, 
q&TB ocraHycB oahhi aa cbo($oa'6. 

— Hy, xopoino,— OTBÍiawrB^HKx, — MHÍHeBorxa pasroBapHBaTB 
Cb BaMH. CrynafiTe sa mhoA, ecjra xoTHTe, ho ne Bs^ynaire hsmí- 
HHTB mhí, a to fl cb BaMH pasA&iaiocB. CmotphtoI 

Ob 9THMH ciOBaMH owb npoAOJiscajTB CBofi oyTB BAOJB npora- 
jraHU, npflvacB Bi BycTapHHRax^, OBafinjiflBmHxi onymBy. BcKopi 
OH^B B£imeji'B H3!B AOJiHHu H saiflTHjrB Heno^ajieBy HeÓoiBDioft xojdtb, 
sapocmifi sojiOTHCTUMi ApoBOM'B H yBŠHHaHHut TOMHOK) ipynnott ejieft. 

— SI nocMOrpH) OTiy^a, — no^yiiaji-B ohi, h no<}kBajrB %% xojuy 
CBB08B sapocjm BepecBa. 

He ycn'fci'B oei Bdo(5paTBCfl na xojrM'B, Basx MaT^airB TpoHyjB 
ero sa ojreno h mojw yBa8ai'B pyBofi. Ha boctob'b otb xojuia th- 
HyjacB oyÓOBafl Jon^HHa, h Tan^ JI^hbx Y^rusibJíi> qeJOB^Bx xecarB 
jmjifiŘ vh sejieHiixi sansojiaxi, h bo rjiaB^ hx^ canoro djuraca 
^BopTa, BOTOparo 0H^ ysnaj^B no poraTHHÍ. Oahhi 3a xpyreirB 
noAHHMajHCB OHH H3X jion^HHu H HCHesaiH Vh Han^t. 

JI^HBi B3rj[flHyji'B Ha MaTHaMa h&cbojibbo jiacBOB^e. 

— TaB^B BII He xoTHTe H3ir6HflTB mhí, ^acdBi? — csasajTB oh%. 
— SI AyMaji-B, BU Ha hx-b eroponi. 

MaTHaMi BanjiaBajii. 

— BoTB Tefit paax! — B0CBJ2HBHy-I^ ^HBi. — 9Toro eníe nexocTa* 
Ba^o! BSAyMSJíH xHUBaTB nsi-sa nycTABOBi. 



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HEPHAa CTPMÁ. 275 

— Bh oChaím Měna, -- luaBajTB MaTiaiTB. — Bh otfHífciF Měna, 
zor;(a CBSumum na seiuH). 3to noAio— no2B30BaTBCfl ceoefi cejioí. 

— %o sa 68xop%! — cepxHTo OTBŠ^ajTB JIhetb. — Bh ne hx&ih 
upaBa saBJUu^TB Moeft TeTHBofi, Maerapi jQ^sds^. Mh*! 6u cjrí^AO* 
«uo noK<M<yTUT& BacB. EciH BU Hxere co mhoh), to aojshu mhí 
flOBHHOBaTBCfl; Bi^ TasoiťB cjiy^aš noft^eMre! 

MaTTOlTB XOT&TB-tfNJIO OCTaTBCfl, HO, yBVA'6Bl; HTO ^HBl npO* 

j^onaeTB BstfHpaTBCs na BepmHHy h ^ase ne orjuAEiBaeTCfl, mejvb 
^ jfímee noci^iOBaTb ero npeiripy. Ho no^Mi 6ujrh oneHB 
TpyjíeffB. ,HmřB yae dHa^TejiBHO onepeAHJTB ero, xa h hofb y Hero 
ÓHiH cHJBHie, TaRi ^TO OETB jme AaBHO B3o6paJCfl Ha BepmHHy, 
upoópajicH MesAy e^eft h copaTajiCfl b^ sapociH Aposa, Bor^a MaT- 
^an, saAHxaflCB otb ycraiocTH, Aornaiii ero h MOJina onycTHJca 
na seifjK) pa^OMi cb hhiii. 

BflHsy, no xny o6mHpHO& aojhhh, BHjracB Aopora hs^ xepeBHH 
TíHCTOiOB KB nepeBOsy. Ob Toro iflcra, ta* ohh cnpflTaJHCB, hm* 
^Ha tfiija BHAHa na tfojBmoe pascroame. M'lcTaMH ona nijia no 
nnpoBofi nporajHH%, ir^craMH i'6c'b hoaxoahjtb B'b nett BnjOTnyio. 
Jífaew BHHsy, no HanpaBjeniK) b^b nepenosy, iiejiBBajH ceiiB crajB* 
HEiXB nuiOMOBi, H BpoMH OTB BpeMeHH, xaiTB, Tjííb AepeBBfl p'bA^^» 
nepeA% spHreiHMH hbiajihcb CejiBAeHB h ero TOBapnu^H, Bce en^e 
^xHHBniie HcnoJHHTB nopynenie capa jI^aHÍBJUi. Biiepi hšcbojibbo 
enajTB, ho boo en^e npoAOJisajrB mejiecTHTB BepxymRaMH A^P^BBeBi, 
I eciHÓu AnnjafiflpAi npHcyrcTBOBaJii 3A^b, to, MOserB 5utb, sa- 

IcbTHJTB 6U TTO-HHÓyAB nOAOSpHTeJIBHOe B^B noBeAeHÍH hthi^^, JieTaB* 

onirB HaA'B Jiicoyi^h. 

— 3airtTBTe, — npomenTaji JI^hb^, — ohh yate TaKx AaJieso sa- 
nuH vh JT&CB, HTO AOJKHU ABHFaTBCfl BnepeA'B AM co6cTBeHHaro 
<mceHÍfl. Bhahto bu ary rpynny AepeBBeBi, na mErpoRoft nojinn^, 
nepeA^ Haira? Taiix exi> cnacenie. EcihÓei hitb yAajiocB Ao6paTBCfl 
Tyxa HeBpeAHMUHH, a 6u HamejTB cnoco(5^ yB^AOMHTB hx^b. Ho Moe 
<^Ai^e Tpenen^eTB; hx^b Bcero cenepo, a BparoBX TaRi mhofo; npn- 
TOWh y HHX^B caMOCTp&iii. jHjJHHHiift jyRi, ^sdRi*, BceFAa 6yAerB 
mribTB nepeB^CB h^a^b caMOcrp&ioirB. 

MesAy T^Mi CejiBAeHB h ero cnyTHHRH chobo&ho "IxajiH no 
j^opori, ne noAOspbsafl 06% onacnocTH. Pa3'B, Bnpo^esi^, ohh ocra- 

H0BH2HCB H nOBHAHMOHy HpHCiyniHBaJIHCB B'B ^OBffy-TO. Ho HXl BHH- 

Manie npHBjeRajio híhto coBepmenno Apyroe — OTAajenHHft ryjTB 
BHcrp&ioBi, AOHOCHBmificfl BŠTpoiTB. HaA^B dTHifB CTOHJio 3aAy* 
iiaibci, noTOMy hto ecjiH Bucrp^iH crajH CJiiiniHEi bi t3hcto;[jib- 
<»oiii jiicy, TO 3Ha9Hrb cpaatenie nepeABHnyjiocb r-b boctorj, a 

18* 



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276 ncTBBB^ EBPonu. 

Hdx 8Toro ciixoBajio, hto A^Hb Ha^aicfl HefijaronpíflTHO AJia. capa. 
^amajEfl h npHBepseHit^i Ajiott posH. 

noeii MHHyTHOft ocraHOBBH otpflA^B ABHHyjicfl xui»ine h bíi- 
ixAJíi Ha OTRpuToe mícto AopoFH, rx% J^^ noAXOAui bi nefr 

TOJBKO Bl OAHOlfB ITÍCtI, B^b BHA*^ HtíCa. E^Ba OHH IIOpaBB&IHCb 

ci HHM^B, RaBi H31 RycTOFb Biuerkia crp&ia. Oxhhi hsi Bcax^ 
HHBOBi BSHaxHyjrb pyBaMH, JomaAB ero noxHflJiacB na f,u6Uy a o<Ja. 
noBajHJHCB Ha senjuo. jl^ase cb Toro nicia, rx^ cha^th lOHoniVy. 
cjiHmeH*b ÓUJTB RpuBi jiDAefty BHAHO 61U10, Basi HcnyraHHiifl jo- 
maAH crajm noAUMaTBCfl na au^^h h oahhb h31 BcaAHHBOBi na- 
HajTb citeaTb ch BOBfl. Biopafl CTpt.^ia iiejEbBHyjia b^ BOSAyxi; bto* 

pot BCaAHHBl CBaJlHJICfl. TOTb, BOTOpilt ClimX) BUnyCTHJTE H3!B- 

pyBí noBOAbfl; JiomaAb pBanyjiacb, onpoBanyjia ero na seMJio h no- 
M^ajiacb yBjreBafl ero sa co6ofi, laBi BaBi nora ero saBflaia vs^ 
CTpeiieHH; bhaho 6£lio, BaBi rojiOBa ero BOJiOTHJiacb o Baimn, b 
jiomaAb, crapaflCb ocBoÓoAHTbca otb TflaBecTH^ tinjia ero BonsTaiiH. 
^exBepo ocraBniHXCfl bi ebM,jAy oÓpaiEJiHCb fb 6£rcTfio; OAHffbno- 
BepnyjTb boha h noM^aJicfl m> nepeBOsy, ocra^bHiie nonecJiHCb k^ 
TéHCTOjmo. Hdi BasBAOfi rpynmj A^P^BbeBi jier&iH bi hhxi crpbjsu^ 
CBopo en^e OAHa jomaAb ynajia, ho BcaAHHSi ycnkii bcbo^htb Ha 
HorH H nycTHJCfl óixATb^ BorAa BTopaa crp^a CBBJíHJia h ero. IIo- 
TOiťB ynaai em^e HejsoBŠBi, noTOMx en^e JiomaAB; hbi Bcero 0Tps^tí;^ 
ocrancfl tojbbo oahhx, a^ h Torb ninrifi; TOJibBO ch pa3HBix'B cro- 
poFb AOHocHJicfl TonoTb yOiraBHmxx jiomaAefi. 

Jl,o CHX^ nopi HHBTo H9T> HauaAaion^Hxi He noBaBUBaica h3x^ 
ji'&ca. Ha Aoporí bx pasHuxx Mtcraxi BajfljHCB paHenue bohhu: 
H jiomaAH, HO HHBTO H3'b BparoBx ne oÓHapyasHBajii siejiaHifl no- 
BOHHHTb HXi cTpaAanifl. 

OcTaBmificfl B^b asHBUxx ctoajix vb oit'&neH'6HÍn noA^ j6vmro 
BOHfl. Offb naxoAHJiCA yse na nojiflH'6 ch rpynnofi AopeBBesx, Ha 
BOTopyio yBasuBajTB JI^hbx, na paacTOflHÍH ne 6ojr£e hathcotb apAOBi). 
OTB Toro MŽcra, ta^ naxoAHJiHCB iohohih, h ohh mopjh jícho bh- 
jiibrh ero. OffB ctoajtb h orjflAUBajicfl, ne snafl, ?Tb fikíSkTb. H<v 
Bce 6bLio THXo; naBonei^B, ohx, noBHAHMOiiy, onoMHHJCfl h BApyr%^ 
HOAHfljix H HaTflHy:i% caMOCTpi.ix. Bx xy 2se MHnyTy JI^hb^b ysHajTB^ 
CejiBAena. 

IIpH dTOiťB Wh ji^cy pasAajicfl xoxotb. EasajocB, ne MeB^ 
ABaAi(aTH nejiOB^Bi cha^h fb 8acaA% h noT^majiHCB HaA'B ne- 
CHacTHUM^B. SariiTB CTp&[a saA&sa njeno CejrBAena — ohi otcbo- 
HHJTB HasaA^B. ípyraa crpfeia yAapHja ero vh nory. Ohx BHHyjca 
BTb Ji4cy. Tperba crptjia noJierfaa eny na-Bcrpí^ h yAapnjia bi»» 



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TOPHAa CTPMÁ. 277 

3a()pajo nueMO. IIpH dtoiii xoxotb B03o6HOBHjicfl, paciuTHBaflCb h 

O^eBmHO, HanaAaioii^ie toibko ApasHHJui ero, EaBi> wh xi epe- 
nesa ApasHHJiH Óurubi, hjh Basi RomBa HrpaerB cb icumbio. 
<]!xBaTKa eoÓCTBeHHO yse BOSHoiacs, h no($i;(flTeJui AOcraBJíaiiH ce6ib 
WpoBoe sp&nm^e. 

CeiBA^Hi Ha^ai^ ncEHuaTB, bi^ nem iíjlo] owh HcnycrsurB RpHR^ 
l^eHCTBa H OT^aflHÍfl, npHJOSKTB Kh Tuie^j caMOcrpkrB h ny- 
<!nsh crp&iy Ha-yxa^. G^acTKe fiiaronpúíTCTBOBajio eny, laR^ RaRi 
Kb OTB^TB Ha ero BucTptJi'B nocjumajicfl rphr%. Tor^a, ÓpocHBX 
opysie, CejiBAeHi no($iauurB noTrn npflMO no HanpaBjeHÍH) ri JI^HRy 
H MaTqany. 

Tenepb TOBapHn^H nepEoft crp^ti HanajH crpiJiflTb ne na 
myTRy. Ho ohh ynycTHJH ÓjaronpiflTBufi MOMeHTB; 6ojikniHHCTBy 
npixoAHJiocB CTp&iflTB ^poTHB^ cojHi^a, a CejB^eHi Ha-6%ry rh- 
jtuca H8i CTopoEH vb CTopoHy^ ^To6u saTpyAHHTb npHi^i. IIo- 
BepHyBí Ha xonrB, owh oOManyjii htb osExanie: Bnepe^H ne 6iuo 
HiKoro, RpoBfi Toro HesoBi^Ra, Roroparo ohi y^HJFB hjth paHHJii, 
H cRopo cynaioxa cpe^n npecji^AOBaTeJiefi Cj^ajacB ohobh^hoA. 
nocramaicfl pisRift CBHCxoRiy Roropuft noBTopHJica xpasAu R no- 
loiTB en^e ABaiRXH. 6i oivbvh pas^ajicfl xaRoft se cbhctor*b es^ 
^pyroft qacTH jribca. IIo o&b croponv xojMa cuimeHi 6ujrb xpecRi 

^THBeBl H BÍTBe&, JIOMaBHIHXCfl n0A'B HOraMH (^^SaBHIHXl JlIOAet. 

CeiBAeHB OisAJTh^ npeďbAyeMHtt crp^jiaMH, ROtopEiii, o^naRO, 
40 csTB nopi ne nona^ajH bi nero. RaaajiocB, owb mosotb en^e 
^cnacTHCb. flfiK% HaTflHyji caicocrp&rB, roxoBflCb noMO^ eny, n xase 
MaTHaiTB, 3a6uBafl o coficTBeHHOfi onacnocni, AposRaxB aa ne* 
<w?rHaro. 

CejiBA^H^B 6ujrh yse maraxi vh oflTHAearrH otb hhxx, Ror^a 
CTpiia yAapHJia vh Hero, h ohx ynan, ho b^ xy se MHHyxy bcro- 
Hin Ba Hore. O^naRO xenepB owh cnoxuRajiCH n xohho cj^not 
noBepHyjTB b^ Apyryio cxopony. 

— CiOAa, CDxa! — RpHRHyxB JQ^hrs, BCRaRHBaa h ÓpocaflCB r^ 
fieify. GDAa! siich homoh^b! BívBj dira, ne ocxanaaiRBaftCfl! 

Ho Bi axy MHHyxy Apyraa cxpija bohsbjulcb b'b cnHHy Cen* 
lena, MesAy njacxHHOR^B ero naHi^upa, h oh^ ynajTB RaRB RanenB. 

— O, &bABSínl — BOCRiuiRHyii MaxHaifB, BcnjiecHyBí pyRaMH. 
JífLK% crofljTB RaRi oRaMeníiiBilr, npeACxaBJíafl nsi ceča nijih 

JUfl CXpfijIROBl. 

BiipoflXHO OH-B H 6ujii> 6u y^Hxi, HO Bi xyae MHHyxy neno- 
JlMeRy OTB K>Homeft padAftACH rpoMOBOft fojiocb, rojrocB djunca JI|9r* 



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278 BftOTHHRl BBPOim. 

— Crofixe! — BpBBHyjii owh. — He CTp&iflTb! Bsaib ero SHBBeirbr 
9to — MOJiOAofi inej[BTOH'B, CHffB FappH* 

6CJÍA'B sa dTHMH cJioBaMH nocjiiiinajicfl cbhctori h noeropajicft 
Vb ApyrHxi ^hcisixb jiica. IIoBHAHMOMy, dTO fiiiJi CHrHajii, no- 
cpexcifioiTB BOToparo JI^xob'b McrflxeJib pas^anaj^ cboh pacnops- 
sema. 

— O, Bec^acTBe! — BOOLiHEHyjii ^hb^b. — Mu nponaJiH. Xm- 

B^fi, JlSKSKbj SHBŽft! 

H OHH nycTHJUiCB OteaTB ^epesi JFboby noBpiiBaBini& BepmeHy 
xojiMa. 

VI. 

Bb caMOMi fibxk, nopa 6ujio oÓpaiHTBCfl bi Óítctbo. ToBi^n^ 
nepHoft crp&iH oh AByi'B eropoHi BsfiHpaiHc^ na xoiwb. Híbo- 
Topiie, onepeAHBmie ocrajiBHHXi, ya^e bsobme na B^mHHy, xpyne 
orH6aiH xosxťb cb oOtexi cropoHi. 

Jlfl&i> yrjiyÓHJiefl bi^ diEsaSmyio pon^y. Sto Óiua Ay<^Bafl poum,. 
cnycBaBmaflca bhhsi no xamy. 3a nett Jiesajia noJAHa, iistfikraji 
BOTopoft, Jlfl&^h BSflJi^b bjiíbo. HeiiHoro cnycra ohh oiuítb HETBHy- 
jiHCB Ha nporaJiHHy h noBepHyjH en^e jísšlt. TaBi», noABHraacb- 
Bce jrlB^fi H jribBt&y OHH npnfijiHsaJiHCB bi 6oÁhmo1k xoport h bv 
p^B^, ^epesi BOTopyio nepenjiujiH ^lacB hjih jsfiB, Toiiy HaaaAi; he* 
npoTHBi, (R)jbmafl naciB hx^ npecjri^AOBaTejiett HanpaBHjacb Kb Apy- 
ryio CTopoHy bx Tbhctojuk). 

MoJiOAue jnoAH ocraHOBHSHCB nepeBeciH Ayxi. ^hb^b npHJO- 
SBJíi yxo Bi senjii, ho B^Topi^, myM^Brnift B'b BepoiHBaxx ^e- 
peBBeBi, ne no8BOjiflj'b ^T0-HH6yAB cniniaTb. 

— Hy, HAein»! — CBa3aA'B Jiflií^by h ohh npoAOJauLiH CBOtt nyxB^ 
HecMorpfl Ha ycrajiocTB. 

— Crofl! — BpHBHyjii nefl-TO rojioci. 

IIepeAi» HHMH, na pascroaniH ne 6oxbe 50 ^yroBi, cyoím^ 
^ejiOB^Bi Bi^ seJieHOMi BaMsoi'!, npnii&niBaHCB fb hhx'b h3i Jiysa. 

MaT^aiTB BCBpHBHyJIli. JI,HB'B Ha MHHyTy OCraHOBHJICB, BO TonacTb^ 
OHOMHBJCfl H 6pOCHJICfl Ha HeSHaBOMI^a, BUXBaTHB^B BHHaBaJIl. Bui%r 

JIH TOTB nopaseni CM&iuirB Hana^enieM^B, hjh noBHHOBaica ybhmi»- 
jih6o npHBa3aHÍflM'B, ho obi ne Bucrp^ujix. ^hbi cXBaTBJí ero 
sa ropjio h noBaJin^ii na seMJíK); crplna noJieTÍJa b^ o^ny cro* 
poHy, jiyBí Bi ApyryK); oÓeaopyseHHBifi j^teHofi sHTeJB yBjeBi sa 
co6ofi JifiSA^ HO BHHasajii QOAHflJicfl H onycTHJicfl ABasAu; pa^xa^ics 



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HBPHAfl amjiÁ. 279 

eroHi, H BCjA^b d»,rbu% ^EVh BCso^Hjrb na Horn, a HesHaBOMei^i 
lesajTE 6e3% ABHaseHÚi, nopaaceHHKdl bi cepxi](e. 

— n^eirB! — CRa8aji'B ^im, h ohh nycruHcs A^JBine, necMorpa 
Ha TO, ^TO exBa Aum&an otb ycrajiocTH. MaT^airB cnornKaJCfl, 
roJOBa ero spysHJiacB. J(irR'B nyBCTBOBajii, ^xo j5á}jAeb ero noAra- 
6aH)Ta[. TJ^iTB ne Men^ ohh ne ocraHaBJífBajracB. 

HaROHei^B, jrbcb BOHHHJíCfl. nepeA'B hhmh OBasajiacB (Sonniafl 
xopora H3% PefisHHraMa vb DIopÓH. 

flpH BHA*]^ AOpOrH JI^HK^ OCiaHOBHJKCfl H yCIHinaJI^B KaB0ft*T0 

crpaHHuft myiTB BxaxH. Cna^aja ohi noxoAHJi'B Ha 3aB£iBaHÍe Birpa, 
noioiTB 3ByKH ciaJH flCHÍe, H myiTB npeBpaxHJai vb ABCTBeHHHft 
TonoTB RonuTB; qepesx hšcroibko cesyExib noABHJicfl orpflx'^ bohhob'b, 
npoMejiBBHyji nepeA'B hhmh h ncqesi B^ain. BcaxHERH MqaJiHCB 
BO BecB onopx, bi nojiHOirB ÓesnopflAS'^; MHoríe hs^b hhx'b 6euh 
paneHH; v/vh se Óujih h JiomaAH Óesi BcaAHHBOBi», ci osposaB- 
jeHHiiiMH ď^A^aííH. O^ieBHAHO, 8T0 Ówoi Cibnenu cb nojui 6nTBii« 

He ycnšji en^e saTHXHyxb mywh, fiaR'B CHOBa noemmaJiCfl 
TonoTB sonuTlB, H noKasajiCH BcaAHHsi, na dxoTB pa8'B OAHHORÍfi 
ly cyAfl no BoopyseHÍK), Ranoe-TO BasHoe jiHqo. 3a hhitb abesca 
m&iiift 06081: noroHn^HBH niaJiH Jioma^ett, Rasii 6yAT0 coacajecB 
orb noampa. ^ojukho 6utb, ohh pano oCpaxHJiHeB vb CibvctBOy ho 
iTB xpycocTB ne npHHecsa hmi nojBdu. EABa ohh nopaBHSjracB 
Gb wbctowbj Tjiíb CTOUH lOHoniH, BaBi HTB Haraaji neJLOvbvb 
vh HspyCjieHHuxi jiaxaxi h bhahho BuxoAHBmift hbi ce6fl orb db- 
meHCTBa. Oh'b fipocHJicfl na noroHo^HKOBi Cb ne^oifB, ocimafl hxi 
jupesaMH H pyraiejibCTBaMii; HtBOxopue cocbo^kih cb bobobii h 
disaiH KB jFbcby Apyrie 6íijih Hspy&ffeHii. 

MesAy TŠM'B cyMaxoxa yBeJH^HBajacB; ciumajicfl CKpHn'B le- 
lin, Tonora jroma^efi, kphbh juD^efi-Bce axo cjraBaaocb bi^ o6^^Ě 
ryjTb; o^esHAHO, ocraxRH i^&iofi apifin cnacajiHCB Ci^rcTBOirB. 

jífiKb CTOflJi'B MpaHHuft. On^b xoT&a'B-6ujio HATH no 6ojLbmoŘ 
Aopor6 AO noBopoxa bi TojmBjAbj ho h3míhhj[i» CBOtt Hjiani. Ohi» 
ysHajii i(BÍxa rpa^^a PeftBHHraifa h noHfljTB, hto HexoA'b 6htbii 
6un coBepmeHHO netf jaronpiflxeHi a^ JlanBacxepcBoft podu. IIpH- 

COeAHHHJCfl JH Kb HHMX Cdpi JI|aHÍdJIB, H TOnepB ÓUJTB paB^HTl H 

pasopeHi? EJSH nepeniej'B na cropony Iopbobtb h OBasajicfl na ao- 
pori Ki noqecTflJťB? Bo BcasoirB ciynai a'^o 6iuo neBpacHBO. 

— IIo&AeirB, — CBasasi ohb cepAHxo, h nomejrb qepesx po^y, 
GonpoBOSAaeMiift MaxqaMOifB. 

HicBOJBBO BpeMeHH ohh huh MOjqa. Gojmi](e yise onycsajiocB 
Eb sasaxy; BepxymBH AepeBBOBi apso cúuh fb ero Jiynaxi, ho 
fim yse yAJHHHHJTECb, npeABin^aa Benepi. 



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280 BMTHHKS EBPOim. 

— XoTB 6u (Shjo Tro-HH6y;íB nošcTB, — BHesaimo csasajrB 
Jí^jmsTby ocTanaaiHBaxcB. 

Manaifi c&ii Ha seiuuo h saiuaRajrB. 

— Hy Aa, Bu ifosere maRaTB orroro, ^ro saMi xo^erca 4ctb, — 
CRasajii JI^HBi npespHTe^HO, — a Bor^a x^o mjio o cnacenÍH shshh 
jDOAeft, Bame cepxi^e He ORasajocB xaBHirB T^CTBHxeffBHHirB. Ha 
Bameft coBtcTH CMepn ceira nejiOB^Bi, Macrdpi JI(au)H*B, a Bairb 
HHKorAa He npomy aroro. 

— Ha MoeS cobšcth! — BocBJraBHyjTB MaT^aiTB, ropxo Bsrjfl- 
HyBí Ha Hero. — Ha Moeft! A na BameMi rhhiíuuA BpoBB ^eio- 
B^Ba. 3a vtb BU yÓHJiH ero? Ohi npni^tjrajcfl, ho ne BEicrp&iBjrB; 
BBi 6ujnsi vh ero pyBax'B h owh non^axiu^ BacB! YCwrh HejOB^sa, 
BOTopaS He Ban^HH^aercfl, nevěro CBasaxB, xopoma xpatipocTB! 9to 
Bce paBHO, HTO y^HTB BoreHBa. 

^EVb oisíkaevbjn> otb Bsyiuemfl. 

— SI neCTHO 6HJCfl Cb HHITB,— SaBpH^aJTB OHI. — SI (JpOCHJCa 

Ha ero jyBi. 

— 9to 6hjio BOBapHoe Hanajtenie, — BOspasHJTB MaT^airb. — Bh 
npocTO XBacryHx, nacrdpi JI^hrtb; bii nojrBsyerecB BoroxHinrB noio* 
semeiTB; ecjiH^H bh HaTBHyjHCb na 6ojr6c CH^naro^ to crajiH 6u 
npocHTB y Hero non^aAH. Bh ne xoteto MCTHib sa CMepTB Bamero 
OTii[a, sa ero (^ahhA Ayx'^, Boropiit Bonierf o npaBOcyxÍH. Ho 
eciH BU BCTptqaere &bf.Eoe cos^anie, jnnneHHoe chjiu i jiobbocth, 

BH rOTOBH pacnpaBHTBCfl CB hhitb! 

— RT0-HH6yAB H3i AByxi Bcer^a OBaacercfl chjibh^. Jy^oiift 
HejiOB^Bi y($HBaeTB xy^maFO h nox&ioirB. Bh saciysHBaere TpensE, 
MHcrepTB ManaMi, sa samy HeÓjaroAapHOcrs OTHOCHiejiBHO MeHfi; h 
BH nojiy^Hre to, hto sacjryasHBaeTe. 

H J[hbi, BOTopHĚ AO CHTB Hopi c^epsABajTE ce6fl xase Vh 
MHHyTH BpafiHflFO pas^paseHÍfl, cTaji'B pascrerHBaTB h cnvMaTB cb 
ce($fl noflCB. 

— Bóra BaMi Óy^era na yanni,— CBasaro okb CBHptno. 
MaT^aiTB no6^^jrB BaBi* hojotho, ho chjt&tb nenoABHSHO, ne 

CBOAfl rjias^ cb JI,HBa. JI,hb'b CA^ajTB marB BnepejTB, pasMaxHBafl 
noflcOBfB, HO ocraHOBHjTCfl CMyn^eHHuft BHpasemeirB JiHi^a h 6jr6x* 
HOCTBK) CBoero cnyrHHBa. P^niHMOcrB ero ocrnjia. 

— CosnafirecB, tto bu HenpaBu, — CBasajrB ohi. 

— HÍTB,— CBasajix MaTqairB, a npaBX. — Hy tto ae! SI cjmUVe, 
a 6escHJieH*B, n ne conpoTHBJíHiocb, <5e& Měna! 

HpH BTOITB CIOBÍ ^EJffh BSMaXHyjTB HOflCOlTB, HO MaT^aiTB OTBH- 

Hyjica HasaA^ cb TaBHirB BupasenieifB ysaca, tto ohi ohatb ne 



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^PHAfl CTPUA. 281 

pfameucfl yj^apiiTE. IIoíicb BunajTB 7 aero mFh pyK% h oe% ocraHO* 

BEJCfl VB Hep6lIIlIM0CTH. 

— nycTB ^Ma nopasHTB teCa, óesxiJiBHiucE! — csadajTB owh 
lasoHei^. — EcjH y eacB taRia cjia6ua pyRH, to bh aojishei h 
jBHKi Ac^ps^*!^ sa sytfaMH. fl Jiyme Aam ce(Sfl noBteoTB, ^m 
traHy BacB (Sitb! — H offt odatl HaxiJTB noflci. — He crany sací (Sitb, 

— nOBTOpEJIX OHX, — HO HHBOFXa BO 1ipOII](y SaiTE. — fl Baa He SBaK), 

BH BparB Moero noRposHrejtii; a ycTynHJ^ BairB jfoma^B; bh ceíih 
not ysHFB; HasBaJiH Měna xBaciyHOMX. Hítb, Hopro bos^bih, Mlpa 
nepenoíHHjacb. Xopomaa mryRa $tiTb cja6airB, RavB noAynaeDiB: 
BH Moxeie A^TB, HTO BaifTi yroAHO h hhrto He AOJweHi HaRasu- 
BaTB Bací; bli yRpa^ere y nejOB^Ra opysíe, h ovb ne Moxeri 
oraaTB ero y Bací — Bce noroiiy, íto bh cjiaóii! draRi KTO-HHÓyAB 
HaiipaBvn wb Te6a ROHBe h RpHRHerB, tto owh ciatii, h tbi aoj- 
seFB npeAOcraBHTB eny npoTRHyrB Te<ia. 3RÍft bbaopb! 

— OAHaRO XTb BBi MeHa He ÓBOTe! — CRas&ii MaT^airB. 

— IlycTB TaRB, — CRasajTB ^hri: — nycTB raRB. Bh noiywn 
njoxoe BOCHHTaHie, npHTOiTB bh cnacjra mb xhshb; a h sateai 
o(H 9T0irB. SI He xo^ 6htb TaRHMi se HeiSjraroAapHHn, RavB 
BH. Hy, no&xeiiTe« Ecjih mh xothmi nonacTB bi FojnnyAB cero^na 
Be^epom HJra saBrpa yrprai, navB HyacHO ToponnrBca. 

Ho xora JI,hri ycnoROHJica, MaT^ani HH^ero ne npocTHJTB aiy. 
Ero rpyÓocTB, BOcnoMHHame o qeJiOBrbRt, ROToparo ohi saROJroji, 
nsoHei^ noacB, RoropnirB ohb co(5Hpajíca ero ($htb — TaRÍa boh^h 
He JierRO 3a6HBaiaTca. 

— BjaroAapiD Bací, — CRa3ajrB ohi. — Ho, nacropi HIojb- 
lOHi, a jyHuie no&xy oahhi. Sjíibch ÓojiBmaa Aopora; Hoftxeine 
sttjpift cBOBiTB nyTem; cnacH6o Bani sa o&kxh h 8a ypoRi. CqacT- 
iiBaro HyTH. 

— Otjihiho! — 8aRpv>iajrB J^hrx. — Ecot laRi, crynatre, h wpn 
fiacB no6epH! 

H OHH OTBepHyjracB xpyn otb Apyra h hohuih, sanaTHe ne 
nnpaBJteHÍeirB AOpora, a tojibro CBoeft ccopot. Ho AjaL^ ne oto* 
men h Aecara marovB, RaRi ycjraman, tro ero o&iHRHyjnr; 
Mai^aMi noxOiasajTB ri nevy. 

" ^HRTB, — CRasajTB OHI, — HoiipHjniqHO HaiTB pascraBafTBca laRi 
xojoxHO. — BoTB Moa pyRa, a ci hor) h Moe cepAi^e. Kiaroxapx) 
BacB sa Bce, ^to bh XJia Hena cx^&iaan, ne x^a ^^mh toibro, a 
on Bceft Aynm. ByxBTe sxopoBH h ciacrjniBaTO Bam nyrH. 

— H BaMi TaRse, — OTB^^aji JI^hri, (Jepa nporaHyryio eiiy 
pjxy: — sejiax) h Bam cnacTjrHBaro nyrn, ho tojibro C0MHÍBaH)CB^ 

^I06h 9T0 6UI0 B08]fOSHO. Bh CJUHniROlTB CBapjIHBH. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



282 BftOTHHKl EBPOmi. 

H TasHirB o6pa80Mi ohu BTope^HO pascrajiHCb. Ho Bon yse 
caiťB ^mwb iLo6imají% sa Max^aMOirB. 

— BoTB, — CKasajii oh-k, — bosemh Mofi JiyBx; a ne xoiy, ttoCh 
Til Úujrb 6e8opy3iceH'b. 

— BsflTb TBoft JtjKbl — noBTopiui Max^EiTB. — Hira, rojyfi- 

USX, 7 MeHfl He XBaTHTB CCUU HaTflHyXb TeTHBJ H He XBftTffl^ 

yiiiHBfl Bucrp&SHTb. Mhí Bame opyaúe hm vb ^eiiy He nociysvrB. 
Ho Tbwh H6 Mesie ÓJiaroAapia sa npeA^ioxenie. 

H0% T&TB BpeMOHeM-B OOBCŠlTb GTyCTUaCb H UOKh AepesBflMH 

yse HejiBBfl 6ujio pasrjUAiTB Jiai^a. 

— JI BpofiAy híceojbbo maFOKb ci BaMH, — CBasajřb JI,h]pb. — 
HoHL TOMHa. S. BUBe^y BacB no Rpateefi wbpb Ha Aopory. Ji 
óoiDCB, Rasx 6u Bu He 3a6jiyAHJi0Cb. 

He roBopfl (kubme hh ciOBa, ohi nonieji'& Bnepex^, a Torb 
noci^AOBaj'b sa hhitb. OraHOBHJiocb Bce TeicHte h tcmh^; touso 
laHi H cflMiy Ha 0TRpuTux'b M^kiaxi, OHU BHA'&ra He6o, yc&iHHoe 
BB^AftMH. B'L HŠROTopoiTB OTAajeHÍH Bco efl^e cia6o cjiuinajicfl 
myiTB pasfiHToJI h yAapHBmeftea bi (SirciBO laHaacrepcsoft apiiiH; 
HO Cb KasABUi'^ maroiTB ohh oTAaJULiHCB otb nero. 

UocjA noiy^acoBott MO^naiHBOfi xojsf^Uy ohh buhuh na 6oib* 
myK> HporajiHHy. 3]S!bcb ohh ocranoBHincB h noriHA^i^ fJ^J^^ ^a 
Apyra. 

— Bh ycraJH? — cnpocHJřb ^hri. 

— 0x1, TaKb ycTai!b, — orfii^ajrb MaTuam, — ito, Raa^excii, 
jrary Tyrt h ynpy. 

— JI Cjnimy njecRi boah, — CRasajrb ^hri»:— npottAeirL ne- 
MHoro 6jHse ri p^rí; a ympaio on sasRAu. 

EoHBa 6ujia cjierRa noRaxa vh 8toh'b MŠcrt, h, CHycTHBmHCb 
BHH3i>, OHH HamjiH THXO ďLypHaBHiyK) pi^HRy, nporeRaBmyH) hoa^ HaaicH. 
Tyn OHH onycTH^iHCB na seiuio h, npnnaBib kb boa'6 ptomx, yro- 
jiHJiH saaRAy. 

— JíflB^9 — CRasajii Mai^am, — h A&Ji^nie hath ne vb CHiaxi* 

— & BHA*^^ nelepý, RaRi mh hijih ciOAa, — OTsi^an fljBsi^. 
— 3a6epe]icfl kb nee h BUCHBMca. 

— Corj[aceH'B otb Bcero cepAi](al — saRpn^ajti MawaM-B. 
He^epa 6uja cyxaa h necianHCTan. HBiA'BHeK> pocJH nycrap- 

HHRH H oCpasoBaiH H'bROToparo poAa noRpuniRy. 

IOhohih satipajHCB b'b nee h, hto6bi Ohuio xenjAe, yjierjHCb 
pflAROiťb, saÓuBi npo cboio ccopy. BcROpi coh'b OBjaAijrb hmh, h 

OHH BfBpHO SaCHyjH nOA'B pOCOfi H SBtSAaMH. 



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HEPHAfl CTPUÁ. 28$ 

vn. 

^BIOBftRl Bl KAnK>mOH«. 

Ohh npocHyjiHCb ea sap^; urmifi eiofi ne pacn'|jHCb bo fiecb^ 
roiocB^ HO Taní H ciMi yse cramajKOCb hxi mfióemuhe vhsbcjy 
€OJiHAeen](e Hessonuio, HOBOcronoafl cropoHaHefia yse saropaJiacB. 
FaiOAHue h HdMyHeHHHe K^floma Jiemuu H^oxBBaKHO, 6yAyHH ne bs 
cflaarb crpflXHyn. cia^syio AP^Mory. Ho BApyn bmi nocsfiiinaiCA 

SBOffB fiOJIOROJia. 

— SojOBon! — csasajii Ahe^b, npHno^HHMaflCb. — Heysejui mu 
TaKB &1H3R0 OTB ToíHByxa? 

HoMHoro cnycTfl omiTb nociumaicfl 3bohi> BOJiosoja, h na 
910Tb pasTB ropasAO 6jiHse. H ci sthxi nopi nocroflHHO pas^a- 
Bucfl, Bee iipH6j[H3saflCB. 

— Wkvbj HTO se 8T0, OAHaKO, sHa^HTi? — cnpoaurB JI,in», co- 
BdiTb yse npocHyBQiHCB. 

— 3t0 ETO*TO XOAHTB, — OTBÍHaJll Mai^aiTB, — a KOlOBOJIl 8B0-^ 
BffTb BpH SaSAOlTB OFO ABESOHÍB. 

— IIoHHMaH); HO Kb leMy 9to? ^Tb OH'B A^aer^ bi^ tohctoxib* 
CBQirb ji^y? ^isdRii, — npH6aBU'b JI^hbi», — cmMca na^o mhoh), ecra 
xo^efliB, a uBfb ho fipaBHTca 8totb 3bph'l. 

— ^a H ueí xaBaie, — omimjrb Mai^airB Cb Aposbio. — V nerO' 
sasoi-TO sajiofiHuft asyRi... 

Ho xyTB BOJOBOJii 8a3BeH&rB Cucrpjte, to^ho neiOB^i, bx bo- 
TopoMy OHI Óuxb iipHBtoeH'b, safišrajTb ToponjuBO ssaAi^ h BnepeA'B. 
SaiÍMi, sBJíBHyBí OHOHB ppoMBO, BApyrb SaTHXl Ha HŠBOTOpOe BpeMfl. 

— ^.^b 6hL 8T0 snaHHJio? — npoAOJauLii AoraAUBaiBCfl ^HB'b. — 
To BAerb, TO ocraHaBJíHBaeTCfl. Hoxose na to, BaBi 6u bto cna- 

CaiCfl OirCTBOMl. BoTI OHATB SaSBOHEJll. 

— H TenepB yax cobcím'^ fijnisBp, — sairi^THJTB MaTnaiii. 

Ohu npHABHHyxHCb Ha apafi ne^epu; h TaB% sasi ona caiia. 
no ee&b yse naxoAHJiacb na BŠBoropott BosBumeHHOCTH, to ohb 
rocnoACTBOBajm HaA'^ nporajHHOft h mofjih bha^tb bco, ht6 naneft 
npoBcxoAHTb bojotb ao caMaro Ji^bca. 

IlpH CBirb AHfly BOTOputt ySO SaHflJICB, OHH BHA'6lH TpOHHHBy^ 

BSBRBaBmyiocfl dbMOŘ jieHToft no BepecRy. Ona npoxoAuia Boero kl- 
BaBlIx^-HH6yA& h^bojbbhxx craxx flpAaxi otb neotepu h TflnyjiacK 
no Bcett nporaiHH^ naBOcroBi h na 8anaA'B. CyAfl no ea nanpaB- 
JeHÍH), JljaKh c^HTaji, hto ona AOJsna BecTH fioi^e hjlh itenie 
npflMO vb MooTi-Faysi. 



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284 ncTHHBi EBPonu. 

Ha dToft TponHHK']^ noRasajiacB &kJi9LSL <]^Hrypa, BiicrynEBinafl 
H3i jťbcj' 0°^ ocraHOBHJiacb h crajia osapaibca; a sartirb, crop- 
<5HBinHCb, noniJia no TponHHBŠ, npHÓJHsaHCB ri» nelepí. Ha icas- 
j^oifB máry BOjroBOJiBíHR'^ dBAsan. JlHi^a ne ókjlo bhaho. B^^jhí 
KamomoHX, bb BOiopoirB ne 6ujio jcase OTBepcrítt jsasí rjiasi, sa- 
spEiBaii roaoBy, h b% to Bpeiifl sasi ^rypa ABHrajBacb, ona, no* 
BHXHMOMy, on^yniiiBajia Aopory najiKoft. Orpaxx oiexeniurB BOHomeft 
<»[^TBiiirL xaiOAOxi. 

— HpoEaseHHfiifi! — nporoBopHJTB JíflVi^ xpímio. 

— Ero npiiBOCiiOBeHie CMepreiBHo! — csasaxB MarqaiťL* — 

— Hesaiiirb. Passt bu ne BH^Hre, ^xo oh^b cjk&tb. Oh^ 
<$peAerB npe noifon^H najSH. HpiiTaHMefl; Biiep^B ^erb otb nacB; 
OHI npofixoTB MHMO H He TposerB HacB. Ybu! ói^AHsra! ero ctohtb 
nosajrbTik. 

— S. nosajitK) ero, Bor^a o^b upoft^eirB xa^ine, — otbítus 

MaTWlTB. 

GjAuoř npoBaseHHufi HaxoAHJCfl RaRi pasi na nojinyTH OTh 
Hnxx, H Blb dTy MHH}Ty BBomio oojraqe h ocsérEJio ero saRyraHHoe 
jiHi^o. To ÓBUTB BucoRift HejOB^R^B, npex^e HeacejiH OTBpatareiBBHft 
He^yrB crpd^hjtb ero, h jwbjq h TenepB owb menrb iBepAuicB maroicB. 

SjOBtn^ee SBflsaHBe ROviOROAURa, CTyR'B najíRn, saRyraHHoe 
jívino H MEicJB, TTO OETB HO y^jfTBRO ocysA^^ Ha crpajnaHÍe H CMepTB, 
HO H HaB^RH OTjy^eH'B OTB cooÓn^eoTBa noxefi, HanojBifjiH b>ho- 
mefi ynacoMi, h cb RasxBíMx maroiTB npoRasenHaro »Ton ysacB 
fice ycHiHBajcfl. 

RorAa OHi^ oopaBHflieE cb ne^epoS, to ocraHOBHJicfl h hobo* 
^pois^TB roiOBy wb htb cropony. 

— Cb. Mapís, 3an](HTH nacB! oh^ nacB bhaetb! — cjia6o npo- 
líOJtBHJTB Max^aiTB. 

— Tc! — menHyjTB ^hr^b. — Ohi npHciyniHBaeTCfl. OffB bíab 

npoRasReHHBitt CJiymajib hjh riflAt^TB, Bon ero snaerB, b^b npo- 
jtoiseHÍe h!6croibrhxb oeRyHx^. 3aTfeMi CHOBa saxBiirajicfl, ho 
BApyTB onflTB ocraHOBEJECA H CHOBa, noBepnyBuiHCB rojiOBoft kb h>bo- 
maiTB, noBHAHMOify, HaÓJioxaji sa hhmh. Jl^ase ^hr-b uoŮjA^^íkai, 
RaRi eiiepTB h saRpiu^ rjasa, to^ho Óoucsl sapasiTBCfl ^epes^ 

^HÍe. Ho BC»0p6 BOJOROJIBqHRl OHflTB SaSB^E&TB, H Ha dT0T% 

pae^ npoRaseHHuft, ne uejuui AOJiie, nomen snepe^^ h hc^ooil 

Vb jAcJ, 

— Ohi bha^jtb nacB, — CRasaji^ ManairBy — a roroBi vh xoirb 

n060SHTBCfl. 



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HEPHAJI CTPUA. 28^ 

— IlycToe! — xpaópejicfl Jíflivh. — Oh^ cjiiinadii» HacB. Oh*b cans 
ipycHTi^ (ífbjíflhiŘ HejOB^Ri! Ecufiii bu Óujlb. crkm h ABorajiHCb^ 
cpe^ BtHHaro Mpana, to ssxparHBaJiH 6ii ote tofo, tfo b^tbEk 
xpycTHyia hih nTHwa HnpnsHyja. 

— flfiRi^y A^i^9 — no0TopHJii» MaTqaMi, — owh BExkjn> sacit 
Eorxa iejOBÍ«% csbai^y y Hero ^pyraa noxoARa, JI,hb%. Ohi bha&ii^ 
Haei, a ne aiumaji^. Ohi saMunuflen xy^oe. ^a botb, cjymaftre^ 
BOiOBOJTB (k)j[Bnie coBCŠiTB ne SBARaerB. 

H ^^CTBHTeJEbHO, BOIOKOJTb yifOJIKl. 

— ^a, — CRaaajii /^HB^, dio mhí ne HpaBHTCfl. — Hira, aTaimt 
coBcim ne HpaBHicfl. Qt5 On 8to sHa^HJO? (S^hmi CBopie. 

— OvB Homen Ha boctobi. Absi, HanpaBflMCs Ha sana^^ J3L 
He ycnoRoiocB, noRa mu ne j&bTRvwh otb droro npoBaaseHHara. 

— Jl,7S9Jffh^ BII cjiHHiBOMi» TpycaHmi, — (yrtíbmjvh Jífljffb. — Mu 
ompaBHMCfl npflMexoHBRO fb roaHByA'B, CJrbxoBaTeiBHO na cÍBep^B^ 
eciH TOJBRO fl npaBHJBHO pascysAaiD. 

Ohh nycTHJHCB vh nyTB, nepeniJiH 9eped!B pJbiRy no Raiiym- 
saiTb, H cra^H BaÓHpaiBCfl na Apyrofi 6eperB, Roropiď 6uji:b Rpyne^ 
HanpaBiflflCb r^b onynncš jiíbca. ŮoiBa crajia oneHB nepoBHa, bca 
n Rowaxx h vb flMax'B, AepeBBfl pocjiH Óesnopflxo^HO, h xpy^no 
6hio opieHTHpoBaTBCfl vh uBxi. K)HoniH oieBHAHO (SiysAajDi. 
KpoMi Toro, OHH 6ujm yxoMJteHu B^epamHHMH noxoa&A6HÍHiiH h 
roioxHu. a HOToify eie-ejie boio^bjih hofh. 

Ho BOTB, B80<JpaBmHCB Ha npHropoRi, ohh yBHA^^ nposaaieH- 
Haro maraxi b'b cra orB -ce^H. Rojiorojibhhri ne SBARajrB, noroMy 
HTo OHX npHAepsHBajTB ero pyRofi, naJiRa ne CTynaia 6oiBnie o 
di^ux), H ovB meix fiucrpuiiH h TBepAUMH niaraiiH, RaRx nejio- 
Bfaci spinrii. ^epes^B cenyHAy oh^ hc^osi vb ^B,míb. 

lOnoniH npH nepBOMx BapjEflA*]^ na Hero npHiaHjracB sa Ry- 
ciaMH vh CKopTeJiBHOirB ysaci. 

— PasyirifeeTca, ohi npecíŠAyerB naci, — saMiram ^ir-b, — 
pasyiiieTCfl. Ohi npHAepmnB&ii rojiorojii oahoK pyRofi, — aaMŽiHiiř 
m 9T0? — ^TO<hii OH'B He aBOH^bjTB. Hy, Aft HOHoryTB HaMi Bdb CBflxue 
yroAHHRH, norroMy hto fl ne fb CHiaxi 6opoTBefl cb npoRasofi. 

— ÍTb offB sartBaen? — BCRpHHaix MaiiairB. — %í) eny nyaiHO? 
cmxaHHoe sa jiíkio^ mwóu npoRaseHHufi hhcto hsi asoexH npe* 
crtAOBaji jnoAefi? PasB^ rojlorojtb npHB^bmeHi ri» neicy ne saTlui*, 
^To($B JK>AH MorjH HstišraiB ero? JI^hri, xyrB hto-to Rpoercs 
ipyroe. 

— Hy, mhí Bce paBHO, — npocTonajTB ^hri: — CBJía Měna cobcíitb^ 
nosHHyja; Horn y Měna coBcbwb hoarochjihcb. CfiflTue Aa cnacyrB 
Hacb! 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



286 w^ctwDPh EBPOUH. 

• 

— Heya&TO bu Óy^ere TyrB jieataTB (Jesi Tojrey? — saRpnan 
MatqaifB. — BepneMCfl Ha oncpiiToe m^cto. Tairb no spaftHefi irbpb 
OH'B He MOseTE s'B HaiTB no^vpacTLCfl. 

— H-fen, a He noft;íy, — OTBiqajB ^hbx. — Moft Eonei^B npH- 
ineii... A HOseTB 6uTh ohb naes ne 3aM'&TiurB? 

— Kx TOMy »e, sor^a xaK-B, Bamx jiyKi? — saspH^iajrB MaT- 
^aiTB. 

JI^HR^ nepespecTHJicfl. 

— Kasi? BH xoT&iH 6u, qT0(5ii fl Bucrýkmrh vb npoRasen- 
earo? Jl^a y Menfl pyxa ne noAHHMercfl. Hítb, h^ti, nojraore. ď 

JlOry ApaTBCfl CB 3;(OpOBEIMH JHOABMH, ho ho CB npHBHX^HiflHE H 

He CB npoBaseHHEiMH. Ci dTHMH fl ne nory xpaTBCJi. IlycTB neóo 

•San^HTHTB HaCB OTB rtrB H OTB ;ípyTHxi. 

— Hy, — CBasajTB MaxqaiTE, — ecjHBEiys^ ne lorare ApnBCií, 
TO Ójnewb jieataTB cmhpho. 

B^pyrB BBflRHyJIB EOJOBO^IBHHS^b H yMOJíBB. 

— Ohb BunycTHJii ero hbb pyK^B, — npomenrajrB MarqaifB. — 
TocnoAH! KaBi oh^ 6jh3bo otb nacB! 

Ho JIJHSx hh eiOBa ne otb^thjtb; y nero 3y($ii cry^ajni otb 
*CTpaxa. 

BcRop^ OHH jmi^íikm^ t&Erb MeiBRnyjio bb RycraxB 6^oe njaTBe 
npoRaseHHaro; sarbirB rojiosa ero noRasaiacB Hsi-sa Rycra, h okb^ 
RasajíoCB, BFJiflABiBajicfl bo Bcb npeAMeiBi, npes^e nesejra ytra hsi^ 
i3Toro iríera. Dhohih cjiEiniaji0, RaRx 6hjocb cepxi^^e y Raa^^ro 

H3B HHXB. 

BApyrB CB RpHROMB HpORaseHHUft (5p0CKICfl 6'foBaTB npflMO Kh 
HHlfB. OhH CB rpOMRHMB BOHJieHB pa36tea.I]lCB BB paSHHfl CTOpOHH. 

Ho HxrB yaRacHHĚ BparB nornajcs sa MaTiaMOMB, narnarB ero 
noTTH HeneAJieHHO h cxBaxKTB. Dnoma cb rpoMRHMB rphrom'b, 
ROTopEift pasneccfl AajeRO no jricy, noÓHJíCfl cb HHnyry bb ero py- 
lutXB H sai^iTB jíHniRjicfl HyBCTVB H RaRB njiacTB noBajnucfl na 
pyRH CBoero no($tAHTejifl. 

]í,EVh yciHmajrB RpiRi^ h o5epHyjicji. Ohb yBHA&ťB, RaR'B ynaxB 
MaT^aBTB, H BB oxHO MTHOBeHie wb HeMB npocny.icfl rwbKh h CHJia 
BepHyjracB rb Heny. Ob RpHROirB eocrpa^amfl h apocTH ohb cxBaTHXB 
jiysB H HaTflHyji'B TOTEBy. Ho npesAO, HesejíH ohb ycnŠJTB bei- 
CTp^RTB, npORasRennuft noAHflj['B pyRy: 

— Croft, flflKil — saRpH^ajTB sHaROMufi rojocB. — He crp&iflft, 
<5e8yMeiiB! PasB^ th ne yanaeniB Apyra? 

H, nojio»HB'B MaT^aifa na TpaBy, ohb c6pocHjrB Ramomon^ cb 
roiOBu; j!I^HR'B ydnajrB ^epni jni^a capa ^anidjifl BpdRjra. 

— Cap-B ÁaHÍdJib! — saRpnq&iB ^hr^. 



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HEPHÁfl (rmjík. 287 

— RiAHycB neccoft, 9to owhl — OTBiqwi pimapB. — HeysTo tbi 
eo(kpaeniBCfl 8acTp&iHT& CBoero onesyHa? Hobotb xenepseosHCB... 

Ho owh ne AoroBopHjrs h, yRasuBaji na MaTWMa, cnpocHJSíi: 

— EaR% TU ero soBems, fijsjffb? 

— Ji Boay ero uMt&pb ManairB. PasBt bu ero He SHaere? 
Ohi roBopfljTBy Tro BHaerx Bací! 

— jH^a, fl SHaH) dToro MajiEHnica. 

H cdpi lamajiB yjiuÓByjicfl. Ho oh'b bi o6MopoR'6 on crpaxa. 
M, A^K^By fl o^eHB HanyrajTB BacB o($ohxi? 

— (heHB Hanyrajia, cdpi /i,aHÍ9jiB, --CKasaJix jH^hikb h fju&e 
BsxoxHyjix npH BOcnoMHHaHÍH. — Ob Bamero nosBOJieHÍfl, cdpi, a 611I 

OXOTH^e BCTp^^THJICfl CB qopTOlTB H, fOBOpfl HO UpaB^t, AO CHXl 

Qopi en^e ne onoMHHjrcfl otb crpaxa. Ho cRasnie, capi, sa^irB 
BH TaKi nepepflAHJiHCB? 

JIhi](0 cdpa JUfiLBidJisi bap^fb noreMHijio otb rni^Ba. 

— SaniiTB fl nepeoA^feJíca? — csasajii oh^. — Th xopomo CA^aii, 
^no HanoMHHJL'B mh^ 061 dTOiTB. Sa^iiTB? A cnacaxB coÓCTBeHHyio 
msypy bi CBoeiťB coÓCTBeHHOiTB jšcy, JI,er'b. Mh cobcíitb ee bď- 
BpeMfl nonajDi na nojre 6htbu; mu npeniJiH Ty^a tojbeo 3aT6MX, 
^H cirbmaTBCfl ci TOJinoft <$^r.iei^0Bi. Ry^a nox^BaJiHCB Bcb 

MOH BOHHU? }lflK'hj KJIflByCB MCCCOft, fl 8Toro He sHaio! HacB 

<;MeáH jifijíoŘ; erptoi Taní h JierajiH spyroifB nacB. A He bhjc&ii 
^SoiBme HH OAHoro ^ej[OB'j&Ba cb mohmh i^B^TaMH, nocjrl Toro BaRi 
Tpoe najiH na mohx'b rja3ax'B. ?t6 Racaercji MeHfl, to a npH^ujix 
VB niopAH ujbM^ H HeBpexHMi, HO, HOMHfl upo qepHyio crpíjiy, AO- 
cian ce<i% dTO HJiaTBe h bojiokojibhhki h thxoxohbbo Aofipajicfl 

AO TpOHHHBH, BOTOpafl Be^eTB Vh MoOTl-FaySl. H^TB JIH^raHBI 

xfme dTofi; BBAsaHBe BOJOBOJiBHHBa orroHHTB anMmaro padtfoft- 
Hiita Bi sbcy. Ohh Tpacyrca h 6jAjíji%iOTh, Kor^a tojibko ycra- 
maTB ero. HaROHei^'B a Ha($pejrB na TeÚn ci Mai^anoicB. £[ njioxo 

BHXbJTB CKBOBB BaHIDniOHB H CHa^aJia He ÓBIJTB yB^peHB, ^T0 dTO 

BH, rjiaBHUMi oÓpasoMi noroMy, hto no MHornn^B h ocHOBareJiBHtiM^B 

npHHHHElTB yAHBHJCfl, yBHAfl BaCl Blfi^CT^. KpOM% TOFO, Ha OTBpiI- 

lowh uberb, vjíík mhÍ npHXOjiiJiocB hath ice^JienHO h n^ynaa najíRoft 
j^opory, H 60ÍUÍCSL cÓpocHTB RaniomoHB. Ho norjiaAH, ototb rjrynBifi 
HTeHei^ii HaqHHaerB npnxoAHTB vb nyBCTBO, — iipH6aBHJi'B oh'b: — Ranjifl 
sanapcRaro Bnna cobcImi oshbhtb ero. 

Pui^apB BBrran^H;!^ hs^-hoa^b A^HHHaro njiaTBfl 6ojrBnryio ^Jiary 
I erajii TepeTB brcrh h CMa^HBaTB ry6u nai](ieHTa, ROTopufi Majo- 
flo-mtiy onoMHHJicfl h nepeBOAHJTB oasa cb oahofo na Apyroro. 

— Hy, ycnoRO&Cfl, Jía»R'B, — roBopani Ahr'b. — Th bhahhib, tto 
910 BOBce ne npoRaseHHBifi, a capi JJ^anid^iB! 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



288 B^CTHHBl BBPOnU. 

— Bunefi*sa BHna, — CBasaii piu^ipB. — 9to BíOXHen b* Te6a 
MysecTBO. A noxoMii a oÓOEi^h BacL HaBopiiJiH), h mu BTpoeirb or- 
npaBMMCfl Bi> TdBCTOJiJib. OrKpoBeHHO CRasy Te($i, f2I^HB!b, mhí^ He 
xepnHTCfl oifiibTb xyrB sa toicthmh cr^^HaiiH, — npHfiaBorb cdpB /l^a- 
HÍ8A, BuuaAUBafl Ha TpaBy xjA&b h icaco. — Ob caMEUCB vka 
nopx, BaR'B A BnepBue c&ii na koha, mh^ en^e He aoboxk- 

JíOCh 61ITB B% TaKHX'B THCRaXi: SH3HB Vb OHaCHOCTH, HMyn^eCTBO 

H QOMtcTBe noeraBJíeHu na sapry, h b% AOBepmenÍK) Bcero jišcHue 
Bopu oxoTflTCfl Ha iieHfl, Easi Ha sB^pa. Ho a en^e ne cobcíms 
nponaii. Koe-Bxo B3'b mohxi mojioai^obi Bepneicfl se AOMOfi« Oi 
FaT^ieiťb AecflTb ^ejOBŠB'L; aa y Cejiivi^eHa mecTepo. Cnopo uu 
onflTB yBp&iHMCfl, H ecJiH liH^ yAacTCfl homhphtbca cb jopffiwh 

lopBOMl, BOTOpOMy BApyPB HOBeSJIO, TO MU Cb T06olt, ^HBB, OHflTB 
6yAeM'B BOHHaMH H OHflTB CflACMl Ha BOHeft. 

H, roBopfl BTO, pui^apB naiH^rB pon BaHapcBHMi bhhom!b k 
HOAHecB Bi ryÓaMX. 

— CejiBAeHi, — npoÓopMorajKB ,3,hbi, — CesBAeHi! 

n yMOIBl. 

Cdpi ,S«aHÍdJiB úTEsiJL% porB OTB ryfo, ne 0Tue6HyBi BHna. 

— Hy! — saBpHqajii owb HSM^HHBmHMCfl fojtocomt^: — b'b qeMB 
A'i^o? CeoBAeHi? ht6 ciyujiocB cb CejiBAeHOMi? 

^HB'B nepeAajťB hob^ctb npo sacaAy h asCieme JiOAeft capa 
AaHÍ8J[fl. 

Pui^ipB cjiymaai MOjna, ho junift ero ncBasHJOCB 6šmeHCTB0M^ 
H ropeMi. 

— Hy, BorB Te6i Moa npaBaa pyaa, — daBpHqa^ii ohi>, — hto a 
OTOMH^y! ÉcJH fl ne CA^aaio dxoro, ecjra a ne saryÓJíK) Aecai*^ 
AymtB sa BasA&i^ CBoero Bonna, to nycTB ÓyAy a upoBJíarB! JI 
sarnaai 8Toro ^eBBopxa, BaBib ojien^; a nycTHJii ero no MÍpy; a 
OTHajťB y Hero HM^J^nie h aomi; a busbhjtb ero h81 crpanu; aoH^B 
onaTB BepHyjica, hto($u BpeAHTB mh^! Xopomo se! oh'b ne yftAorB 
OTi Měna i^^umb! 

Ohi HOMOJiqajii n-i^BOTopoe BpeMa, npHHeM:B na Jimíb ero 60- 
pOdSHCB caMua asua CTpacxH. 

— "ÉniBTe! — BApyn aaBpHHajTB oht.. — Hy, a tu, — oÓpaTHica 
OHI B'B MaTqaMy, — noBjanncB mhí, hto nocjiÍAyeniB sa mhoS b'b 
MooTB-raysi! 

— EjiaHycB ^ecTBK), — OTBinairB ManaMii. 

— Hy, oneHB Basna mb4 TBoa HecTBÍ— aaRpanaa-B puiíapB. — 
RjaHHCB cnacenieMi Aynin TBoefi MaTepa! 

MaTqaMi jifijn^ TpeSyeMyio BiaTBy, h c8p'B ^amajEB onaxB Ha- 
BHHyjiii BaniomoffB na roiOBy h hphtotobhjii bojiobojii h naisy. 



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HlEPHAa CTFMA 289 

YBUflibtb ero noA'B dxofi crpameoň jiHHHHofi buobl nouasaiocb ysac- 
AJuiTB A^2 ero cnyiEHKOBi. Ho pui^apb cBopo CHapaAti^Cfl bi ujtl. 

— 'ĎnibTe CBopifi^ — CKaaaJTb ohi, — h cjTS^yfiríí 3a mhoS btb 

MOft AOMl. 

H CL 3THMH CJIOBaiCH OHI CHOBa yfJiyÓHJlCfl Bl JI'k7B, a KOďO- 

BasbWBTb onflTb sasBflBajii na KasAOMi máry; lOHomu caxkjiE sa 
"t^og, He npHTporHBaflCB ki> nei h npHCJiymHBajitiCB Kb TOMy, saKi 
sBOHi BOJOBOJia MeA^eHHO aaMHpajTB B^ajiu. 

— H TBJVb BH ornpaBJífleTecB B*L TaHCTOJiJib?— cnpocMJi^ JI|HK'b. 

— RaKi» BH;^HTe, — OTB^qajrt MaTqaM'B. — ?to ast ^-kiaTb! fl 
xpa6p^ sa cnnHoft capa Jl^anlajfl, ne^sejiH npH neirb. 

Ohh nocir&niHO nobiH h nomm no TponHHB^, npojieraBniefi 
íepe^b j^cb, rA']^ bbicobíh 6epe3b[ paoiH rpynnoMu, nepe^yscb cx 
3&ieHLiMH jyacafiBaHE, a iithi^li u úíjikií Bece^io npura^iH no u-j^t- 
BflMi. ^Ba ?aca cnycra ohh yss^ oqyTH.iHCb na npoxHBOuojiosHofi 

CTOpOH'6 JI'&Ca H H3'B~aa A^P^BbeBl) HM'B BHAHbl ÓblJH KpaCHUfl CT^HH 

H KpoBJH TsHCTOMb-rayaa. 

— 3A'6cb, — cKaaajTb MaTiani, ocraHaBJíHBaacb, — mu npocTHMca. 

— 3aT6M% 9T0? — cnpocHJi'b ^hki». — Bía^ mh HAeMT» bm*ct6 
Bi TancTOJjib, h a 6yAy xaifb bha^tboh ci> Bann, h wb}n> nan^e, 
rtiTb jiy^one. 

— A BHaere htí), Jíhkx, — npoAOJiJRan* MaiiaMX, — y Měna 
xyAHfl npeA^yBCTBia. Bh Tenepb yBHAHxe Apyroro capa J^amaja: 
Ao CHxt nopi eMy bobjio h bco yAaBaJiocb; a xenepb, Kor^a ero 
ocasAaiorb ney^a^H, ofb ORaTKexcfl njioxHM'b jiopAOMib h a^^kh Bací, 
H AJfl MeHfi. Ohx MoaseTi 6biTb h xpaópi na nojrb ÓHTBbi^ ho OH'b 
jsei^; H BB rjrasaxx ero h nponejrb crpaxx, ^hkx, a CTpax'B 
TaKb se secTOR'b, Raní h bojib'b! Mbi HAeM^b bx nacrb BOJiBa, JI^hbi, 
H Aa cnacen nacL cb. Mapifl! 

Sai^iTB OHH MOJiqa npoAOJi^KajiH npb h aohijih, HaBoneiii), ao 
yKp^HjieHHaro mojinmjBk capa Jl^ania^fl, cx ero BpyrjuMH ÓamnaMH, 

nOpOCmHKH MXOMX H mHpOBHMX pBOMl Cl BOAHHUMH JLEJÚSlUli. KaKX 

lOJbKo OHH noAonura, Bopoxa pacTBopHjHCb, noAxeMHbift moctb Cua^b 
cayjBfifCbj H caMi capb ^ániajib Bif^crJk cb FaT^eMi h naTepoMx 

BCTpferHJTb HXX. 

A. 3 



To» IIL-MAft, 1889. 19 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



x: 



OÍEPKH 



H3'b 

HCTOPIH PYCCKATO C03HAHia 



I. 

PoBHO AB*CTH jrkvb TOMy Ha3aA'b, BTi 1689 r., nerjKB Be^HBÍfi, 
noAaBEiBinH crp^ei^sitt 6yHTL h HHaaoasifBinH i^apeBHy Co^bio, Ha- 
qaJiii caMOCToaxejiBHO npaBHXB pyccBHMi* rocy^apcTBOM-B. B-b AByx- 

COTďJ^THeifB HCTOpHHeCBOMl Oniir6 MU Ha&A6M^ AOBOJIBHO OCHOBaHÍft, 

qTOÓu cyAHTB, xoponrL wiu Aypenx óujvh totb nyrs^ na BOTopufi 
Poccia BCxynHJia wb anoxy npeoÓpasoBama. ][jisi HaniHxi oth,obi>, 
BO BpeMfl cnopoBi Mes^y CJiaBflHO^HJiaMH H sana^HEBaMH, ato Óujtb 
jiHinB TeopeTHHecBÍfi Bonpoeb a^a Hacx s&e owh xenepb nojiy^aerB 
cyn^ecTBeHHoe SHseeHHoe 8Ha?eHÍe. 

no o6infiuy CBceiiy CMUciy n HanpaBjeHÍK) pe^^opna Ilerpa 
BesHKaro ne Óujíb, js;ia pyccRaro eapo^a ^irB-HH6yAB coBepmeHHO 
HOBUMx: OHa BOsoÓHOBJífljia H npoAOJUsaJia npe^aHÚi RieBCsoS PycH, 
npepBaHHUfl MOHrojiBCRHiirB namecTBieirB h Bcenor^on^aioii^eH) pa6o- 
TOft rocyAapcTBeHHaro o6'BeAHHeHÚi. KasoBEi 6ei hh Óblih jnraHUfl 
CBOttcTBa H nocrynRE Ilerpa BeoKaro, owb CBOHifL HcropinecBHBrB 
noABHroMi: BOSBpan^aji^B PocdH) na totb xpECTÍaHCKÍ& nyrL, he 
ROToputt ona BnepBue craia npn cb. Bjia^Hiópi. M^haa CBoe Ha- 
i^ioHajibHoe H;^oj[onoRJiOHCTBO Ha BcenaiOB^^ecRyH) B^py^ A^fl boto- 
pofií „wbvh BJLiHHa H íyAefl'', Poccifl t^itb caMuirs orpeRajacb otb 
asbnecRaro o6oco€jieHÍfl h saMRHyrocTH, npH3HaBaja ce6si cocraBHOH) 
qacTBK) eAHHaro qejOB^qeciBa, ycBOflJia ce6k ero HCTHHHue HHre- 



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OÍEPEH H3^ HCTOPIU PyCCKATO C03HAHia. 291 

pecu, npioÓmajiacB ero BceMipHO-HCTopHqecKOň cy^tSí. Ilpnaarie 
xpHCTÍaHCTBa, ecjiH OHO óhuio ucKpeHHO, He Morjio oeraHOBHTbCH na 
aiOBecHOHi HcnoB^AaHÍH ubs^hiixi AorMaTOBx h na Hcno^HenÍH 
6jaro9ecTHBux'B oópajiflwb] oho najiarajio Ha odpaii^enHuS napo^x 
npaRTHqecRyH) sahany — npeo^pasoBEiBaib cbok) aiHSHb no Ha?a.iaM^ 
HCTHHHofi peinrÍH, ycrpoÁTb bi cmuci^ h Ayx']^ axofi peiHiin bc£ 
CBOH A^a H oTHomeHÍfl. KieBCKafl Pycb A^ftcTBHxejibHO BCTyiiHJia 
na arorb nyrb, xoia, pasyMÍerca, nepBue maró ne mooh 6tiTb 
(aA^u H TBepAU. Bi ^hshh napo^a ocraBajiocb mhofo AHKaro n 
flsuqecKarOy ho pfl^OM^ cb dXHifb ucho npoABJíflJiHCb h hobbia ^y- 
lOBHUfl Ha^aja. To npaBCTBeHHoe Hacrpoenie, soxopoe oBja^^^^o 
oópan^eHHUirb on fl3u^ecTBa Bjia^HBiipoarb (3a6oTu o &kji,EuxT> ií 
HeiysHuxi, MHpoJiH)6ie no OTHomenÍK) bi esponeficRHirb cocbjiSMi>j 
OTBpan^enie otb H&ecroBuxi Kasnefi), óhiJio bhojih^ xpEcriancRHArb; 
TasoBu se Óujíjí HyBCTBa h B3rjiflAu, BUCKasannue cto jAtl cnycra 
Bi noyHeniH Bjia^HMÍpa MonoMaxa. 9to Hacrpoenie nejibsfl CHnraTb 
3a qT0-HH6yAb ncKJiioiuTejibHoe h cjiyqaftHoe. Xoxa neMnorie atara 
Tasí xopomo, kslkt> MonoMaxi, ho bcš AyMajiH TaRx, RaR'B oh'b. 
BaxHOfl yRjionenuí otb xpucriancRaro nyra bi» oén^ecTBOHnofi shshh 
(HanpifM^pi, RHflsecRÍfl ycoóvmu) npHSHaBajíHCb bcímh 3a 3jio h sa 
rpj^xi, HapoAHOe cosnaHÍe ne MHpHJiocb ci> hhmh h ne onpaBAU- 

BaiO HXl. 

IIocTaBJíeHHafl nesAy BusanTÍeio h sana^noio EBponofi, RÍeBCRaa 
Pycb ttorjia cbo6oaho BOcnpnHHTb hcthhhuh ynHBepcajibHUfl nanajia 
ipacriancRofi RyjibTypu homhmo ea OAHOcropoHnnxx n npexoAfl* 
uuixB ^pMi. 3anaAHuS[ (|)eoAaj[H3M'b n A^cnoTHqecRafl i^enipajn- 
saipfl nojiy * asíaicROfi BH3aHTÍH óujivi o^nnaROBO lyjRAu pyc- 
CBofi a&Ei3HH. Boodn^e, cpaBHnTOJibHO Cb ApyruMH crpanaMH, Tor^am- 
H^ Poccifl npeAcraBJífljia naHMen^e npenaTCTBÍt ri o6pa30BaHÍK> 
xpHCTÍancRofi oó^ecTBenHOCTH. Ho jí^jisí ncnojmenk axoft sa^a^n 
ojíHHX^ BHyTpoHHHxx 6jiaronpiflTHHxi yc;iOBÍft Óujío neAOcraTOHHO. 
Haxoj!(2Cb na nyra asiaicRHxx opA^, ne nepecTaBaBmHX'b nannpaTb 
Ha xpHCTiancRiň Bfípí, RÍeBCRaa Pycb AOJi^RHa óujia npe^E^e Bcero 
fiopoTbca 3a cyn^ecTBOBanie. Ilpn c;ia6ocTH rocy^apcTBenHofi opra- 
HU3a^iH axa 6opb6a ne Horjia Úuib ycn^nmoio. MojoAofi Hai^íu 
rposHja onacnocTb HacH.ibCTBenHO nomónyrb, ne ycn^BniH pasBHXb 
CBOHxi AyxoBHuxi con. Tpe(5oBajiocb HacroaTeabHO cosAaxb Rpin- 
Koe rocy^apcTBO. Y^a^noe coBepiuenie Bxoro nacy^naro AÍJia, (n> 
ROTopuiťB ne coBJía^aJia RÍeBCRaa Pycb^ cocraBJífleTb sacayry mo- 
CBOBCRofi Poccíh. Ho, OT^aBaflCb Bcei^^o dTofi Hai^ionajibHO-mxiHTn- 
HecKofi 39jí,MÍbj pyccRÍĚ uapoA'b b^ MOCROBCRyio anoxy jerRO npn- 
HHMarb neotíxoAHMoe cpeACTBO (caibnyio rocy^apcTBenHOcrb) sa ca- 

19* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



292 MCTHHKl EBPOim. 

Myio nikih CBoeft HcropinecROfi shshh, a 3a dTuwh HeH3($isH0 c.t6- 
;^OBajo noreiiH^Hie h HCBaseme paiHrio3HO-HpaBCTBeHHaro u^eajia, 
yRjOHeHÍe otb xpHcriaHCRaro nyrn. 

FjiaBHue rp^XH mocrobceoS Poccíh 6ujih b% dna^HTejBHofi cre- 

neHH rp^XaMH HeBOJIBHUMH, saBHC&IH OTB ^H^mHHXX HCTOpH^eCKHXl 
06CT0aT€ÍJIBCTBTb. TlfERJ7&Ji,eEBUŘ yftTH Bl AaJICRÍft CÉBepO-BOCTOHHBlft 

yrojTB EBponu h jaiTB coq)eAOTOHHTB cboh chjiu Ha qepnofi pa6ort 
rocysapCTBeHHaro oÓ-BeAHHema, pyccEÍfi Hapo^i cx XlII-ro etBa 
0Ra3ajiCfl ^usínecKE o6oco6jieEEuwh otb ocraJiBHoro xpHcríaHCEaro 
idpa, a dTO CHJBHO cnoco^cxBOBajo h AyxOBHOMy o6oco6jieHÍK), pas- 
bhtík) Ha^ioHa;IBHO& ropAOCTH n aroHSMa. Xhbua CHomeHia RÍeB- 

CBOtt PyCH CB APyrHMH XpHCriaHCRHMH Ha^iaMH HMÍJIH, nOMHMO 

RyjBTypHaro Bjiíania, h xy nojiB3y, "tto sacxaBJíajiu Hami HapoA'B 
cosHaBaTB ce6a qacTBio eBponeficRaro MesoB^necTBa, noAAepsKHsajiH 
Bx HeMi» fffcEOTopoe, xoxa Ha nepBux-B nopax-B BecBMa eiaSoe, 
qyBCTBO BceMÍpnoft coJiHAapHOciH. JI,Jia MOCKOBCRaro rocy^apcTBa ea 
mícto bthx-b fijiaroTBopHaxTi BOSA^ftcTBift crajiH Tarocrnua h yna- 
3HTejBHua OTHomenia Kb xH^HOft MoerojiBCRott opA']^. Bidanie bthxi* 
oTHomeHÍfi 6wio ABoaRoe h b^boShí BpcAHoe. Gx o^nofi cropoHU, 
noA^HHeHÍe HH3inett padb h nocroanHua CHomeHÍa Ch neio oRasa- 
Ba.iH ynodoĎAHiomee A^ftCTBÍe HapyccRHX'B (ocoÓeHHo npn hojihomx 
pa3o6ii;eHÍH Hxi cb Esponoft), noHHauuH hxi AyxoBHbií u ByjiB- 
T)pHijfi ypoBeHB. A CB Apyrofi croponu, laRi BaR'B, necMorpa na 
;)T0 noHH»eHÍe, sa pyccRHMH Bce-TaRH ocraBajiocB npeHMyn^ecTBO 
xpucTÍancRoft n HcropH^ecRofi Hai^ÍH, to nocroaHHoe cosHanie BToro 
npcHMyn^ecTBa b% CHomemaxi* cb MonrojiaMH (ee ypaBHOB^meHHoe 
HHRaRHMi Me:RAyHapoAHEiirB o(5nieHÍeirB bi ApyroirB HanpaBJíeHÍH) 

pa3BHBaJI0 Bil MOCROBCRHXl JlK)AaX'B Hai^iOHaiBHOe CaHOAOBOJlBCTBO H 

ropAOCTB. Ob pyccRHiTB Hapo^oici cjy^HJiocB to caMoe, m;h 6uBaerB 

CB qeJIOB^ROMl, ROTOpuft 0<$paniaeTCa HCRJIH>HHTeJIBHO CB JHI^aVH 

HH3inHMH ero no AyxoBHOify pasBETÍio, h otb dToro nojiynaerB npe- 
yBejuneHHoe noHarie o CBoeirB aoctohhctb^ b suMeum. Oco6enHO 

yCIfJIHJiaCB BX MOCROBCROMl TOCy^apCTB^f Ha^iOHaJIBHaa ropAOCTB CE 

nojiOBHHu uaTHaAi^tTaro B^Ra, BO-nepBuxx, noTony, ?to cb HHSBep- 
seHÍeifB MOHrojBCRaro Hra JVb qyBCTBy Bnyrpennaro npeBOCXOACTsa 
HaA'B 6ycypMaHaMH npncoeAHHHJiocB cosHame BH^nmeft chjiu; a bo- 
BTopHXx, noTOMy, TTo ocBO(íoaL;íeHÍe Poccíh otb TaTapi coBnajo cb 
OROHqaTejiBHuiTB HopaÓo^emeiTB BH3aHTÍH TypRann, h crpaHCTByio- 
nUe rpeqecRÍe MonaxH, bi OTUJUiTy sa mocrobcroc majiOBaHBe, no;^a- 
pHJH MocRB^ THxyji^B TpcTBaro PHMa CB npHTasamaiíH na hcrjh>- 
HHTejiBHoe 3HaqeHÍe vb xpHcríaHCROirB MÍpi. ^pearb sto name na- 
pOAHoe caMOMH^nie nojynnjio wbvro bi poi% H^ea^BHaro onpaBxaHia. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



OHEPBH H31» HCTOPIH PyCCKAtO COSBAfílfl. 293 

Rb sieBCKyK) anoxy, Ror^a rpeKH óklih caiíOcroflTejibHU h o6ja- 
laiH q)aBHHTeJii>HO bucokoh) o6pa30BaHHOCTBH), MÍflHie Eix'B Ha pyc- 
CKHxi ó&Lso, Booóu^e roBopfl, diaroTBopHo; oho Haiarajo, xaKik CKa- 
sETb, ticmopuHecKyn) ducuunAuny na MOJio^oň HapoA7>, sacraBJíflfl 
ero npHSHaBaTb sa ApyroH) nai^eĚ AyxoBHoe crapmuHCTBO, paa^xb 
HHOseMiieB^ 3a hxi HAeajbHUfl npeHMy^ecTBa; npn 8tom'b jioshua 

RpafiHOCTH BHSaHTHSMa fle ÓLUUI OnaCHU, TaK'B RaK'B ypaBHOBiuiH- 

BaiHCb npoTHBonojlOHCHUMH bosaMctbíamh Ch sana^a. A'£io npHHflJo 
HHO& BHA'B FL MOCKOBCRyK) dnoxy. Tyrb yse rpeRH asjísumch ne 
Kasi HacaA^iTejiH AyxosHaro npocB^n^eeifl, npeACTaBHTeiii BejniRaro 
xpHcriaHCRaro i^apcxBa u Bucmefi Ryjibxypu, a RaRx paón HeB^p^ 

HUXl, npOCHT&ďH MHJIOCTUHil H JfbCTei^BI. B'b dTOlfb RaHCCTB^ OHH 

MorjiH jiHinb ycHJiHBaTb b^l M0CR0BCRHX'b jiiOAaxi Hai^ioHajibHoe caMO- 
MBÍme; Bidteri Cb TJbťb, npa j^jxobuoíl HsojiHpoBaHHOCTH mocrob- 
csaro rocy^apcTBa, BHsaHTÍácRÚi H^en B^ caMoft Rpaňnefi h rpyóoĎ 
^pift HaxoAUJiH 6e3npenflTCTBeHHLiň Aocryirb B'b pyccRÍe yMn. 
ftb CHjiy 8THXi> HCTopHHecRHXx yciOBÍft — pa3o6meHÍa Cb Efipo- 

noi, BOSA^ftCTBifl MOHrOJlOBl H OAHOCTOpOHHflrO BJmiHifl BHBaUTHaMa 
—CAOXOJíCa BTb MOCROBCROMX rOCy^apCTB^ AyXOBHUň H SHBHeHHUfi 
CrpOĚ, ROTOpbIĚ HHRaRl HeJIbSJi Ha3BaTb HCTHHHO-XpUCTÍaHCR]áM'b. 

dmr^b crpofi HM'&i'b peiHriosnyH) ocHOBy, ho bca pejiHiifl CBO^HJiacb 

a^iCb HCRJIH>?HTej[bHO R'b OpaBOB^pÍH) H OÓpA^OBOMy ÓJarOHeCTÍH), 
BOTOpUfl HH Ha ROrO HHRaRHXl HpaBCTBeHHUX'b 06fl3aHH0CTeň He 

HaďarajH. dxa ^opnajcbnaa pejiHrio3HOCTb Morjia ciy^afino coeAH- 

HflTbCfl Fb TOM*b HJIH ^PyrOMIb JLidUJk Ch ;(06pO;(ÍTeibK) H CBflTOCTbH), 

HO cTOjib xe yAOÓHO MHpHJiacb H cx Rpa&HHMi sjOAMcTBOifb. Bjia- 
roHecTHBTb E npaBOB^pen-b 6ujn> cb. Ceprifl, ho TaR»e ÓJiaroHecTHB^b 
H BecbMa TBep;(x vb B'bp'b 6uja> i^pb HBaH'b IV. ^H 6tcu bí- 
pyiorb", roBopen anocxojrb. Ho BHaaHTiůcRHMx noHariaMx, ycBoen- 
moi^h MocRBOK), orb óojibmHHCTBa jno^eň, orb Bcero xpHCTÍaHCRaro 
o6iiiecTBa ho xpeÓoBaJOCb HH^ero, Rpouri TaRoň B^pu. Tk hcrjho- 
wreJibHbie jih)ah, Roropue atHifb ho AOBOJibCTBOBajiHCb, aojishu 
6iUH OTA^^TbCfl OTb oó^ecTBa, yxoAHTb Fb nycTUHK) HJIH Bna^aib 
ffb K>poACTBO. CaMufi HAeajii cbatocth, npeAcraBJífleiciitt OTmeibHH- 

KaMH H lOpOAHBUMH, óbUrb HO Cy^OCTBy CBOeny HCRJIH)HHTeibH£[M'b, 

OAHOCTopoHHe acReTHHecRHMi> H He Morx ABHraxb BnepeA^ o6^^e- 
CTBeHHyio HpaBCTBeHHOCTb. O^^ecTBennafl aiH3Hb Ónjia jramb Óes- 
pa3JHHH0H) cpe^OH) Mess^y CBflTHMH HO^BHa^HRaMH, RaRi Cepiífi 
HJH BEJVhy H ÓJiaroHecTHBUMH HSBepraiíH, RaRi Hbehi IV. non^TÍe 
o&b HAeaibHOMi coBepmeHCTBŽ OT^&ibHaro JiHi^a coxpanfljiocb Fb 
HapoAHOMi co3HaHÍH; HO TJiaBHoe ycjiOBie msl A^ftcTBHrejibHaro co- 
BepmeHCTBOBaHifl, aja oón^aro npaBCTBeHHaro nporpecca, — HMenno 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



294 B^CTHHR-B KBPOnU. 

drbHmeAhuaH pejHrifl, H^eajnb oĎtrncmeeuHOú npaedu^ — orcyrcTBOBajio 

BnOJIHŠ. 

Bt MOCKOBCKOMx rocyAapcTB*, MEx npeatfle b^ BHsaHTÍH, pe- 
j[Hrí03HUfl H HpaBCTBeHHUfl HaHajia 6ujiií coBckvrb misjíioneau hsi 
o6jiacTH nojiHTHHecKHXt H coi^iajibHHrB OTHomenift. Bt btoS o6jiacTH 
Ha M^CTO BcejieHCRaro xpEcriancRaro H^eajia ABHJOCb wbnro npo 
THBonojioffiHoe TOMy. CoÓCTBeHHOň nai^H h naBiioHajBHOMy rocy^apcTBy 
6hjio B03BpameH0 aócojiiOTHOe sna^eme, oinaToe y hhxx xpHcriaH- 

CTBOM'b. B^b MOCKOBCROfi POCCÍH, BCUŠACTBÍe KpafiHflro HeB^secTBa H 
pasotf^eHifl ch i^HBHJiHBOBaHHHMX iripoiTB, npesHflfl peaRiúfl npOTHBl 
xpHcriaHCBaro yHHBepcajiHsiia npoflBsuiacB bo Bcefi CBoeft chji^. lípu- 
3Ha6afl ceósi eAHHCTBeHHUicB xpHCTÍaHCKHM'B Hapo;(OMi H rocy^ap- 
CTBOiTB, a Bcíxx npo^Hxi CHHiafl „noraHLiMH HexpHCTflKH^y Hama 
npe^^KH, caMH ne no^^osp^Bafl Toro, orpeRajiHCb otb caMoft cym.HOCTH 
xpHCTÍaHCTBa. BH3aHTÍftcKÍe rpeKH, ÓJiaroAapa eotophitb yKopcHHJiocb 
Ha MocBB^ 3T0 Hai^iOHajiBHoe caM()o6osaHÍe, CA^amcB caicH ero 
sepxBOfi. Ohh TaK'B ycep^no BOSBeiH^mBasH 3HaHeHÍe MOCROBcnaro 
rocy^iapcTBa, BaBi eAHHcxBeHHaro sanprraHBa h noRpoBHTejifl npaBofi 
B^pn H 6jiaro^ecTHBaro saROHa, tto y mocbobcehx^b jhojí^ř cBopo 
flBHJTCfl BOnpocB: MorjH JIH caMH rpeBH, noTepflBi npenMyn^ecTBO 
xpHcriaHCBaro i^apcTBa h nopaóon^enHBre noraHUMH, coxpaHHTb y 
ce6a TOCTOTy BipH h nojraory ÓJaroTOcria? Bcnpcci 9TorB Boo6n^e 
pfcniajica ne b% nojiB3y rpeKOBi h iipisBO}sjsji% Kt OKOHTOTejiBHOMy 
3aKjiioqeHÍK), ^to Poccía ecTb eAnHCTBennaa xpHcriaHCKaa 6jiaroTC- 
CTHBafl crpaHa. 



n. 

KaR'B vh noHflTÍH pyccRHxi jiíojí,e% HaHHHaa Cb mocrobcroí 
9noxH, caMO xpHcriaHCTBO yxpaTHJio npHcyn^ee eny yHHBcpcajiBHoe 
SHaneHÍe h npeBparajiocB Bt pejiHrio3HHft aTrpHĎyri pyccRoň napo^- 
HOCTH, TaRt, ecrecTBeHHO, h i^epROBB nepecraja óhtb caMOcroaTejB- 
HOH) coiíiajiBHOK) rpynnoK), cjiHJiacB bi o^ho Hepas^^i^ibHoe uikioe 
Cb Hai^ioHa.iBHUBrB rocy^apcTBOMi, ycBOHJia ce64 bhojhí ero nojin- 
TH^ecRyio 3a;i;aHy h Hcropn^ecRoe nasHaHeme. RaRi 6u rto hh 
oiíÉHHBajrB 3TorB ^aRTB, caMi» no ce6É owh ne noAJeatHTi comh*- 
hík) mu BcaRaro CROJBRO-HHÓy^^B 3HaROMaro Ch pyccRoro Hcropieií 

H COBpeMeHHOH) ;^MCTBHTeJrBHOCTBH). IIOKOňHMň KaXROBX JttOĎHJTB Ha 

nero yRasHBaTB RaRt na name oaBHoe Hcropn^ecRoe npeHnymecTBO. 
IIo3BOJiio ce6t npHBecTH Apyroe, Óojrifee no^Tennoe CBK^í^TejBCTBO, 
ne pa^H BucoRaro aBxopHTexa, HSJínniHflro b^b jsjkjrb ohobhahoitb. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



O^EPIUI H31 UCTOPIH pyCCKAFO 003HAHIK. 295 

HO noTOMy, ?T0 HHRorxa en^e oepBOHanajibHaH cyn^HOCTb HamincB 
i^epROBHO-rocyAapcTBeHHBixii OTHomeEdň ae 6ujih BaiomeHa Cb mROK) 
acHOCTBH), KpacHopi^ieMi* H HCTopHHecKOK) BipHOCTbH). IlpeocBamefl- 
Hi^Binifi HHKaHop'B, apxienucRoni* xepcoHCsift h OAeccRÍň, bi HCAaBHO 
HSAaHHog RHHJKR^ CBoefi „D^epROBB H rocy^apcTBO '^ oHineTB Me;RAy 
npoHHiTE cji^;^yH)ii^ee: ^Hbb^tho, cb nero y naci Ha PycH nonuiH 
H JMJVb BcrpiTMHCB rocy^apcTBO H líepROBB... Hsbíctho, HTO JIH)- 
ÍHn^ie CBofioAy, TO^HŠe — maTyna HOMa^u, ^yrb-qyrB naxapH, Hanra 
npeARH, nposEtBx na cbohx'b iiihporhx'b seiiiAxi, MOxerB óutb, 
TucAHeji^TÚi, HaROHei]('b, Ha^yMajiHCB oTRasaTBCfl otb CBoeft cbo6oau, 
ptmHFB nosBaTB r'b ce6t BapHSCRHXi RHflsefi cb HaRasoicB: seujtsí 
Hama BejiHRa h o6HJ[BHa, a nopsAKa bi neň hířtb; upH^nre rha- 
zBTb H BOJiojiibTh HaMH. Sa^ajiocB rocy^apcTBO. Ho ď nepBo6uTHoe 
rocy^apcTBO ne hh^o hh JiEinearo, hh senejiBHaro i^eHTpa. PiopoRi 
oósfucfl 6BL30 Bx HoBŽ-ropoA^, HO Ojierb yse o6jiH)6HjrB RieBi, a 
CeflTocjiaBi CTpeMHJicfl yse sa Jl^ynaŘ bx Bojirapiio. Canoe se 

BaSHOe, PlOpHRB CB 6paTBflMH npHHeCJIH CB C060i0 COÓCTBeHHO He 

rocy^apcTBeHHoe, a ceiieňnoe h poAOBoe yA'J^BHoe nanajio, Roropoe 
msKBO óujio CRopie pasApoÓHTB/ ^iwb cnjOTHTB pyccRÍft napoA^. 
BoTB xyTB-TO H Ha^anacB ÓJEaroTBopnaa MHoda cbatoB npaBOCiaBHoá 
i^epRBH JÍM pyccRaro napoAa h rocy^apciBa. 

Jíe B^asaflCB vh noApoÓHOCXH, HasoBeiix cyni^ecTBeHHUfl ^epiu 
9Tofi t^epKoeuo-iocydapcmeeHHOú muccíu. IIpaBOCiaBnaa AepROBB 
npHHeaia na PycB h3t> npaBOCJiaBHOfi BasaHrÍH vdeio eeAUKaw khhsh^ 
KasB BoroifB nocraBjíeHHaro BJia^HRE, npaBHxejifl h sepxoBHaro 
cy^H noABiacTHiixx napoAOBX, ycrpaHHBX cJiaBAHO-BapascRyH) H^eio 
RHiiafl, RaR'B ciap^fiinaro bi poA^ aTanana y^a^oft, noRopaioniiefi 
orneMii, ^Rea^oiTB h ]s,y6hewhj Apy^RHEU. D^epROBB nepenecia Ha 
PycB H3i BHsaHTÍH íideio locydapcmea^ cb ycrpaHemeiix BapamcRofi 
H^eH seHJiH CB HapoAOiťB, ROTOpyK) REfisecRÍň poAx MOSReTB Apo- 

6htB 6e3T» ROHI^l, RaRX y^felBHyH) CBOK) COÓCTBeHHOCTB. D^epROBB 

yreepAHiia eduucmeo napoduaio caMocoaHauis, CBflsaFB HapoA'B 
eAHHCTBOiirB B^pti RaRx eAHHORpOBHuxi^, eAHHOAyniHux'B ^a^o^ eAHHaro 
On^t HeÓecHaro, npH3BmaH)n](Hxx Ero npeHeÓecHoe hmh na eduuoMi 

H3blKlb^ BOTOpuft CB T^Xl HOp^B CTaJI'B A^fl BCÍ^X^B CSOBeHCRHXl HJie- 

MeHi> eAHHUMi, poAHiDfB H CBiim,eHH£iMi H3UR0MI. D^epROBB cos^ajia 
cnepBa oaho, hotoitb Apyroe Aoporoe a^ napo^a CBATEjHn^e, bx 
Eieff]^ h Mocrbí, BaRpinHBx xaifB cbohmx ÓJiarocJOBeHieMx, cbohmh 
xoiHTBaHH, cocpeAOTO^eHieirB lan^B Bucnrax^B i^epROBHuxi y^pes^e- 
mis, iricronpeótiBaHie ece-censyiow^ tocydapcmeenuou sAacmu. 
ll,epBOBB nepenecjia na CBaTyio PycB rpaMory h RyjiBTypy, tocydap- 
cmeeHHbie šanonu u huhu eusanmtúCKaw t^apcmea. ĚAHHCTBenHO 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



296 BftCTfluRi EBPoma. 

TOJILBO I](epEOBB 6£Lia COCHpaxeJIBHni^eK) pa3p03HeHHEIX'B pyCCRHXl 

KHflfl&ecTB^b, pa3A'&ieHHUxi e^e ÓojiBine, ^wb crapHHHUfl njeneHa 

CiaBflHCTBa, yA'Í^BHEIMH yC06Hi;aMH. ExHHCTBeHHO TOJIBRO l^epBOBB 

cnepBOHa^ajia 6ujia, coÓHpaTeiBHHiiteH) pyccBHX'b j[H)Aeft, RHjiseft, 
ropo;^OB'B H denejiL, pasAaB^ieHHBix-B laTapcKHirb norpoMoirb. D^epsoBB 
Buirkn^OBajia, Bnpocrujia ciaóaro MOCROBCKaro kebss enepaa ffi 
BejLHRO-RHflsecRaro, a noTOM% h ao i](apcBaro BejiH^a. nepeca;^Bi 
H BupocTHBi Ha pyccEoň seujA udeio auaaHiniúcKato edunoeMicmU'' 
meAtcmea, i](epBOBB Bosjrosiua h cb. HrponoMasame ApeBHHX'B npa- 
BOCJiaBHuxi rpe^ecRHxi i](apei[ na i^ipa MOCKOBCBaro h Bcesi PycH^. 
TaKHiťb o6pa30M'b, saBjnoHaerB fl,2íjrbe npeocBflni^eHHiift bhtíh, „CBflTaa 
npaBOCJiaBHafl Btpa CBflsajia pyccRHX'b fb napodnoe eduHcmeo^ nod- 
Huneunoe eduuoú eo/ith HoMasaunuKa Eooháh^ ^). 

CorjracHO arofi npaBAHBoň RapTHH']^ Bucmífl AyxoBHUfl chjibi pyc- 
CKaro Hapoj^a, npe^^CTaESfleMUfl ii^epKOBBH), Bcei](tjio Óujih nocsan^eHu 
o^HOMy HCTopHHecKOMy A*Jíy — co8;íaHÍH) H yKptiueHiK) rocy^apcTseH- 
Haro eAHHOBJíacTÍfl. Mu snaeM^B, RaR'B Heo6xoAHMO 6ujio aro a^o. 
Ho npH T^xi BcenoTJion^aiomHxi pasM^paxi, Roropue Ha^ioHaJIbHO- 
nojiHTHHecRafl sahana npHHflja fb MOCROBCRyio anoxy, ]5m cosnamfl 
pyccRaro napo^a 3aRp£iJ[HCB BCflRÍfl AaJiBHMmm i^^h^ Bucmifl ea- 
Hajia xpHcriaHCRaro yHEBepcajins^a Ótura 3a6uTu, h Bce npaRTHne- 
CRoe MÍpocosepi^iHie npHHfljio rpyÓo-flsuHecRÍft xapaRiepi. TaRHirB 
o6pa30irB npoi](eceB rocy^apcTBeHnaro oÓie^HneHÍfl, npH Bceň CBoed 
HCTopnqecKoK Heo6xoAnMOCTH, CBfl3aH'B 6u^'B CB rjiyóORO-HeHopMajB- 

HBIMH ABJíeHiflMH Wh SASHE HapOfta H npHBeJl erO R!B xyxoBHOMy 

oahwhíh). Bi oůmfiwh xo;^ pasBHTÍfl Hamero eaiiióHajiBHaro opra- 
HHSMa Ha MOCROBCRyio dnoxy aojurho CMorp^TB RaRi Ha npoAOJiXH- 
TejBHyH) H TflSRyK) 6oAfb3Hh pocma. HeJiBdfl se, HanpHiišpB, vb i^tp- 
CTBOBanÍH HBana IV bha^tb Btipasenie sxopoBoň o6n^ecTBeHHOi 
acHSHH; HejiB3fl a^e bx stoi^b ÓJiBTonecmBOWb i^api, 6e3npenflTeTBeHHo 
y6HBaK)m,eMx cbatofo apxiepea, ycMaipHBaxB HopnaJiBHoe npoflBjeHÍe 
iiepROBHO-rocyAapcTBeHHuxi OTHomenift. 

BojifoHB pocra, Roropoio Óojitia Poccia vb MOCROBCRyio anoxy, 
AOCTHTJia CBoeft RpafiHefi crenenH wh nojiOBmrk XYII-ro B^Ra, h 
TjTh 3Re jífiASRewb Óujii* HacrynHTB p^mHTeJibHuft nepeiOMi*. B-b 
i](ap€TBOBaHÍe AjieRC^ Mexa&JiOBHqa oasHaa ujkjih aroro ÓojiteneH- 
Haro npci^ecca óuuia Aocrarnyra: cb npHCoeAHHeHÍeiTB yRpaHHu h 
MaJopoccÍH Rx MOCROBCROMy rocy^apcTBy 06^ Ropennuji pasHOBH^- 
HOCTH pyccRaro napo^a óujin coaflHu bm^^ctíi, h HasBame ii^apa h 

') I(epKOBb B rocyxapcTBo. — IIpoTHKb rpa<|)a JT. ToiCToro.— Becbxa npeocBAQea- 
uaro HHKaHopa, apxieaBCKOiia xepcoHCKaro h o^eccKaro. C.-IIerepÓypri. 188S. Crp. 
49, 50—62 H 55. 



Digitized by 



Google 



O^PEH H31 HCTOPIH PFCCKArO CGOTAHIfl. 297 

caiioxepxi^a Bcea PycÍH nepecrajio 6utb nyciuMi^ THryjOBťB. B'b 
TO se BpeMfl rocjAapcTBeHHoe e^BHOBJíacTie fb Mockb^ nocjťk síe- 
CTOKoň 6opB6u p^mHTejn>HO BOcropsecTBOBajio h HaA'B 3ano8AaJiuMH 
npiiTflsaHiflMH Óesno^eHHaro KjiepHBajiHSMa (aí^o naTpiapxa Hu- 
KOHa), H HaA'B npesA^BpeMeHHEiHU crpeMJieHiflMii OAnqajiaro eapo^a 
Bi pesHiioBHofi CBOÓOA*]^ (pacKOJi^b CTapoo6pflAHecTBa). 

Mu sHaeiTB) qxo cosAame BceBJíacTHaro rocy^apcTBa bx Poccíh 
(oso rjiaBHuirb oópasoMi ^"^0 iiiepBBH; ona, no BupaseHÍH) npe- 
ocBfloieHHaro HHKaHopa, „BunicTOBajia" MOCKOBCRoe eAHHOAep»aBÍe, 
H vb dToifb cocTOflJia BCfl cfl HCTopHHecRafl sa^a^^a. Ho Kaní mg- 
sen „iri^cryHi*'' BcrynaTB b^ copeBHOBaHÍe ci cbohmi BOspocmiiMt 
nHTOja^eiťb? He cjiŠAyerB jih eny, HcnojiHHBniH CBoe HadHaneHÍe, 
yAaJiHTbCfl Ha noROft? Ho naipiapxi Hhkohi 3axoT&i'B bo hma i^ep- 
BOBHofi BJiacTH pas^^^Tb BApjrb TO caMoe KkiOy ^Mt> RoropuMi. 
ara BJiacrb xan^B ycnimHO paóorajia bi Teneme mhofhxi b^kobi. 
OAymeBJHBmiá HHBona KjepHRajHsifB 6hurb OTBJíeveHHOK) AORxpH- 
Hoft 6e30 BCfiRoň HCTopHqecRofi noHBu b% Poccíh. yiBepsAafl cboh) 
AyxoBHyfo BjacTL RaRi» óesycjiOBHO nesaBHCHMoe na^ajio, craBs ee 
^wb H Bume rocyAapcTBa h napo^a, ohi> BOs6j3Bij[,sui'b npoTHBi* ceóa 
H rocy^apcTBO, h HapoA'B. B'b Poccíh hc ORasaJiocB HHRaRHX'B oó^e* 
eiseHHuxi ajiCMeHTOBi, Ha Roropue owh uon 6u onepeibca npn 
ocyn^ecTBJieHÍH CBoefi H^en. I[pHHysAeHHu& HCRaxB ce6h to^rh onopu 
bhí Poccíh, owb oópan^aerca wh nepBoncroHHHRy Hamefi n^epROB' 
HOCTH, Bi BH3aflTÍK). OffB BOOpy»aeTCfl npoTHBi pyccRaro Hai^íona- 
Jisiia H npOTHBonocraBJífleTi eiiy Hax^íoHaiHSMX rpe<iecBÍft. „Xota 
nopoAy fl pyccRÍĚ, — roBopnrB ohi, — ho no oÓpaaoBaHÍio h Btpt — 
rpeBx". 3thmh ciOBaMH ool oÓJiH^aeTi ÓeaojiOAflocTb CBoero npe^- 
npiflTÍH, h6o RaRafl naAOÓHOCTb Morjia 6utb pyccRony napoAy Toro 
BpeiieHH MŽHflTB CBoe AOMamHee asunecTBO na ny^Loe, „pyccRyio B^py^ 
Ha »Btpy rpe^ecRyH)**? Kx TOMy »e ^rpe^ecRaa Bipa** Morjia homohb 
HoRony vb jifbA^ HcnpaBJíeHÍH rhhxhuxi one^axoRi, no HHRaRi> 
He vb fiíkjífk 0CB0(i0SAeHÍfl i^epRBH on rocyAapcTBa. To norjionj^eHÍe 
;^yxoBHoft BjacTH CB^TCROH), upoTHBi ROTopapo Hhrohx BOdCXaBaJIl 
BTL Poccíh, 6hjio jinniB noBTopemeMX Toro, htí) ropasAO pante co- 
BepmHJiocB m> EnsaníÍH. Hyseni Óujťh OTBje^enHLiž ywh HuRona, 
TioÓH vb ÓopBÓt CB iiiapeMi naLA^Tbca na noAA^p^Ry i^apenoRJiOH- 
HHROBi rpeROBi. BuAaHHuft rojioBoň cbohm^ BparaM*B, ocymAenHufi 
H HH3jioseHHuň BOCTOHHiíMH íopapxaHH 3a COnpOTHBJíeHÍe MÍpCROMy 
npaBHTejBCTBy, Hhrohi jsftJii&ewb 6ujrb ysnaTB, RaR^ othochtca »rpe- 
HecRaa Bipa** Ri ero i^epROBHOMy HAeajiy. MnTponojiHrB raacRiíí 
IlaHcíft JlHPapHA^B oÓiflCHHJTB oMy, qTO „AB^ rojiOBu pHMCRaro opjia 
aa rocyAapcTBeHHOMi repGt, nepemeAmeirB mi> U^apBrpaAa bt^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



298 BfUflTEOXJp EBPOmi. 

MocRBy sHaMeHyiOTB ji,vk BepxoBHUfl sjíacTH, b% paBHofi ix^kfib h 
6e3pa3A^i>HO npHHaAJie2sam,ifl caMOj^epsi^y, a hmcheo: ejuctb HaA'^ 
rocy^apcTBOiTB h BJiacTB HaA'B i^epBOBBH), ynpaBJíeHie A^anK iiip- 

CBHMH H JiíkJIBMVl AyXOBHUMH, OTRy^a ABCTByeTB, ^TTO npaBOCiaBHUfi 

i^apB ojijiwb a ca,wb no ce&k o^Jia^aeri hojihotoh) BCflKoft bjuicth 
Ha seujvk H ?T0 na^o^ hhitb h^tb ehrofo, Rpoiii 6ora^. 

TaRHMi oÓpasoMi ocHOBHoň ^aRTB Hamefi HcropÍH yTsepsK^eHi 
B-B flCHofi H npocToft ijfopujjtb, BOSBe^eHi Bi ÓesycaoBHiift npHH- 
i^HiTB. MocROBCRÍft coóopi 1667 T., HO^i npeAC^AaTejBCTBOMT* rpe- 
qecRHxi naipiapxoB-B, TopsecTBeHHO yrBep^tHBmH noHATÍe o uiepRBH, 
RaR'B o ^yHRipH FOcyAapcTBeHHaro opraHHsica, AOJiseH-B Úujtl cb 
jiorH^ecROH) Heo6xoAHMOCTBH) ocyjí,\ATh sapasi h HHROHa, h cxapo- 
oÓpaffieBi, T.-e., cb oji^oř cropoHH, RjrepHRaflBHyio hach) i^epsBH, 
RaR'B HesaBECfOfoft H BucoHaftmeft AyxoBHoft BJiacTH, a cb j^pyrofi 
cropoHu, HaipoHajíBHo-AeMORpaTHqecRoe npe^craBJíeHie i^epRBH, KaB'L 
coBORynHOCTH iipaBOCJiaBHaro pyccRaro napo^a, HeHSM^HHO xpaHa- 
n^aro oxe^ecRÍfl npéxanifl. 

MosHO HaxoAHTB sAopoBBie HAeaiBHue djeneETH h bx iepap- 
xiraecRom* nporeírrt UHROHa, h vl ^eMORparanecROicB npcrecrfe 
crapooÓpflAi^eBi npoTHBi o^4^HiííajrBHO& i^epRBH. Ho acho, ^to iipaRTH- 
HecRitt ycntx^B SToro npoTecra 6hji'b h HeBOSMoaceBPB, h ne seia- 
Te-ieHi. .ScHO, RaROMy HOBOMy npoHSBOjry n HacHjáio no^Beprs 6u 
Hapo;(Hyio shshb óesnoHBeHHuň RjiepHRajuisirB HERona vb ciyna^ 
ero ycn^xa ^). ^t6 RacaeTCfl jifl crapootípn^HecRaro ABHsemfl^ to 
npH Bceft CBoeň oipni^aTejiBHofi npaB^i (no OTHomeHiio r-b o<|H|)H^iaJrB- 
Hoft i^epRBe) ono 6ujio bi cyn^nocra jnmB RpafiHHirB BB[pa3KeHÍeH'B 
Toro flSEi^ecRaro o;i;H^aHÍfl, fb ROTopoe Bnaja Poccifl Kb mocrob- 
CRyio dnoxy. IIpHsnanie óesycaoBHofi HensirlHHOcrH idkrnaro h epe- 
Mennaro npe^anin, naich npedauúi, ynpas^^njijo vb RopH'& xpBcriaH- 
CRÍfi yHHBepcajiHSMi n xpEcriancRÍŠ nporpeccB. Ob tj^itb Burí^cr^ 
oónapyaHJiacB h npaRTHnecRaa HecocroaTaiBHOcrB crapooÓpaA^eeraa. 
Oho yTBepxA&^o ceófl RaRi naiiioHajBHyio pyccRyio i](epROBB, T.-e. 
RaR'B BucmyK) pejrariosnyio ^^pny napoAHaro e^HncTBa. Ho 0Ra3a- 

') Cm. o6i dTOMi vb npexHCJioBiB Kt Mocny coHHHeHÍi) „flcropú h 5yxyiiCBocTi> 
TeoRpaTÍH'', TOMi I. H^brb HH^ero yAHBHT&iLHaro, ^o xo^paft, ho npocroxyniHHfi h ne- 
npoHHuaTOjBHHfi HajibMepi, ki> TOMy ze iHmb airasoxHHecRH aHasoMHft cb pyccKom> 
HCTopieif, 6e3MÍpH0 BocxHTHicA Hhrohomi h ero npexnpiarieMi, bi Heyxa^ Koroparo 
ycMOTp'bji raóejb Poccíb (cm. ero orpoMHUíi mecTH-roMHHft Tpyxi »The Patriarch and 
the Tsar**). MeH'be bobjitho aoxoÓHoe yRiCHeHÍe co cropoHu pyccRHxi nncaTejeft. Bnpo- 
newb npocjULBjíeHie HHROHa, — ROTopuft 6hji^ Bce-TasH lejrostRi h^oh h norR6-b bi» 
6opb6i sa uee, — ecrb secbMa yrlkniHTejibHoe aBjíeme bi> naniH xhh, Rorxa x&3Ke nodra 
BUKaaiiBaDrb HecjiEixaHHyD xocejié CKJtOHHOCTb ri anóeeosi^ eacHJiifl n 6e3i('kibHiix3> 
xecTOBOcreR. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



O^EPKH HS-b HCTOřIH PyCCKArO COSHAHIH. 299 

iOCB, ^TO CaM'L pyCCBÍfi HapOA^B (b'B SHa^HTeJIBHOMX ÓOJlhimiECTWk 

CBoeMi) ncHHiiajii jiíkjio HHane: OffB mzó^suvb am CBoero o&bejifl' 
HeHÚi ne pejmriosHyio, a noJiHTHHecRyK) ^opny e;(BHCTBa, oupejiik- 
JHJTB ce6fl He saBx ii^epBOBB, a Rasi rocyAapcTBO. Rto cjsuxbji> 
Wh nameiTB eapoA^ o pyccEofi i](epBBH, o naTpiapx']^ h t. n.? A 
TTO TaBoe pyccKoe i^apcTBO h i^apB — 8to bcabíS noHHMaerB. iKaffaa 
IIpe;^CTaBJIflTB pyccKyio HapoAHOCTB bi ea ujkiocm^ CTapoo6pa;t«ie- 

CTBO OBasaJIOCB TOJIBKO peJIHnOSHOK) CeKTOft; BMÍCTO TOrO, HTOÓU 

oŘBeAHHaTB PocdK) OHO caMO noABeprjocB óesROHe^HOMy Apo6- 
lemo ^). 

TaBHMii oÓpasoM^ ne npHXOAHTca acajiŠTB o no&bjíík y naci ro- 
cyAapcTBeHHaro eAHHOBjracria Ha^i Hey^ta^etiMH ontiraMH KJiepH- 
lajBHOň H HapOAHHqecEofi i^epRBH. Ho h^wl p^nraxejiBHie Óujia 
9Ta noó^^a, wbwb nojraie ocymecTBHJiocB BceBJíacTÍe rocy^apcTBeH- 
Haro Hanajia, rbwb HacroflxejiBH^ BLicrynajrB Bonpoci: ^Tb ace 
AajiBme? RaRoe HasHa^ienie dTOfi rocy^apcTBeHKOĚ chjiii? ^tó jí^ojísrbsl 

;r&iaTB PoCCifl BX 9T0irB CBOeATB Rp^nROlTB H eAHHOMX nOJTHTHqe- 
CEOITB Tbjrb? 



*/ Kasi HsetcTHO, crapooÓpjixqecTBo pacnpocTpaRajocB HCSJiK)^HTejibHo bi. ctaep- 
Hoií ■ BOCTOHHOÍÍ Poccíh, Bi npcA^Jaxi paacejieniA seiHKopyccEaro iiJieMeoH. Bisasniii* 
on roHeHiií crapoo^pjixiMi, ocHOSHBaii kojoiiíh ha yKpaHH'b (OrapoAydu, Btrsa h t. a.), 
Hnorxa He Morm cxiiaTB cbohxx nocejeHÍfi acHrpom* pacKOJbHHHbefi nponaraHAu. 
MaiopyccB (a Taise h ÓijiopyccH) osasajHCb óesycjOBHo HCAOCTynnHHH ajia crapo- 
o6pjA76CTBa, lOTopoe Boo6me pacnpocrpaHaiocB tojbko Taní, nt ki pyccsoMy uace- 
jeeiD npiiM'&iiiiiBajcji (|>HHCKÍfi saeMeHTi; h h^mi ryo^e 6uja dra npHMtcb bi> ^anHoK 
mícthocih, r&Mi. rjyóse ysopeHiiAock bi nefi cmpooópiixHecTBo (BijOMopcRiii h Ojo- 
Bewfi spad, o6jacTb cpe^Hcfi Bojírn h HHXHefi Okh h t. x.)- <^orb ^HKn^ bi. cbíish 
n ocHOBHuirE CBoficTBOMt CTapovbpHecKaro 6yRBajiH3Ma, naBOAHTi. na Ty napaxoscajik- 
HyD Mucib, ^To eAHHCTBeHHoe opHFHHajibHoe y Haci pejHriosHoe ABHxeiríe Bupocjo ne 
Ba pyccKofi, a na (f^HHCKoif 9THorpa4»HHecROÍl noHsi. Bi caifOMx x^;ii, to óesycjioBuoe 
saaieHÍe, KOTopoe CTapoBÍ.pu npHAaiQTi BH^mueMy Heny CBxu^eHBoxttícTBÚi h 6yKB^ 
cjumieHHyxi KHHn>, ue»aBHCHMO otl BCiiKaro CMUCJia, icaRi nejbsji 6ojite cooTB'bT- 
CTByerb aasxHHaTejibnoMy, Mara^iccROMy xapaKxepy pejinriii, KOTopuR hh y Rasoro nje- 
Heini He HaxoxBTCJi bi Tasoft CHJibHofi cTeneHH, Kasi sMenHO y (I^hhhoki. JlnÓonyTHO 

COBOCraBITB Cb aTRMl TO 06CT0iITeJbCTB0, HTO TpaXHaiOHHHe pOAOHaiaJbHHKH BCAROrf 

■arái, xajxeH ÓHjra (no HOBiftnnnfx Hacjt^OBaHiHMi) BepBonaqajibHO <|)HHCRaro npo- 
■cxosAeHÚi (asKaxH n cyiiepu) h ^to asuri. xpeBHiRfliHxi cBBu^euHUxi naMBTHHROBi 
sauHBaTejibHaro HCRyccTBa (aRRaAÍIícRÍ;i RjiHuoor>pa3BUji naAnHCB) npeACTas^jien. BBuoe 
cpoxcTBO ci <t»HBCRHMii HapÍ4ÍiiifH (Cm. LenormaDt, „la Magie chcz les Chaldéens et 
leB origines accadiennes*'). 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



300 B«CTHHB'L EBPOnU. 



m. 



Hh AyxoBHaa BJiiacTb vb aeí\í naipiapxa HHROHa, hh ii^epsoB- 
HUH Hapo;(x Bi» JLBU^ npoTonona ÁBBaKyMa ne csasajiH h ne uovau 
csasaTB o6T>efímeRBOiáy h BOSBejiHHeHHOMy rocy^apciBy pocciácROMy, 
Bi Hewh ero AaJiBHMmaa HCTOpunecRáfl sa^a^a. CRasajii 8to Poc- 
cÍH caiťB HOCHTejib rocyAapcTBeHHoň BjacTH—CKasajrb h ncnojHiurb. 
S. BOBce ae npcysejiuHUBaK) aoctohhctfl h SBianeHia Ilexpa. fl 
Aaa:e saTpyAHaiocb nasBait ero BejiHKeMx nejiOBiKOMi — nenoroMy, 
iTOÓH OHTb He 6ujn> AOcraxoHHO bcjihk^, a noTOMy, ^to owb Óhji 
HeAOcraTO^HO HejiOBÍKi>. Haiin> acTopHqecRifi BeJiusaH^b óujib uo- 
xoTsnb Ha BejiHBanoFB MHOHHecRHxi: KaKx h ohu, ohi 6iurb orpoH- 

HOH), FB qeJIOB^HeCKOlťB 06pa3^ BOnJIO^eHHOiO, CTHXÍ&HOH) celioí, 

BceAijio ycrpeMJieHflOH) napyay, ne BoraeAineH) bi ce6a. HeTpB 
BeJHKÍň He hm^tb flcnaro cosHanifl 06% OKonuameAbuoú i^&ih 
CBoefi A^TejibHOCTH, o BucmeifB nasHa^emH xpacriancBaro rocy- 
AapcTBa Booón^e n Poccíh wl HacTHOcxH. Ho OH'b bcžitb CBOHirb 
cymecTBOMi noHyBCTBOBaJit, m:b bi ^anHyiu HCTopn^ecKyK) MHHyxy 
Hy»HO ÓKuto CA'ÍiaTb jí,asl Poccíh, ^ttoÓu nanpaBHTB ee na nacroa- 
^^ifl nyTL, hto6u npHÓJrasHTB ee ei Tofi BHcmeft sa^a^ — h ohb 
Becb ymejB, bck) cboh) CTHxiftnyio Momt Bueci bi 3to ^'feJio. Bo- 
npod o jm^Huxi Ka^ecTBaxii u nopoKaxi Tyn cobc^mi He HHre- 
peceHX. BasHo to, hto jiikjio^ CA^annoe IleTpoMi BejiHRHM'b, 6h.io 
caMoe nojreanoe h Heo6xo;tHMoe, h m:b cA^Jiaji-B owb ero Rp^nso. 
FjiaBHHfl cofiuTÍa XVII BÍKa Bt Poccíh — Hcropia naipiapxa 
HMKOHa, Wh ocoÓeHHOCTH m,e pacKOjn crapooÓpaA^^ecTBa — oĎHapy- 
mMjiii wb pyccROifB HapOA'^^ ÓOJiBniia AynieBHUfl CHau h Buíberb cb 
rbwb nojHoe orcyTCTBÍe BCHRaro H^eajiBHaro co^epsania, RpafinioiD 

CEyAOCTb yMCTBeHHUXt CpOACTBl*. 5CH0 CTaHOBH.IOCB, TTO Ha 9T0ft 

HCTOpHqecRoft noqB* nanix napo^x oÓpejeffB na jyxoBHoe óesiuLO- 
AÍe. .Sena 6uj[a h npnqHHa xaRoro ÓeánjiOAÍa: OTA^enie Poccíh 
OTB Bcero npoHaro MÍpa, yRJOHeme otb BcejiencRaro xpHCxíaHCRaro 
nyrn. Mes^y t^mx Ta Ójinsa^maa ornocHTeJiBHaa ujkih^ pa^H ro- 
Topofi Poccíh HyaiHo ókuio otoSth bx CTopony otl Bcempno-Hcro- 
pnqecRaro ABHatenía h saMRHyrBca wb ce64, — diuia ^ocTHrnyTa: 
eAHHoe CHJO^ieHHoe rocy^apCTBO Óujlo cos^ano. CaMO ono 6ujio 
Hy;RHO TOJiBRO sai^irb, htoÓu coxpaHHTB Hai^íoHajBHua chjiu Poc- 
cíh AM BceMÍpno-HCTOpHqecRaro aíŘctbíh. Jl^ajiBHÍňniee ate npeóu- 

BaHÍe Bl> CaMOAOBOJIBHOtt SaMRHyTOCTH JIHmaJIO dTH CHJBÍ BCHRaro 

npHMtHema, h Taatejuft MHoroBiROBuft Tpy^i rocy^apcTBeHnaro 
CTpoema ORasuBajca 6e3nojie3HUMi. Bce ^"^0 óbuo noRa bx toitb, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



OHEPKB U3X HCTOPIH PyCCBAFO OOSHAHIfl. 301 

ttoCm oJOMaTb critey, or^ijiaBinyH) Pocdio otb ^ejiOFiHecTBa, paapy- 
mHTB yMCTBeHHiiift H xusneEBufL crpoň, ocHOBaHHufi na flsu^ecROifB 
o6ocod«eHÍH. 3to ;i$jio U&rph BejiHKÍfi CA&iajTB npoHHO, ÓesnoBO- 
poTHO. EaRofi 6u BpeA'B hh npHHOCHJui HaiTB nosAHŠfiinifl peanipH, 
BepnyTB Pocciio nasa^t cb nyro, OTKpHTaro AJra nea Herpoirb, 
owk ne Bi cocTOflHÍH. ?t6 6u hh roBopnjiH h wib 6u hh sar^BajiH 
ocj^njeHHue hjh asoHaiišpeHHtíe siojm, a MOCROBCKas Pycs noxo- 
poHena h ne BcraneTB. IIpasAHiifl ýb^m h sdxopHUfl sartH 8thx^ 
jH>Aeft daeiaBjífliOTi nacB tojibro SHB^e ^yBCTBOBaiB h Bume ujk- 
HHTb sejHsoe ^"^0 neipoBCRoft pe^^opMU, ne cnyni^aflCb t^ite, ^to 
IIpoBHA^HÍe Hamjo h ynoTpeÓHio ji^is^ dxoro jsikjia, ne Raxoro-HHóyAB 
CKpoMHaro H ÓjaroBOCHHiaHHaro My^peii^a, a pasryjiBHaro h HeoÓys- 
j^aHHaro ÓoraTiipa. 

Jí^ BCHRaro napo^a ecTB tojbko ^Ba HcropnHecBie nyrn: asu- 

^eCKifi HyTB CaMOAOBOJIBCTBa, KOCH^Hifl H CMepTH — H XpHCTÍaHCRÍ& 

nyrb caicocosHaHÍfl, coBepmeHCTBOBaHia h shshh. Tojbbo msi a6co- 
iiOTHaro cymecTBa, ^fl Bóra, caMOcosHanie ecrb caMOAOBOJiBCTBO, h 
HeH3M']^HH0CTB ecTB SHSHB. ^Jifl BCflRaro se orpaHHqeHHaro óutíh, 
er6;(0BaTejiBH0 h a^h napo^a, caM0C03HaHÍe ecrb neoÓxoAHiio cgmo- 
ocyatcdeHie, h xhshb ecxB HaMÍHenie. HoBTOMy HCTHHHaa peJHiia 
Ha^nreiaeTCfl cb nponoB^AH noKanniA h BByrpenneit nepeMthHu ^). 
TaKx BcryiiHjio xpacriancTBO bo BceMÍpnyio Hcropiio; laK-B ae na- 
iHHaercfl xpHcriaHCBifi nyTB caMoco3HaHÍH ^m BCHBaro ^lejiOB^Ra h 
Hapo^a. BonpeKH BCflRofi bhahmocth pc4)opMa Ilerpa BejiHBaro 
iiriba FB cymHOCTH rjiy(ÍOKO-xpHCTÍaHCKÍfi xapaKxep^, h6o 6ujia 
ocHOBaHa Ha HpaBCTBeHHO-pejiHrio3Hoii^ aB^rb nai^ioHajiBHaro caMO- 

OCyHCAeHÍfl. %06h 6uTB nJIOAOTBOpHHMX, 9T0T^ HpaBCTBeHHUft aKrB 

XOJLTS^iWb 6u3Vh HenpepHBHO B03o6HOBJiaTBca. Poccifl He Morjia BApyrB 
nepepoAHTBca; pe4)opMa Ilexpa BeJHKaro tojibko OTKpwjia AJia nea 
uyrb nocrynaTejiBHaro ABHsemfl h coBepmeHCTBOBamfl. B']&pHoe 
3T0My nyxH oÓmeďBO jípniKBO óujro nocroanno B03(5yaAaTB m> ce6t 

HeiOBO-lBCTBO CBOeK) AMCTBHTeJIBHOCTbIO, COSHaHÍe CBOHXl 06^6" 

CTBeHHunTB He^yroBi h nopoBOBi>. H b% caMOM'B A^^ co BpeneHH 
Ilerpa BejHBaro rpan^A^HCBÍtt h ByjBTypHutt pocrB Poccia ne- 
paspuBHO CBasani cb i^-kiuirB pa^OM^ oÓJiH^HTejrBHUXx upoasBe^e- 
Hifi, coeraBJíaBoniHXx Óescnopno caiiyH) opHPHnajiBHyio nacrb namefi 
JHTepaTypu. Eaa&Aftfl hstb rjiaBHuxi anoxi* Hamefi nocjii-IIeTpoB- 
CBofi HCTopÍH HHŠerb CBoero CB^TCBaro npopoBa, oÓjiH^aion^aro co- 
BpeiieHHyio eMy jiokb b% oÓniiecTBeHHofi shshh. Cefi^acB ace bcjiž;^^ 
3a IlerpoiTB BeiHBairb a&iaerca RaHxeMHpoBCBaa caiapa, Boropaa 



^ Fpeiecioe ciobo metomaia Hirberb b totb, b xpyroft cmhcii. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



302 BftCTHHKl EBPOnU. 

npH bcewb CBoeMx xyAoaecTBeHHOMX HecoBepmeHCTró Bce-xaRH 
CTOHTB ropaBAO BEiaie Bcefi npoiefi TorAameeft jiHTepaxypu (íifi JIo- 
MOHOcoBa). IlepBaa nosoBHHa EKaTepuHHHCKaro i^pcTBOBaHÍfl otm^- 
HeHa caTHpHTCCKHMH KypHajiaMH HoBHEOBa, a BTopafl — carapH^e- 
CBHMH ROMeAÍflMH ^^OHi-BHSHHa. AjieBcaHApoBCRafl Poccifl Hanua 
CBoero oÓJHTOTejia b-b rpHooiAOB*, HaKOJiaeBCKaa —b% rorojrb, a 
njio;^OTBopHafl anoxa ÁjeKcaH^pa II jím^ Ham caiioe CBoeotípasHoe 
H ÓoraToe caTHpHqecRoe cospoBHo^e bi> xBopemaxi CajTusoBa. 

droMy oxpHiitaTeiBHOMy ABHaieHÍH> oón^ecTBeHoaro C03HaHÍfl co- 
OTB^TCTBOBajiH nojioaiHTe.iBHbie ycn'£xH Poccíh na nyTH xpHcriaHCKofi 
nojHTTHEH. IlepBufi caMuft Ba^RHuň H TpyAHufi man cocrofl.rB vb 
nepeMÍH'& OTHomeHÍfl bi^ ApyrHMi^ Hapo^aMi, wb npu3HaHÍH hxi 
paBHonpaBHUMH ^eHaHH qejiOB'&qecTBa h npHTOMi^ onepeAHBmHMH 
HacB B-B npocB^n^emu. 0% 3thmx npHSHaHÍeMi BceMÍpnofi caiHAap- 
HOCTH Poccifl craHOBHJiacB Bt caMOMt jíibji'b, a ne no HMeHH tojbbo 
xpHcriaHCBOK) Haiiieio. 9to& RopesHoK aepeM'&H% cooTB^xcTBOBaiii 
ifkuuSí pfl^^ii BHyrpeHHuxi npeo6pa30BaHÍ&, KOTopiifl jifijiXEu 6íijh 
xoTfl ua nepBuxi nopaxi h bi cjia6o& cieneHH iiph6jih8iitb oúmfi- 
CTBeHHUfl OTHOuieHÚi R'B xpHCTÍaHCBHM-B TpeÓOBaHÍflBťB. „Bjuro^ecTH- 
Bafl^ Pycb MOCKOBCKOŽ anoxn choboSho Aonycsajia asu^ecBÍfi Barjui^tx 
Ha qejiOB^Ba BaB^ Ha Ben^b, BOTopaa MOsen Bcei^ijio upaHa^e- 
»aTL ApyroMy. Bt cyni,HOCTH mockobckoc xojiohctbo hh^ím-b ne 
OTJiHqajocb orb ;i.peBHflro pa6cTBa: rocnoAHffb, yÓHBurift xojiona, ne 

HCCb HHRaBOft A')^fiCTBHTeJ[bHO& OTB^TCTBeHHOCTU H JIHUIb A-^A BH^y 

no;i,Bepra;iCfl AepBOBHO& anuTUMb'^. HysHO Óujio TaBuirb o6pa30M'B 
B03CTaH0BHTb B^ pyccKOM'b co3HaHÍH ajieMeHTapHoe xpacriancKoe 
noHflTie o ^ejiOB^iecEOiTb AoeroHHCXBŠ. Flerpí BaiHBÍK CA'taajT> 
aTO, o6%flBMBmH yÓižcTBO xojiona paBHOCujibHbUťb BCHKony Apyrony 
yÓifiíCTBy H noBCJri^BoiH (yKaaoMi 1721 r.) „npoAaaty jno^eft npe- 
c^Hb, a ecJiH Hejbsfl yai'b C0Be&M'b, to apo^asaib i^íjilimh cenbJíMH, 
a ne nopo3Hb, Eant ckotb, nevo bo bcomx cbítí ne BO^HTca*. 

BeaM^pHO CBHp^DUfl Ba3HH H nUTKH, ROTOpUMH OCOÓOHHO OTJUqa- 

jiacb MOCROBCRaa Poccia, Ha4HHaH>Tb cityn^aTb saROHO^axesa h hoa* 
BepraiOTca H^ROTopuMt orpaHHqeHiaMT*. ffiecroRia npecjribAOBanu 
pacROJibHHROB^, AOCTofiHO 3aBepmHBniÍH MOCROBCRyK) anoxy, npeRpa- 
n^enu IIeTpoH'b, RoropuM o6'BflBiLii, tto „HaA'B cobšctbio JCOAei 
RiacreH^ ofljiwh XpHcroci". 

Beb axH, cjiaóufl caMH no ce6% npoflBJíeHifl xpncTiaHCRoil no^H- 
THRH BasHu T&Bťb, ^To yRa3UBajiu Poccíh ncTHHHoe nanpaBJíeHie 
SH3HH, craBHJiH 66 Ha HacTOflH^ift nyrb, h npeeMHHRH npeoópaso- 
BaTe.ia, maa aTHMb nyT6M'B, nocreneHHO pacmHpajiH h yrjyÓMJiH ero. 

yHU'IT0]R6HÍ6 CM6pTH0& Ra3HH HpH EjHSaBCT^, OTM^Ha nUTOR'B TT^E 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



OHEPKH H31 MCTOPIH pyCCKAFO COBHAffla. 303 

ERaTepHHŠ II, ynpasAHeHie RpinocxHoro npaBa npn AjieBcaHAp^ II 
— Borb BpynHue ilioah tofo xpHCTÍaHCBaro HanpaBJemfl, Roxopoe 
^an BHyrpeHHefi pyccsofi nojirraKÍ „aHTHxpHCTB^ Ilerpi. 

Hítb Ha^íOÓHOCTH jíOKaaueaTb, hto HexpoBCKoft ate pe^opM* 
Pocdfl o6fl3aHa bc^mx cbohitb HajiHHHUMTB oÓpasoBaHÍeií^ h bc^hh 
cospoBHiqaifH CBoeft JiHrepaTypu. EcjihÓu lyrB uovb 6utb KaKOfi- 
HHfiy^ BonpoeB, to na nero yate otbítblih ^Ba BejiHTOfinrie npe^- 
craBHTejia pyccKaro oÓpasOBama h jmrepaTypn bi nponiiOMi h bx 
HacTOflnteiirb vkjsik — JIomohocobi h nyniKHH'B, HepaspuBHO CBflsaBiníe 
CBoe HMfl CB HMeHeM'B Ilerpa. 

Bce Óojrbe h 6oxbe rjyóoKoe npoHHKHOBenie na^ajiaMH o6me- 
HejoB^qecBofi xpHciiaHCBOfi KyjiBTypn, conpoBOKAAeMoe nocrofln- 

HHITB RpHTEReCKHMl OTHOffleflieMl Kl CBOefi OÓmeCTBeHHOfl ;tMCTBH- 
TeJLHOCTSr — BOTB eAHHCTBeHHElfi nyTb, HTOÓU paSBHTb BC4 nojio»H- 
TeJbHUfl CirJIU pyCCKOfi Hai](ÍH, npOflBHTb HCXHHHyiO CaMOÓUTHOCTB, 

npHHflTB caMOCToaxejifcHoe h ^'feaTejiBHoe yqacrie bo BceMÍpnoMi xojiik 
HcropÍH. BipHocTB 8Toro nyra jíOKaauBaerca ne tojtbko ero nojio- 
aaraiBHUMH pesyjiBTaTaMH — nocKOJBKy Bce xoporaee, ht5 mh HMteMi 
Bi saBOĚ 6u TO HH 6ujio oÓjacTH sa nocJi']&;i;HÍe Asa B^Ba, CKkJin.Bo 
HMerao Ha btoitb nyTH — B^pnocxt ero AOBaauBaeTca eme ch Apy- 
roĚ GTopoHu nojTHOH) HecocToaTeJbHOCTBH) pyccKaro Ayxa wb tíx-b 
cjyqaax-B, Kor^a owh OTcrynajTB otl btoto xpHCTiaecKaro HanpaB- 
lema h BOSBpan^ajicfl bi tostb hjih ApyroMx bha* k^ AO-TIeTpoBCKOMy 
asiwecTBy. 

TaKafl BOCBeHHaa, oxpHi^aTejiBHafl npoB'lpRa xpucTÍaHCKaro nyTH 
npoHBBeACHa y Haci OTqeTJiHBO h nocjitAOBaTejibHO TaKi-HasuBae- 
MHiPB CAmHuo^UAhcmeojm^ KOTopoe vh btomt. cmuctíi HirfcerB npea- 
BMHaĚHO BaaHoe 3HaHeHÍe wh HCTopiH pyccKaro cosHaHÍa. 9to 
yMCTBeHHoe ^BHmeHie tím^b Óojiie MoaterB 6uTb aj^ naci noy^H- 
TejbHO, HTO OHO yjKe coBepmHjio CBoň nojiniifi KpyrB: BupocJio, 
OTi^Btáo H npHHecJio CBofi ^JIo;^^. IIpHTOM-B AypHua Ra^iecTBa 3Toro 
luoAa HHBaK^ He Moryrb 6utl npunHcaHU RaKUMX-HHÓyAb cay^aK- 

HHlTb H JHHHHMl. HCAOCTaTKaMT) CaMHXl CJiaBflHO^HJIOBX. HanpOTHBX, 

3T0 6ujiH sx>m BUAaiO^HXCfl yMCTBeHHuxi A^poBaHifi H HpaBCTBeH- 
flffiCB Ka^ecTBt, H ecJíH OHH ne Morjin c^iJiaTb CBoero A^kaa Jiyqme, 
TO sHa^HTL caMO a'6jio HHKy^a He ro^BTca. Ay^**^? 'íto npeAcra- 

BHTb KpaTKyH) HCTOpÍK) CJiaBflHO^HJIbCKarO ABMHteHifl BO BCfcx-B PFO 

rjaBHuxt (j[)a3Hcax'B 6ujio 6h Tenepb sa^a^efi saHHMaTejibHOK) h no- 

•leSHOH). 

BjIAAHlilPl CojrOBbEB'B. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CyPAMCKIH nEPEBAJT) 



Si mejix vb Jiicy... Cpe^fc yrpeHHeň npox-iaAu 
C'B Jiosuy KaRx ci A^BHHbeň pacnyiii,eHHOá rocli, 
3ejieH00Rifl apíMbi 
PoHfljiB nepj[u Ójen^ymieft pocii; 
VI rposABfl 6i^ufl aRai^ifl CRJOHfljia, 
H RjeHi, ÓJiecTa, rayirfcji^ BOSAyniHOH) jihctbo6, 
H He RypHJtBHHi^a bo avjvb ÓJiaroyxajia — 

To DJiaRaJTL TeHHUft ReAP^ AHiapHOH) CMOJlOň... 
C^ 06pUBHCT0tt CRaJIU, HaA^B 6e3AHOH) BHCflU^ett, 

PocRomHO aaTRaHHoň nďK)ii^eirB, 
CTpyBjícfl BOAonaA'B TalIHCTBeHHO-aLypHaI^ifi, 
H HHCDaAaj'B, 3BeHfl, jiadopeBUMX AOHAeifb. 
A ci> 6epera sacMHHi i^B^Tyn^ifi, &bA0Cwb7ís,Eu1k 

TflHyjicji saAHO kb ponii^yn^HM^b crpyaM^, 

Ho HyTL ROCHyjIHCb Rl iÁhHCTUIPB BOJIHaMl — 

PT BHOBB ornpflHyjiH noó^m b^tbh H^HOfi: 

TaRi A^Ba flCHEixi boa'b RUcaercfl Horofi, 

Ho BApyrB, Hcnyrana npoxjiaAOH), xpenemerB, 

OrnpaHyBt ovh pynta, h cbítjiok) pocoii 

Meax najisi^eBi posoeuxi BOAa TewrB h Ďjemert... 

JI,. Mepesrobcrií. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



r^ 



HA 

300JOrMECKOfl CTAHIÍIH 



HSb nO«8;(KH HA B^JOE liOPE. 



E^Ba JIH MHorHiťB H3'B HHTaiejiofi, — eciH TOiBRo OHH Hs cne- 
iíiajracTH-300J0rH, — hbbíctho, hto y Hacx, na KpaftneMx cÍBep4, 
a HneHHO Ha Biuioiix Mop^, npa CojiOBeilKOMi MOHacrupi — cym,e- 
CTByerB TaR^-HasuBaeMafl „soojiorHHecEafl CTaH^ifl'^; HenHorie, vb- 
poiTHo, 3HaB0Mu xaKse Ch isíkMME H sa^aiaMH xaBHXi craHi^ift n 

Cl HCTOpieK) HX1> BOSHHBHOBeHÍfl... 

Soojiora^ecKia cianBiiH na 6epery Mopa — 3to npoflyKrt cpaBHH- 
leoBHO nocjiAHflro spenenH, BusBaHHLifi ri sh3hh coBpeMeHHUMi 
lO^oiťB nayHHaro ABosema, h bx cboh> o^epe^B ORasaBinifi yse 
ďojBmoe BJiiflHie na ero ycir&xH. IIo M^p^ loro, RaRi soanoria 
pocja Bi CMucji']^ HayKH, no ii^pi Toro, RaR'b nojiynajia Bce Óójib- 
myio u 65jibinyK) CHjy H^ea, hto ecrecTBeHnaa ncTopia ecTb co6- 
CTBeHHO HCTopia paaeumis^ — bmíctí Ch tímx Bce fiozrie h 6ojrie 
BasHOCTH npio6pÍTaj[0 sHame HHsniHxx oprasH^ecRHXx ^^opMX, hh3- 
nmxi 2RHB0THUXX 6e3no3BOHOHHfi]x^. Tor^a h nsyqeHÍe MopcKHX'B 
SH60Tfluxi» BUCTynEio Ha nepsiufi njiaHx. OpraHHHecRaa aiHSHk 
3apoAH;iacB HMeHHO vh Mopi H npoin.ia A-^iHHHufi paA'B CTyneneft, 
iipes;(e H^iťB ;(OCTHrjia ao pa3BHTÍa opraHH3MOBx, roAHux^b rx 
SH3BH Ha cymi. Bx A<sHHHOfi i],%ni3 nocj']kAOBaTejibHbixi ^opMX 
opraHEHeCRHXi cyn^ecrBi 6uj[h orpoMHua rpynnu, ROTopua hh- 
Kor^a He bhxoabíIh sa npe^*]^!! MopcRoň sushh; 3th rpynnu co- 
xpaHHJH CBOHXi npeACTaBHTeJiefl h ao CHXt nopB. CymecTByíorB 
oĎiiiHpHue OT^ÍJiH — i^'6jiHe THHH »HBOTHaro i^apcTBa — ROTopue o6h- 

ToMx nr.— MAft, 1889. 20 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



306 BftCTHHKl EBPOmi. 

TaiorB vb Mopty He hmía hh oxnoro npeAcraBBTejifl hh na cymi, 
HH Bi npicHBixi BOAax-B. TaEOBH Echinodermata, HTJioROsífl, BcbMi> 
HSB^CTHue MopcKÍe emn h sb^au. Bi Mop^ coxpaHHiracL 6o3^ 
npocTUfl, Óojiie nepBOHa^ajBHUfl ^opnu, h Ha pa^y c% hhmh Ósj^- 
HBifl A*^™ sLUBOTHaro i^apcTBa, 4^opMu sarjioxníifl, comeAinifl Cb 
nyiE npaBHjBHaro pasBHrifl, perpeccHBHua 4>opMEi. Ha^a pa3BHTÍfl, 
renesHca sHBOTHaro i^apcTBa, ^epnaerB o6iLibHBie apryneHTu cpejiH 

paSBOOCpaSÍfl MOpCBHXX 4^pMl». I]|']&JI£IĚ paA'B BaSHUXl BOnpOCOBl 
6Í0JIOríH, OCHOBHBIXl BOnpOCOBB MOp^^OJOrÍH E $H3Í0JI0rÍn SHBOT- 

HBrx'B, MOJKerB 6bitb pimeHi nyxeiix Hsy^emfl crpoema h shshb 
iiopcKiix'B acHBOTHux^. BoTi noHeiíy Mope Bce 6ojs!be h 6ojAe npe- 
BJiesajio wb ce&k BHHMame Óio^oroBi; ho h nounnio Toro, pa3HOo6- 
pasie SH8HH FB MOpl, efl TaHHCTBeHHOCTB H Kpacoia H3AaBHa yse 
BJieEJtH Kh ce(54 rixi, y Koro wh ^HCTO-Hay^HOMy HHTepecy npH- 
MiniHBaeTca eme ^bctbo acreiHEa; a xaKOBU, bt. cys^HOCTH, hotth 
Bcb HaxypajHCTu. 

Bx crapHHy Bce a'ÍJibjiocb npocio. HaxypaJiHCrB, npHcrpacTHB- 
mHCB KTi liopcRoi ^ayH*!, npeAcraBJíaBniefi Tor^a ho^th Heno^aioe 
nojfe A^H H3CJi']^A0BaHÍfl, yjiynajii nepBoe CBo6oAHoe Bpenfl h nep- 
BUfl CBo6oAHua AeHBrn, htoÓei, saxBaTHBi cb co6oh) Jiyny h MiiRpo- 
CEonx, CKajiBnejiH h nHHi^eTLi, c^tkh h cieRJiflHHiifl 6aHRH, npo- 
BecTH jtíto rA4'HH6yAB na 6epery Mopa. TaKi atHjx KorAa-TO b^ 
Hhi^i^'& h b-b EpeianH Kapjix $oitb, yBJíeRaTejBHO padCRasaBmifi 
HaifB HoroM^B o CBOHxi MopcBHXx dKCBypciaxx Bl MaJieHBBOň BHHaCRi: 
„Ciapoe H HOBoe hsi 3kh3hh jiiOAeft h atHBOTHHx*" (pyccEift nepe- 
BOA^ KoBajieBCKaro, 1864 roAa). 

TaBia 3aHaTÍa saRJiOHajiu wb ce6i, BoneHHO, MHoaceciBO He- 
yAOÓCTBi. HaiypaJiHCTy npaxoAHJiocB BcrptnaTB hohth HeoAOJiHMHfl 
npenaTCTBÍa am ycniniHaro xoAa HayHHux-B H3CJi'hA0BaHiĚ. Oh^b 
HyffiAaJica b-b nocyA* h b% aBBapiax'B, Aoporó CTOH)m,Hxi h neyAoS- 
HHXX A^a nepeB03BH, bi HHcrpyMeHTaxx h npwcnoeoÓJieHiaxT*. Oř- 
cyrcTBÍe noA^ pyEOK) HeoÓxoAUMtix-B EHnrB nocToaHHO TopnasEJio 
paóory. Meoro xjionorB AOcraBJíajio Ao6HBaHÍe jioaob^, npHÓopoB^B 
AJia jiOBJíH, HeyM^HBe h HenoHHMaHie ero Tpe6oBaHÍft co cropomi 
jiOAOHHHBOBi H pu6aB0B'B. MaJio-HO-Majiy cxajia cBa3LiBaTBca Ha- 
CToaxeJiBHaa noipeÓHOCTB bi ocHOBania nocToannux-B noM*meHÍft, 
cnei^iaJiBHO npHcnocoÓjreHHUíxi A-^a soojrornHeeBHxi sanaTÍň na 6e- 
pery MOpa. 

iíaiBHMmiů nporpecct HayRH em,e ÓojAe saxpyAHHJTB laida 
MopcBÍa 9RCEypciii. 3oojioria crajia npHHHMaTB Bce Óojte h 6ojrfee 
xapaETepx Jia6opaTopHoň nayBH. TIpHMÍHeHÍe MHBpoTOMa, — HHcrpy- 
MCHTa, npH noMomn Roroparo mosho nparoTOBHTB paA^B TOH^aŠ- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HA SOOJIOrHHECKOft CTAHI^IH. 307 

muxi pa3p^30B^ HS^ caiíuxi rpoxotheixi shbothuxi, mT> camixi 
ueJoaiTh wcreK opraHHSHa, — iipH^aso HOByio, HpeaBuqafiHyH) coJiy 
jcHBpo^onH^ecRHMi HacjrbAOBaHÍjitfi h noBJíesjío sa co6ok> h^jluř 
pfl^i ^pyrHXi npHcnocotfjieHiň. BnpaÓOTajHCs MeiOAu XHHHqecKoft 
o6pa6oTKH TKanefi h opraHOBi jsjíz hxi H3CJi^A0BaHÍfl, MeiOAU, He 
Bume^uiiie noRa Ha'B iipeA'i^OB'b aobojibho rpyóaro dMnepiiSHa, ho 
npHBeAmie t6mi> He Men-i^e, nyrevB ynorpeÓJieHifl peaRXHBOBx jí,^ 
yHepn^BJíeHifl h oópaÓOTBn TBaHeň, h pa8HOo0pa8Hux'B Ben^ecTBi 
jím hx^ ospacBH, Ki i^&iOMy pflAy 6jiectsiusfiXT> pesyjiBTaTOBi. Ho 
HOBue, BasHue h njiOAOTBopHue MeroABi yciosHHJiE h saTpyAHHJH 
jíjbjLO soojiorHqecRaro HdCfl^AOBaBifl. TenepB soojiopb. ecjia ohb ana- 
toifb H B]i6pio;iorb, ne iioserB npi']teaTb vh JK)6oe icto^HRO Ha 
^epery Mopa, pacnojioxHTBCfl bi rocTHHHHir& hjih naeííHOft RBap- 
THpt, pascraBHTB nocy^y, BEiHyiB CBOft MERpocRoms H patforaTL. EMy 
Tpy^o o(SoiTHCB 6e8% Jia6opaTopÍH, r^b y Hero Óujíhl 6u nocroflHHO 
noA'B pyROĚ Bcb npHcnoco(5jieHÍfl h bc^ Ben^ecTBa, HeoÓxoAHMUfl 
má cjioiRHuxi» MaHHnyj[fli^i& MHRpocRonHqecRaro Haci^AOBamfl opra- 

HH8M0BI. 

TaRÍH-TO ja6opaTopÍH a^ HayqHiix'B HdCJi^AOBaHift na 6epery 
Hopfl H BoaHHRjiH vh nocji'&AHee Bpeiifl noA'B HasBameMi „soojiorn- 
HecKHX'B CTaHi](ifi"; BŠpHÍ^e ÓhULO 6u nasuBaTB hxx 6iojiorHHecRHHH, 
TaRB RaR'B OHH He orpaHHqHBaiOTCfl cnei^iajiBHO o6jiacTBK) soojiorin, 
a OTRpuTu TaRse ajía ÓoxaHaqecRnxx h ({^H3ÍOJorHHecRHX'B paÓOTB. 
06pa3i^OBuu'B yqpesAeHÍeMi noAOÓHaro po^a c^Hraerca bib name 
BpeMfl SHaMeHEiafl soojiorHqecRafl crani^ifl bi^ Heanojri^. 

OcHOBaHHafl Bi Haqaji']^ ceMHAecaiux^B roAOBX H&feiiRHM^ naiy- 
pajHCTOifB Ahiohoitb ^opHOM-B, ROTopHft H AO CHXX HOpi ynpaB- 
Men eio, ona BCR0p6 AOCiHrjia saM^qaTeJBnaro pasBHTÍfl. ^opH'L 
npHHfljicfl nepBOHaqajiBHO sa es. coopyaceHÍe na CBod CTpax'B h na 
CBOH cpeACTBa, HO CRopo cByMŠJTB upHBJíeHB Ri CBoeMy A'6jiy yqa- 
crie H coA^ftcTBie MHorHX'B qacTHHxx jHi^i, npaBHiejiCTBX H yqe- 
flHX'B yqpesAenift. Bi Hacroan^ee BpeMs HeanojinraHCRafl cranii^iH 
npeAcrasjaeTB co6oft oópaseixx bucoro croamaro nayqnaro hhcth- 
xyra, bhojh^ caMOcroflieJiBHaro h HesaBHCHMaro, CBOÓOAHaro otb 
BKimaTeiCBCTBa h ROHxpojifl RaRoro-jin6o MHHHcrepcTBa hjih Boofin^e 
rocyAapcTBeHHaro y^pes^enifl, coopyaieHHaro h passEBaion^arocH 
(l;iaroAapfl HHH^iaTaBŠ h dneprin qaciHaro jrania, h bi^ to aie speiífl 
HesAyHapoAHaa no cbohmx cpeACTBaMi r'b cy^ecTBOsaHiio, no Tiíb- 

JfllTB H flO 06H^eA0CTynH0CTH. 

HeanojiHTaHCRoe ropo^CRoe oón^ecTBennoe ynpaEsenie, uocjrk 
AMHHuxi npoBOJioqeR-B, ycrynajio ^opny m4cto ajisí ctrhiííh h 
npaBO HCRjiíOHHTeJiBHaro pacnopa»eHÍa eio cb tími, ^to6u qepeai^ 

20* 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



308 MCTHtEBl EBPOnU. 

90 jrkrh CTaHi]^ifl nepemjia bx coÓCTBeHHOcrb ropová. IIpeRpacHoe 
3AaHÍe craHi^iH CTonrb he caMOHi» 6epery Mopa. HHSHÍfi diasi 
ero OTBe^eHii a^a ofirnapnaro MopcEoro aRsaplyMa, noctn^eme kóto- 
pare OTRpuTO a^ nytfjHBH sa luaiy; bx Bepxneirk dTas']^ pacno- 
jEO^KeHU ja6opaTopÍH h npeBOCxoAHafl Hay^Haa ónCjdoreBa CTaH^iH. 
OónmpBusi jiaOopaTopiu ÓoraTO CHa6seHEi npHcnocotfiieHiflMH ;^jijí 

SaHflTÍfi H OTB^HaiOrL BCŠMlí Tpe60BaHÍflMl COBpeiíeHHOft TeXHHRH; 

iraosecTBO ycoBepmeHCTBOBamfi ROTopoft BumaB nsi> HeanojnrraH- 

CBOfi CTERI^H. 3aJIU 6)1 MOryTL BMÍCTHTB OAHOOpeMeHHO HÍCROJBRO 
AeCflTROBl 3aHHMaK)II^HXCfl. 

CxaHi^ifl He npecji']kAy6rB yqe^Huxi i](šjefi; vh Heft ne ^HTaexca 
RypcoBi, ne Be;ieTCfl HHRaRoro npeuoj^aBaHÍfl. 3to cBo6o;p[afl aRa- 
AemsL, ynpesAeHHafl a-sa caei^iaJiBBuxi* nayHHuxx Hscj^AOBaHiK h 
OTRpHTafl j^eiLuwb Bcero nipa. IIpH es. ocHOBaHin Jl,opHB npeA.TO- 
SHJii npaBHTejiBCTBaifB u y^enuMo^ yqpessAeHÍflMi sa eseroAHyio 
onpeA'i^eHHyK) njary npeAOcraBHTB bi> hxi pacnopaseHÍe seJiaeMoe 
ROJiH^ecTBO míctb jí^sl 3aHflTÍfl vb jaóopaTopiflxii crani^iH (1.500 
MapoKi 3a Ka^Auft pa6o^i£ ctojii); sa dxy cyÓCHAÍK) ynenue bc&li 
crpaHi, npHHBMaBHiHxi bi> Heft ynacrie, nojiy^ajiH npaBO fiesnjaTHO 

nOJIBSOBaTBCfl RaRX a60HHpOBaHHUMX M^CTOMX Ha CTaHIVH, XaRX H 

BC^MH CoraTEiMH efl npHcnocoÓJieHiflMH. 3to npeA^osenie ^opna 
6uwio noBciOAy oxotho npHHflTO, h iiitjiuft pBAi> npaBHTejBCTBi b 
yneHuxx Ropnopai(ifi npHHflJix yqacríe fb co^epsaHÍn neanojra- 
xaHCROft craHi^iH. Miajiifl, BeiBria, hícrojibro rocy^apcTBOb Tep- 
MaHÍH, yHHBepcHTeTu H yqeHUfl oóniiecTBa (ReiíCpoASCRifi yHHBep- 
CHieTi, 6epjHHCKafl aRa^eMÍfl nayRx, „EpaiaHCRafl accoiiiiaiiiifl a^a 
nporpecca SHanift^ h apO saBejiH cboh paCo^ie crciu na HeanaiH- 
laHCRoft craHi^iH. Hame MHHacTepcTBO napcAHaro npccB^niieHÍfl TaRSRe 
accHrnoBajio ^opny ujiaiy sa ABa CTo;ia, npeAOcraBJíeHHue bx pac- 
nopfliKeHie pyccRHXi yHeniixx. 

TaRHMx oópasoMX, neanojiHTaHCRafl CTaHi^ia CA'i^aďacB MesAy* 
HapoAHUMx y^pesAemeMX. Bnpo^eMx, ea cpeACTBa ne orpaHHqnBá* 

JIHCB npHBeAeHHUMH BSQOCaMH. nepBOfianaJIBHO ^OpHl OCHOBUBaJIX 

6ojiBinifl HaAejRAU na aRBapii, pascwTUBa)! hm^tb naccy hocšth- 
xejeft wb TaROMx ropoA'i^, RaRx HeanojiB, ta^ b']^^hhě npKasBx 
TypncTOBT). Ho npeBOCxoAHO ycTpoeHHuĚ aRBapift TpeóoBajTB 6ojb- 
mHxi pacxoAOBx na coAepaiaHie, h, RasKercfl, naAesAu ^opna ne 
onpaBAajiHCB. HsBÍCTHyK) CTaTBio AOxoAa cocraBEuia xaRse a^a 
craHi^iH npoAaHsa wb nyseu u JiaócpaiopiH npeBOcxoAHO ROHcepsn- 
pOBaHHUXX MOpCRUXX SHBOTHUXl. Ho Bce-xaRH cxaHiiii)! He Morja 6u 
AOCTHrnyTL TaRoro Cjiecraiiiaro coctoshía, ecjinúu e& ne ORasaiH 
meApyio noAAepsKRy repíiancRoe h oinacTH HxaJiBflHCRoe npaBHTe;jB- 



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HA 300JI0raHECE0& CTÁHI](III. i Od 

CTBa, oÓesne^HBinifl npoHHoe cyiE^ecTBOBaHie craHi^iti; b'b CRopoH'B 
BpeMeHH (1880) CfO^serB craei^iH aocthf^ cojhahoS i^H^^pu, orojo 
100.000 4>paHK0B'& vb roA'B. 

IIpH TaBon niHpoBOM'B coHyBCTBÍH co CTOpOHU o6ii^ecTBa H 
paaiHHHHxi rocyA&pcTBi, HeanojraraHCKcil CTaHii.ÍH ne My^peHO 6ujo 
aaHflTb mícto o^Horo U3% nepBBix^ yqeHuxi» y?pe»;;^eHÍft Esponu. 
Kpojťb efl AHpeRTopa, JI,opHa, npu CTaHi^iu Éraxo^HTCfl H'bCBo;iBRO 
y^eHBxx accHcxeHTOBX, no ero npflr.iaineHÍK), h i^íjuK miarB ciy- 
san^Hxi, orb HHiseHepa u xnuHRa ao pu6aR0B'B, saHHMaioa^HxCH 
jOBJíei SHBOTHBIx^ jí^jíR craHi^iE. ES[ exBa BfHHy.10 lenepb 1 5 .tItx, 
HO HayHHafl j^tflTCJibHOCTB efl sa aio Bpena ÓBiJia o5niHpHa h ajio^o- 
TBopsa. Ha He& paóorajiH xecATSE yqeHHXx, MHoro SHaMeHHTuxi 
mceHi, H He najio ií']^hheix'b nay^iHuxi HsciiAOBaHÍtt Bumjio H3i> 
€fl jia6opaTopífi. Rpoifl^ MHOxeciBa pa6orB, pasCpocaHHuxx no 
BcfeiťB sypna^aM^ h npoHSBej^enHuxi na cram^ÍH ujiq no efl naTe* 
pia^aM^, pe3y.iBTaTaMU ea A^TeJbEOcm dB.ifleTCfl pfl^i pocRom- 
HHXx HOHorpa^ifi, jizjueiB&euuTb noxh BarjaBÍeMi: „Fauna und 
Flora des Golfes von Neapel*, h c6ophhb*b paÓOTx, noM-fcu^ennux-B 
vh „Mittheilungen aus der zoologíschen Station zu Neaper. 

OcoÓeHHyH) CJiaBy BCRop% npio6pi.ia ce(5i crani^ifl neoCuBHO- 

BeHHIIM'B IfaCrepCTBOMlt BX ROHCepBHpOBR'6 CaMBIXI^ H^SHUX'B MOp- 
CRHX'b OpraHU3MOB'B. KaRl> HSB^CTHO, MHOSeCTBO HOpCRHXl SSHBOT-* 

EBTb Aocrynnu Ha6jiH)j[eHÍH) to.ibro bi shboitb cocroaniH. Ohh 

VÚPb HŠSHU H TaRX paSApaiRHTaibHBI, WIO npH BCflROMl^ npHROC* 
BOBeniH U^HfllOTB CBOft BHA'B, CBeaCHBaiOTCfl Wb ROMORX, BTflra- 

BaH)Tb n^ynajiuvi, hhth b TOMy noxotínue npHAaxRH, a "iacro n co- 
BciiTB paspymaiOTCfl. IIojioseHHue bi» cnHpi-B jí^sl ROJuieRi^ift, onu 
TepaiOTb CBOK) 4^pMy, i^bítb h npospa^HOCTb h ne coxpanfliorB 
HHRaRoro noAofiifl cb t^mi, h^x 6ajm bi sebomi coctoakíe. 
Akthhíh BTflfHBaiorB CBOH flpRÍfl ^ynajBi^a h csHMaiOTCfl bi romx; 
Bej»BOJiinHiifl npcspa^HBifl CH^ono^^opu npeBpao^aiOTCfl wb 6e84K)p- 
xeHHyio CTy;(eHHCTyK) Macey. Bi^ jiaÓopaTopiflxi HeanojTHiancROft 
eIaH^iH nyrcMi^ Tn^axejiBHiixi h Tepn'kiHBux'B omiroBi* BEipaÓOTaHBi 
Tasie TOHRÍe líeroAu yMepn^BJíenifl h coxpaneHifl MopcRaxib ^hbot- 
BUTb^ ^TO TenepB bi nyse^ Ras^aro yHHBepcHTeTa mosho hmštb 

ROMemÚH CaMEIXl F&BHHXI H HeAOCTynHUX'B MOpCRHXl ^^op&TB, 

coxpaHHBniHx^ BecBHa 6jih3RO cboB HaTypajBHui bha'b — cb BUTflny- 
THMH B^ynajiBiiiaMH, otrpbitiimh ecrecTBeHHtiHH OTBepcxiflMH rkia 

noAo6HBifl se craHqiH, xota b'b 6ojite crpomhbix^ pasM^paxx, 
ompiuECB OAHa sa Apyroft bi pasnux-B CTpanaxi na Óeperaxi^ 
pafflHXB Mopeft; rx^ h^rojibro bo ^paniiiiE, vjííb cbmm ESBÍcmafl, 



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310 B^Cl^HKl EBPOnU. 

9T0 craHi9fl fb Pocrojí, he 6epery OBeana (JlaMaHma), saBtAU* 
BaeMafl ^^paHi^yscBHifB yneHuicB Lacaze*Duthiers. ÁBcrpifl orspiua 
ctaHi^iH Ha Cepery AípiaTHqecKaro Mopa, vb Tpiecrt. HtcsoiibKO 
craHi^ifi HM'§eiTE AiíepHRa. ^aace AaieKafl ďnoHifl, BcrynEBinaii tebi^ 
HeAaBHO Ob nyTH naipoHajiBHaro o({oco6jieHÍfl na nyTB ofin^enejiOBt- 
^ecKOň Ky;iBTypfi[ h CBafiasason^afl xeneps crpaHui^u H%Mei(KHX'B. 
sypea^OBi) secroBHMH x^a Hamero yxa HifeHaMH cbohxi mojiojhxt 
y^eHuxB (HmHKaBa, Eakichi Mitsnkuri, Isao Jijima — nocji^AHee 
niifl ne sHaio A^ase, b&bt> h bufobopetb) — h £[noHÍfl OTBpujia y cefia 
He^aBEO MopcByK) ÓiojorHHecByH) craHAÍH). 

Hame oxe^ecxBO ne Ooraxo MopflMn, h Mopa ero ne ocoóeHHO 
Coraiu 4>ayHofi. Tasoe Mope, saBi EajiiificBoe, cobc^mx Afinně ne 
uorneTb H^TH FB CTeTx. CojieHOCTB ero Boxb Bpatne HesHarareabHa, 
a Bi pyccBHXx npeA&naxi oho h cobcžitb noHTH npicHoe. Mop- 
CBaa ^^ayea noflBJífleTCfl bi Heni tojibbo no wkpb npeCjnsemfl B!b 
ero BanaAHOHy BOHi^y, a y naci, kb ^ehcboitb h BoTHHHecBOirB 
saJiHBi, cymecTBytoi^b tojibbo cjia6ue cirbjm ea. IIodTOMy ocHOBaaHHs 
y Hac^B He^aBEO 800jiorH?ecKÍfl CTaHi](ÍH aojitrbu 6um OTBptrrBCfl na 
AByxB npoTHBonojiosHBixi BOHiiaxB — Ha E&iOHB u Ha ^epaoifB 

MOp*. 

CeBacTonojiBCBafl 6iOJiorHHecBafl craHqífl bb Kpuvy, oxBpBíTaii vs> 
ceMHAecflTKixB roxaxi, HaxoAHTca bi bía^híh o^eecBaro oÓn^ecTBa 
ecrecTBOHCiiBrraTejieft. SaB^Ai^Bame eio nopy^eHO r-ai C. M. Ilepea- 
ciaBi^eBOfi, aBTopy hícbojibbhxi HayHHux^B pa6orB no soojiorÍH. Bk)a* 
seTB craHi^iH o^eHB CBpoMesi: na ea co^epsanie ornycsaerca 
Bcero 1.500 p. bb foab; noiiin^aeTCfl ona bb Haeimoft BBapTirpi^ 
BOHerao, BecBMa cbpomhuxb pa8M<J&poB'B. T6mb ne uewbe ona Hifieri^ 
yse nopaxo^Hyio CRtijdoreBy, ofisaBO^HTCfl Majio-no*Maj[y HHcrpy- 
MeHTaHH n Hay^rauMH npHHa^uiesHOCTflicH, h Bas^oe jIto AS^erb 
npiiOTB H B08M0SH0CTB y^o^HO saHHMaTBCfl 2 — 3 npiissHM^ HaTy- 
pajiHcrairB h y^an^HHca. RpoMŽ Toro ona nocroanno CHafisaerB 
SHBHMi H MepTBUHB iiaTepíajiOMB jiaCopaTopÍB xapBBOBCBaro H OAec- 
CBaro yHHBepcHTeTOBB, 

Jl^pyraa pyccBaa soojrorHHecBafl crani^a ocnoBana npn cofjbŘ- 
ctbíh cojOBeiiiBaro MonaeTupa h naxoAHTca bb B^xenin nerepóypr* 
CBaro oÓn^ecTBa ecrecTBOHcnuraTejiefi. Hcropia nponcxosA^HÍa ea 
CJrhAjjomiBa. 

nociTHBnm jňnowh 1876 h 1877 rr., Birtcri cb K. C. Mepes* 
BOBCBHMB, B^oo Mopo H y6i]íflBmECh BB 6oraTCTB^ OFO <]^ayHu, 
npo^eccopB nereptfyprcBaro ynHBepcHTera, H. H. BarnepB, saja-ica 
MUCJiBK) ynpeABTB na hom^ soojorn^iecByio craHipio; xpy^HOcrn, co- 
npoBoa:AftH)uua HayqHua sanaTia bb cypoBOirB h iia^iOHa^aieBíHOMi 



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HA SOOJIOrHHECKOft CTAH^IH. 311 

Kpai, A^aiH ocoÓeHHO i^HHEr»r& ocHOBame sa^cb xaRoro ynpes- 
j(eHÍfl. CHa^ana ero hucib scrpi&q&ia mhofo npenaTCiBifi; TorAamnifi 
HacToaTeib cojiOBeiíKaro MOHacxHpa, Oeoíodtt, xora HHqero ne 
Hxtii npoTHBi ero sejiamfl, ho mofi^ yBasatb evj js;isi noMÍbmemsi 
craHitin jhhib ohchb ney^oónoe mícto. Oaho speHfl npoý. Barnepi 
xyMan BOcnojiB30BaTBCfl s^anieM^ RaRoro-JHÓo hsi MaasoBii, pa3- 
(ípocaeHQxx Ha ocrpoBaxi^ Btjiaro Mopa, h nojiyqiux Ha dxo corjiacie 
BHcinaro Ha^a^iBCTBa; ho ^"^0 ocraHOBHJiocB sa cpeACTBaifH, TaKi 
xasi cyMMu, Heo6xoAHMOfi a^a OTRpurifl noBaro y^pe^SAema, ne 

HaXOj^HJIOCB HH Wb MOpCROMl MHHHCTepCTB^, HH Vh MHHHCTepCTB^ 

napoAHaro npocB^n^eHifl. HaRoneiiix, bi^ 1880 r. bhobb noc^THBniH 
CQJOBeARifi MOHacTBipB Bx o6mfiCTBÍ sHaMeHHTaro pyccRaro Óora- 
HBBa, noRO&Haro xapBROBCRaro npo({)eccopa JI, C. UjeHROBCRaro, 
npo4>. Barnepx bmšct^ cb hemi o6paTHJCfl kb apxHMan^pHTy Me- 
jeriH), HOBOMy HacToaxejíK) ofinreJiH, cb npocB6ofi BUcrpoHiB s^anie 
jiM HOn^n^eHÍfl soojOFHHecROfi crani^iH. ApxnMaH^pHTB Mejierifi C7> 
y^acrieMB ornecca ki> hxi npocBÓi, n no ero npe^^oiReHiio h cb 
pa3pim6HÍfl CHHOAa, co6opx coJOBei^ROfi oÓnrejiH ybmiiLJii> buctpohtb 
pa coj[OBeipu)fi crani^iH cnei^iaiBHoe s^aHÍe. ][jisi eroro bochojib- 
aosajiHCB CToaniHMx Heno^aieRy otb MOHacnipa, na canoMi 6epery 
aopa, sAameiTB pbi6hbixi npoMticJiOBi h, HaAcrpoHanra HaA'B hhmii 
BepxHÍft dTajKi, nepe^ajiH ero bi pacnopasenie crani^in. Mhhh- 
crepcTBO nap. npocB. accHrnoBaso cynny, HeoÓxoAHMyio ajisí nepBO- 
aa^ajiBHaro oósaBe^enia nay^HUMx HHBenTapeMi, h j^tomi 1882 r. 
cojoBeiíRaa cranipa yse 6ujia OTRpura. 3a BasH)K> yciyry, ORa- 
saHHyK) pyccROMy sHaHiio, neiepCyprcRoe oti^ecrao ecrecrBOHcnu- 
Taxeieft HSÓpajio apxHiiaHApHTa Mejiexia cbohmi noHerHuirB njenoMi. 
Ha dTOB CTaH^iH a h npoBejii jt&to 1888 vojífi^ 



n. 

Eiua nojHOu, Ror^a HanrB napoxoA'B noAxo;(H;rB r:b Cojob- 
KaiTB. Ho BTO tiiuia c^Bepnaa hojihohb, CB^xjiaa RaRx AenB. OojiHi^e 
c&io, H HH iiajišfiniift cynpaRi ne cnycxHJica na seiuK). Cxoaj['B 

KaROft-TO CXpaHHHfi, XaHHCXBeHHBift dklUŘ C^Th. HOHB 6ujLdL xExaa, 

Mope cnoRO&HO, h ero sepRajiBHaa noBepxHOcrB pascxHJiajiacB Rpy- 
roiTB saROH)-TO M0JI09H0-6&I0K) rj[a;^K>; HHRorxa a ne BH^airB Mopa 
TERoro (y&iaro, MOJOTOO-Ó&iaro i^B^xa. napoxoA'B niejii nesAy ocrpo- 
BaMH, saropasHBaionJlHHn bxoa'b bx oojOBeip^yio 6yxxy, a nepeA'B 
HaMH Bce acH'&e h acH'£e pncoBajmcB Óíjiusl cx^hbí h aejieHue Ry- 
nojíu s^anifi h i^epRBeft MOHacrapa; oh^b onenB RpacBBi cb Mopa. 



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312 B%CTHHR'B EBPOnU. 

Bne^aTJíÍHie emfi ycHJHBaeTca tím-b, ito jsfi 9Toro ctojibko speMCHH 
npHXOAHTca ix9LTh AHRHME, HenpHrjiflAHUMH, cypoBUMH Tpyii;o6aHH, 
CB y5orHMH ceiaMH, cb HHvrosBr&BniHMH ropo^^HiDBaMH, bi po^ 
noB^Hi^a. A TyTB BApyrB bh^hiub nepe^^ coóoft (5aiBinia s^asifl, 
flpBÍfl RpacBH; "vaiOB-lsB, paHBme Bes^t 3a;](aBJieHHu& cbpoŘ h CBy?- 
Hofi npHpo;i;o&, dA'6cB BasB 6yAT0 BumejiB hsi ea panoRB, h ao- 
CHJica H ;í4flTeJiBH0CTH, h KpacoxH, H 6oraTo6 khbhh. 

IlapOXOA^B, npO&Afl JiaÓHpiIHTOM^ OCipOBSOB^, CRaj'B H noA- 

BOAHuxi^ EaMHe&, Bxoj^HTB B^B MOHacTupcsyio $yxTy H ÓpocaeTB 
flBopB npaMO npoTHBx rocTHHHHi^u. HpHCTaHB OTJETHHafl— napoxoíB 
BUJiOTHyK) noj^xoAaTB bx BaMeHHoft HaóepeaiHofi, h BairB ocraeics 
npoftiH so rocTHHHHiíH pascTOHeic nrapHHOK) bb yjfluy, 40 — 50 
maroEB. HecMOipa ea no3AHÍB qacB, npHcraeB 6BiJia noJiea Hapo;(a; 

MOHaXH H 6orOM0.1BI](BI COÓpaJIHCB BCTp6THTB HOBfilK napOXO^^B. ^H- 

rypu MOHaxoBB b'b hxi^ nepHuxB ojs^bsimsixi,^ rpynnu mojoabixi 
peÓHTB, noHTH MajiBHHBOBi, Bi HepHBixT* MOHainecBHX'B manBaxB 
u CB A^HHHUMH BOJOcaMH AO lue^x, OTcyTCTBÍe seHQ^HHi H oeo- 

6eHH0 OTCyTCTBie A'6Te&, HeH3(5Í3BHUXl qJieHOBB BCflROft yjH^HOft 

TOJiim, npHj^aBajH oco6eHHBifi xapaBTep'B coópaBineftcfl KjmA Ha- 
poxa; CTpaHHafl, ;KBBonncHafl o5cTaHOBBa, HeÓuBajutt &bjiiiŘ cbítb 
How, crpaHHafl TOjna jiioacž— Bce dio hochjío BaBoft-TO ne op^ft- 
HapHBi&, xeaTpaJibHufi xapaBxepx; dXH jiioah na npHcraHH Easa^HCb 
u^ jfXO^wb'^ HjiH „Hapo;](OMx^ HB^B BaBoft-HHÓyAB pyccBofi onepu 

HJIH HCTOpHHeCBOfi AP&MBJ. 

IlepeHO^eBaBmH bi^ rociHHHHi^']^, na ;ipyrofi aghb yrpoiTB Birfecrb 
CB MOHM'B TOBapim^eM'B no nyTemecTBÍK), Ď. H. BarHcpoirB, sl cxk^ 
jiajTB BHSHTB HacTOflTejiH) MOHacTBipfl, apxmfaHApHTy MejeríH), h sa- 
T^iťB MU nepe6paj[HCB b^b noMtm^eHie craaiiiiE. 

IlepBue ABa-TpH aha Bcei^o ymjiH Ba pasóopBy sen^eft, nepe- 
CMorpx npHHaA^eaiHOCTefi, xpaHaiE^iixcfl na crani^iH, n na xjionoxu 
no HameMy ycxpoficiBy. Kor^ía mh pasoCpajiHCB, ycrpoMHCB h npn- 
BejH Bce BB nopflAOBx, cxaeiiiifl npoHSBeaa na neefl o^eHB npiflx- 
Hoe BneHaxj']^HÍe. Ona noM^n^aexcfl, Basx a roBopiiTB yse, b% oco- 
ÓOíTB HeíojBfflOMx ^íByxii-axaaHOMB aombbí, bb noJiy-Bepcrt on 
MOHacxupu, u oxAibeHa oxb nero He6oj[binHirB sajHB^HBOMB. Bi 
HESHCM^ dxasi HaxoAflxcfl: Byxen, Bja^OBUfl cxaHi][ÍH h Bpoirib 
xoro noM^n^eme ms. p£i6aB0Bx, jiobaii^hxx pii6y na xpanesy Mosa- 
cxupfl. BepxHÍfi dxasi BceA^Jio oxBeAeH'B noA'B cxasipio—BOC^iB 

Oin A^BflXB npOCrOpHUX^B BOMHaXB, CB ÓOJIBnJHHH OBHaMH, X&H)n^HlfH 

MHoro CBŠxa. BojiBinoe BOJHfHecxBO oboh'b, otfpan^eHHiixi ea B&b 
^exHpe cxopoHH, aoji»ho, BnponeMi, hm4xb h cbok) ;^ypHyK) cro- 

pOHy — 3BM0& JífiJÍXMO CHJIBHO BU^yBaXB, H XHXB Wh JíflUimi 6UJ10 6fil, 



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HA 300.10rHqECK06 CTAUI^IH. 313 

B^flTHO, XOJOAHO. Bo BC&Xl ROMHaxaxx eCTB Heo6xoAHMafl, BeCBMa 
npocrafl, KOHeiHO, MeÓeab — ctojih, cryjisa, AHBanu, tebi hto no- 
id^o^eHÍeiTB MU 6u.th oÓesne^ieHEi BecBMa y^oÓHuifi. Mbi sanoH 
lazpiitt no KOMHarš, ipeTLio BOMHaTy opeBpaTHJiH wh crojOByio, a 
en^e o^ny b% .laCopaTopeyic jiJiň nperoTOB^iemfl h xpaHenifl peaBTH- 
BOBi. cnnpTa h bcabhxi npHHaAJesHOCTefi. OcrajiBH&iff ctoajih y 
Hacb nyeruMH. 

IIpflHa^^esHOCTflMH A-vfl 3aHflTÍft CTaHi](ifl cHa6;i(Hia HacB xasa^e 
BfB ;^ocTaToqHux% pa3Mtpax'B. Bet Heo6xoAHH'6ftaiie peaBTHBu 6ujih 
fia-ďHito H B-b SHa^HTejbHOMi* BOJiHHecTBt; creRjiflHHafl nocy^a xasase. 
McRO-iBEO 6oji>mHX% CTeBjflHHuxi aBBapiyMOBx H CojfBmofi sanacii 
(JaHOBi H qaineK'B MéHBmaro pasBiipa^ Bi^ drax^ npHHa^JieaiHOCTflxi^ 
H cocTOHTB rjaBHafl yciiyra, osasEiBaeMafl oaaoBei](KO& craHqiefi. 
En^e Rofi-Basie HeoóxoAHHiňmie peaBnaBU bii Mosere npHBesTH Ch 
coóoft Ha Mope; ho Óe^b asBapieBi h creBJflHHOft nocy^ii bu Óy^exe 
ce6fl ^yBCTBOBaTB Basi^ 6e3i> pyB^B, Óy^exe jiameHu bcaboS bos- 
xosHOCiii HOJBBOBaxBCfl MaxepiajiOMib, npHBeBeHHUMl* Cb dBCBypCÍH. 
Tan^HTB ci> C060Ř BTOTB i^ÍHHBitt H xpynKÍft rpys^ h3i rieiepiSypra 
Btrh HHBasoft B03M0SH0CTH. Ha wbci^ AOCiaTB noAOÓBUxb Ben^ett 
mvxí; ^a h Óbijio 6u ciHmicoMi Aoporo, ecmóu BasAuft 3BCByp- 
csíSTb npioÓptoki^ AJifl ce6ji jih^ho bck) euy HysHyio nocy;iy, 
H en^e Ha xaBoe BopoTBoe speicfl. Tenepb, cb y^pes^enieMi cran- 
ipH, BH, nocjíi AOJiraix) nyTemecTBifl no coBepmenno xpyn^oÓHUM^ 
vficFairB, q)eAH no^asjAion^aro Óesjín^hsij na cypoBOirb h ;^h- 
EOBTB ($epery xojOAHaro Mopa, cb npiflTHuirB qyBCTBOMi yAHBJíeHÍH 
HaxoAHTe y^eK^enie, Bnaini fijiaroycrpoeHHoe aj« nay^HuxTb sa- 
HSTÍfi, Txb BH ' qyBCTByeTe ce6a ho^th xaBse xopomo o(ÍCTaBJieH- 
HUMi, Basib vh neiepCyprcEofi jiaÓopaTopin. H pasi saBe^enniift, 
n OAHOirB onpe;i£jieHHOMi uicrb, BecB dxoTB Hay^nufi HHBeHxapB 
HOCJiysHn yse ne Bani oahhitb^ n ne na ojiho jiíto, a noo^e- 
pej^o 6fjí.eTb cjiysHTB bcí^mx saisasEMi HaxypajiHcraHi. 

KoHeHHO, MHoraro na crani^iH emfi ne^ocraerB, h HscrtAOBa- 
texh^ seJiaiOH^ii nojiBsoBaxBCfl npn cbohxi paóoxaxo^ bc^hh cpe^- 
CTBaira coBpeifeHHoň xexHHBH, ho namejTB 6u sxbch mhopexo^ nys- 
HHxi Bemefi. Ho b^b sxoitb noBa h Birh oco6eHHOft naAO^HOCXH; 
ciabiiifl ^EaerB nrapoByio bosmoshocxb jiíbmrh Ha6jiio;i;eHÍfl h Hscjit- 
XOBamji Hax^ sbhbiimx 9bhboxhum'b h co6paxB naxepiajrB xopomo 
0((pa6oTaHHiiĚ h coxpaHeHHuft. OBOHHaxeiBHoe se esy^eHÍe cotfpan- 
Haro vosHO hpohsboahxb yse h ;i;0Ma, x^itb Óojsfbe^ hxo BpaxBO- 
BpaféHHUMi npetfHBaHÍeHi na cranipH, BopoxBHMx cÍBepmiM^ jA- 
TOVB Boerxa Jiy^fme BoenojíBSOBaxBCfl ajih paÓOTu, no Mipi boshos- 
mcn, Ha^ xhbuku cyo^ecrBaMH. Caifyio cJiaÓyK) cropony npe^- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



314 B^erHUKi ebposu. 

craBMeTB lenepB oicyTCTsie khhpl. BaCjiioTeEa craHi^ÍH HaxoAirrcfl 

nORa Wb SaWTOHHOMl COCTOAHÍH: HŠCBOJbRO A^CaTROBl CO^IHHeHÍ&, 

rjaBHKTMi oÓpasoiTB no CHcreMaTHR^ MopcRHxi^ SHBOimccL, 3cpa- 
Hfln^Hxcfl vh jifijxT> flo^HBaxi BOuoAa, cocraBJíflerB Becb efl kebs- 
Hufi sanacTB. 

Bx HeBuroAHUfl yaiOBÍfl nociasjíeHa craei^ifl OTHOCHTejn»HO no- 
nojHenifl CTapux'B sanacoBi h CHaCsenifl hobumh bi^ cjryHa'^ norpeó- 
HOCTH. CaMO C060K) pasyirieTca, hto na míctí, bx CioiOBsaxi, 
nejBSfl AOcraTB ennero. Gnnprb a^a sanATÍft h KOJ[JieBi]ii& a aoj- 
T&ewb 6ujii> BunncaTB, HeMe^Jtenno no npi']k3A^, nsi ApxanreiBCRa, 
coo6a^eHÍe cb botophm'b jiítomi aobojibho Óticipoe h aobojíbeo 
HacToe. Ho peaBTHBOBi n CTeRjiflHH0& nocy^u TaifB, b^poatho, 
Hej[B3fl AOcraTB, h ecuH Buft^erB sanace RaKoft-HHÓyAB khcjoth hjh 
BpacKH, TO ysi^ HOBOfi ce6^ ne AOcranemB. 

Ho vbAh nejBSfl se h TpeÓOBaTB, hto6b[ na B^omi Mopi mA- 
JHCB MarasHHu XBMnqecBHxi TOBapoBi. 9th ney^oCcTBa coBepmenno 
HesHaHETejíBHu vb cpaBnenÍH cb lofi Buro^^oft, soropyio npeAcraB- 
jiaerB craniíia mb saHarift, CojOBei^Eaa Cio^omecRaa craniíía — 
en^e tojibbo aMÓpioni, BOTopony npe^croHrB pasBHBaTBca, h a na- 
;íík)cb, hto ee oatn^^aer-B xoporaee Óysymee. 

Ecjra y nea cctb cyn^eCTBeHraitt h neycTpaHHMiitt He^ocraTOEx, 
BOTopBifi MOHien cjiysHTB npenaTCTBÍeiTB ea A&^BntfimeMy pasBHTÍK> 
H npeycn^HÍK) vh óy^yn^eirB, to 9to ea nojossenie na ocxpoBt 
H, cjrib;íOBaTejiBHO, nojinaa OTpfeannocTB otb Mipa fb Tepeme a<w- 
rHXX 8HMHHXI vícsinewh. B^b nojnoBHni hjih bohiiií 0BTa5pa, Bor^a 
Mope noBpBiBaerca jbxohi, b^b CojiOBBaxi npespan^aiOTca BcaRÍa 
CHomenia cb BOHTHneHTOMi. Mope Banepsaeii na h^bojbbo sepcTB 
BpyroiTB 6eperoBi, n Tasaa se nojoca JiB^y OBOBUBaerB 6eperB 
MaxepHEa. Ho nesAy 8thmh ^syna npeCpesnuiíH jie^anmíH no jo- 
caMH ocraeTca npocTpancTBO OTBpuxaro, nesaiíepsniaro Mopa. Fpa- 
HHE^a jieAanofi nojocu b^mho ušnaeica; 6ypn h bojihu nocroanHO 
paspymaiOTB ee, narpoMOiBAaion rpy^H JiBAaffB h o5jiaMiiBaK>TB 
Bpaa jie^anoro nojia; CHJBHue Moposu yBejHTOBaH)TrB ero Mon^nocrB 
H BOSBpan^aiorB to, Ttb ornaTO Óypefi. TaBHifB oópasoMi nponcxo- 
AarB nocToaHHLía BOJietiania b% pasiiipaxx jie^anofi njion^aAH. Torxa 
npeBpan^aeTca coofin^eHÍe Mes^y MaTepHBOicB h ocrpoBaMH, h *mo- 
nacTupB norpysaeTca bi nojHoe OAnnonecTBO. Hsp^ARa oTBaaBnoiry 
noMopy yxacTca npo6paTBca na ocxpoBa h o6paTHO, nepenjuBaa Ha 
Bap6ae6 ompuToe npocTpancTBO Mopa, cb orpoMnoio onacnocrbS) 
6uTB saTepTUBTB H pasAaBJíenniiifB JCB^aMH. TaBHirB (MynatmurB 
cirkvBHaBaMi nopy^aerca Tor^a h AOCTaBsa no^xH bi MonacTEipB; 
8T0 CBiBaexi HŠCBOJiBBo pasi B^ sHMy. Mni pascBaBHBajH, mto fb 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EA 300.10rHHECK0tt CTAHmH. 315 

1881 roAý, nocfli CMeprn HMnepaiopa AjieEcaH^pa U, Kor;^a secb 
idpi yse seaji o nepeii-^^H-b iiiapcTBOBaHÍfl, MOHacrupB en^e aojfo 
Haxo^qijicfl FbHeB^AeHÍH, h na eRTemaxi noMUHajiH noRotearo ro- 
cyjtapa ao 17-ro iiapra, Bor^a, HaBOHei^'B, npoópajca fb Oojobeh 
noMopB ci 6yMaraMH on apxaerejiBCRaro rySepnaTopa ii cb MaHH- 
(j)ecTOirB o BCTynjieHÍH na npecrojit HOBaro rocy^apa. 

TaBaa orpísanHOCTB iipe;iCTaBHT'B bt, 6yAyn^eM'B orpoMHBía 3a- 
ipyjiHemfl x^fl cxaHi^iH. TenepB noRairibcTB vh Heft h^tb jHi^a, no- 
eroflHHO eK) saB^A^Baioii^aro. Ona OTBpBUBaercfl toibko jštoitb, bi^ 
ciyqai iipiisK^ nocixHxejieft; Bce»e ocrajiBHoe speMa OHa sanepia, 
H KJK)HH efl xpanaTCfl y HacToaxaiifl. Ho na xaROe cocrosHÍe Hymno 
cxoTpiTB Rasi Ha BpeMeHHoe; HHRaRoe nay^Hoe y^pesRA^HÍe ne 
MoaserB 6utb 6e3x nocroflHHaro h OTB^TCTBeHHaro npHCMorpa; ne- 
Tep(5yprcBoe ofintecTBO ecrecTBOHCHHTaTejreft, wh Bt^ema ROTopara 
craH^ifl HaxoAHTCfl, CJiHniROM'B y^ajieno, vmoóu npaBHJiBHO Becrn na^- 
sopfB 3a CTaH^iefi h cb ycnšxoiTB saÓOTHTBca o ea noxA^p^anÍH n 
mhsiSimeu% pasBHTÍH. Pano hjfh dosaho — axo, rohohho, npem^^ 
Bcero Bonpoci AenesHHXi cpeACXBx — CTaHi^a ^oJKRHa 6utb nopy- 
Hena c^e^íaJBHO o^HOMy JiHi^y, Roropoe h shjo 6u Ha nefi no- 
CToaHHO. Torw CRaacerca ney^oCcTBO ea noaoaema, h CtAHOny 
y^eHOny, RoropoMy Btina^eTi hoctb 6bitb x^peRTopoi^B cojiOBeE^ROfi 
fiiojorfraecRoft craniíiH, npE^erca no^sepraTB cetfa orpoMHuirB jih- 
mefliairB- TpyxHO ci ycnixoHi Becrn Hay^HHa sanaTÍa, óy^yw pe- 
ryjflpHo nojiOBnHy roxa jinmenB BcaRofi bosmoshocth CHomenift cb 
oeTajBHmrB HÍpoM'B9 jramen^B bosmoshocth nojynaTB noHxy, Bunn- 
CHBaTB Heo6xoAHMua RHHTH H sypnaju H cjAnmi> sa ABnacenieMi^ 
HaysH ch rbwh Hensifi^HUBiirB BHnHanieMi, ROToparo xpe^yiorB 
CffpbesEJUsi Hay^Hua sanaTia. 

Hamy shshb uu ycrponin no npmfbpy npesnnxi jrbrh, no 
o6iiTOH>, saBe^eHnoMy Hanrann npeAmecTBeHHHRaMn na cram^iH. Ha 
CojOBei](BHX'B ocxpoBaxi, RpoM-b ynpexAenifi, npena^Jiesan^HX^ ca- 
MOHy MOHacTupK), HH^ero hítb. H^tb hh rocmHHni^u. hh nocroa- 
•laro ABOpa, tjíí^ 6u mosho 6wio aoctotb ^to-jbÓo noicTB. Bi^ 
6osbmoi MOHaenipcRoft rocTHHHH];']^ hítb RyxHn A^a npofesaiO' 
maxi; Bc6 6oroMOiiBipi n nociTnrejrn oónrejra nojiBsyíOTca ctojoitk 
3a oúmei MOHacTiipCRoft Tpane3ofi. Ho xaRi^ RaRi nposHTB noji- 
TOpa irbeai^i na uoHamecRofi mnníb namnirB MipCRHifB sejiyARairB 
noKasaiocB 6hi onenB rpycrno n npHBeio 6a vltl vl cnpaBeAJinBoe 
HeroAOBanie, aa vb TOMy se n xoahtb o6ÍAaTB bx MOHaciEipB Tpe- 
6oBajo 6u Bce*TaRH ndBiernaro BpeMenn h, rjiaBHoe, CBasajo 6u 
HacB HeyA0(5H0K) ji^si naci crporociBio vh coCnoAcnin qacoBi, to 
ni, RaRi 9T0 n npesAe A^a^ocB, saBejin na CTaH^í^ CBoe co6- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



316 BrbCTHUEl EBPOnU. 

CTBeHHOe XOSflftCTBO. KOHeHHO, H BX 8T0MX HaMX nOMOFB rocTe- 

npÍHMHuft MOHacnipb — ;^a noMHMO eero u Haibsa HH^ero c^i^aTb 

HJIH AOCraTb; OH^ SJSJkCh UOJIEUŘ H eAHHCTBeHHUft X03HHHX. 

IIpezsA^ Bcero MOHacnipb CHaój^Hjx nacb npHCJiyroK. Haní HysHO 
6ujio nišinh rpe6i^0B^ ^ja dBCsypcift h cjyry AOHa. JÍ^Jisi 9toK i^tM 
HaMi Óujin OTsoMaHAnpoBaHu Tpoe petfflTb hsi ?HCja t^xi Majb- 
TOKOB-B H noApocTBOBx, EOTopuxi, HO oÓHiaio, niHpoBO paciipocTpa- 
HeHHOMy Ha c^Bepi, npHCUJiaiOTE cio^a hsx cejb h ropoAOBX HX'b 
poAHTe^iH, HJiff ,no o6iii](aBÍH>^, hjh npocTO no ycepAiio, na i^iir 
jiutt roA^b, ^to6h asHTb h pa6oTaTb ea MOHacropb. 3to laKi-Ha- 
3UBaeMEie roAOBtie 6orouojibitu, 6e3iLiaTHafl paóo^aa cem, KOTopoio, 
Wh BOjmnecTB^ H'&CROJibKHX'B coTb pyR'b, nocTOflHHO pacnojiaraeTb 

MOHaCTEEpb. 

XoTfl npH craHiiiioHHoň nyxHi h OEasajHCb Boe-RaBÍfl npena^- 
jresHOCTH, HO Bce-xaBH 6ĎJibniyH) ?acTb neoCxo^HMOfi RyxoHHOfi h 
CTOJiOBoft nocy^bi mei ^ojishli 6mjh ^^ocmib vb MOHacTupi, h dio 
6ujiA canafl CBy^Haa cropona namero o53aBejKeHÍfl. HaMi ch yxo- 
BOJbCTBÍeM-B cooacHJiHCb BH^aTb Bce, TTÍ) noipeCyeTca (BOo6me, npH 
Bckrb MOHx^ CHomeHÍflxx cb MOHacrapeMi, a Bcrp^jb^aji Bcer;i.a noji- 
HyH) JK)6e3H0CTb H npejiynpeAurejibHocTb, KaKt co cropoHH Hona- 
CTupcR0X'b BJiacreň, mBi h npocT£ix'b MOnaxoBi); ho OBasajiocB, hto 
xosflňCTBeHHafl sH8Hb MOHacTBipfl pacnpeA'^ena, no Bpa&Heft icipi, 

MeSAy CTOJbBHBfH se OTA'&IbH£IHH ^enapTaMCHTaMH, CBOJIbBO BO BCbX'b 

nerepfiyprcBHxi AeoapraMeHTaxx, Bwicrk BSflTuxi*. ÁHpeBTopoMi> sas- 
;(aro hb^ TaBHxi) ^enspiaMeHTOBi coctohtb oco^uS MOHaxB: oreu^b 
3B0H0H'B, OTei^i^ pacxoA^HBi, OTei^i BynopHutt H T. A., H Bcb xo- 
3a&CTBeHHue npe^nerH pacnpeA'&sfliOTCfl nes^y hhmh caHBOťb opn- 
xoTJiHBUMi oópasoarb. JIotbbh y dROHoifa, hosh h bhjbe y pacxo^- 
qsBa, ByxoHHufi ho7B'b HQ^HTe c^e^iaIbHO y MŠ;(HHBa, a Gai4>eTEQ 

H CBaTepTH Bl „pyXJIflAHOfi^. IIpH TaBOfi CIOSHOfi CKcreMi HaiTb 

npHnutocb Ó^raTb tsst> oahofo A^napraMeHTa b% xpyroft h npoBO- 
3HTbCfl He Majo BpeiíeHH, npes^e ^iwh Hama ByxHfl h Hanrb <Sy- 
^erb yBpacHJiH cboh noiiBH noipeÓHUMi a^a hhxi HHBeHTapeM^; 
ne yraio, hto 8tot^ HHBenrapb, necHorpa na naniH TpyAu, Osurb 
OHeHb Aft-ieBx OTb nasHOTbí n coBepmeHcrea. B^ Te^ieme Ji'bTa owb 
nocTOflHHO BOcnojHflJiCff npn6opaMH, BpeneHHO OTopsanHEOíH orb erb 
bucobhxt* HayqHux'b sa^a^i) norpefinocTAHH ByxoHHaro CBoicxBa: 
cojOHBa, caxapHHi^a, ropna^HHi^a — 6ujh, B!b cyn^HOcra, 6aHBH cb 
npHTepTuifH npoÓBaMH; dojhm^LS creBJíHHHafl Hanma saBJW^aja wh 
ce&b MacJio, a oahh% hbi nanraxi aBBapiyiíOBi, bi BeJHBOHy cbo- 
eny oropqeHÍH) h crHfl;y, ^ojiaten-b 6uai> wh Tepeme Bcero jfcia na- 

BpbíBaTb Bl RJiaAOBOft XOJIOAHyK) TeJIATHHy. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HA SOOJIOnraECKOft CTAHIÍIH. 317 

BonpocB o npoBHSÍH paspimnjicji HtCROJiBKO CRop^e h Hpon^e, 
fijaro^^apa eBoeft qpe8Bu?afiH0% dJieHeHTapHOCTH: G&mfi xjš(5i h 
íepHHft — H3i MOHacTupCRofi JiaBBH. PBi6y (JepHxe Ka»Aoe yrpo cbí- 
syi), csoJBBO BaMX HaAo6HO; vbjs,h pu6aBH sEsyrB noA'B eaMH, vh 
BameM^B se jífiwb. Mojioro BairB 6yAyTB upHBOSHTb co CROTHaro 
iBopa. diHMi 6u H orpaHUHEJHCB HamH q>eACTBa upooHiaHi)!, ecjiHÓu^ 
Bi BHx^ ocoóofi jiK>6e3HOCTH, ;(jia HacB He yÓHBajH en^e Ha crot- 
HoiTB ^BOjé TaieHRa, H noTOiTB ornycRajiH Haifi ch jieAHHRa T&nfl- 
TíHy no Mipt HaAOÓHOCTH; aia TejiflTHHa h cocraBJflJia naBHyio 
ocHOBy Hamero nHTaHÚi vb xe^enie Bcero jrlxa, xota, no npasA^b 
CKasaTB, nepesi ji,vb nejííbjai na^o^a yse irat ao OTBpan^eHÍfl. ^ja 
Bexeniji cnera saÓpaHnaro naMH npOBÍanra, nani Bu^aiH Terpa^Ry 
vh H^KOJbRO jiHCTOBi/ niHypoBaHHyio, HyMepoBaHHyio, Ch Hona- 
erypcROH) ne^aTBio, ho ysu! b^ o6jiosr'6 h3i> cenefi caxapnofi 6y- 
xanr, noA'B numnuirB THryjOMi: „RHHra jí^ji^ ecrecTBOHcnHTaTejiefi 
Ha sanncRy nojiynaeiíiixi paseuxi npe^MeroBi^. Ho dxofi RHHr§ 
xu H pascHHiaiHCB Bi ROHiii']^ Jitia sa Bce norpetfjeflHoe nám. 

HxaRi, Rorjra nyreMi nenaiiixi xjionorb hu buachhjiei cetfi, 
Bi HeifB H E3i> Hero Óy^eni roroBHTb ce6^ o6íA'b, boshhri Bonpoci^ 

TOMi, RaRi OHI 6yAeTB roTOBHTBCfl. 3aícb naci osH^ajio HOBoe 
npenflTCTBÍe. Hsi „6oroMOJiBi](eBi^ , nocxynHBnraxi b^ name pacno- 
pazenie, Asyxib nocrapme h nocEJBH'ie mbi npoHSBejie bi moparob^ 
H npHROMaHAnpoBanH ex'b ri HamHM'B jio^Raiix; caMufi MjaAmiň 
jlojseffB 6ujrh coctoatb 6e3CMÍ^HHO npH craHiiiH h coBM^n^aiB bi 
(x6b ;ioiURHOCTH MasopAOMa, noBapa, o4)4>iiiíiftHTa h RaMepxHHepa. 

01 Evwb MBI HaTepn']^HCB ne najio ropa. 

Hami B^Hiifi JíH^apia, Hjibh, Cujtb cjiaBnuft najiBqyraHi, jvbrh 
HempHaAiVtTH, cb xo^po^ymnoft n n^yiOBaTOfi CMaaiHBoft posHi^eft h 
6earB bcarhxi* RyjiHnapHLixi^ cnoco6HOCTeft. Ohi 6u.!rB, noBHAHMOny, 
H3i aaaRHTO^HOft RpecTBAHCROft ceMBH, h, cyAfl no BceMy, 6ajiOBaH- 
HHft cHHORi; Bi MOHacTupB OHI npi^xajrb Bcero sa h^crojibro ^Hefi 
xo nacb H npeAcraBjJiJi* en^e hsi ce6fl cnaBnuft thhi AiajiBTOmRH, 
B3i rjryxoro, hhcto RpecTBancRaro yrjia, ne aaiponyiaro npHROCHO- 
BeHÍeiTB Mtn^aHCRaro, RynenecRaro Ejm ÓapcRaro Bjdflniji. Bi cb- 
BepBux'B ^y6epHiflx^ nou1w,míOBi> h Booó^e BOiRaro poAa „rocnoA'B^ 
wuo, KphnocTHoe npaso ne Tarortjio na^^ Hapo^OMi, h RpecTBa- 
HiffB TaHomnifi — ne Ton cpeAne-pyccRifl RpecxBaHHHi, ROTopuft npH- 
Binsi jOMaTB manRy uepeAi RasAuifB fiapHHOMi h nepe^aerB tohi^ 

yrOAJHBOCTH H po60CTH nepCAlk HHM^B H CBOHHI JlíhTSLUT>. y HjIBH 

6kuo, noBH^HMOMy, A^BOJiBHO CJia6oe npeAcraBJteHÍe o tomi, hto owb 
^vysffRi'', a fl „tfapHHi"; npocrofi n CBotfoAHuft b-b o6pan^eHÍH^ 
OffB He qyBCTBOBaji^B HH po6ocTH, HH CMyméHÍa vh HanieMi o6n;e- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



318 B^CrHHRl EBPOim. 

CTBŠ, a jiaReficBHXx TajiaHTOBi y nero ne Óujlo hh na rpomx. Ecih 
ueí c/iyqajocb nofiiH ch hhmi sa wkrb-ESLÓjjifi^ Hanp. 3a noKyn- 
RaMH, wb MOHacTupb, H OHI BCTpŠHajTB no Aoporb aeiuiHva-tforo- 
i£OJiLi](a, OHI* Óedi^epeMOHHO ocranaBJíHBajicfl noBaiuiŘaTL cb hhmi, 
H BOFAa fl, noAoa&AaBT ero Tcpn^HBO h^bojibro BpeiieHH, roBopHjrL: 
„Hy, EjihBj TÉi CEopo?** — OHI OTB^^a.ii: ^cefiwcB^, HnpoAOJsaji 
<;bo£ pasroBopi. 3a oóíaomi*, bvl^o xoro, ttoÓii hhhho crosTb bx 
npEuiH^HOM^ paBCTOflHÍH OTB npHoiysHBaeMaTO rocnoAHHa, BaBi no- 
j^o(5aeT^ hcthhho „pejcneKraňejbHOMy" cjiyrt, ofb hjh cmotpšjicb 
jK)(k)nuTCXBOM'B, Rasx "lAflTb rocno^a, npoBosafl Bas^uft syeoBi 
rjiaBaMH, u.ih ÓesaitAHO HC^esaji^ na nyxHK), OTBy^a Óeutb Boofio^e 
Tpy^HO H8BJieKaeM*B. Ocofienno xpy^HO 6ujio npiyqHTt ero xora kb h4- 

BOTOpoft OnpflTHOCTH: ?HCTO MEITb HOCy^y, BaSAE^ ABHB MeCTH, HJH^ 

BaBi owh roBopHJiii H BaBi BOo6n^e BupasaiOTCfl na ctBep^, „na* 
xflTB^ BOMHaTu. 3th TpeÓOBHHÍfl BasajiHCB eny, ohobhaho, coBep- 
meHHO HepasyMHUMH. CjiyHajiacB sa hhmi* u la ciafiocTB, BoropoH) 
<rrpaAaj[i oahhi hsi „cjiyrB^, onncannux^ H. A. ToH^apoBinix: 
HHorAa OHib „ynoTpe6jflJE'E" t^ BycoHBH, Boropue icii ocraBJuuH ce6t 
Ha ysHHi*. 

EcJiH OH'B 6ujLi> njioxofi JiaBefi, to noBap'B oh^ 6iijrB coBepmeHHO 
aeroAHBLň. KorAa mu ero capocHJiH, yiíierB jih ohx roroBHiB, owh 

BdkWb OTB^THJIl, BaB^B TOTB rOCHOAHHl, BOTOpufi nOJmraJTB, ^TO 

yM'6eT'B HrpaTB na CBpHnBi, xota HHBorAa ho npotfoBaix. H aíSl- 
CTBHTOJibHO, njiHTa OBasajiacB a^a nero EHcrpyneHrb coBepmeHHO 
HOBHaBOMbift. Saiťi^THBi HeAoyMŠHÍe Ha ero jmujk npH bha*^ pfi^u 

H TeJIflTHHU, BOTOpue BaAO ÓUJIO rOTOBHTB B^ OÚ^A^jj fl H CaiTB 

QO^yBCTBOBaJix npecBopCnoe HeAoyMÍHÍe: uwk hphxoahjocb 6hm> 
ByjiHHapHUHX npo4>eccopoM'B, h a rjiy6oBO cosnaBajrB cboh) HenoAro- 

TOBJíeHHOCTB Bl dTOfi pOJIH. Bl> OepBLltt pa8'B Bl SH3HH fl AOJSeHl 

ÓHJii ceptesHO nocraBHTB ce(Jt BonpocB: htí> coficTBeHHO nyatHO 
CA^aTB CB TOJiflTHHOfi, ^To6u HOJiyHHTB H3X Hefl xopomoo auipBoe? 
Kx CHacTBH) MoK TOBapHni^ OBasajicfl HOMHoro onuTHie h r^aBHoe 
pibmHTejiBH^e Měna: BHHMaxejiBHo nocMOip^BX na Te^sTuny, ohi 
CBasaJii: „a Ay^aio, hto ee naAO bumutb", saTĎ&rB nojiosifJi'B ee na 
<;BOBopoAy, npH6aBH^x Macaa, noAJnnAi^ boau, h Bejrkii* ^shi on 
npeMeHH ao BpeMeHH noBopaqHBaiB xeJiHTHHy h TUBaiB bi» Hee 
0HJtB0&. 9to HjiBfl noHfljii OTJiHqHO, H TUBajii ee fiesnon^aAHO. Ho 
AoaRapHTB lejiaxHfly BaBx cjii^yerb owb ao BOHi^a Jiíxa ne BBiyroica. 

EjaroAapfl orpanHqeHHOcxH MaxepiajOBi, HaxoAHBmHxcfl bt* na- 
meM^B pacnopH2seHÍH, y nacB BupaóoxajiocB CJiŠAyionJiee HeH3M'6HHoe 
MeHK): 1) yxa hsi cb^iihxi cejBAefi, n 2) HeAO^&apeHHaa xeJiflTHHa. 

KaaAoe yxpo HjiBfl Ópaji-B pu6y y pnÓHaro cxapocxu, oma 



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HA soojiorH^CRoň CTAfli^m. 319 

OcHna; vb luoxie ahh lAwh AOcraBajEacB tojibbo KaM(5a4a, HTorj^a 
MS tfsura sa o&bjíflui* rpycTHu. B^ xoponrie mu 6paji0 cejs^eá^ 
H yxa H3i CB^HXi cejíbneíL ÓiiaroTBopHO Riiflja Ha Hame nacTpoe- 
HÍe Ajxa. no^eHHiift hctophki cojiOBei^Baro MOHacrupH, JíficneeŘy 
Ha crp. 30 CBoeft SHnru ;^aerB BunHCKy: „oahhi yneHuň nyre- 
mecTBeHHHE^, 6ubi> vl Monacrupik b% 1828 ro^y, BairlTBJínb, hto 
yxa H3i sjíínffiHXX cejBj^eft bejcoitb cbohitb ho^te ne ycrynaerB 
crepjwaBefi. Cm, Toro-ax rosa „Mocb. B4aom." JVs 75, crp. 3117". 

A es CBOeĚ CTOpOHEI BHOJIHt HpHCOejIHHflBOCb R^B MH^HÍK) JHeHarO 

flyremecTBeHHHBa. Máco stoS puÓBí wh Bncmeft creneHH h'£sho h 
BsycHo; SI ijrb ero uíbme jAio sas^^ufi A^hb, h ;(0 BOHi^a cb 
0AHHaBOBBiM'B anneTHTOMi, MesAy tšmx EaK'B TejiflTUHa Óucrpo na- 
A(Ajíl u npi^acB. 

CnepBa mu bi bha']^ onuxa npuÓaBHJE b^ yx'6 cyxoro ropomBa; 
He 3HaH), HTĎ AyMaH)rB o6i aiOMi t-trii ÁB^ieBa h MojioxoBei^i^y 
HO fl CM^H) yTBeps;(aTB na ocHOBaHiu co5cTBeHHaro onuTa, ?to 
ara npHÓaBBa HEBy^a ne ro^HTCfl. IIodTOMy mu ropomeBib OTBHHyjH, 
H orpaHH^HJiHCB jnaBpoBUM^ jniCTOMi, BOTopa ro Hj B a HHBorAa He 3a- 
6ítBSut!h HOJíoaLHTB FB yxy — 6ojiBnie vh bea% yBpameHÍji — nep^ABO 
3a6uBafl b7> to se BpeMH ee hocojihtb. MoserB 6utb Hsx-sa aToro 
JHcra OH'B HeHSMiHHO naauBaji-B yxy — »mH"; bmícto noííHrejiBHaro 
„npHBaai^Te no^aBaTB*' , ohi cnpamHBaJix HacB BaacAu^ A^hb: „o^h 

TamHTB?" 

Jl^íi Be^enifl ^OMamnaro xcsafiCTBa mu pšniHjiH coÓJHO^aTB ^e- 
xypcTBa no onepe^H. Ho xaBi BaB'B hh y Měna, hh y Moero to- 
Bapnn^a He 6ujio hh BpoaiAeHHott cbiohhocth bi^ no;(o6Haro po^a 

3aHflTÍfl7áX, HH OXOTU TpaXHTB Ha 8T0 BpeMfl, TO MU OTHOCHJIHCB B'B 

HamHMx oóflsaHHOCTflMi B% Bucmefi CTenenn neÓpesHO. CBopo Hiba 
Bcei^o OB^aA^i* HamHM^B xosflfiCTBOMi H, co3AaB^ ce&k us^heTEjio 
e2e;íHeBHyH) pyrnny, yae hh na mara ne OTcrycajiTb oti nea. Mu 
o6a aroMy oÓpa^OBajiHCB h ne nuTajHCB 6ojbme o6jierHHTB namy 
y^CTB. Ú^tjioe .lÍTO MU npocHA^^n 6es'b BapTO(|)eJui, noTOMy ^to 
JM nojryqema ero na^o 6ujio cxoahtb eme bx oahhx AenapxaMeHTB, 
81 cnei^iaJiBHOMy oropo^HOMy OTD;y, u mu ne co6paJiHCB 9Toro cxk- 
.laxB bo Bce BpeMa namero npefíuBania. EAHHCTBeHHoe, qxb mu 
en^e ce(ř6 Bu^yMaJiH — 3to BapHTB EHor^a Baray. B-b cyu^HOCTH 
BnpoqeiTB mu 6ujih cutu; MOHacTupcBÍS xji'16'b OTJinqHuŘ, mojiobo 
Tasxe, H Mo;iOBOMi» mu sajiEBajiH Bch nycrua ^icna, bi mejiyAR'^. 



JI,.ia MopcEHXTb 8BCRypcifi[ HpH CTaHi^ÍH Haxo^flTca j^bí cnei^ia^iBHO 
m 3Toro Ha3HaqeHHua jo^rh, ^ea RapCaca, RaRx sa^cb roBopaTX; 



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320 BtcnmRi^ ebpoiiu. 

OAHLWb no6ojiBine, Apyroft noMeHBme. AoxRa dXH xpaHATca y xaRe- 
wiasHaro h Bu^aiOTCfl toibko JiHi](airb, npi^bssaion^HMi Ha craei^iK) 
fiM saHflTift. Oh^ iipeMsusajHCB y puóa^eft npHcraHH nponvb 
Hamero AOMHBa h HaxoAHJHCs b'b HCiuiioHHTejiBHOin HameirB pacno- 
pfl»eHÍH. HamH rpeói^u, Tose MajfBWRH jAtl 16 — 17, óhuny 
o^Haso, o($a BAopoBue pe<$flTa, h roAH;iQcs na dTy paóory. K% co- 
:Kaj['&HÍK), o6a ohh ofiasa^HCB ne noHopsi, a OTByAa*TO hsi apxan* 
rejiBCRoft ry6epHÍH, cb MaTepHRa, h ne 3HajH Hcpcsoro a'&Ňi; He 
yMŠjm, Hanp., tojiroitb ynpaBJATBCfl cb napycoMi. Tasí ?to x^ 
6oJi'be OTAa&eHHEixi dBCRypcift, Hanp. a^a ncřbs^OKi stb 3aflUHirB 
ocrpoBaMx, a 6pajrb en^e OAHoro iue Asyxi p£i5aB0Bi, y putinaro 
CT^ocTU; (yrufik Ocnna. 

KorAa a bt> nepBBifi pa3^ noixajTB fb Mope cb AparoS h can- 
RaMH, MOH pe6flTa 6uae ne m&io yAHB^eHu: cnanaja mn RasajocB 

HenOHflTHHlTB, RaRl 8T0 fl COÓHpaiOCB JOBHTB pBltiy RaRHMH-TO He- 

o(iuRHOBeHHUMH HpHÓopaMB; ROFAa se Moa Apara BBíXflHyjia q)y3i» 
Hjy, H íL crajii hsi droro Hj[a Bu^HpaTB qepsefi, rojorypíft h iiei- 

RHXl 8BfeA0^eR'B-04)ÍypHA1^, MOH ^ÓOFOMOIBI^ll'' COBd^lTB dAJH 61 

TynHRi. Jl^M HaniHxi^ aRBapíyMOBi mu, pyROBO^flCB ohutomx H. II. 
Barnepa, 6pajiH BO^y ne hsi caMofi MOHacrupcRoft 6yxTB[, r^i oea 
H^ROJiBRO oupicHeHa H 3arpfl3HeHa, a upoBOSH^H ee h3i OTapuraro 
Mopa, H3'B*8a RpecroBi, crofl^Hxi npH bxoa^ bi CosoBeipcift sa- 
jiHB'By npHÓJHSHTejiBHO 3a HOJBepcTu 0TB craHi^ÍH. Kor^a a m 
nepBHfi pasi nociaiTB naniHXi rpeÓi^OBi cb 6oHeHROMx 3a ao^ofi, 
ofiiflCHHBmsr, r^i ohh ao^shbi ee BaÓpaxB, ohh BepnyjiHCB cb ny- 
CTiíMH pyaaMH, laRi Raai, no hxi cJiOBaMx, oaasaiocB, hto „BO^a 
TaMi ne ro^HTca: qHcrufi pa3C0Ji>". 

Ho nOTOMi OHH BoniJH BO BRycB namaxi BRCRypcitt, h ne 
TOJiBRO bhojihí ycBOHJiH ce&k nexHipyK) npeBiyApocTB jobjh MOp- 

CRHX'B aRHBOTHBIX^B, HO H 3aHHMaJIHCB OH) COH amore, 0C06eHH0 OAHHB 

H31 HHxi^, HanÓoAe pasBHTOft h TOJiROBufi Majiiifi, CnHpHAOHi. Ohb 
SHBO sanoMHHajLx ciumaHHBUi soojiornnecRÍa HasBania, h hotomi 
oxoTHO H^erojifljix hmh: „boh^b, bohi amojiBi^a njiuBerB''. „Cero^n^i 
R^iona Bi iíopk MHoro^, roBopnii oni nocjrk yrpennefi u(ybsjí,za 
Bi Mope 3a BOAOfi A-iH aRBapiyMOBi. Bi rohe^Í jiítb,, ecapuBafl 
acuHAÍň, a Aame nocujiajii ero OAHoro 3a MaTepia^OMi, h ohi jirbjrb 
yse npHBesTH Raai pasii to, ht6 uBÍk 6ujio nymno. 

3toti> CnapHAOHi BOo6n^e oaasajca ajísl nacB He3aM^HHMBiMi> 
MajuMi, H HHxepecoBajTB MOHa CBOHMi xapaRTepoMi. Ohb 6axb 
OHCHB RphnoRT) H CHJieHx, TpyAOJiioÓHBi H CDopx Ha BCflRyK) pa6oTy. 
3a BcaRoe a^o, Roropoe eMy nopynaiH, ohi ópajca CBasaproMi, 
u coBepmeHHO ne mopb cha'6tb cioaca pyRH. KorAa CnapRAony 



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HA aoojioruHECEoň ctahi^ih. 321 

ee^ero tiiuo a^^stb Ha crani^ÍH, ohx paóoraii na oniia OcHna: 
qnAKTE c^TH, A^ajii secjia h t. n. Ohi Óujn* onenb 6jiaroAyinHufi 
H saifl^aTejbHO ATiiieBHO-ypaBHOBÍmeHHU& mojo^oK qejiOB^Ri; cano- 
iijBCTBie y Hero 6uao npeBOcxoAHoe; oneBHAHO, ohi Bcer^a ce6fl 

OTJIHHHO HyBCTBOBaJTB, BCÍMX fitlJl AOBOJieHl* H BCe eHy AOCXaBJIflJIO 

y^OBOJiBCTBie. IIpH^en yrpoMi: „6jiarocJiOBHTe ki o64ah^ cxoahtb". 
Bepnercfl, cnpocHmB ero: „ny htí>, Cujix y o(J*;^HH?* „Rasi jkc, 
— roBopHTb, noMOjniracB Bory, HH^ero", B3;íOXHerL h BecB jioc- 
HHTCfl on yAOBOJiBCTBÍji. TbiTB se TOHOMo^ OHB HpocHJii: „6jiaro- 

ClOBHTe Bl> 6aHK> CXOAHTB^, H B03Bpan^aJICfl y6^r0TB0peHHHfi H 

piBJíeHBBifi: „HOMUJiHCfl HBHero ce&ky xopomo, cjaBa Eory^. 
Bj(o6aBOR'i> y nero ÓhUíO ÓOJbmoe HyscTBO yBaisemfl ki» qyxoMy 
aBTopuTery, ko BCflROMy npHRaaamfo, Koropoe ohl HcnojHOJii Bcer^a 

6e3yB0pH3HeHH0 TOHHO H CB BHAHMUlfB y^OBOJISCTBieiTB. KaH)CB, 
lOTB OHI 6UM> XOpOmiň H qeCTHUfi, A06pufi MaJIUft, HO MB'6 nOA'B 

HacB npuxo^HJio vb rojiOBy, oa^fl Ha ero HeBOSMyrHMOCTB, nocioflHHoe 
;(yineBHoe aobojibctbo h na o6pa3i^OBoe HcnojiHenie npesadanifi, 

TTO OHI CB OAHHaBOBEIMX ycep^ieifl H HyBCTBOlTB HCHOJIHeHHarO 

AOďra nomejii 6u h ne bi^ 6aHK), h ne aci^HAi^ jkobhtb, a..i ny 
xoTb po3raMH ApaTB Ha RonfomH*]^. IIpHRamyrB — h CA'&iaerB, h na 
BonpocT*: — BUApaJiH? — otbítbt^: „BBupaiH, cjaBa Bory, jiobro 

Ob HaniHMU coc^ahmh, pBi6aRaMH, íaeí najio npHxoAHJiocB hm^tb 
j&ďa. Ohh shjih noAi* HaMH, bx AByxi-Tpex'B ROMnaraxi hhshhfo 
9Tasa, rjiik bi caHOfi 6ojiBniofi naxo^HJiacB h RO.ioccajiBHafl ne^, 
oranjinBaioii^afl Bce 3AaHÍe. 3to noifl^n^eHie sanjrro hmh RpyrjniS ro^i^, 
a sHxofi, aocjr& naniero orB'£3Aa, hitb npeAOcraBJflercfl h cran- 
i^ioHHafl RyxHfl, rA'6 ohh npocyniHBaiDTB cboh MORpufl njaTBfl. 
BepxHÍfi Bta^^b, T.-e. co6cTBeHHO crani^ifly na sHMy 3anHpaeTCfl h 
He oranjHBaerca. Ph6humi crapocxoft 6uji*b npn mh6 otcií-b Ochhi, 
cnpufi yse, ho óoa^íiíl h 3AopoBufi nonopi, poAOirB hsi Rojiu, 
MOHacTupcRÍfi oĎHTaTejiB ya:e bi Tepeme MHoraxi jiítb, xoxa h 
ne Monaxx, a to^ibro ^paco^opnufi nocjyraHHRx". Y nero bb pac- 
QopflaLeHÍH naxoAHnocB hícrojibro ^eJiOBiRi pu5aR0Bi, pe6flTB o^enB 
MOJioABixi, H3% ^mcia T&XX se roxoBuxi 6oroMOJiBi](eBi, RaRi h 
HamH cayrH. Tpy^i hxi Úujtl o^bhb TflsejTB. Ha npoMUcejTB ohh 
faAMH no HOHaiTB, — Ho%K) pH6a Jiyraie jobhics, — BBrfeatajiH na- 
coffB vb 8 Benepa h B03Bpan^a.iucB ^acoBi orojo 3 yrpa. J[']&to 
6iuo Óypnoe, h hmx nocrosHHO hphxoahiocb HcnuTBiBaTB na Hop^ 
canyK) cRBepnyH) noroAy — xojioa^, AoatAi>, CHJiBHHtt BÍiepi. Ilpn 
nsol TaseJiofi paóort, neMy^peno, hto b^ MÍpocosepi^aniH noTren- 
pB6Haro crapocTu coxpaHBjíHCb H^ROTopue cÁjífÁ asBinecTBa, 
Ihn UL— Ma, 1889. 21 

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322 B^OTHHRl EBPOnU. 

wb BUflik HeyiďJ^peHHaro Byjsia Baxyca. JIobílsh ohh pu6y Hesoj^oirb, 
AJifl BUTflruBaHifl KOToparo wb pasHuxi MŠcraxi^ 6epera e Ha ocrpo- 
Baxi cojiOBei^Kofi 6yxTH ycranoBJíeHu Bopom. IIpoMaflBinucb i^^io 
Ho^, pu6aKH noABíMajiHCb, BOHeHHO, nosAHO, H jíflewh Óujih saH^xu 
no^uHKofi HeBOAa, pasB^meHHaro j^Jis. npocyniBH na npHcraHH, i 
pasHofi MejBofi pa6oTofi. Bib hxi pacnopaseHÍu 6ujii> óonbinoK 
BapÓacB CB A6peBflHHUMx fln^HBOiTb Ha ^eí jí,ah CBJíaAa p&i6u. 
BAOÓaBOBi^ Hxi THsaiufi Tpy;^ ne A&BajrB oco($eHH£ixi pesyjibTaTOffB: 
pudnafl JLOBJíB ne Basnaa b% Monacrupš. Hnofi pasi ohh Bosspa- 
ii^ajiHCB ^YTb ne Ch nycriiiMH pyBaini, h HaM'L ne 6wio jsfixe hath 
cejibxeft na yxy. Ex BOHi^y j-j^xa jkobi cranoBHJCfl y^ann^, h Bas- 
AyH) HOHB nonaAajíO h'£cbojibbo nyAOB'B cejB^eft h Apyrofi pii5u. 
IIoHflTHO Bce-TaBH, ?T0 Hxi pBi6ii coBepmeHHO He XBaiaerB na 
HysAU HOHacTupfl; ohi cy^ecTByeri, BaBi h Bce Hacejienie EfkíO- 
MopBfl, r^aBHyifB odpasoMi TpecBofi, sasynaeMofi Ha MypiiaHCBHx^ 
npoMucjiaxi. 

m. 

jT-j^TO 1888 roAa Óelio, bob^ hsb^^ctho, noBceMtono ^aJieso 
ne »iapBoe, aobojibho npoxjaAHoe. IIoHflTHO, na B^oifB Mop^ oho 
OBasajiocB coBepmenno nedjiaronpiflTHUMx; ^BappHsaTypa ioshuxi 
3HM^'' onpaB^ajia CBOe nasBanie, h ík)hb fb CojiOBBaxi 6ujrh xyse 
H xojiOAffie — MHoro xyaie, h4mx ĎBiBaerB ^eBaňpB fb Hhiw^. fl 
BKrtxajTB h3*b neTep(5ypra 28-ro Maa, h no OneacBOMy oaepy eme 
xoAHJii^ JieA^^ TaBi HTO ne ycranoBHjiocB en^e npaBHJiBHoe napo- 
xoAHoe coo6n^eHÍe otb ElerposaBOACBa ao noB']&Hivi. Ha H^oitb 
Mopt Tose nona^ajca en^e Mto^anu ^JIaBaH)^^fi JieA'B, xota h bi 
HetíojiBfflOMx BOJiHHecTBÍ, a AEsi Hepesi xpH nocjii Moero npifeAa 

BX COilOBBH, CJrifeAOBaTeiBHO 11 -rO HJIH 12-rOÍK)Hfl, BtTpOBTB HpH- 

necjio H3i» KaHAajaBCBott ryóti mhoscctbo ota^bhuxi pasÓHiuxi 
jiBAHHi, 6^umh nojiocaMH THHyBnraxcfl no Mopio. Ha HecBeS JlyA^, 
MajieHBBOMTB ocTpoB* HpH Bxofli B^ OojOBei^Bifl sajiHBx, Ha cisep- 
Hott CTopoH^ jieauurB CH^ri ao noiOBHHu íioha. 

TaBHMx oÓpasoifB wb hojiobhh^ íioha, b% t6 ahh, Bor^a r^^- 
HH(5yAB B-B XapBBOB* HJIH Bx TaraHporife CTOnrB o6uEHOBeHHO ne- 
CTepnHMuS 3H0&, Wb CojiOBBaxi 6ujiB, en^e pannAH Becna, h j^e- 
poBBH TOJBBO en^e noRpBiBajiHCB sejieHBK). JlHCTBeHHEifl AepeBBfl na 
CojiOBBaxx, Cepesa, ocnna, y»e ne HyBCTByiorB ce(5a AOCiaTOHHO 
xoporao, B^ ocoóeůHocTH Ha 6epery Mopfl. Bepesa BOBce ne po- 
creTB 3A^CB crpofiHBíM^B H BucoBHM^ AepeBOHO^, a oÓHapysHBaerB 

HaBJIOHHOCTB Kb HpHHHMaHÍK) ByCTapHHBOBOfi ^^OpMU; HpflMO 0TB 



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HA 300^0rÚ^CK0fi CTAHI^IH. 323 

sejiiH ona ^B^xkisieTCsi na h^ckojibbo ctbojiob^b, bphbuxti, ROpfl* 
Buxi H HeBucoKHX'B. KoF^a fl npvbxBJVhy Ha HHXX en^ ne 6ujio 
.iHCTbeBTb; TOJibKo Ha HHJKHHX^ bštb^xi, ecJH Offfe CJiy^afino npH- 
.leraaH kt* OAHOMy hs-b tíx-b orpoMHÉix-B BajijrHOBX, KOTopne paa- 
d^Hu BCiOAy HO ocTpoBy, nojihsyach AHeBHuiťb Harp^BaHÍeifb KaMHfl, 
noflBďfljiHCB CB^Hcie sc^eHiie jihcto^rh; rpaHHn OEasaacfl daÓorjiH- 

BOi HflHBBOfi, COrpksi H BBIXOJIHJTb HpHffiaBHiyiDCfl Bl HeMy poÓRyH) 

B*TBb, Tor;ia KaKi ea Bepxnie fípaTsa h cecrpH en^e ctoajih bi xo- 
joAflOMi BOSAyxi H HanpacHO npocHJiH lenja y CBynoro h xojíoa- 
Haro coJíB^B,. 

RpoH% MepeMyxH h paÓHHu, wb CojOBBaxi h^tb, Kasercfl, hh 
OAHoro AepeBa, npHHOcamaro wiom. íepeMyxa, aio ^epeBO pan- 
Hefi BecHBi, i^B'&3a sjsMb wb ROHi](% iiOHfl; RHCTH HepeMyxH AB. riy- 
roBHfl Hesaíy^RH 6ujih eAHHCTBeHHHe naxynie iíbíth, ROTopae 
nona^ajHCB mhš 3a jisto. Xjii&b He poAHTCfl b^b Coj[OBRax'B; MOHa- 
CTupB He pa3i A^ajI^ jí,jib onuxa nodbsUj ho Bcer^a TepnÍjrB 
HeyAaqy. RaRia-TO ropu orojio Honacrupa ao chx^ nopi» Hocaii 
fia3BaHÍe apoBuxx hjih xji^huxi, kb nanaTB o^noft sai TaRHX^B no- 
nuTORB. Bi dTOMi roAy apxHMaH;q[)HirB Mejierift bhobb pHCRHyjTB 
noBTopHTb dTH OHUTU H Hodaji^B a^MeHB, HCAajieRO OTh Mona- 
CTupa, na nojranš wb ;rlcy, Ha cojiHeHHOitrB crjioh^ o^Horo xojiMa. 
KaŘi na sjio, cjiyHHJiocB jtíto cb TennepaTypoft HHse HopMajTBHOft, 
H oqeBHAHo H na stotb pa3% npemjiocB noTepn^TB ^iacRO. SI bh- 

Al^JFb dTOTB a^MeHB Vb ROHI^ ÍH)Jia, H OWb eUSfi He BUROJEOCHJICa, 

coďOMHHBi 6uxa He BBinie BepmROBi ^ecaTH h Top^ajH, RaRi 
pfe^Baa moTRa, AajieRo o^na otb Apyroft. 

BecB iioflB M^cai^ croaja npecRBepnaa noro^a: xojioaho, ne- 
nacTBe, ^acrue aosah h hotth nocToanniie cnjiBHiie B^xpu. P^ako 

fl BUXOAHJTB U3l AOMy He B^B ApaHOBOITB HaJIBTO. CiaHI^ilO MH TO" 

HHJIH ABa, xpH pasa vb Benjbjíjo. IIoHaTHO, crojibro xaRaa noro^a 
irlniajia HamHirB dRCRypciaifB h 3aHaTÍaM'B; a noJiBBOBajica Raai- 
AUM-B BpeifeHHEiMX HepepuBOifB Óojrbe chochoS noroAu? yjiynaa 
Raa^oe saTHmBe, ^toCh CBfe^HTB na Mope noAparHpoBaxB. Ho ao 
iiojifl irlcai](a mhí ne y^ajiocB (tb^ahxb bi 3aa?BHirB ocxpoBa^rB, 
vxi jiy^mee irtcxo cojroBei^Roft ^aynu. CjryHajiocB, hxo hícrojibro 
AHett noA^-p^A^ B^xeprB He nosBOjajTB BurIxaxB wb jíoaR'6 víst> 
6yxTii, h MHoro BpeMOHH nponaAajo A^poMi. Tojibbo Cb nepBiix% 
^Hcejii iK>;ia ycxanoBHJiacB ÓojFbe CHOcnaa noroAa h 6uBajiH xen- 
me AHH, xoxa Bce-xaBH sa i^'6jioe jri&xo ne 6ujio hh cahofo AHa 
autpRaro, h Bck M^kxHue mHxejiH roBopHJH hh'6, hxo a nonaji^B na 
cbBep'B B*B jtIto CBepxi o6uRHOBeHHaro xojioahoo. Bce-xaRH h na 

C0J0BRaX'B J^TOITB 6HBaeXl> HHOFAa »apRO. 

21* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



324 B^OTHmCB EBPOIDI. 

BnpoHeiTb, Bjbrb xy^a 6es^ Ao6pa, h xojioxHoe jAto Bjesjo 
3a co6oft OAHO xopomee noci^ACTBie: ROiiapoBi 6ujio MeHBme. Ohh 
AepsajHCB wb jrbcjj ee cii^ BUJieraTB na oiEpuTuft óeperb Mopa. 
Ha Mopš Bo Bce Bpeicfl naniHXi dRCRypcift hxi ne 6ujio cobcj^tb, 
Tor^a Bas'B wh apesHÍe TOjifi noc^THreJunrB CTaHi](ÍH ohh h na 
Mopi ne AasajH nosoa, h hphxoahjocb cnacaiBCH orb hhxtb cbi- 

BaMH, CMO?eHHlUIH CRHHHAapOlfB. Rb BOMHaiU OHH TaRse no^TH 

He dajierajíH. 

3aT0 cŽBepHoe j^to, CBynoe na Tenio, n^e^po na cvkrh. Obojio 
M'£cfli^a fl coBepmeHHO ne bha*]^ TeMHoru, h pacxoA^B na ocbí- 
n^eme vb HameifB xosH&CTBt Ha cranitiH wb Tepeme nepsiixi xpexx 
hoa^^ ne npeBumajTB HyjH. 

9to ne naniH nereptfyprcBÚi &bJiusL ho^h, ci» hxi npospaq- 
HBUTb cyMpaBOirB, KorAa ^OAna sapa CM^HHTb Apyi7H) — cntmHTb, 
AaB^B HOHH noíHaca". 9to npocro ABa aha hoa^b^psa^b, hih cnjioin- 
Hoft 24*x'B-HacoBO& a^hb. 6% Coj[OBRax'B, jiessan^Hxi noA'B 65^ 
nmpoTU, cojíHi^e h 9 — 12 íiohh, b% BpaTHafimyio ho^b, saxoAHTi 
3a ropnsoHTB na sopoTSoe Bpeiifl (^aca na ABa), ho onycKaeTCfl 
TaBi HesHaqHTOJiBHO, ?T0 CB'6rB ero ho^th ne oczEati^BaoTii. Beqepi 
coBepmeHHO ne cyniecTByerB vb sto BpeMfl, h HHRaKÍe npH3HaEH 
ne yBasBiBaiOTB BairB na osoHnanie aha h na npHÓJiHseHie hohh. 
Bi ROMHaiaxi bck> ho^b noA'B-pflA'B ctohtb poBHuft, &kJiuíL cvbirby 
TaRofi, RaRoft ÓuBaeTB y HacB wb nacMypHue, oÓJra^HBie ahh. Pa- 
6oTaTB MOSHO coBepmeHHO cboÓoaho; eAsa jih octb Apyrafl soojio- 
mnecRafl CTaH^iH, vjíib 6u mosho 6ujio b^ hojho^b cmotp^tb b'b 
ivíBRpocRoni, RaRi B'B CojOBRax^B. TaRoe o6Hj[íe CB^xa upeAcraa- 
jiaeTB, A^ftcTBHTejiBHO, i^iHHoe npeHMyn^ecTBO, 6ojrBmoe yAOÓCTBO 
AJifl saHflTÍfi. IIpo^. KopoTHeBi, npoBeAHiifi j^to hoax dRBaiopoiTB, 
Ha SoHACRBXi ocTpoBaxi, ropBRO sajyercfl na to yÓificTBeHHoe 
nocToancTBO, Cb rotopbiitb bi* tíxi nmpoxax^B cojiHi^e bi mecrb 
qacoBx BOHepa Óucrpo saRaTUBaeTCfl sa ropHsoHTB, h bcji^a^b sa 
dTHiTB HeMeA^ieHHO HacrynaerB nojiHafl xeMHora. 

dWTb HOCTOfiHHBlfi, HenpepiIBHU&, pOBHUfi H OAH006pa3HBIĚ 

CB^TB xoTfl H HO M^majTB MH^ CHaiB H He pasApasaji HepBH, 
RaR'B dTO ^acTO ÓBiBaoTB CB losaHaMH ffb nerepóyprb bo BpeMH 
6^Bixi HO^efi, Tbmb ne moh^ ho nepecraBajrb upoH3BOAHTb Ha 
Měna ^^^^HracTH^ecRoe Bne^Tjr]&HÍe ^ero-io HenpaBAOnoAOÍHaro, ne- 
nacToan^aro. SI oxotho hhi noJiBsoBaJca no BO^epairB, ho npn- 
BBiRHyTB Jffb HOMy HHRaRi HO MOPB. CepeAHHa j[%Ta, „MereHHafl 
hohb'' , HOHB Ha HeaHa-Kynajia, xa nopa, RorAa na H>r6 npi>iraH>TB 
^epesi Rocrpu, RorAa sno&Huň a6hb curlHaerca hoihumh rposaMH, 

CB THXHM'B H TeHaUMl npOJIHBHBQťb AOSRABM^, H HenpOrJUlAHO-TeM- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HA 300J[0rHH£GB0ň CTAH^IH. 325 

HEfl, qepHEfl BopoÓBHHaH HO^B GCB^n^aeTCfl 6jecR0H'B MOJiHifi H sap" 
HBi^, a zjiíbcb^ vb Ck>:iOBKax'B, hohbk) fb ORHa tjuiahtb bcbuř 
xeHB, He ropflTB He tojibbo Bocrpu, ho Ass&e h cb^^h, na ABop^ 
hítb h 10 rpaAycoFB lenja, sanrpa Ch yrpa Hy»HO nejrlTB Chh- 

PHAOHJ SaTOHHTB He^B, HOTOMy HTO Wh BOMHaiaXl CTaHOBHTCfl OHeHB 

xojioaho, h fl RyTa^CA bi> oa^^o h MajOAyniHO HaHHHaj'B AynaTB: 

He npHRpHTBCfl JIH 6^6 H TLOJljmjÓKOWb? 

Ho Ha cbBeýb uexbssL 6uTb ohchb pasÓopHHBUMi nac^erB no- 
roAu, H npHxoAHTCfl AOBOJBCTBOBaTBCfl TaROM), RaRafl ecTB. JIhhib 
6u 6ujíO HOMeHBme B^ipa. 

Ror^a Mope choroůho, B^xpa fItb, Bameme cserjio, Tor^a Ha 

nOBepXHOCTH MOpfl HOflBJIfllOTCfl TUCflHH SHBHXl CyO^eCTB^B. Bce TO, 

ifb coeiaBJíflerB nejarH^ecRyro ^ayny Mopa, T.-e. rb oprannsMu, 
ROTopue XHByTB ne na Awb h He cpejpr BOAopocieft, a nocroflHHO 
CB060AHO HjUBaiorB vh BOjííkj Bce dTO Bi 6ypH) h kb BOjnaeme Aep- 
sHTCfl na rjiy($HFl, noAajiBme otb bojhetb, a b^b THxyia noroAy bk- 
DJHBaex^ wb CBŽTy h ri BOSAyxy, na canyio noBepxHOCTB Mopa. 

nepBiie AHH, ROFAa nepena^ajiH THxie Be^epa h noflBHjacB 
nejannecRafl ^ayna, a yBJíeRajiCfl neaarHpoBaHÍeMi. Hnnero ne 
Moaseri 6htb npHBJíeRaTeiBHte ji^isi ^e^OB^Ra, RoropEifi bi nepBiid 
pas^B sHaROHHTCfl Ch SHBHBK) MopH. CaifBifi Hpoi^eccB c6opa npH 
dToiťB OHeHB JieroRi H npocTB. BaMi npeAcronn orjiH^Hoe Ra- 
TaHBe Ha jeoar^, 5e3% BOJEHenúi, Roropoe Hsny^HBaerB Bamnxi 
rpefii^OBB, 6e3i B^xpa, oxi Roxoparo rotoh&otb MORpufl pyRH. Bu 
leAJeHHO CROJBSHTe HO BepRajBHoft noBepxHOCTH H xanp[Te sa 
coóofi MiojuepoBCRyH) cixRy: ne snaH), b^ ^ecxB ROxoparo issrb tfes- 
HHaeHHuxi Mio^epoBi HasBani^ axoxi npocxofi CHapflA'B. 9xo Me- 
TajjH^ecRÍfi RpyPB cb npenraxotL wh neny cItro& hsi caicofi xoh- 
soĚ RHcen, ho ne npHRpinieHHu& r'b na^RÍ, RaRi canoR^, a npn- 

BflSaHHHfi sa XpH TO^RH R^B tfHHOBRŠ, Ha OTA&IBHO& Bep^OHR^; Jffb 

i^yry npHRp^njieH^ HeÓOJUBmoft rpysi, htoÓu npHAaxB eiiy vh Bojiib 
BepxHRaJiBHoe nojioseme. dxy c6xRy bu BOJio^xe sa coóoft Ha h^- 
KOTt^iťB pascTOflHiH Ha ($HHeBR%; ona HAen ho^xh no noBepx- 
hocth boabi hjih na caMOft He($OJ[Bniofi rjyÓHH^. Otb npeHenn jifi 
BpeifeHH bu c^xRy noAXflrHBaexe, BimepnuBaere hsi nea shbot- 
HBxi H BuxpflXHBaere Bce ea co^epacHMoe b^ 6aHRy cb BOAod. 
Ona apHHOCHTB naccy nejiRHxi oprannsiiOBi, Roxopuxi bu ne 
savbqaexe kb boa$ npocTuin> rjiasoiTB. KpynHBix'B neiarHHecRHxi 

XHBOTHIIX'B JOBflXl HpOCTO Ca^nCOBTB, a RpyHHUfl CBO6OAHO HJiaBaH)- 

^ífl sHBOTHBifl H cocxaBJíflfoxx FJiaBHyK) Rpacoxy MOpH. 

Bb ÍK)HÍ no HHCiy ocoGefi npeo^JiaAajni Rxeno^^opBi Beroe h 
BpeiecTHafl Escholtzia. H^eipcoe nasBanie ^die Melonenqoalle'' 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



326 racTHHBi EBPonu. 

AOBOJiBHO B^peo nepexaen o6niyK) ^pny Beroe; no Bejra^HH* xe 
OHI 6iiBaerB fb orypei^t cpe;i;Heft BejiH^HHu, tojbro ne i^ílihh- 
ApHqecBoft 4^opMu, a cnJiocHyTBifi. Ohi npeAcraBJíflerB iísi> ce6fl 
BX cyn^FOCTH ésaxiift rojokojex, hjto h^hto fb poA']^ M&nRa, ctb 
niHpoBHiťB OTBepcTÍeirb^ csysan^HMi eMy bmí^cto pra. PacRpusafl 
3T0 OTBepcrie, KaKi umpoKyio nacrs, ohx njaBaerB, ABHraacB npe 

nOMOIAH BOCBMH HpOAOJIbHUXl pflAOBl HJiaBaTeJIBHIlXl njaCTHHOR^B; 

9TH njiacTHHBH, Óucupo ^posa vh OAHOMi HanpaBjemn, ABoraiorb 
ero BnepeAi, RaRi BOJieca napoxo^a. Oahh Beroe óuBaiorb mo- 
jOHHO-(ítjiaro, Apyria rycroro po30Baro líBiia, ho h y Tfexx, h y 
ApyTHxi tíjio npocB^^HBaerL. 

Escholtzia b^boo iieHbme, ne 6ojihme rpei^Raro op^xa, ho no 
Kpacorlfí 3aHHMaeTB, Mosero 6utb, nepBoe iri^cro Mes^y hhbhihmh 
oÓHTaxeJUiMH B&iaro Mopn. ^opiia ea oÓpscoBana qpesBuqafiHO 

H3fln^HUMH JIHHiflMH; T&IO efl nOHTH 6e3ip^THOe, CreBJOBHAHOe H 

hohth coBepmeHHO npoBpa^Ho; ho Tanie se 8 MepHAÍaHajii»Hiix'B 
pflAOBX Aposan^Hxi njiacTHHOBx, BaK'B y Beroe, Ror^a ona mia- 
BaerB, nepaiHBaiOTL bc*mh i^b^hh pa^yrn. Ol o64hxi cropoHi* 
T&ia y Hefl npHRp6njieHfii ab^ vbthEcrusi hhth; oeí cjiyacars eft 

AJfl JIOBJIH AO61IHH H HaXOAflTCfl Bl HOCTOflHHOMl ABHSeHÍH. To 

ona BTflrnBaerb hxi xaRx, ?to oh% csHMaiOTCfl vb MajeHBRÍfi po- 
30BHfi ROMORi, TO cpasy BLinycRaeTB H ORpysaerB ce6fl i^'&iu]rb 

AicOWb npHXOTJIHBO BOJHyiOn^HXCfl pOSOBLIXX HHTO^eRl, — HdBHBU, RO- 

ďeÓaHÍfl H ABHaceHÍfl hx% Heo6uRHOBeHHO RpacHBu, a caica Escholtzia 
6pu3acerB bi 9to BpeMfl rojiyóiiira, sejieHEiMH, RpacHuiiH BCRpaMH. 
IIo dTHiTB HCRpaMi H 3aM'6^aemb ee, Ror^a ona nponjuBaerB na 
He6ojBfflofi rjíyŠHHt mhmo joarh. Hx-b 6hjio o^eHB mhofo bx xe- 
nenie i^tjiaro jrifeia. 

Ho 9Ta RpacaBHi^a crpora h HenpHcrynHa vb Bucmefi creneHH. 
IIpH Maji^fimeiťB Heocropoa^HOMi npHROCBOBeHÍH bbi o^opsere ea 
posoBUfl HHTH^ CAepexe cb nea BH^nmift noRpoBi (dRTOAepny) 
H HOcpuBaere Mepi^aiOH^ifl mutCTHHRH. OcroposHO danepunyBí ee 
npflHO H3i Mopa vb tfaHRy, nepernyBniHCB 3a Óopn jioakh, mosho 
npHBesTH ee 6j[aronojiyHHO aomo& u BecB Benepx JUOÓOBaTBCfl en 
^pa^io3HBIMH ABHfl^eHÍflMH, ROFAa ona njuiBaerB TOJi^RanH, pascunaa 
CBOH po30BEifl RyApH H 30JiOTUfl HCRpu. Ho Ha Apyroft AeHB ona 
oÓuRHOBeHHO HOTepfljia yse cboh hhth, noTycRH&ia, jieiRHrB 6e3- 
noMon](HO Ha 6oRy na ah^ cocyAft, h tojbro Apoauimifl njiacTHHBH 
Óes^b nepepuBa npoAOJURaHXTB cbok> HenpecranHyio paóory. 

YMepTBHTB ee xaRx, htoÓu wl i^octh coxpaHHTB Wh CHHpry 
H, npHBesfl Cb co6ofi, nocraBHTB vb soojiorH^ecRoifB RaÓHHext bx 
niRanx ^Ooelenterata^ cb npHJuraHuirB flpjiuROiTB — sairB TaRse ne 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



" - ^^' I 



HA aooHoraqECKofi ctahi^ih. 327 

y^acTCfl. Ona no3BOJiflen> ea ce6a tojbko cmotpítb; 6jiH«e bei eio 
He OBja^íieTe. lípu KaatAOM^B HacHjrin OHa KJioibaMH c;iiHpaeTB ch 
cefti CBoe pocKonraoe téjio h pacna^aeTca b^ ApeCesrn; ee Hejibsa, 
KaKb MeAy3y, wa 6ojrte y;iio6Haro pascMorp^nia npHKOJiOTB ÓyjiaBBaMH. 
H y^HTL ee, ne pasÓHBaa b% jsjpeóesn^ HejiB3a HHRaBHMH peaBTHBaira. 
Jíaae xaKoe Moryiee q)eACTBO, KaK-B pacTBopx ocMÍeBoft khcjoth, 
ci ÓucrpoTOH) mojihíh napajiHsy^iitift caMue H^Hue oprannsMU, 
y^HBaa ee, ne npenaTCTByert ett pasjíerirtca npH btoitb b-b Mo^iBa. 
a nepenpoCoBaji-B nfe^KOJiBKo cpe^CTBi, kotophmh AOCTHraeTca mca- 
jieHHoe, nocreneHHoe orpaBiieme, HapR0TH3a^ía oprannsMa, JiamsoO' 
n^aa ero qyacTBHTejiBHOCTH h pasApa^KHTejíBHOCTH n ^^aiomaa bobmok- 
HOCTB yMepTBHTB ero sarfeM^ cb coxpaneHieMx ero ecrecTBeHHofi 

^PMH. TaRl HanpHMÍ&p'B, TTOÓBI COXpaHHTB aBTHHifi CB BBtTaHyTHMH 

niynasBi^MH, hxi o^ypaiOTB, HexJeHHO BAyBaa b^ BO^y Ta6a?HEift 
xwn — 3T0 npH^yMajB CajBBaTope, seaMeHHTHft bi CBoeM^ poAÍ CJiy- 
afflrejiB-npenapaTopB HeanojraTancRifl craniíiH. Bx apyrnyB cjiyqaaxx 
KjgAyn b^ BOjíy KyconeK-B Xjiopajii-rH;iipaTa hjih csyjieMu; nocrenenHO 
pacTBopaacB bi boa'Í&, 9th Ben^ecTBa MeA^enHO oTpaBJíaiOTB SHBOTHoe; 
OHO yííHpaeTB, ne cospaTHBoiHCB h ee HSM^HHBmH SHa^nreJiBHO 
^pMH. Ho OTB MajrlSmaro cji^xa ocMieBoft ilih xpoMOBofi khcjiotii, 
Taďaraaro iuMa, x^iopa^ia, cyjieMH hjih ^ípyrHX* peaKXHBOBX — cb 
amojiBipH 6pBi3raMH cjrerajíH j^paroi^tnHBia njiacTHHRH h RycaaiiH 
cna^^ajiH TRana. IIocji^ h'Í^crojibrhx'b ohutob^ a ÓpocHJi, ne mejiaa 
TpaTHTB na aro MHOro BpeMeHH; a Me»Ay tíitb BoUes Lee et 
Henneguy, b'b cbocmi ^Traité des méthodes techniques de ťana- 
tomie microscopique", Ri RoropoMy a ^acro oópamajica sa cnpaB- 
KaMH, roBoparB, hto les cténophores se fixent trěs íacilement. Bh^ho, 
amojiBipa npeAcraBJíaeTB ypo^a b^ CBoeft ceMBŠ, fb dTOifB OTHome- 
híh npHÓJHmaion^aroca ri CH4)OHO$opaM'B. 

Bojn>iiria Me^ysu noaBJuiiOTca hosah^, bo BTopoft hojiobhh^ 
aiia, px iioj*. B% ary nopy b-b B-íjom-b MopS aobojbho ^acro 
noflBJíaeTCfl CBoftCTBeHHaa dsepnuiTB Mopani Gyanea aretica, Rpac- 
Haro HJIH 6ypo-RpacHaro i^B-^Ta. noA'B Óojibihhmi RpacHuiTB rojlo- 
KOJOiTB y nea BHcarB niHpoRie, CRJiaA^aTue JiHCTBa ea poroBBrxi 
qynaiBii^eBi (poi^OBuxob pyROb). Elo RpaaMOb ROJOROJia pacnojioaseno 
8 iryqR06'B jí.jnmaisxT* poaoBUX^ Enrefi, ROToptia to BUTarHBaiOTca 

BO BCH) A^HHy^ TO CBeSHSaiOTCa Bl> MaJ[eHBRÍfi[ ROMORl. BxB-klOlfB 
MOpb OROJIO Ck>JOBROBl dRSeiflLiapU BTOfi MeAySU He AOCTHraiOT^B 

oco6eHHO RpynHofi BeJiH^nnu; mhí ho nona^ajHCB Rpynnše afijiORa 
HJIH, noHca.iyft, anejiBCHHa. Ho Ha caMOMX aíjA bto o^aa nsi 
caMQxi RpyiiHHX^ MeAy3x, h fb apRTmecRHX^ Mopax^B nona^aiOTca 
orpoMHHe dRseMnjrapu, cb rojiorojomi bi ^Ba nerpa vb Aianerp^, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



328 B^OTHEKL EBPOnU. 

ch n^ynajiBi^aMH f^iunojo jífi 40 nerpoBi; OHem» spyímofi BeJH^iHHH 
AOCTHraion ohh h orojo MypMaHCsaro 6epera. 

EojibmHHCTBO xaBHxi njiaBaioii^Hxi shbothíixi ÓojibmoS pysH 
XHi]](HHKH, H opraHHSMi HXi caiaoTB pasHOotfpasHHirB oÓpasoiTB npH' 
cnocoÓJieHi* bi cxBaTUBamH) n jiobjiÍ ao6u^h. Gbohmh ajhhhhmh 
n^ynaJiLi^aMH h BCflRaro poAa npE^aTBaMH, hphxotjihbo H3BHBaH)ii^HM]icfl, 

COBpan^aiOn^HMHCA H no BOJI^ »HBOTHarO to CSHMaiOmHMHCA bi> bo- 

MOBi, TO BUTflruBaion^HMHCA Bil AecflTBH pasi npoTHBi) nepBOHaiajB- 
Hofi A^HHu, owh EsynaerB BO^y Ha orpoMHOifB cpaBHHTaisHO npo- 
erpaHCTB^ BpyroifB CBoero T&ia, h Bce, qxb nona^aerB vh paftoHi 
isxT> XBaxaTejiBHuxx opranoBi h ne nni^erb AOCiaTOHHO celih eih 
npOBopcTBa, HToÓti cnacm cboio shshb fi^rciBOMi, neMEHyeifO a'^^ 
jiaeTca hxx Ao6iweft. FjiaBHyK) imn^y MeAysH cocrasjíiiiOTB uesh- 
^afinně pa^BH, cb ÓyjEaBO^Hyio rojOBBy h MeHBme, MHpiaAaifH bh- 
manue vb noBepxHOCTmixB eioaxi Mopfl bi xeiuiue i^HÍe ahh. 
JIj)yrB CB ApyrOMB ohh Toae Bcer^a potobh bccth Boftny, h noca- 
seHHue KB OAHy 6aHBy HCTpe(5ju[K)rB xpjn Apyra HeMH^ocepAHO. 
EcjiH BH nycÝHTe bb 6aHBy bmšctí Beroe h hÍcbojibbo dmoJiBípĚ, 
TO Majio-no-Majiy bc£ ^I^OJIB^iH oqyrflTCs BHyrpn pasBepcroft nacTH 
njaBaioniett Beroe, h TorAa nacxB dxa saxjionuBaeTCfl, seprsa m&io- 
no-Majiy nepeBapHBaercfl, h nepesB nojiyopospa^Hiifl ct^hbh T&ia 
Beroe aojifo eo^e npocB^HHBaiOTB posoBue bomo^bh HHreft bhiojbi^íh 
h nepejiHBaiOTB i^TaiiH ne CBopo npeBpan^aion^ifl cboh Apo^saHÚr 
efl pe6epHUfl ujiacTHHBH. 

En^e OAHHB jiH)6onuTHU& ^eFB nejarHHecBofi ^h.jeu CoJOBei^Baro 
3aj[H6a — 9T0 cŠBepHuĚ BJiioHB, ClíoDe borealís, mojijiiocbb hsb oipaAa 
BpHJioHOFHXB. PaBOBHHu y Hero hštb; ero ceibho BHTarayToe rfeio, 
yTOH^iOH^eecfl bb xBOcroBOiiy BOHi^y, nojiynpospa^HO h Óesi^B^^o 
no cepeAHH*, a bb rojiOBHOft h xboctoboS Hacra — HŠsnaro posoBaro 
i^xa. Obojio fojiobu y nero Asa npHAaxBa, bb poA^ BpiijBinieB'B^ 
TO»e poďOBaro i^B^xa; btemh BpujmniBaMH ohb HenpepuBEO xjio- 
naexB, h npH hxb noMon^H njaBaerB bb BOjsíky Aep^RacB BepTHBa^BHo 

rOJIOBOft BBepXB H OnyCTHBB BHH3B CBOft OCXputt XBOCTHBB; OWh 

njiaBaexB oÓUBnoBenno b^ BepxHHXB CJoaxB boau, noABnraacB Bne- 
poAB nepoBHUMHy BaBB 6u nopxaK>niHMH ABHsseHÍHHH. H. n. Barnepib 
qpaBHHJiB ero ^nrypBy h cxpannufl ABHsemfl cb oÓu^bmb bhaoitb h 
npuxBaMH „aMepHBancBaro jSHreJui'', npoAaion^arocfl y nacB na 
Bep6axB; cxoactbo A^ficTBHxejiBHO octb. MEHyBnrairB je^tomb bjeío- 
HOBB Óijjo OHeHB MHoro, H OHH o^eHB yBpamajiH coóofi BOAH 6yxTu; 
TO-H-A^o nopxaiH ohh mhmo jloabh, BaBB po30BBifl 6a6oTOH. Ohh 
Tose XHHpHBH, H, njiaBafl bb Mop%, ycepAHO npecji^AyK)TB cboh) 

HéHBmyH) 6paTÍK>, TaBHXB se ^BpUJIOHOrHXB^, BaBB OHH, MajeHB- 



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HA SOOJIOrHIECKOfl CTAH^1H.' 329 

BHTb HepHuxi AWáBJíflWb. Kor^a MHoro ihmei^hhi, Tor^a uosibjuiiotcsí 
Bi 6oj!boieirB qucat h ludoHu, Roropue jiobatb hx'b mecTbio n^y- 
nadbqaMH, cnpflTaHHHMH y hhxi wb fojiobí, BucoBUBaiOQ^HMiíCfl a^a 
loro, HTOÓii cxeaxHTB AOÓu^y. 

Bi aseapi^ npn nepeM^H^ bo^h kiíohh mofjih sketb H^BOJibBo 
i^Hefi, HO CRopo yxpaqHBajiH 6ottRocTE CBOHxi ABHsemfi, ne movávl 
yse AepsaxBCA na noBepxHOcm boah, a jiíhhbo HJiaBajiH b% óannš 
ftiH tieanoMOHiHO jeasajH Ha 6oRy, na jifl^^ Bce eo^e otb speicenH 
lo apeiienH rpenen^a posoBUMH RpujiuniBaMH. Kaní bcImi naiara- 

^ĚCSSWb SHBOTHUM^b, HMli WjXBO BCer^a MHOrO BOAU, MHOrO B03- 

Ayxa. 

y jIUMai^HHl, MaJieHBRHX^B pOACTBeHHHKOBl H HOCTOflHHOft AO' 

6uHH KjioHOBi, Taidfl se Asa nenpepKiBHO xjionaiouyfl spHja^ ho 
ropasAO óojihmeŘ BeJHHHHu cpaBHHrejibHO Cb t^oitb, h ÓJiaroAapa 

HITB OH^ npOBOpHO p^iOTb Bl BOA^ MaJieHBRHMH HepHUMH ^aHXa- 

cnraecRHMH <|)HrypRaMH. 

SaMiWTeJlbHO, ^TO 9TH MeiRÍfl SHBOTHUfl — RJliOHU H Jni]fai](HHU — 
HSXaBHa SHaMeHHTU T^MI, ?T0 B^ apRTHHeCRHXl MOpflX^b COCraBJIfllOTB 

nocTOflHHyio HHH^y RHxa. Bi RaRom ace ohh aoji2Khii BOAHTbCfl 
KMHqecTEfe, qTo6ii HaÓHTb TaRyH) yxpoCyl 

Ho dbTROfi H Ca^ROMl MOSHO HOttlfaTB TOJIBRO HeSHaHHTeiBHyK) 

AOjno MopcRHXi oÓHiaTOJiett, — tojibro 'r&x'B, Roropiie cbo6oaho ana- 
BWTB vh Mop6 HOAajieRO orb noBepxHocxH. FopasAO 6ojiBme weio 

TÍXI SHBOTHUXly ROTOpNfl SHByTB HOCTOflHHO Ha AH^? OAHH HpH* 

KirbiueHHUfl naBcerAa HenoABHSHO, Apyrifl sapusaion^iflcfl b% iui> h 
necoRi HJiH nojiBaion^fl no AHy h ho pocryn^HirL na hcmi BOAopo- 
cunii: MoajiiocRH, nepBH, paRH, iiopcRÍe esH h sbísau. Víto6u AOcrasaTB 
Hxi co AHa H CB RaRofi yroAHO oyÓHHH, A^ Toro CJiysHn ocioÓuŘ 
iipiéopi, HasuBaeMofi Aparott; ohi ÓuufB nepBOHanajiBHO nosaHMCTBO- 
BaHi HaTypa^HCTííMH y anrjdficRHXi h iJ^paHityscRHxi pu6aR0Bi, roto- 
PEUTB OHH HOJiBsyiOTCfl A^fl coÓHpaHÍJi ycipHi^ Ha ycrpHHHHXib 6aH- 
Baxi, H SBrrbwb owb npHcnocodieHi h BHAOH3M'6HeH% f^si nayHHuxi 
q&ieft. ,2Ij»ra coctohtb H8ib Herupexi-yrojBHOfi sejrbsHOtt panu, 

rb KOTOpofi HOAHIHTa c£tB Bl BHA^ M^HIRa; AHO M^HIRa o6niHBaeTCfl 

eqe xojictomi, RanBOfi híkh RaR0&*HH6yAB Apyro& Maxepiefi, hto6u 
offb MorB yAopsHBaxB h MOJiRie upeAMeru. dia pana onycRaercfl 
Ha AHO Mopfl Ha BepeBR^, h npn ABHseniH aoarh, BOJOqacB cbohitb 
ocrpuMi RpaeiTb ho AHy, saÓHpaerB b^ bi&hori hjtb, necoRi, pa* 
KymHHR^ HJIH RaifHH, Buicrb co bc^hh HonaAaion^HMHCfl shbumh 
cyn^ecTBanH. TaRi mosho AparHpoBaxB ne tojibro he to& He3Ha?H- 
TejBHoĚ. rjnyÓHH^ 5 — 20 caaceHB, ROTopaa naxoAnrcfl vb ORpecr- 
Hocraxi cojiOBei^Rofi craHi^H, ho h na bcaroS rjyÓHHŠ, nacROJiBRO 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



330 BftCTHHKB EBPOmi. 

XBaTHTB BepeBKH. CoBepmeHHO Toro xe THna npHÓopu ynorpefím- 
jiHCb H A^fl H3CT6AOBaHÚi ^^ayHu ROJioccaJibHHrB rjiyÓHHi OReara 

Bl» E^kCKOJlhRO TUCflHl MerpOFB. AparH, co BCÍMH npHHEAJieSHOCTflMB 

H BepeBBaMH ri hhmi, HaxojuiTCfl Bi AoeraToqHOMi HHCJik b% HHseH- 
Tap^ cojiOBeipu)fi eraHipH. 

Kor^a jipara, uporam^HBinHCB EicisjOAhKo BpeMeHH no ahj, bh- 
TacRifBaercfl b% Jio^Ry, oea npeHOCím cb co6o§ 6earb pa36opy Bce, 
HTÍ) sai^^iiHiia Ha Aopor6: necoRi, RaMHH, o6opBaHBHe RycRH boxo- 
pocjiett, nycTUfl paROBHHu hojíjiídcor'b HapaBHi^ ci shbumh. Bce 
9T0 TyTB ae pasÓHpaercfl, h, npaBO, npeBecejio, pasrpeóafl rj^ 
RanemROBi h paROBHFB, HaTRHyTbca ea Rpyímyio, apRo spacHyio 
sbísaj hjih Ha ROJno^Hx-B, BeieHOBaraxi* es&ei. Xpy^nt^, rohotjh^ 
H cRyHH^e — pa3(k)pRa jtpara, eciH ona npHHecia cb coóofi rpy3i> 
njOTHo c6HBinarocfl wb m^idrš, BjisRaro HJiy. 3jiíbch bu BH^ero ne 
BHAHTe na nepsufi Bs^J^íí^'h^ ho bi neii^ HOserB 6uTh MHOsecTBO 
BCflRHXi opraBH3MOBi. HysHO sa^epnuBaTb btoťi. hji> wh pj^mero 
H npoMUBaTb Bi> H0p6 AO TbTb nofíby noRa hjtb Becb BUMoercfl, 
H B^ pbmert ocraHyrcfl tojilro aci^HAin, paROBHHu h qepBH, upn- 
HeceHHue Aparofi Bufbcrb Ch HJioirb. IIpoMEiBanie Hjia b% p^meii — 
CRyHHafl H rpflSHafl patfora, h b^o^rbori bt> 6jiaroAaTHOirB cojio- 
Bei^ROMi RjHMaT^ y MeHfl cpoAH jbxa Ha MopĎ AO laRoft crenenH 
3fl6jrH H Roqen^H otb B^Tpa HORpufl pyRH, ^to ne 6ujio HHRaRoS 

B03M0SH0CTH AOJirO 9THM1> SaHHMaTBCfl. 

Bcero HHTepecH^ AparepoBRa orojio 3afl?BHX% ocrpoBOBi; aro 
ABa HeóojiBniie RaMeHHcrae ocrpoBa r'b iory otb cojiOBei^ROfi 6yxTU, 

BepCTaX-B Bl 6 — 7. OhH BUAaiOTCfl H3% Mopa aobojibho KpyTUMH 
XOJIMaMH, CJIOSeHHHHH HO ÓOJÍhmefl HaCTH HSl 0TA^BHUX'B Bajiy- 
HOBl. XOJIMII dUH qaCTBH) nopOCJIH nJOXOHBRHlTB JTÍCROMI, HaCTBH) 

npeAcraBJíflioTB h8% ceósi tojiuř RaiieHB. Ha oahomi hsi bthxi 
ocrpoitOBi ycrpoen^ HeÓOJiBmoft crhtb. KorAa a b-b nepBHft pasx 

nod&THJTB BTOTB OCTpOBTb, BHCaAHBHIHCB Ha Ócpery, HCAaJieRO OTO 

CRHTa, fl npomeJTB ri Heny ni^niROMi. Kpome^Hafl AepeBSHHafl 
i^epROBb, BUCTpoeHHaH no npHRasy Ilerpa BejiHRaro, bo BpeMfl ero 
nocin^eHifl cojOBei^Raro MOHacnipa, orojio nea ABa neóojiBniHXi 
AOBíHRa Aa capaft, — bottb Bce, vib a Hame^B. SI oComexB RpyroirB 
i^epRBH, RpyroiTB aomhrobi — HH AyniH; a comeii ri H&JieHBROft 
RaneHKoft npecrann, en^e pasi npomejca MesAy crpoeníaini, h TaRi 
H yniejii, ehrofo ne bctpSthb-b h, noBHAHMOMy, HHRtjTB ne saM^- 

^eHHUfi. TOHHO BEIMepJH B&k JÍJOAE Hl> CRHTy; XOTB 6u C06aRa TflBR- 

Hyjia — HO 9Toro nepBaro npHsnaRa SHjioro Brbcra hhfa* wbrb bi 
CojiOBRax^B. Ha bc&x^b ocrpoBaxi, bo bc^x^b „Rojionlax^'^ HOHacTHpa, 
crothux^ ABopaxi, Tonaxi h t. n. hhfa^ hštb hh oahoS coCasH; 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HA 300JI0rHHECK08 CTAHIÍIH. 331 

He Aepsan hxi HOHaxH. J[ji2 Jiio^efi, HM'6K)ii(HX'b cjiačocTB 6oflTbCH 
co6aB'i>, sjiíkch BOb 9T0MI OTHomeHÍE p&sAOJiBe: xojprre, vjíib xoTHre 
H csoibRO xoTHTe, 6t3j» onaceHÍfl 6bitb yKymeHHUifB, hjih, no Rpaii- 

HeĚlfipi, „OdflaflHHUMl'^. 

TOJIBRO BO BTOpOe HOCŠmeHÍe a OSHaKOMHJCfl Cb »HTeJlSiMH 

cBHTa. Hxnb osasajiocB Bcero ABoe: nociyniHHRi, Becbiia yse no- 
sfljoft specTBJíHHHi, H npH uewb Majni^HBi-noApocTORi, Hd7» 6oro- 
HOibi^eBi. BABoeifB ohb h musyrB ea ocTpOBR'6 KpyrjiM& foa^b; 
"iTó OHH xbjíSLJOTb TaMX — opaBO, He 8HaH>. Kasercfl, paóoru y hhxi 

nOTTH HHRaROfir bíti. npH MHÍ OHH CrpHTJÍH OBei^^, ROTOpUXl HM^ 

jufl 9Toro npHBOSHJiH H31 MOHacTupfl, xoTfl npoHie, RaaseTCfl, 6uj\o 
6h, BTb cjiynai Ha^oÓHOCTH, hmi caiiHirb no^xaiB bi HOHacrupB a^a 

3T0Í paSOTU. Do BOCRpeCeHlMlMl OHU '63;i[flrB FB HOHaCTBipB Rl 

o6]bAH'6; Bx caMOft iiepROBR']^ CRHTa c/iy2R6a coBepmaercfl mmh o^esB 
pl^xso, Kor^a Mfl 3T0& i^'&iii cnei],ia;iBBo npi']te2KaerB cio^a bsx ho- 
HacTupa iepoMOHaxi. Pas'^ b% neA^H) OTmejBHHRH fe^^rB sanacTHCB 
npoBHsiefi. ^.iwh OHH HanojiHfliOTi CBoe oahhoroo cyn^ecTBOBanie?.. 
A oceHbK), Ror^a HannyTCfl Moposu h no Mopio noft^^erB ujiaBaTB 
lejTB, o6a oÓHTaxejui CRHra na h^crojibro hca^b cobcImx 0Tp'£8aH£i 
OTB Mipa, HORa Hope y 6eperoB% ne saiiepsnerB bhojih^ h ne abetca 
BoeifosHOCTB ntmROMii nepefixH qepesi npojiHBi Hjm npoi^xaxB h% 
CBBsxT>. HeBecejoe cyo^ecTBOBaHie. 

CiOAa, vh SaaiBHMrB ocrpOBaMOb, a ^'^ajrB dRCRypdH ^sí Apa- 
FHpoBosx. ^ayea sjííkch pasHOOÓpasH^ u HHTepecH^e, h^mi y canaro 
MOHacnipa. Mope rjyfiKe, 6 — 7 caateni, MicraMH jss> 20-th ca- 
senx, H rpynrB ne hjix, a MejiRÍ& RanenB, nepen^HiaHHBitt b'b 

íI306hJIÍH Cb nyCTBIMH paROBHHaMH MOJÍJnOCORl H APyrHX^ aiHBOTHUXl. 

BojiBme Bcero cTBopoRx RpacHBOfi paROBHHU Pecten islandicus, roto- 
paa nona^aeica xaMx Maccoio h b^b khbuxi dRseMHJiapaxx, h otjth- 
^laerca AByna pa^aMH no RpaaMi rfejia (x.-e. no RpaaMx ManriH) 
KpacHBHXT* HayiipyAHO-sejjeHBixx rjiaaROBX. TyrB jiOBaTca RpynnHa 
apKO-RpacHua MopcRÍa sb-ísah, paRH-OTniejiBHHRH (Pagurus), npa- 
^mie CBoe 6e33anp[THoe, rojioe téjio e-b nycraa paROBHHH yjiHTORX 
H TacRaion^ie sa coÓok) cbo& aomhrx, xpa6po BucTaBHB'B ycu h 
sieniHH. 3jiibcb se naxoAHxca u'kcro bx ÓJiHsnafimHxx ORpecrno- 
CTflxB cranipH, vjífk Bcrpi^aerca eABncTBennufi bi B'kioirB Mop^ 
xopcROfi esx. 

JUh HofeAKH CK)Aa naniHxi AByx-B rpeÓnoBi óujio Majo: pas- 
CToanie amoroc, h BxcJiyqaí noAsiMerca bojthohíc, xaatejio rpecTH 
Bi ABa Beena. ň 6pajix xorAa en^e Asyxi peÓarB y o. Ocnna, h 
ytsauurB oÓBiRnoBenno na nikjsuŘ abhb. CejiBAH hjih RaRofi-HH6yAB 
ipyroft npoBiaHTB ?a6HpajiHCB cb co6ok), h nocjii 9RCRypcÍH mu 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



332 racTHHKrb EBPOini. 

npHCTasajin ri Safl^Beify ocrpoBy h sapejH o^js,%. Hama pe- 
6flTa jik)6hjih 9tr nofeA^H, h ^^McTBHrejibHO, 9T0 6ua% nacrofln^ift 
iiBRHHRi. 6^ iiojťk CTOflJui xopomie, Tenjiue ahh^ h Ha RanenH- 
CTOMi> 6epery mosho 6ujío nevypne norp^TBca Ha coahi^í. T^boa 
Mu,'ROHe^HO, ne HCRajra, n homhh), RaR^ hto-to Měna CMyreo 
ÓesnoROHJio, Rorj^a a fb nepsufi pasi pacnoJoxHJicfl oC^a^tb h 
OTAHxaTB Ha BTOiTE Ceperyi Bce mh* RasajiocB, tto tto-to nexo- 

pOmO H TTO eCTB HTO-TO HeyAOÓHOe BX BBiÓpaHHOMl HaMH MŠCTŠ, 

noRa fl noiusuTh ceófl, naRonei^i, na mucjh, tto mh% HeAOcraerb 
T&HH. CRasajiacB ho^th HHCTHHRTHBHafl npHBHHRa BceFAa pacnoia- 

raTBCA B^B TÍHH J^TOITB Ha CB&ReiTB BOSAyxi, a 3A^ H B'B bojii 

iftcfli^^ Ha coj[Hi](^ 6elio RaRi pasi tojibro xopomo. 

3Ta dRCRypdfl am^ mhí^ npeACiasjíenie, xota, Rone^HO, AajeRO 
ne nojíHoe h noBepxHOCTHoe, o 6oraTCTBÍ ^hjbu Btjaro MOpa, cpasHH- 
TeJiBHO CB ApyrHMH pyccRHMH MopflMB, HecMOTpji Ha ero cfesepnoe 
HOJomenie. IIpHHHHa Toro— Ójhsoctb ri OReany, 6ojBmafl coje- 
HOCTB ero BOAi* H, TaRi CRasaTB, HaH(5oj[ie MopcRoft xapaRTepi. 
Bi B&ioirB MOp^ ecTB npnjiHBi h otjhbi, Roropue HeBaH^hrmi ne 

TOJIBRO 61 ?epHOMl>, HO JW&e BT> CpeAHSeMHOlťB MOp%, H npHJTHFB 

AOBOJiBHO BHa^mrejTBHufi. HHSMeHHuo, HjiocRie 6epera Hpn otjihbí 
oÓHasaiOTai na a^catrh, a HHorAa h na cothh caseHi, a vb ysRom 
ropjrb, coeAHHflion^eMx B']^oe Mope Cb OReaHOBfB, npHJHBHaa BOjraa, 
caaxaa kb CBoeMi Teiemn, noABíMaerca na orpoMHyio Bucory — ao 
3-x'B caseHi. ^ayna OReana MypMancRaro 6epera, jiesan^aro 
yaie sa nojrapnuMi RpyroMi, en^e (5ora?e h pasHooÓpasH^, hoai 
BJQflHieirB npoxoAfliAe& sa^b Rone^mofi b^tbh rojB^^crpéna. 

B. ^^ÁFCERl. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



rOCYJAPCTBEHHblE JífiXOm H PACXOJIBI 

Bt 1888 roAY. 



1. 

Bl HCTeKmeM'B M%CAI('6 Wb nB^bCTBlAlti (|)UHaHCOB%, npOMUnUieHHOCTH 

H ToproBjíH^, uo npHM^bpy npomjiaro roAa, HaneiaTaHa bíaomoctb o 
DocTyaHBmHX'B Wb Te^eHÍe 12 Mtcjii^eB'B 1888 ro^a ^) rocy^apcTBeH- 
Huxi AoxoAOB^ H npoHBBexeHHUXi Bi TOT^B se cpoR^ rocyAapcTBeH- 
Huxi pacxoAOBi, Ha dTon pasi cb achumi yKasaHieifB, qxo 3to cb%- 
J^enifl Koccoebis h npH tomi np^dtfaptutieAt/HtM, b'b peBH3Í0HH0M'B no- 
pfljUťb en^e ne npoBtpeBHUA. 

Hítb comhí^híji, qTo h BaccoBua cB'&AeHÍA oÓopoTOBi rocy^apcTBee- 
Haro ÓDAseTa sa HSBicTHyft nepíoA'B yse caMH no ceú^k se jiHmeHU 

3Ba?eHÍfl: OHH CBHA'Í^TeJIBCTByH)T'B o CTeneHH nJUlTeSHOft COCTOflTeJIkHOCTH 

HacejieHu, a ornacTH o ÓÓJbineft hjih MeHBmeft axMHHHCTpaTHBHoft HcopaB- 
HOCTH opraHOBi (l)HHaHcoBaro ynpaBJíeHiji. Ho en^e ÓÓJbinee 3HaqeHÍe 
HMtDTi dm cb^a^hía noTony, ?to cjiHniBOM'b Ha nojtroAa panibe no- 
aiueHúi oT^eTa rocy^apcTBenHaro BOHxpojifl Aai)T% BosMoacHocTb, EaRi> 9T0 
lu DosasajiH ornocHTejiBHo 1887 ro^a ^), cjcbjíaTb npH6jH3HTej[bHOB'6p^ 
Hue BHBOAU O pe3yjibTaTax'b HcnojiHeniji rocyAapcTBenBoft pocnHCH AftHHaro 
rojuu ÍTo se Bacaercji oroBapHBaeMoň „6'6cthhbom'b'' b'6phocth i(H(|)p'b, 



') nOCTJQieHie HilBOTOpHXl XOXOXOBl, IipeHMyiIieCTBeHHO OKJiaXHIiX'B, OTHOCaniHXCil 

n pocoHCH HSvšcTHaro roxa, npoHCxoAvrb ne tojibko bi TeneHie 12 iitcai^eBi 8Toro 
roMiB^ HO R Bi Teneme nepsHxi Tpexi h lerupexi M^cju^eBi cjiixyDívaro (iBroTHHft 
qmn). PacxoxH iii>OH3BoxflTCi[ ee tojikso wb Te^euie jiBroTHaro cpoKa, ho h bi 6oiie 
jrpoAQizHTeuHHe nepioAH (cTpoHTeuHHe pacxoxH, yoiaru no HMeHHHm cnecEairb spe- 
XBTOpon KaSHH). 

*) „BtomoLi Espoira*' 1888 roxa, naft, ídhb, H0ii6pB h xesaÓpB. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



334 B1M7THHR1> fiBFOUU. 

npHBOAHMU&l „B']^CTHHBOM'b^, TO Bl Hefi ej(Ba JIH MOXHO COXH^BaTbCX*. 

npeABapHTejibHUJi CB^j^eHÍA, no BpaňHell ntp^, no ^oxo^airb, — a 3to 
rjiaBHoe — nojiyqaiOTCJi ne oahhmi MHHHCTepcTBOMi 4»HHaHC0B'b, ho TaExe 
u rocyAapcTBeHHUM-B KOHTpojieMi, H He^iBsa AyiiaTB, itoóu oaho bí- 

AOXCTBO, COÚnpSLHCh UyÓJIHKOBaTb ÓEOASeTHUfl AftHHUJI, He CapaBHAOCb 

cb i^H(|)paMH Apyroro BtjaíOHCTBa u npH tomi ctojib EOMnereHrnaro si 

dTOITb A'I^JI'6, KaE^ rOCy^apCTBOHEUfi SOHTpOJIb. 

„CbÍA©HÍ4í" 3a 1888 ^^"6 j^ÍCTEHICB (J^MHaHCOBlí" npHBOAHTB BT» 

napajuiejib ct> n,H^paxiii 1887 roAa (aa rtae 12 MtcauoBt), HSRíeqee- 
HhiMM H3'B orqera rocy^apcTBOBHaiH) KOHTpoJifl. 6*5 o6iii,uxi HToraxi ohh 
npeACTaBJMDTca b'b cj['&AyK)ii(6M'b BHA*!^: 

Hc^HCJieHo no pocniicH sa IIocTyniuo irb Te^eoie 12 

BecB cmíthuh roAi: M'lciiiieBi»: 

wb 1887 r. wb 1888 r. bi 1887 r. vb 1^8^ r. 

Bi pyóijizi. Bi TUCA^axi pyójiei. 



JoxoAu oÓHKHOBeHHcie H o6o- 










poTBHe vbc^erb pocnncH. 


796.368.844 


854.357.215 


808.012 


890.929 


AoxoMM HpesBmaiiBue bi 










cierb pocDHCH 


15.451.115 


7.914.010 


13.474 


4.110 


nocTynieHia ^BroTHarocpoica 










n cqerb aoxoaobi npexme- 










cTBOBaBmaro roAa. . . . 






22.104 


20.703 


UocTynieBia bi chctl m,o%q- 










AOBt óyjiyDiHX-b jrbi-b. . . 






324 


337 



Bcero rocy^ap. aoxojíobi. . 811.819.959 862.301.225 843.914 916 079 

PacxoAOBi) hi, TeqeHÍe 12 M'6ciii;eBi> upoHSBeAeno h3i> Karci> vh 
1887 roAy— 860.994.000 pyÓJiefi; Bi 1888 roAy— 874.530.000 pyfijieS. 
Ho 9TH l(H4>piI paCXOAOBl, KSLlLl, MU noRasoMi* HHse, HBKaKoro 6V>1' 

jKOTHaro 3HaqeHÍa ne nul^forb. ]^h onpeA'i^;ieHÍa pe3yjibTaT0B'b hcdoji- 
HeHÍJi rocy^apcTBOBHOH pocnHCH no pacxoxaMi HyseHii j^pyroĚ npieMi, 

R^b KOTOpOMy MU H o6paTHMCJi. lIpeABapHTeJlbHO OCTaHOBHMCil Ha AOXO- 

Aaxi. no HHM^ RaccoBoe nocTynjieHie 3a 12 M%CAi^eB'b ootth coBoa- 
AaeiTb ci ó^AseTHUMi*; ApyrnMH cJioBaMH, Bct npHiHTaDu^íecA no poc- 
nncH AoxoAU nocTynaioTi, rjiaBHUMi^ oSpadOM^b, vb Te^enie 12 m1>ch- 
u,ewb Toro roxa, k^l ROTopoMy othochtcíi pocoHCb; B'b Teqeníe se JibroT- 
Haro cpoRa HX'b ofíuRHOBeHHo nocTynajio JHmb orojio 2V2— 3% o6ni.eň 
cyMMu AoxoAOBi^ H no HeMHorHMi> HXi BHAaMi. TaRi no pocnucH 

1887 roAa nocTynHJio bi jibrcTHuft cpoRi, T.-e. B'b nepBue mí^cai^u 

1888 ro^a, orojio 21 mhji. p.; iis^b hhxi orojo 10 mhji. pyójieft oKJia^.- 
Huxi) c6opoB'B (noAaTOŘ u BUKynnuxnb ujiareseft), orojvo 8V3 mhji. p. 
HJiaTeaceft no oó^nranimMi soji^í^bhuxii Aopor'b; ao IV3 mhji. pyóJieĚ 
noco6iú Ra3H'i oTb paaHHxi qacTHux^ yqpejRAenift, ropoji;oB*b h oóníecrBi. 
Bi BHAy oco6eHHo ycntninaro aocTynjieHÍH rocy^apcTBOHnux-b aoxoaobi 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHUKA. - rOCyMPCTBEHHHE fl,OXOfl,U li PACXOflH. 335 

R-B Te^eeie 12 MtcimeBi* 1888 r., cji*AyeTioaHAaTb HÍKOToparoyMeHb- 
meHÍfl, cpaBHHTejibHo c^b npeAmecTBOuauoíHNH roA^MH, bi> nocTynjieHÍflX'b 
jibroTHaiX) cpoBa. Ecjh npeAnoJioacHTb, qxo ohh yMeHbniaTCA aa nojio- 
BHHy, T.-e. Ao 10 Muj. py6jie&, to h bi* TaBOifb cjyqat 06111^ cyMHa 
o6biBHOBeHHiix'b AOXOAOB^, Ha BOTopyi) HecoMH^HHO cjiiAyeirb pasc^H- 
TUBaTb no pocDHCu 1888 ro^a, AOCTerHOTi 901 uinji. p. h cocTasurb 
npeBumeHÍe apoTHBi» npeAnojioseHitt pocnHCH (854Va mhji. p.) dooth 
Ha 46Va MHJI. p. H npoTHB^ nocTyajfeHÚi 1887 roAa (829^/s mhji. p.) 
Ha 61 MHJI. pyójieii cjinniKOMi. yBejiH^eHÍe AoxoAOB'b, cpaBHHT&abHo ci^ 
1887 roAOMi), rjiaBHUM'b o6pa30M'b oÓiiflCHfleTCfl B03BunieHÍeM'b pasni^pa 
MHorHX'b HajioroBi. H'bR0T0pbie HajorH Óujih noBumeau yace co bto- 
poft nojlOBHHu HJEH Bi» KOHi^t 1887 po^a, KaB^, nanp., Hajion aa 
npaso ToproBJtH, TaÓa^Hud aBi^H3'b, reptíoBuň c6op'b, TaBi-HasuBae* 
MUA noniJiHHu pasHiixi HaHMeHOBanifi (ycTaHOBjíenie c6opoB^ Ha 
coAepsaHÍe nfHHHuxi cy^OBi bi ry6epHÍax'b BapniaBCKaro cy^eó- 
Haro OKpyra, oójiosenie ocoÓumi c6opoMi> coeuiajibHBixi TeKyu(HX'b 
cqeT0Bi>); 3aT%M'b HOBoe BosBumeHÍe HajioroB'b (nanp., aBi^Hsa co coHpTa) 
HJH ycTaHOBJíenie H0Bux'b (aBi^H8'b cb HeciKrAHUx^b Macjii h c^h 3a»Hra- 
TejibHHx-b CHH^eB-b) uocjiiAOBaJio ch 1888 ro^a. HtsoTopoe ysejiHqeHie 
o6niei AOXOAHofi cyMMH (obojio 10 mhji. p.) OBasajiocb jiHmb ottofo, 
1T0 npH nepe^HCJienÍH bshocobi, nocTynaBmHX'b wh Baany bi MeTajiJiH- 
qecBofi BaJiDT^ (TaNoateHHUx^b nonuiHHit h H^BOTopuxi ApyrHXi), Me- 
TajuiH^ecBÍĚ pyójib cqHTaJca b^ 1887 ro^y no 1 p. 67 b. bpoahthuxt*, 
a Kb 1888 roAy — no 1 p. 80 b. Bpe^. 

7BejiHqeHÍ6 oÓuBHOBOHHUxi AOXOAOB'b 1888 roAa npoTHBi pocuucH 
^BH4ocb, rjiaBHUM'b ogpaaoMi, pesyjibTaTOMi sna^HTejibHaro yjiyqnieHiH 
B^ dBOHOMHHecBOMi no;io»eHÍH HacejieHifl, bcji^I^actbío Tpexj[']^THAro uoai>- 
paAi yposaji, a oTqacTH bcji^actbío pacniupeHin H^BOTopuxi* orpaciieň 
rocyAapcTBeHHaro xoaafiCTBa, BaB^b HanpHM']^p'b Kejfisno-AoposHaro. 

HaHÓojite 3aM'bTHUM'b (na 13 mhji. p.) aro yBejiH^enie oBasajiocb no 
TaMoaeHHUMi, cĎopaMii, BOTopuxi HOCTynHJio obojio 138 mhji. pyfijieĚ, 
óoAte cpaBHHTejibHo Cb 1887 roAOMi na 30 cjihhibomi^ mhji.iíohobi. Hbi 
BHxi, BapoqeM'b, AO 10 mhji. p. cocTaBjíADT^ ynoMJiHyTyM) Bume paa- 
HHny wb HpHHHTHXi> Bypcax^ npH uepeqHcjieHiH MOTajuiHqecBHxi* no- 

CTyoJiefliií B'b BpOAHTHUe pyÓJIH. Bl^ A'l^fiCTBHTeJ[bHOCTH TaMOSeHHUX^ 

uonuiHHiy oocxynHJio bi 1887 roAy obojio 64 mhji. py6jieft MerajiJi. h 
IV2 MHJI. pyOjieft BpeAHTHUX-b; bi 1888 roAy obojio 75 mhji. mot. h 
2 mhji. py6. BpeA., TaB^ qxo npenunieHie cocTaBjíAeTi obojio 11 m. p. 
Meraji., T.-e. 6oji'6e 17 npon.eHTOBi*. TaBoe yBejtnqeHie TaMomennaro ao* 
lOAa ne Moacerb 6uTb 06'bACHHeMo ycHJienieM^b BBOsa 3arpaHHqHUX'b to- 

^apOBi; BBOBTb, HaupOTHB'b, BTb 1888 TOAy, HOBHAHMOMy, yMOHbniHJICH: 



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336 BftCTHiIftl> BBťOlUI. 

no c^MfiBíHWb MHHUCTepcTBa ^HHaHcoBi *) aa 11 MÍ^i^eB'B 1888 roxa 
HHOCTpaHHHxrb TOBapoB'b BseseHo Ha 301 MHx. pTÓJiefi, uewbe BB03a sa 
roTb se nepíoA^B 1887 roxa oohth ea 5 mhi. pyÓJiefi; oho saBHCHTB, 
rjiaBHUMi o6paaoM'B, otb BHawTejiBHaro BosBumeHÍa ea MHorie Tosapu 
TaMoseHHaro TapH<i>a co sropoi bojiobehu h ciKOHi^a 1887 ro^a. Tasí 
BOSBumena nonuHHa cb MerajuiOBi, pyx% h MeTaj[jiuqecBHX'B H3;^^ift, 
c% RaiieHHaro yrju, cx xioniaxoft ÓyMarH cupi^a (ci 45 k. ao 1 p. h 

1 p. 15 S.), CJ> Tatfasa, CBÍSHX'B ^pySTOBl, Cb KflXTHHCBHX'b HaOBl, 
npOBOdHMUXl Hpe3'b HpByTCByH) TaMOSHK) (CB 6aftX0BUX'B BMibCTO 11 p- 

ch ny;^ — 13 pyÓJiefi) h Cb MHoraxi ApyrHX'b TOBapoerb. 

FoBopa o noniJiHHax'b, ne jraniHe npHBOCTH ^hcjiobum a^heha *), 
nosaaHBaron^ÍA, HacBOJiBBo H3M^HHJica pasM^pi doiiuhhi bi nocjri^AHU 
ABaAAaTB jrbvb, npHHHMa^ ero bi^ npoi^eHTHoirB oTHomeHÚi bi> ctoh- 

MOCTH TOBapOBl^. IIoniJlUHU COCTaBJIiiJIH: 



roAM. 


Ha sii3HeHHHe 
iipenacH. 


Ha 


cupee H noiyo6p. 
MaTepiaiH. 


Ha Hsx^iú 


Booómc 


1867 


37«/o 




4% 


UVt7o 


157o 


1877 


40V,7o 




9% 


13«/o 


15% 


1887 


75Vo 




17«/o 


847o 


29 



TaBuiťB oópaaoMii uohijihhiiI eooón^e ne tojibko cb 1867 ho h cb 
1877 roAa, T.-e. co BpeMeHH BBeAenia 3ojiotoů nomjiHHM, k^ 1887 ro^y 
B03|)ocjiH B^Boe. Ttn^ HO Mentě oAHOMy BosBumeHiro TapH4>a e^Ba jh 
Mo»Ho QpHHHcaTB cTOJib 3Ha^uTej[BHoe yBejiHqeHÍe TaMoseHHaro aoxoah 
B-b 1888 roAy DpoTHB'B 1887 roAa. Oho o6'BACHAeTCH hobhahmomy t^mb, 
HTo uoHLiHHiii oocTynaiOTi He TOJIBKO HaJHqHUMH AOHBraMu, ho h sa- 
jioraMH. Qo BceMy hipoatifo óojrke CBoeBpeMeHHufi bi 1888 roAy BUKyoB 

3aJI0r0B'B Ca0C06CTB0BaJI'B BI 3Ha?HTej[BH0& Mtpt BOSBUmeHÍK) Bl 3T0MB 

roAy TaMoaKOBHaro cóopa. 

06)i3aTej[BHUX'B njiaTesei qacTHUXi seJii^HUXi AoporB noJiyHeHo 
OKOJio 54 MHJi. pyójieit. 3a BuqeroMi u3'bhhxi> 15mhji. pyÓJieft, nocTy- 
nHBinux'B orb HEKOJiaeBCBofi sejitsHofi AoporH Bb ynjiaTy j^ojiroBb 
npesH^ro BpeMeHH, ocTaeTCfl 39 mhji. p., ROTopue npeACTaBjrjiiDTi>, cpaB- 
HHTOjiBHo Cb HOCTynjieHiflMH 1887 roAa, usóutoki obojio 12 mhji. py6., 
o6auiCHfleMu& yjiyqmaioii^HMca Bb oocjitAHee BpeMJi xo3flňcTBOM'B qacT- 
Huxi sejiteHUxi AoporB u sHaqHTOjiBHo pasBHBHierocji hx'b j^iaTejih' 
HOCTBK). yse Bb 1887 roAy iHCTaA aoxoahoctb Bcefi seji^HO-AoposHoft 

CtTH BOSpOCJia, CpaBHHTOJIBHO Cl» HpeAmeCTByDU^HMli rOAOMl, CJIHmSOMB 

Ha 25 MHJI. pyójieft, npn neub na aaseHHUxi h t^xi hsi qacTHUXtb 

O „BtCTRHRl <t)HHaHCOBl, DpOMHmieHHOCTH H TOprOBJH*' 16 6 3a 1889 TOJCk, CTp. 435, 

v HajiaHÍe AeuapTaiieHTa TaMoxeBUHxi c^poBi: „BHimHiia ToproBU no espo- 
neftcKofi rpaHHi^i sa 1887 rox^**. 



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XPOHHBA. — rOCyAAPCTBEHHHE ffOXO^U H PACXOflU. 337 

jtopoFE, KOTopufl o5peMeHi[K)rB EasHy TpeÓOBaHÍeirB npHUJiaTi, qncTufi 
ífiioxh yBejiHHHaca Ha 21 mhji. pyÓJieft. B-lISSS ro^y 3Ta ;íoxoahoctb 
Bospocjia em,e óoiBoie, saBi> bto bhaho hs^b yaejiH^eHiH oóaaaTejiBHiixi 
niaTe»eS. T^wh ne Menta sasHt Bce en^e npHXOAHTCii BecbMa Aoporo 
pacojutHHBaTBCA sa yBJíe^eHifl apn nocTpofifii sejitsHUXi Aopori*: bi 
1887 roAy 3a ^acTHiíMH xoporaMH uejioóoph cocTaBjuiJii orojio 40 -hhji. 
py&iei; bi> 1888 ro^y owb e^sa jih cnycTHJicji hhsb 30 mhji. pyÓJiefi. 
Oahoí H.TB npH^uiHi Hexoóopa— HH3RÍft KypcrBHaineň AeHesHofi sajniDTU, 
CTOflBmiĚ B'B 1887 H b'b Ha^ajit 1888 ro^a, TaRi KaRt oóiisaTejiBCTBa se- 
jil3HUX'B AopoPB no 6oJiBnieĚ nacTH hc^hcjejidtcjí na MerajuiHqéCRiž 
py6iB, AOXOAU se hx'b nocTynaioTii vb pyÓJiaxi xpeAHTHuxi). Ho ro- 
peHHaH npH^HHa — HenoMtpHO orpoMHHa cyMMu, HCTpa^eHHua na se- 
jifoHUH Aoporn; HTorB ochobhuxi RaDHTajiOB'B, HapacxoAOBaHHHXi na 
coopyaseHÍe h ycrpoftcTso Bcefi sejit8HO*;i;oposHofi c^th, bi 1887 rojiy, 
cmafl 1 p. 80 r. Rpe^HTHuxi sa MerauH^ecRiĚ pyfijiB, npeBumajTB 
3 MHJuiapAa p. Rp., a ajul npoHBBOJ^CTBa ci hhxi njiaTeseft xpe^yerca 
UOmhjL py6jieft RpeAHTHUxi. 

7Bej[HHeHÍeMi xoxoahoctu RaseHHuxi sej[Í3HUX'B Aopor'B, a paBHo h 
OTBpHTieMi vb 1888 roAy ntcROJiBRHXi hobuxi yqacTROB^ oó^BACHAercH 
naBHBnrB oópadOMi yBejiHneme na 6V2 mhji. p. npoTHBi 1887 roj^a 
noerynjieHifi on Ra8eHHux'B HMyiiiecTB'B. 

IlHTe&Haro AOXOAa nocxyQHJio orojio 265 mhji. py6jež, 6ojrte 1887 r. 
la 7V3 M. py6jieĚ, ne CHHxaji 7 mhji. pyójeft, nocTynnBniHXi, no co- 
oépaseHÍHM^ MHHHcrepcTBa (|)HHaHC0Bi, b'b 1887 ro^y sa cqerB 1888 r., 
SM HsótsanÍH ynejiHHeHHaro na 25 Ron. cBse^pa óesBOAnaro cnHpra 
aKi^Hsa CB BHna. Bi* craxBHX^B no rocy^apcTBennuMi pocnnc^Mi h hx^b 
HcnojiHeHÍD MU ne pasB yRasusajiH na HenopMaJiBHo Majioe, cpaBHH- 
TeiBHo ci pasMtpoMi aRi^HSHaro najiora, nocTynjEenie nHTežHaro ao~ 
loxa, ilH<i>pa ROToparo sa nocjiiAHie roAU RaRi 6u csHxtTejiBCTByeTi 
o 3HaHHTejn»H0Mi yMeHBmenÍH ROJiHqecTBa norpeÓJiHeMaro napoj^oMi 
BHHa. J^oxoAHBmift jrtTB 6 — 7 TOMy Ha3aA'B ao 27 h 28 BeAep'B 6e3- 
Bo^^Haro cnnpTa, pacxoA'B sána, oujiaHennaro aRi^H30M'B, yMeBBniHjiCA 
BCjrbAi» sartMi ao 25 h Aase 24 m. Be;^ep'B. CyAH no AH4)pt Aoxo^a, 
Vb 1888 roxy OHi ^ocTHri 26 mhj[. se^ep^. UpHHHMaA bi* coo6pa3ReBÍe 
oocTOHHHHft npHpocT'B Hacejienla h xpexjitTHÍĚ ypoacaft, yjiynniHBniiň 
aioHOMH^ecRoe nojiosenie napo^a, mohho AyícaTB, hto, necMOTpji na 
nocTOHHHo ycHjiHBaeMufi norpanH^nuft, aRmHSnuft h Rop^ennuft HaA3op'B, 
BapoAOMi H TenepB norpeSjíHerc^ BHna, ycROJibsaion^aro otb ouJiaxu 
asi^sovB, He Mentě nesejiH 3% nepio^B 1884—1886 porobi. 

Hs^ bhobb bx 1888 roAy ycTanoBjíenHHx-B najioron-B — He(|)TaHo& 
j^ocraBHJťB 6.600.000 p., 6oJite npeAnoJiosennaro no pocnHCH na 
ToMi m.— MAft, 1889. 22 



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338 rocTHEKi EBPomi. 

1.600.000 p., H cnH^e^Hutt— OKOJio 2.700.000 p., ce QpeBumeHieiTB poc- 
nHGH Ha 1.700.000 py6jiefl. 

Boo6n^e nocTVOJseHÍe aoxoaobi b'b 1888 ro^y, A&se HesasHCSHo otb 
yBejEH^enúi npes^e cyn^ecTBOBaBnuix^ HuoroBi h otb ycTaHOBjealii 

HOBUXtb, AOJISHO 6UTB DpanHCEHO, HO CnpaBBAJIHBOMy HHÍHÍI) ICHEHCrpa 

(I^EHaHCOB^B B'E ero BcemusLBwbimewb jcoajia^i o rocyAapcTBeHHoĚ poc- 
QHCH Ha 1889 roA'B, oÓHJiBHoft saxBi vb Tepeme ^Byxii jArb kb pflxy 
(no HameMy cqery xase xpexi jiítb: 1886, 1887 h 1888 roAOB'E). 



n. 

nepexoAHM^B B^B pacxoAaM'B. Hane^aTaHHaii b'b „B^thhk'^ <i>HHaH- 
coBi^ bíaomoctb o pacxoAaxi/npoHSBeAeHHBixi b'b Tepeme 12 wbca- 
nfivb 1888 roAa,4»HHaHCOBaro SHa^ienúi ne HMŠen. PacxoAU nopocnHCi 
npoHSBOAATCA HO TOJiBKO vb Te^eHÍe cooTBÍTCTByK)iqaro roAy pocancH 
rpas^aHCsaro ro^a, ho Tasse, 6e3'B BCAsaro orpanH^ienúi, bt> Tepeme 
Tpex^B H ^erupexi vkcnufiBi* jEBrornaro cpoxa, a saiiirB no hsbíct- 

HUHl Spe^HTaHl, SaKOBU ' CTpOHTeJSBHUe, HJIH npH H3B^bCTHHX'B yC20- 

BÍJixi (xpe^HTopcRÍe chkckh) h b'b Aft^BHi&mie CpOSH. IIOdTOMy AO 
oBOH^aTejiBHaro CBeAcnifl pocnHCH, ?epe3'B TpH ro^a, to^ho onpex^HTB 
pasHÍpí npoH3BeAeHHux'B pacxoAOBi nejala. ]Sfixe ot^otu rocy^ap- 
CTBennaro bohtpojih no HcnojmeHÍE) rocy^apcTBOBHOŘ pocnHCH, npoA- 
CTaBJífleMBie b^b bohii'^ ro^a, cj'JtAyiDn^aro sa 0TqeTHUMi>, Hero^Hu: 

B'B HHX'B nOBaSUBaDTCfl B^B paCX0A'Íb H^KOTOpBIfl CyMMU, B% A'3^ftCTBH- 
TOJIBHOCTH HeUSpaCXOAOBaHHUH. dra HOTO^HOCTB, Basi HdB-itCTHO, HC- 

npaBJUieTCfl liifB, tto Taxia cyMMu o;(Horo hs-b nocjitAjv}mji^i> rojsfivb 
npE^HCJiAOTCA B^B AOXOAaHi. Tasí b^b AOXOAaicB 1887 roj^a 6wíb. 
npHcooAHHeHU 2.672.000 p. ocTaTBOBi oři saBJíD^eHHBix^B cu^tl 1883 
roAa. EcTB, o^naBO, nojinaji bobmoshoctb onpe^tjiHTB BpaĚHDi) cyímy, 
BOTopyi) He HoryrB npeBSOfiTH pacxoxu 1888 ro^a; ona cjiaraercji hsi 
BpeAHTOBi, HasHaqeHHUxi no pocnncH aroro roAa, h cBepxcH^THUXi 

Bpe^HTOB^B, BOTOpue HOFJIH 6u 6UTB OTnyn^OHU B'B AonojiHeHie Wb 

Tenenie ro^a, T.-e. ne uoaae 31-ro AeBaÓpa 1888 ro^a. CBepxciiiT- 
Huxi BpoAHTOBi Wh 1888 TOAy pasptmaoifo ne 6ujio: 061 9toh'b 

CBKA^TeilBCTByeTl MHHHCrp^B (|>HHaHC0B'B BO BceuoMSiEwkŘmewb AOBJíajťb 

o pocnHCH na 1889 toa^b; 061 dTowh ynoMHHaerca h wb ciaTB* „Bicr- 
HUBa 4>HHaHcoB'B^. TaBHMi o6pa80Mi, rocyAapcTBeHHue pacxo^u He 
MoryT'B buSth h3'b npeA'i^jiOB'B, oTBe^ennux^ um^b pocnncBio, co bbjik)- 
qenieM^B no pocnncH »e 6 mhji. p. Ha Henpe^ycMorptEHUH CMi^TaMH 

3BCTpaopAHHapHBIH B'B TO^eHÍe rOAa HaAOÓHOCTH, H AOJISHH COCraBHTb 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKA. — rOCFAAPCTBEHHHE ^OXO^U H PÁCXOAU. 339 

no oÓHBHOBeHHinrb pacxoAaM'B (bmíctí ct> o6opothhhh) cyímy ee 6ojFke 

853.832.010 pyfijieŘ H no qpeaBHqaftHHM-B— ne Óojie 34,250.100 p. ^). 

npH conocTEBjíeHiH BUBe^eHEoft BHme Bi^poflTHoŘ js,jUL 1888 roAa 

P^^PU 06UKH0BeHHUX'B rOCyxapCTBeHHHX'B AOXOXOBl (901 HHJI. p.), CE 

p4^potpa8pibmeHHHX'B pocnHCbD oÓUKHOBeHHiixi pacxoAOBi (854 M. p.) 
noiy^aercji hb^htoei aoxoaobi Hax^b pacxoAaMH b'b 47 heji. py6jieft. 
dnors HBÓHTSOiTb H6 TOJiBBO noBpuBaercfl bcji cyMMa ^e3BU?aiHuxi> 
paexoxoBi (34 MHA. pO^Ho osasusaeTCA en^e H8JiHnieB'B bi 13 mhji. p. 
9to en^e ne Bce. Gi Basot) 6u ÓepeauiHBOCTBi) hh cocTaBJífljiacb pac- 
xoAHaa pocnHCb, ne 6iuio eiii;e npHMtpa, ttoÓu otl pa3pimaeMuxi> bd 
ipexHTOKB Bi BOHi^i roji(a He osasuBajiocL ocraTBOBi, noAJE[esaii^HX'B 
jEipími). TaBi wb 1887 r. saspiiro BpeAHTOBo^ no oóUBHOBeHHUirB 
IMUJXojKairb Ao 10 mhji. p. h no ^peaBinateHitb— na SVa mha. pyójieŘ. 
Ecji AJUí 1888 roji(a npe^nojiosHTB hxi> en^e vb HeHBmeft, ospyrjieHHoft 

CJUVk 10 HHJií. p. H npnCOeXHHHTB 2 KHJI. p. BipOflTHUXl OCTaTKOBl 

on aaBJíDieHHHXi cmítb 1884 ro^a, to cocraBHTCfl 12 mhji. pytfjiet. 
HaKOHei;'B, 00 HpesBu^aflHOMy ÓD^aery nocTynHJio aoxoaobi^ BaBidro 

IfflXHOHS^ B^XOMOCTH, HaneqaTaHHOŘ Bl gMCTHHSi (])HHaHCOB'b''; 4 MHJI. 

pyÓJieŘ. TasHM'B otípasoMi boce hbÓutobi AOXoaobi Ha^^B pacxo^aMH 
saK'b no oóuBHOBeHHOMy, Tasí h no npesBu^iatHOMy tíDj^soTy (13 m. p.-f- 
lO-f-2-f^ M. p.) MOSHO cHHTaTB oÓesne^eHHUMi b% cymi^ ^o 30 mhji. 
py6aeS. 

BxoóaBOBi, no cjiyxaM'B, nepecpo^sa, Ha ocHOBaniH ysaaa 20-ro 
HOflÓpa 1887 roAa, cyMMU sanHraJiBHaro ^OJira no tíaHKOBUM^B 6hji6- 
Tam 1-ro BunycBa na hoblií 37-mh-jiíthíř cposi yse b'b 1888 roxy 
opsnecjia sna^HTejBHoe c6epeseHie bi pacxo^axi no chctom^ rocyxap- 
CTBennaro spe^HTa. 

TaiLofi peayjiBTaTB Hcnojmenifl rocy^apcTBennoft pocnncH ho Mosen 
He 6htb npnsHanob bi naBicTHOMi cMHCJit ÓJiaronpÍATHBíMi. 

HicsojiBEO jtbTb Ha3aA'B, Wh o^not niwb ((>HHaHC0BHX% CTaTOŘ, no 
HcoojiHeHiH) rocyxapcTBeHHOŘ pocnncn 1884 r. ^), Basi na npH^uHy 
j(e4>Hi^HT0B'B Wb 6K)AseTax%, mh ysasuBajm na bochoctb bi rocyj^ap- 

CTfieHHHX'B AOXOAaX'B, H Bl npOTHBOHOJlOSHOCTB — Ha nOCTOAHHOe, H81 

roAy Bi roAi, B03BHnieHie pacxoAOBi. JI^oxo^u Tose yBejiH^HBajiHCB, 

HO He paBHOMipHO, CBa^BaMH H HCBJID^HTOJIBHO JIHniB BCjr&ACTBÍe ycH- 

JieHÍA pasM^pa t%x% hjih Apyrnx^B najioroB^B, Tor^a BaB'B pocrB pac- 
xoAOBi BUSUBajiCH BaB^B 6u BHyTpeHHofi roHflm^efi hx^b CHJiot. ToTb se 



^) Bci 6 xHi. p. Ba dKCTpaopxHHapHHJi haao6hocth mh npwacxEMa kb o6hkho- 
BeHHHm pacxoxaMib, xasi 8to cxiiiaHO h vb pocnncH, xora esi hhxi Moryn npoHS- 
•oxHTLca H ^esBHHaftHHe pacxoxH. 

*) „BicTHHrb Ebpouh^, HHsapB 1886 r., cíp. 860 h cjt&X' 

22* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



340 roCTHHBl EBPOnU. 

xapaRTepi b^ xbh3B6híh aoxoaobi h pacxoAOB'B coxpaHHJicfl coficTseHHo 
H Bi> nocjiiAOBaBinie sa 1884 roAU, npnqeMi o^HaKO MjozojviWb bi& 1887 
H ocoÓeHHO Bi 1888 roxy, BCjrbACTBÍe jBejiH^iGHifl paaM^pa cyn^ecTBOBaB- 

lUHXl HaJIOrOBOb H BBeAeHiA H0BBIX'L, AaHl ÓUJIT CTOJIB CHXBHUft TOX- 
^OK'B, ^TO OHHy CB HOMOII^BI) ÓJarOIipiiITHilXl aSOHOMH^ieCRHXfB JCJIOBÍÍ, 

pasoMi BoapocjiH b'b 1888 r. npoTHB'B 1886 r. Ha 130 hhjl py6jiet. 
no OTHomemi) bt* pacxoAaHi, HaDpoTHB'B, 6ujia oÓHapyseea b'b ABa no- 
CJi^AHie roAa Rpaňnafl 6epesjiHB0CTB, BCJi^ACTBÍe qero sa ABa 8tu ro^a 
— KU paayiíieifB jihiiib oÓURHOBeHBUft ÓDAsen. — ohh yBeaHHHjracB 
Bcero jiHmB ea 22 mhji. py6jiefi. B'b pesyjiBTairb, — noBTopj|eM'B en^e 
pas^, — npH Tpexjii^THeMi ne b^b npHMtp^B xopomeirB yposa'k y Haci h 
Heyposa^ b'b 1888 roAy bi sanaAHOŘ EBpon'^, h ORasajiocB Tasoe 
6jiaronpÍJiTHoe HcnojiHeHÍe rocyAapcTBOHHOŘ pocnHcu 3a 1888 roA^. 
PeayjiBTaTU dTH TasoBu, ^to Aaace npH bosmoshhxi fb ÓTAyn^eifB ciy- 

^afiHOCTflX'B, T.-e. npH H^KOropOMl nOHHSeHÍH B'B AOXOAaX'B H yBeiH- 

^eHÍH pacxoAOBi Ha h-í^sojibso 6jiHsafiinHX'B sfkrb oÓeane^HBaercfl 6e3* 
Ae4>Hi^HTH06 HcnoJiHeHie rocyAapcTBeeHofi pocnscn no Bpaftneft nipi 
no ÓDAsery o6uKH06etMfáx^ rocyAapcTBOHHHxi aoxoaobi h pacxo- 

AOB'B. 

Mh h6 pa8'B roBopHJiH, ^TO ycTpaHeHíe bo ^to 6h to hh crajio ho- 
AOÓopoB^B Bi HamHXOb rocyAapcTBeHHux^B Ď^Aseraxi^ cocTaBjíflerB cyn^e- 
CTBeHHyD rocyAapcTBOHHyK) hooÓxoahmoctb, TaB'B kslk% xpoHH^ecBie Ae4>H- 

I^HTU HO TOJIBBO COSAaDTB BaTpyAHHTeJIBHOO H ^eBOTJIHBOe (|»HHaHC0B0e 

nojiosenie, ho h cocTaBjíflDTi cepBesHHi phcr'b b^b nojraTH^ecBOHx otho- 
menÍH, ocoóohho npa uuwk cyn^ecTByH)n^HX'B cjioshux'b h M,Jia naci 
BecBMa HeBHroAHUX^B ycjioBÍJixi, rocnoACTByH)n(HX'B b'b eBponetcROĚ 
noJiRTHRi. HejiB3A nodTOMy Hnaqe RaR'B cb yAOBOJiBCTBÍeM'B otho- 
CTHCB Kb cqacTJiHBOMy noBopoTy, nocjttAOBaBmeMy b'b HaniHX'B 4>HHaH- 
caxi. Ho 6ďJio 6ii MaJiOAyniieM'B saRpuBaxB rjsasa na otípaTHyi) cropony 
j^ijia H He acejiaiB seaTB t^x'b BOCBMa ^yBCTBHTOJiBHiixi no»epTBOBaHÍft» 
RaRHMH AocTHrnyTi axor-B noBopoTB. Hajiorn, RaR'B npame, TaRi h 
ROCBeHHue, HHRorAa ne 6ujih y nacB ocoCobho JierRH. Ti, rto, Vb na- 
paJiJiejiB CB HamHMH, yRa3UBaK)Tx na 6ojAe BUcoRÍe, no ^HCJiy nace- 
jieniji, rocyAapcTBOHHue c6opu b-b pasnuxi CTpaHax'B EBponn, saóti- 
BaioTB cjiaóuft ypoBeHB namefi npoMumjieHHOCTH, Hamero yMCTBeHHaro 
pasBHTÚi H A'i^OBOŘ npeAnpíHMqHBocTH, napajraayeHot r'b TOMy se ctíc- 

HHTOJIBHUMH yCJIOBÍflMH, B^B RaRÍfl HOCTaBJíeHl y HaCB BCJIRÍft A'^OBOÍ 

no^HHi. npHTOM^B noBRHHocTH HamH AaJiORO ne orpaHHqHBaDTCfl ro- 
cyAapcTBeHHUMH, TaR'B RaR'B rocyAapcTBO si dnoxy pe^^opMi cjioshjio 

CX CeÓJi SHa^HTeJIBHyH) qaCTB XOSflfiCTBeHHUXl 4>yHRIlÍft, B03JI0SHBI HXS 

0a seMCTBO, ropoAa h oÓn^ecTea, a noTOMy paaomi cb rocyAapcTBeH- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKÁ. — rOCyMPCTBEHHUE ÍOXOAH H PACXOAH. 341 

HUMH EX^Th noA^ac'B en^e 6ojríe TamejiiiE noBUHHocTH seMCsia, ropo;^- 
mu H o6ii^ecTBeHHUJi. Mes^T tím'b Haioru b'b uGCJii^Hee spěna 
y Haci BOSBumaDTCii doctojihho, npeHMyn^ecTBesHO ROCBeHHue, co- 
craBJuiDiiUe, no HameMy MH'bHÍK), naH^ojiie HeBHro;(Hyi) 4K)pMy na- 
jioroBi, ecjH ona npHMÍHJieTCJi bi> ctojil inHpoKoft, ^yrs ho Bce- 
o$%eMjíDii^e& CHcreirb, b:b saKoň oaa cymecTByerb mnui y Haci. 
J(tjio lajsfiTb 3AÍC& He TojiBRO o jiHniHiix-B cyMMaxrb, vnjiaHHBaeMuxi b^ 
KasHy, HO rjiaBHoe, BO-nepBuxi, o <pa3HHX'L AoóaBOHHUx-B, yxe ne b^b 
nojn>3y KasHH, pacxo^^axi h, Bo-Bxopuxx, o Mačci títb CT^cHeHÍft, so- 
Topufl nopo»AaiDTCJi cHcreMoft Mejio^Horo o6jo»eHÍii BceBOSMOSHuxi 
npc^ysTOBi H.IH aKTOB'B noBceAHeBHoň shbhh. Bo3BunieHie TaMoseH- 
HUX'B nonuiHHi He npHHecjio KasH*]^ uoith HHsaKHx^b BuroA'B, ho ajia 
HacejieniH ho^hajiio hI^eu ne tojbko na HHOcxpaHHue, ho h na oreie- 
eTBeHHBie npoAysTU. ynejiuqeHHaa nonuiHna na yrojiB cos^ajia na H)r6 
aoJiHuA yrojibHufi KpndHCB; BOSBunieHie asi^usa Ha chhptb h hohijihhu 
Ha qaň BUSBajo ycHJieHHyi) Ha stu npoAyKTU E0HTpa6aHAy> npH^HEae- 
iHe ROTopoK) y6uT£u RasHt npHXOAHTCA rbwb hjiu ApyrHMi nyTesťB 
B03xini,aTB HacejieHÍK); ycHJieHHuň aRi^H3'B ch xaÓaRa noBejii r'b yxy^- 
meHÍK) B^B npoAaacb ero KaiecTBa h BUSBaji^B ajisi Rypjin^Hx^b Heo(^xo- 
AHHOCTB HORynaTB óojiie j^oporie copxa ero, a CTÍCHHTejEBHuft Ha^sopi, 
Bi TÍx'B se (t^HCRajiBHux^B A'&iflX'b, 3a Ta6a?HUMH HJiaHTai^iaMu sacTa- 
BHJTB npeRpaTHTL nocaARy Ta6aRa óójbrnyi) qacTB MejiRHX'L Ta6aR0B0- 
xovb; HaJorB na RepocHHi coBnani noneify-To cb ycTpanemeiťB u3'b 
DpoAasH ůojAe bucorhx^b coptob'b ero, a aRi^Hsi co CHH^eRi noBJieR'B 
3a eo6oD coBepmennoe npeRpau^OHÍe Rycrapnaro hxi npoHSBOACXBa. Ha- 
ROHei('B HHorocxaxeftHuft, HHROMy Bx xohhocxh HeHSBŽcxHBifi reptfoBuň 
ycxaBi, onyxuBaK>u\iS, RaR'B nayxHHofi, bchríA caifuS MeJiRÍft a^oboí 
jnaTB, 0AHHX'B sacxaBJíflex^ xepaxB HenpoHSBOAuxeiBHo BpeMH, apT* 
nii^B Do6ysAa6xi npuRJiaAUBaxB MapRH Aase xaMrB, rjifb hx'b bobco He 
HysHo, H Bcbx^B oAHHaROBO cxicHAOTB. IS/h axoMj HjsHo eu^e npHCO- 
exHHHTB snaHHxe^BHBiH HSAepsRH Ra3Hu Ha coAepsanie MHoro^HCjieH- 
Haro nepconajia jihi^'b, cjiíaa^hx'b sa npaBHJiBHUiťB nocxynjseHÍeMi 

BCixik 9XHX'B CtíopOBT*. 

noBxopaeMOb, CBe^enie rocy^apcxBonnoft poCHHcn 6e3'B Ae<|»Hi^HX0Bi 
cocxaBJuen npe^Hexi nepBocxeneHHofi BasHocxn; RaR'B 6u hh 6bijio 
TflzejiOy ho HacejieHíe aojsho AOCxaBHXB Bce xo, ?xó neoóxoAHMo A^a 
oxpaHH óesonacHocxH nacejieHía, nopn^Ra u fijiarococxoaHÍH vb neui; 
(Siuo 6u oAHaRO sejiaxejiBHo, hxo6h bco nojiy?eHHoe cb HacejieniH nuio 
i^ijHROirB B'B HOJiBBy Ra3Hii H v£o6u B3HiíaHie HajioroB'B ne conpoBoaR- 
XluiocB HeHysHUMH cxicHeHÍflMH, a caMoe otijosenie 6ujio no bosmos- 
HOCTH paBHOMipHo. Cpo^cxBOHi jí^Áň dxoFO, RaR'B MU HO pad^B yRasu- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



342 racTHHKi EBPonu. 

BOJiH, jí,ojmRo nocjDiysHTB Bsej^eHÍe noxoxoAHaro najiora ch 9nMÍno¥> 
iswh ecjuí ne Bctx'B, to 6ojihmeŘ hecth BocBeHHHX'B HajioroBx, npeHMy* 
ii]^ecTBeHHO HejutHxi, H c% noHHseHieMi pasxipa ocTaDn^Hxcfl. Han 
jutaseTCH, ?T0 hhbeho TenepB, sorxa ea hícbojibso jrkrb oócsoe^eia 
paBHOBicie no Hcnojnsemi) HaniHxi pocoHcet, npHinjio speiui npEcry- 
HHTB Kli paspatíoTB^ TaKOFo Hajiora, OTjiosHBrB coBepmeHHO B% CTopoiy 
paspaÓOTsy npoeKTOBi hobhx^b HejiBHX'B o(ÍjioJceHÍfi, o Boropuzi xoa^ts 
cjTfXH h% ne^aTH h o6ii^ecTB'6. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



BHYTPEHHEE 0B03P1&HIE 

1 Mfui 1889 r. 



Onen KpecTBaHCsaro nosev ennaro óanna 3a 1887 r.— IIpoAaaRHHfl i^íhh h pas- 
iHHHHfl KaTeropiH nosynaTeieft.— noMonu» iiaioseiieiBHHMi h ^esseiieiLHHiťB.— 
M.'kpUi npoeETHpyeMiui vb BHAaxi óoiBmefi oóesneHeHHOciH ccyAi-— Qr^en abo- 
pnHCKaro seMeuHaFO 6aHKa sa 1887 r.— CjiyxH o bojiocthhxi cyií^xi.— „BeiHKia 
pe^topvH** HiH ;,HOBniecTBa"? 

OÓHapoi^OBaHHHŘ He^aBHo oT^erB specTBAHCRaro noseicejiLHaro 6aHRa 
aa 1887 r. (nsraŘ roA'B cyn^ecTBOBania Óanica) ctojib se Conrb heto- 
pecHUMH xaflHHVH, Rasi H Bc^ npe;(Hji(yni;ie. KyjibMHHaitioHHUMi 
nynsTOiTb a^tbjibhocth óaHKa 6Hn 1885 roxi; ci lixi noprb Ha- 
HHHaercA jMeHLineHie RaB'B qHCjia ca'í^ob'b, coBepmaeinix^b npH nocpe;Z(- 
eret 6aHBa, Tasi> h cyMMH BUji(aHHUX'B ccy^i, HecMOTpa sa npoxoji- 
i(aDii(eecA pacnrapeme reorpa4>HqecEaro patona A^ftcTBÍft 6aHKa (bi 
1887 r. B'B cocTaBi aroro pafioHa boiiijih bhobb en^e xpn ryÓepHÍH — 
flpociaBcsaa ^), TyncBaji h ncsoBCKafl; vh 1 flHBapa 1888 r. oh'bo6hh- 
lajTB co6oi) Bcero TpHwaTB-xeBiiTB ry6epHÍfi). Bi 1883 r. pasptmena 
fiMO Ki bh»h4 229 ccy^i, Bt 1884 r.— 981, bi 1885 r.— 1.527, B^t 
1886 r. — 1.300, vb 1887 r.— 1.149. CyMMa paspimeHHHX-B ccy;^'B, b-k 
1885 r. npeBUinaBniaA 17Va mhjuiíohobi, ynajia bx 1886 r. ^o 10'/4, 
BB 1887 — AO 7V2 HHjijiioHOBi pyÓJieň. FjiaBHUMH npH^MHaMH dToro ABjeHífl 
onen óansa sa 1887 r. npH8Haei*B, cb oahoí CToponu, na^eme i^h^b Ha 
ui5'B, yMeHBHiHBinee noRynaTejEBHUA cnjiu xpecTBAHCTBa, cb Apyrofi, — 
yjiyHineHie nojioaseHifl seuaeBjíSLjiíbjíhnfiB^, BCJi^ACTBÍe yqpesAeHífl abopah- 
CKaro seMejiBHaro 6aHKa h Óojiie BuroAHUX'B ycjioBÍft,npeAJiaraeMUX'B saeii- 
n^HKaiťB ^acTHHMH aeifejiBHUMH ÓaHKaMH. YBejiH^HJiacB, bmíct'6 cb tími, 
ocToposHocTB Bi pa3pimeHÍH ccyA'B — yBejiH^HJiacB HMenHo noTOMy, ^Ta 
HeyposaH 1885 n 1886 r. noKOJieÓaJiH nj[9.TesHyx) cnocoÓHOCXB 8eMjieA'i^B- 



') Uo apociaBCKofi ry6epHÍH, Bnpo^em, ne Ónio paspimeno ki BHxa^i fl 1887 r^ 
n oxHoi ccyxH. 



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344 BfiCTHHRl EBPOini. 

necRaro Rjiacca. He jTeepsA^HO, bi 1887 r., AesaHOCTO-ceiiB cxÍA0Vi*h, 
Bi ToifB ^mcjťb copoB^B-nflTB— B^b BHjiy cjiHinKou'B BUcoKHXi npc^as^ 
Hux^B jiíkBi>y cjiHniKoifB fiojiBiiiHX^B AOBjíaTB HJiH HJioxoro Ba^ecTBa ZeUMM. 
Bcero 6oJBme caíjioki coctoajiocb b'b ryóepniax-B CMOJieHCKoft (119), 
MorHJieBCKoS (96), nojiTaBcsoi (88), HOsropoACSoS (75) h KÍeBcsofi (74). 
SaMtqaTejiBHO, qxo bo bc^x^b dTHXi ryÓepHlaxi EpecTBiiHCRÍň óaHKi 
fl/kňcTBjeTT, yse cpaoHUTejiBHO ^aBHo: bx KíeBCKoft, MorHJieBCKoft h noji- 
TaBCKoŘ — CB 1883 r. (x.-e. ct caMaro otkputíh 6aHKa), bi cMOJieBCKcfi 
— CB 1884, BX HOBropoACKoň — cb 1885 r. 3thiii noATBepacAaexca eme 
pa3'B, qxo BMtfflaxejiBCTBO KpecTBHHCKaro 6aHKa BOBce ne BJie^erB 3a 
coÓoK), BaK^B HeH36isHutt pesyjiBTarB, noBumeHÍe iiíh'b na aeMJUD. 
^hcjIO cAtiLOK-b, coBepniaeMux'B npH nocpeACTBi 6aHRa, sasucHTi Bcero 
6ojiBnie He otl Toro, KaK'B ;(aBHO HaqajacB, bt* ^asHoS m^cthoctu, 
A'i^TejiBHOCTB óaHRa, a orB pa3MtpoB'B npeA<soseHÍx aemiH, yxoónoi 
AJia noKynaTejieft-KpecTBaHi, T.-e. 6jim3koř orb Micxa nocToaHearo hx'b 
sHxejiBCTBa HJIH roAHoft ji^Jia. nepecejieHÍa. Ecjih laBoň senjiH npe^Jia- 
raexcH mhofo, to a^h AtaxejoiBHocTH 6aHKa AOJiro MoserB ocxaBaxBca 
ÓojiBmod npocxop'B; bx npoxHBHOHi cjiy^a'b ona Hosexi cl cajiaro Ha- 
^aja HATH HepenaniBHMi maroMi. MesAy ry(5epHÍHifH, bi* soxopux^B 
coBepmeno Bcero MeHBme ca^jiori, mu naxoAHMi h xaRÍH, wh ROTopux^b 
OTAtjieHÍH 6aHRa oxRpHxu B-B nepBue roAU ero cymecTBOBaHÍH (capa- 
TOBCRa^ ryóepHÍJi — 13 caíjiori, xepcoHCRaH — 5 caíjior-b, nensencRaH — 
5 caíjor-b, xaBpHHecKan — 2 caíjirh; bi nepBHX'B wyxi ryĎepniax^ 
ĎaHRi Atftcxayexi cb 1883, b^ Asyxi nocjitAHHXi — ch 1884 r.), h 
xaRifl, B^B ROTopuxT* A^TejiBHOCTB 6aHKa HaqajiacB ropasAO no3se 
(opjioBCRaa ryÓepHia — 12 CAfeJioRi, BHJiencRaa — 6 caíjiori, 6eccapa6- 
CRan— 4 caíjíkh, BJiaAHifipcRaH~~oAHa CA^JiRa; bo bc4x'b qexupex-B ry- 
óepHÍaxi 6aHR'B A'&tcTByerB cb 1886 r.). IIo cyMMtb BUAaHHUXX ccyA'B 
nepBoe Mtcxo (óojite 870 xucahi pyfijiefl) saHHMaexi, vb ottcthoitb 
r^^Ay, ry6epHÍH xapBROBCRan, bi Roxopofi A'bAxejiBH0CTB 6aHRa nanajiacB 
CB 1885 r.; saxiMi HAyxi ryóepniH RieBCRan (794 thchíh, ÓaHRi a**- 
CTByexi CB 1883 r.), noAOJiBCRaH (636 xhcrhi,, cb 1883 r.), RypcRaa 
(581 XHCHTO, c* 1884 r.), nojrraBCRaa (414 thcah-b, cb 1883 r.), cmo- 
JOHCRaa (412 TU(Mm», cb 1884 r.). H cb dxoft tohrh 3p%HÍfl, citAO* 

BaxeJBHO, npOAOJISHXeJIBHOCTB A^iCTBÍa óaHRa JIBJIH6TCH bhojih^ co- 

BM'bcxHofi CB niHpoRHMH pa3M'bpaMH HORynoR^B, coBepmaeMux^s opn ero 
HocpeACXBi. HaHMeHBmia cyMMU ccyA^B opHxoAflTca, Hao6opoTib, na aojid 
ry6epHÍft, b-b Roropux-B 6aHR'B A*ficTByeTib jianiB cb 1886 r. (bjulah- 
HipcRan ryÓepHÍH — 10 XBicaqi, MocRoscRaa — 14 THcaH'B, BHJieHCRaa— 
20V2 xucflqi pyójieft). Ho ROJHiecxBy RynjeHHUxi cb noMoai,Bi) ÓaHRa 
AecaxHH-B Ha oepBOMTb m4cx4 (227^ xHcaqH) ctohx'b ryóepnia Honro- 
pOACRaa, Bi Roxopoft dann-B Aifi-TByexi cb 1885 r.; 3aTÍii'B HAyn ry- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHBA. — BHyXPEHHEE 0B03P*HIE. 345 

6epBÍK MorHJieBCKM (I9V3 THcaíi, c^ 1883 r.), CMOJieHCKaa(17*/4 tu- 
cjiTb, cb 1884 r.), xapBEOBCEaa (hohth 15 THca^i, ct 1885 r.), y<t>HM- 
csafl (12 TUCJiTb, ci 1883 r.). Hsi ryóepHÍň, bi ROTopuxrb jífksnejíh' 
HOCTB ÓaHKa HaiajiacB nosse, ÓojiLmoe qncjio K7njieHHux'B aocathei 
(12 TUCflq'B) AaeTi toíibko OAHa MHHCRafl. Ectb, Bnpo^eifB, h ipyria, 
Óojite npaMUfl AOEasarejiBCTBa TOMy, hto jsfbsireJihEocTh tíaHKa ne Be- 
MSTbj casfa no ce6%, ki noBumenii) npoAaacHUX^b ii,iwh. Mes^y 23 ry- 
óepHÍaMH, Bi KOTopuxi* cpeAHÍfl npoAa»Htifl ufknu 6ujih b'b 1887 r. 
HHxe, q^M'B Bi 1886, xu BCTpiqaeMi eoceMb ry6epHÍft, cb canaro 
Haqajia (T.-e. cb 1883 r.) BoraeAmHX-B bi Kpyn A*ftcTBÍft 6aHEa, u 
íoeemh ryóepnift, npHCoeAHHeBHUx'B k^b Heny wh 1884 roAy* IIobbich- 
iHCB npojtaxHUA i^tnu, hsi ryÓepHífi nepBoň saTeropíH, TOJibRO b^b 
Tpexi (BOJiHHCKoft, eRaTepHHOCjiaBCKoft H y4)HMCK0d), H37> ry6epHÍ& bto- 
poft saxeropÍH — tojibro bx odnou (cMOJieHCRofl). 

Otb apeAHAymaro orqeTHaro ro^a 1887 toab OTJiHHaeTCií, Mea;íy 
npoqHM'B, TÍM'B, ^TO yscJiuqHJiocb, cpaBHHTejiBHo, HHCJio noRynoR'B, co- 
Bepmoflflux^B cejiBCRHMii oón^ecTBaMH. Gi 1884 r. oTHomeHÍe aTHxi. no- 
EyooR'B s% noRynRaifB TOBapHiii;écRHM'B nocTOflHHo na^ajio (ci 60 : 40 
10 30V2 : 69V2); B'B 1887 r. oho SHaqHxejiBHO uo^nsuioch (40V3 : 59 Va; 
357 ccyAi* bija^ho cej[BCRH]ii o6mecTBaM'B, 525 — TOBapHniiecTBaHii). H^e- 
HOCTB aeMjQLH, RynjieHHoft TOBapHn^ecTBaMH, bi 1886 r. npoBocxoAHJia i^íh- 

HOCTB 361ÍJIH, SynJieHHOft CeJIBCSHMH OÓn^eCTBailH, CJIHmROM^E Ha MHJUiOHl 

py^efi, wb 1887 r.— tojbro Ha 518 THcnqB. 9T0My nejiBsa ne nopaAOBaTBca; 
DOEyaRH cejiBCRHMH ofini^ecTBaMH, roBopH Booóu^e — caMua nopMajiBHUH, 
cůMUň npoHSBOAHTOJiBHUA H caMUď Dpo^HUA. Bb 1887 T., RaRBH BB npe^u* 
j^ymevB, BOBce ne 6ujio noRynoR^B oóo^ecTBaXH bb rylSepHÍHxi ROBencRoft, 
opeH5yprcsofl h CTasponoJbCRoft; ne óujio hxb TaR»e bt» ryóepniH xepcoH- 
CEO&, Txh BooÓn^e chjibho noHHSHJiocB HHCJio noRynoRi, h bb ry6ep- 
HÚix'B BHJieHCRoň H ÓoccapaÓCROJI, r^i tojsbeo-^to HanajiacB ^'bHTejiB- 
HOCTB 6aHEa. UoRyooRi TOBapHii^ecTBaxH ho 6BIJI0 B0BC6 BB ry6epHiiix'B 

Bja^^HXipCROft, XOCROBCROfi H OJIHCaBeTnOJBCROfi; HO BO BCÍ^X'B dTHX'B 

]ficTHocTflX'B OABa ycn-^a HaqaTBOi x'i^HTejiBHOCTB 6aHRa. Bcero chjb- 
Hte HORynsH o6niecTBaKu npeoÓJiaAajiH na^B noEynRaxH TOsapH^ecRHXH 
BB rytSepniflXB RajryscRoft, pflaaHCBoft, capaTOBCROí, cnxÓHpcRofl, Tax- 
60BCR0& M noHseHCRot; noRynoRB TOBapHn^ecTBaxH 6ujio ocoóohho xHoro 
BB ryéepHiaxi bojiuhcroS, RÍoBCRoft, XHHCRofi, noAOJiBCROfi, noJiTaBCBOň, 
xapbROBCROft, qepHHroBCRofi, y4)uxcRofi. 06ujiíex'B tíxb h jipyrHX'B 
OTiHqaK)TCfl ryÓepHÍH xoriijieBCRaA, HOBropo^CRa^ h cxojieHCEaH. Sna^H- 
TOJiiiHo yxeHBmxjiocB hhcjo AecjiTHHB, RynjieHHUXB, cb noxon^BH) óaHRa, 

OTj^tjlBHUXH RpeCTBJiHaXH; BB 1886 r. OHO AOXOAHJIO no^TH Jí,0 2.900, 

Bi 1887 r. HO cocTaBJWjio h 1.650. Bb 22 ryóepHWXB (bb 1886 r. — 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



346 MCTUHSl EBPOnU. 

B^B ^erupHaAi^aTH) TaRHxi nosynoB^b He 6wiO BOBce. Bcero óojome wn> 
6ujL0 3% ryóepHÍflxi KieBCKoft h nojnuBCKoft. 

CejibCKiA o6iii,ecTBa noBynax)Trb, Óoumei) qacTBD, TaRyD seiUD, lo- 
Topaa JsesHTB cMesHO ci HaAtjbHoiD hxi aeMies). Hsi 95.915 a^ca- 
THHi, KynjieHHUxi odn^ecTBaiiH b'e 1687 r., 9T0My ycioBÍD y^OBjíerBo- 
pflDTB cjuHinKOMi 80 TUCAi^ (SiVs^/o). HacKoiBRO OHO noAHHMaen 
i^^HEocTb npio6plTeHÚi, o&b dToifb M02H0 cjjífiTh, HBSAy npo?]ni'B, no 
HHTepecHofi CTaTbt r. 9. 6.: „V CMOJieHCBaro MysHBa", HaneiaTaHHoft 
vb Jí 4 „Ci^BepHaro B'&CTHHBa^. 3a cMesHyi) semii), xota 6u ona h 
6iua fleBancHaro sa^ecTBa, CMOjieHCKÍe specTbAHe qacTo fotobu sanxa- 
TUTB jífiime BucoKys) i^iny, ne toibbo noTOMy, hto ary seiux), cojioiiib 
H paxoiťB, npHXOAHTCA 6paTB wb apeHAY, ckojebko 6ii hm aanpociijrb sa 
nee Bj[aA'bjiei^'B, ho h noTOMy, hto ona bo unoruTh cjiyqaflx^B cjiyuTB 

AJIfl nOCJli^AHArO HCT0HHHB0M'B no6opOB'B. „A& TH XOTB TÓ padc^HTat,— 

roBopnrB oahhi h8'b Bpe€TBAH'B, Ch soTopHMM Óec&AOBajii r. o. 8., 
— dsAjífiirb CBOTHHa (na noiitiii^H^BD seiui)) pasi — iiiTpa4>y py^iB^ sat- 
AOTi Apyroft — oniiTB pyÓJiB; bohi Te($^ XBa pyójui, a to h xsa ch noi- 

THHOft HH sa HTO OT^aniB. H AeHBFH OT^ajil, H SeXJIfl He TBOH. A Te- 

nepB fl dTHMH caMUiiH AeHBraMH onia^y AecflTHHy nepejcB ÓansoHi ^), 
seiuu-TO ys'B Moa, sna^HrB, xeHBrn ho xapoirB nponajiH. A ys'B otb 
norpaBUy hsb^thoo a^io, ne yóepeseniBCJi. Tasí synHTB-To buso^hti 
H pasc^erB^. Cooópasenie o norpasi HenpHMŠHHMo s'b seMjrib xorx k 
6jiH8Eoft« HO ho cMesHoň; BO Bci^x'B j(pyrHX'B oTHonieHÍJiX'B OHa TaKse 
qpesBBíHaiHo cnoApy^na jím specTBAHi. IIo^th 5.000 A^cmuwh syn- 

jlOHO CeJIBCKHM H OÓlS^eCTBaMH Ha paaCTOflHÍH MOH^ OAHOft BOpCTH, CTOJIBKO 

ace — Ha paacTOAHÍH otb oxHoft ao Tpexi sepcrB; bm^tí cb seiueftt 
BynjieHHO& cMesHo, dTO cocTaBHTB noHTH 91 TucAqy fifiCíiTEWh (6(aie 
95V3®/o Bcefi 86XJUI, BynjieHHoft oóa^ecTBaMH). ToBapHHi^ecTBa TaBse 
npio6pdkTaK)rB XHoro seiiJiH, ciiesHofi ct irbcrom SHTOJiBCTBa nosyna- 
Tejieň (49 tuchhi AecaTHH'B h3'b 121 thca^h) hjih orcToan^eŘ otb hofo 
ne Aajiie Tpexi BopcrB (ho^th 13 tbica^^b AecflTHH'B); ho nesAy Tosa- 
pHii^ecBHMH HosynsaMH HHoro h TaBHXi, xoTopHfl miitm níbjíhv) nepe- 
cejieHÍe. 9tem% o&bacBSL&sca to o6cTOATejiBCTBo, vro na pascTOAHÍH 
6ojr6e agcath BepcT^B ceiBCBHMH oón^ecTBaMH BynjieHO tojibbo 1.048 Ae- 
CHTHH'B, a TOBapHn^ecTBaMH — 6ojAe 47 tucahi (ootth 30^/o Bceft aevjra, 
BynjieHHofi TOBapHn^ecTBaMH). ^o TaBofi hmohho i^h4>pu h npocTHpaercji 

BOJIHqeCTBO AeCiiTHH^B SeMAH, DpÍO($plTeHHlIX'B TOBapHHieCTBaMH Wh bh- 

Aax^B nepecejienia. Oboao Vs droro BOAHHecTBa Byn^eno bi tom'b se 
y&BA^) TAt 2HJUI HOByaaTeAH, qo^th ctojibbo se — b'b ApyrHxi y^A&x^ 



>) CpexHiu K^Ha xec^THHH, synieoHoft npn nocpexcTBi Ósesa fl CMOieHCioft ry- 
6epHÍH, cocTaBiflia, wb 1887 r., 23 py6. 16 koií.; ezeroxHHfi niaiexi 3& eee npocni- 
paerca, ciixoBaTei&Ho, xo 1 py6. 75 Kon. 



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Google 



XPOHHKA. — BHyiPEHHEE OBOSrafllE. 347 

Toi se ry6epHÍH, a Bce ocTaJiBHoe (6oji4e 29 THcaqi AecjrrHH-B)— b-b- 
XpyrHX'B ryÓepHíiix^b. Bi nosynKaxi dToro po^a y^acTByDrs HHorAa, 
bmíctí Cb nepecejieni^aMH, h MtcTHue RpecTBflee; ucfuwHi4fneM>Ho js^ia 
nepecejieHÚ synieso 31.840 AecATHHi, vh tom'b ^HCjrb 31.354 — rosapH- 
i^ecTBaMH. Bcero óojisme npio6pÍTeHO seMJiH j^uí nepecejieHÍfl bi ry- 
íepHUxi opeH6yprcRo&, MorHJieBCBOfi, mhhcroě, CTaBponojiiiCBo&, xapB- 

lOBCKOfi, CaMapCBOft, XepCOHCROft U y(|»H]ICBOft. 

BoJKiHiiirB irbcToiTB noBynoB^B, coBepmaeMUxi npa nocpexcTBÍ Bpe- 
eTbflHcsaro 6aHKa, ocraDTCfl AonjiaTU. B'b nocAt^HeMi OT^ernoM^B rojy 
OTHomeme hxb b'b 6aHB0BHMrB ccyAaiťB 6uao en^e Mentě ÓJiaronpiaTHO, 
liwb npesAe. B^b 1884 r. oni cocTaBjuarjiB okojio 13Va<^/o upo^asHUZ^B 
^tB'b, BTi 1885 H 1886 r.— OKOJIO 17%, B!B 1887 r.— 6oji*e 18%. IIpH 
noiyosaxi cejucuHH otíii]^ecTBaMH AonuTU no npesHOMy Óujih ropasAo 
Mesie SHaHETenHU, ^iiui npH noBynBax'B TOBapHn^ecTBaMH h ota^jib- 
Hun JiHi^aMH. JÍ^JíH cejiBCRHX'B o6ii^ecTB'B 0H'& cocraBJíJiJiH, wb 1887 r., 
oido 12V4V0 (b-b 1886 r, — llVo), jíM TOBapniniecTB-B— óojiie 22Va<>/(> 
(kb 1887 r. — 2lVa7o), wa OTA^JiBHuxTb specTBiiHB — 6ojrbe 537o. Ho 
]iicTH0CTAM'B oTHomeHÍe j^oiuaTU Ki ÓaHBOBoft ccyA^ KOJseóajiocB BecBMa 
CHJbHo: MU cejiBCRHX'B oÓn^ecTB^B — ^Me»Ay 36 Va^/o (bi TaBpH^ecBOft ry- 
6epHÍH) H 3V2^/o (vb neH3eHCB0Ř ry6epHÍH), j^na TOBapHn^ecTBi— Mos^y 
52*/o {wb TOpHHroBCEoft ryóepHÍH) u 3^/o (b^ ry6epHÍH BopoHescBOĚ)^ 

OxBMWb H81» AOJUBHOCTHUX'B JIHI^l, HO HpHHHMaDIIliHXl y^aCTÍil B'B A^* 

TeiLBoeTH tfansa, ho hxík)ii(hx'b bosmoshoctb cjiíahtb aa oa pesyju- 
TaxaiiH, BHCRaaaffB 6£urB HOAaBHO BecBiia opnrHHajiBHuň BsrjiflA^B sa 
3Ha^eHie jsfiujtarb. Uo mhíhíh) aToro jiHi^a, ^oajiaTU, h npHTOM'B Rpyn- 
BHii, B^b pasMipdk H6 MOHie 25^/o npoAasHofi uj^bxí, aBnaiyrcA oahhm^b 
H9B jiyHiDHX'B cpe^CTBi B'B oóesneieHÍK) HcnpaBHoft ynjiaTU norameHÍfl 
H opoi^eHTOBi, noTOvy ^to sacTaBjíHDTi specTBAHi OTHOCHTBCji 6ojAe 
cepiiesHO vb npeAupHHHMaeifofi noRyosi. GoMH^Hifl wb npaBHJiBHocTH 

3T0r0 BBTJlilAa B03HHRaK)T% CaMH C060K>, B'B BH^y OTflFOTHTeJIBHOCTH 

ycjoBii, BOSJíaraeMBix^b sa RpecTBAH^B sHa^HTejiBHHMH xonjiaTaMH. Ecjih 
j(onjuiTa paacpoqeHa, to RpecTBflHaM'B npHxoAHTca, vb npoAOJiseHie 

MHOFHXX Jl^TB, B3UCRHBaTB CpOACTBa RaRl Ha BORpUTÍe fiaHROBUX^B Haa- 

Texeft, TaR'B h sa yDJiaTy cooTB'6TCTBeHHoŘ ^acTH pascpoqeHHot cyMMU, 
HHorxa — cb npoi^eHTaMH Ha Bce ocTaDn^eeca HeynjOHeHHUMi; a 8th 

npOI(eHTU AOXOAATTB, Vb H'bROTOpUX'B CAJHBMTb, ^0 6, 7, 8, 10 H AaS6 

12. Ecjih xonjaxa ne pascpo^ena (3to óunaerB ropasAo ?aii^e; b^b 
1887 r. BCix'B ;(OHJiaTB 6uao 1.663.292 pyÓM, a pascpoqeHO hsb hhx^ 
to»bo 355.584 py6., T.-e. orojo 2VIi^Iq\ to nojioaeHie RpecTBani, 
Vb 6oju»niHHCTBt cjiy^aeBi, en^e xyse, noTovy ?to AOHBrH jijlíí AonjaTU 
aaHHMaDTCH hmu Ha CToponi, na ycjioBÍaxB, cnjioniB h phaom'b, BecBMa 
T«sejiux'B. HeypoaBafi, b'b oco6eHHocTH ocah oh'b hobtophjch hícbojbro 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



348 B^CTHERTi EBPOnU. 

Jť&TB CpflAYi CJIHUIROM^E JiePKO MOa&erB AOBeCTH 06peMeHeHHUX'B TEEHMIb 

oépasoMi specTBflH^b AO noJHoS HecocTOflTe;ii>HocTH. 3aKjiK)HeHÍe, Buse- 
j^eHHoe a priori, noATBeps^aercji u 4>&ELTH?ecKiiMH ;^áHHUXH. KpynHua 
;^onjaTBi othh)ab ne HCKJiD^aiDrB HaKonaeHifl Hej^oHMosi, h Hao6o- 
poT^B, HcnpaBHUMH njiaTejiBii^HKaMH nacTO 0£a3UBaK>TCJi KpecTBflHe, hh- 
?ero HJiH no^TH HH?ero ne AonjaTHBmie Kh óaHKOBofi ccja*]^. Bi» Tofi 
caHoň ry6epHÍH, ta^ BoatíysjíeHi pasjHpaeMuft Hanu BonpocB, toBapH- 
ni;ecTBO, nojiy^HBiiiee ccy^y bi 13 Tucaqi* h npHn;iaTHBmee £*& nefi 
no^TH 12 Tueaq-B pyfijieft, ne BHecjio, rti> 1 «HBapa 1889 r., hotth no- 
jiOBHHy cjii^yDniaro cb eero nojiyroAOBoro nJiaTesa. B'b ApyrHX'B ry- 
/SepHÍJix^B ecTB cjiy^au em^e óonie nopasHTejiBHue; npn xoDJiarb wb 
32V2^/o HeAOHMsa npHÓJiHxaeTca ki nemMpe^^ nojiyroAOBUifB njiaTe- 
jKam (capaTOBCKaa ryfiepnia), npH ^ODJiarfe bi* 25% — npcMiMwem^ qe- 
Tupe nojiyro;iOBue njiaTeaca (eEaTepHHOCJiaBCRaA ryÓepHifl). H aro BOBce 
He HCKJiBDHHTejiBHUe cjiy^aH, a tojibro npuMipu, HSBJíe^eHHue h3% ^HCJia 
MHorHxi* ApyrHXi. HaoóopoTi, AonjiaTaMt Bt 2**/o, Bt l^/o, Aaxe co- 
BepmesHOMy OTcyTCTBÍfi> AonjiaTrB qacTO cooTB']^TCTByerB nojiH'&&niaA assy- 
paTHocTB DjiaTeaeft. YopasjeHie óaHBOMi nocTynaeTi, no9TOMy, bbojih']^ 
npaBHJiBHo, CTpeMacB E,i> B03H0SH0 óojiBineMy orpaanqeHiK) AonjiarB, 
npH3HaBafl npesM^pHo-BUCORVK) hxi u^míf^pY npenjiTCTBieM^ kt> yTBeps- 
jifiEifo caíjirh; ocxaeTca tojibro noaejiaxB, ^to6u STorB bsmjia^b na- 
mejii oTpaxeHÍe u b'b oóm^Hxi npaBUTOJiBCTBeHHUXii M'bpax'B. HeoÓxo- 

AUMOCTB nOBUCUTB, BX HtR0T0pi>IX'B H^CTHOCTflXl, HOpMaJIBHUfl OI^i^HSH, a 

cj[']^A0BaT6JibH0 M MaRCHHajiBHfaifi pasM^pi ccyA'B, 6ujia coseana ynpasjíe- 
HieM^B 6aHRa em^e B'B 1885 r. OcymecTBJíeHi© 3Toro npcAnoJioaeHifl noMt- 
niaji'B, BtpoflTHo, cejiBCRO-xoBHficTBeHHBift Rpusucx; HO TenepB, Ror^a 
owhy ooBHAMMOny, npoxojUHrB, cjiijí^oBSiJio 6hi onHTB nocTaBHTB Ha o^e- 
poAB BonpocB, Bi Bucmefi cxenenH BaacHUň js^jia RpecTBflHrB, nojiBsyD- 
ni^HXCA noMOiUBK) óaHRa. dacjiysHBaeri noApasmniji xaEse totb coo- 
coÓ^B yMeHBmeHiA ^ODJiaTi, Roropuft dphhat^b jujia i](apcTBa noiiBCsaro, 
npn BRjiK)?eHÍH ero b'b Rpyri* ^'bficTBiň RpecTBAHCRaro ÓaHRa. Kpoir]^ 
75% OAiHoqHoft cyMMH, BUAaBaeHofi hb^b cpoactb-b 6aHRa, noRynaTejiB 
HM^erB 8A'bcB npaBO Ha nojiyqeHie e^e 15^/o hsi RanHTajia „Ha o6ni^e- 
CTBeHHUH Ha^oÓHocTH'' i^apcTBR. TaRoft RaDHTajTB MorB 6u 6uTb oópa- 
30BaH'B H jí,jiA pjccRHX^B FyÓepHÍft, a Ha nonojiH6Hie ero vorjia 6u 6utb 
o6pan^aeMa^ RaRi u bi iiapcTB'k nojiBCROM'B, ^acTb npHÓujieft 6aHRa. 

KpecTBJiHCRiŘ 6aHR'B — OAHO HB^B yqpesABHifi, HaH6oJi'6e HenaBHCTHUxib 
HamHMi peaRi^ionepam. H ao npHdUBa ero Kb shshh, h bi nepaHe 
roAU ero A'i^TeJiBH0CTH, OMy npHmjiocB BUAep»aTB i^^yi) Maccy o6bh- 
HeniS, HOAoapiHiĚ^ HapeRanift. B'b nocjiiAHee BpeHA 6ypA H'bcROJiBso 
saTHXJia, HO 9T0 enie ne sna^HT^B, ^toóbi hsmíhhjihcb ^yBCTBa, Bny- 
inaeMUfl óaHRoifB; ne ^apoMi* se ohi npHnaAJiesHrB r'b HHCJiy co- 



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XPOHHKA. — BHyTPEHHEE OBOSPiHIE. 34& 

3iaeift „AHKTaTypH cepMa" M... í^oKasaiejiBCTBOMx TOMy, ^to crapaA 
spazj^a ne ocjaó-ijia, cjiysHrL, MesAy npoHHMi, otsbib^b o specTBAH- 

CKOITB 6ííMK% nOMtn^eHHUfi Vb QAHOft H3'B CaMUXl THauqHUX'B KHHrx 

lameft anoxE— bx „Ck)BpeMeHHot Poccíh" '). „Hejn^sA — ^HTaeMi mu 
sj^icb — DopaxoBaTBCJi yqpesAeHÍD KpecTBAHCRaro óanna. Kpoui em^e 
óíuiLniaro pacmiipeHiH XHn^HHqecRaro xosAtcTBa, ohi Bpe^en^ bi toitb 
OTHomeHÍH, HTO coa^aeTB Ha KaseeHUfl a^hbiu hsi KyjiaROBx h HÍpo- 
iiovh KaRÍA*TO npHBHJierHpoBaHHUfl KpyroBBUi TOBapnimecTBa, CBoera 
poxa KpecTBJíHCRyE) apHCTOBpaTÍK). B% HacTOJiii^eui cBoeMi Buji^b rjiaB- 
lyD noJiBBy on specTBAHCsaro tíansa HSBJíeKaDTi uoirbn^HKH, cny- 
CTHBBiie RpecTBflHaifB no o^eHB BUCOROŘ Jí,iui, npH nocpeACTB-b npaBH- 
TeneTBa, HeHyacHUJi hmi ^eum*^. G% nepBaro Bdr^n^a uom&rb noBa- 
saTBCJi, "íto 9TH appyMeHTU He saHHCTBOBaHU H3'B oéu^Haro peasi^ioH- 
Haro apcenajia; ohh nanpaBJíeHU, jt&nt Óy^TO 6u, ee npoTHBi yBejH- 
^eHÚi KpecTLAHCKaro 3eHjieBjiaAÍHLi, a npoTHB'B otíoran^eHiji, ea Basee- 
HHt merhj nontn^HKOBrb, ByjiaBOBi h MipcrfaAOBi. He xpy^HO 3aMÍTHTL^ 
OAHaKo, HTo „yvucejii Jipyroft TyT'L óujii'. KpHTHsa aBTopa KacaeTca 
TOiBBO cnoco6a j(Mctbí& Óanaa; ÓAHHCTBeHHHifb JiorH^ecBHMi bubo^oitb 
H3i Hea 6ujio 6u ysasaHÍe ^acTHHX'B nepeiftH^b, BOTopuA sejiaTeiBHo 
npoH3BecTH Wh itpuMihneniu 6aHROBaro ycTaBa— a Mes^y tími asTops 
npHSHaeTi neBosMOSHUMi „paAOBaTBCfl" ynpeoicdeHvio ÓaHsa, T.-e. bu- 
csarasaerca npoTHBi cavaro cymecmeoeoms ero. O TeHAeHi^io3HOH'B xa- 
pasTep^ HanaxeHiji CBHA^TejiBCTByerB, spoirb Toro, nojiH'&flmaji ero (Sea- 
AepeMOHHocTL. ToBopfl o „npHBHJierHpoBaHHUX'B^ (?) TOBapHiii;ecTBax'B, 
asTopi ne ynoMHHaerB hh oj^HHifb cjioboiix o ceji[BCKHX'B o^n^ecxBaxi, 
TarB niHpoRO nojiB3yK)n^HXCii noAAepsRofi ÓaHxa. Hh cjiOBa ne cRasano 
H o TOBapHn^ecTBax'B oepecejieHqecRHxab, xoth b'b ApyroMi míctí aBTop^ 
cain npHSHaerB bck) BasHocTB RpecTBHHCRHxi nepecejieHiS. Ha HeM'B 
ocioBaHO, HaROHei^rb, npe^nojioseHie asTopa, ?to wh cocTaBi TOBapn- 
n^ecTBi, noBynaBOii^HXi somjik) opn nocpeACTBt 6aHRa, bxoahttb hcrjih)- 
HiTejn»H0 HJiH 6ĎJiBnieH) ^acT&H) .RyjiaRH** h gM]po']kAU*', bcjiíactbío 
Herc TOBapHni;ecRÍH noRynRH se^yTi R'b o6pa30BaHÍK) „RpecTLHHCRoft 
apHCTORpaTÍH"? Gi ropasAo fiÓJoiBniHMx npaBoiTB mosho BUCTaBHXB npjiMo 
npoTHBOHOJiosHHfi TesHCB. OT^eTB sa 1887 r., RaRi h bcí npeAu^y- 
nqe, y^ocTOBi^pnerB, ^to noMomB RpecTb^HCRaro 6aHRa Buna^aerB npe- 
HvymecTBeHHo na aojiid RpecTBHHi, He^ocTaTo^Ho naA^JieHHUxx seifjieE). 
H31 ^HCJia 107.674 AyBii*, RynHBoiHX^B 3eMJiH), 6e33eMejiBHUxi h hmíb- 
niHX'B AO HORynRH ne 6oj^ 1V2 a^chthhu Ha Ajniy, 6ujio 35.770; y 



^) IIoioseHie o specTBancROMi 6aHEÍ yrBepzxeHo yze no MHHOBamH „AHRiaTypu 
cepxiQi*', HO HecoMaiHHo oÓAsaHO efi cbohki cymecTBOBaHÍeMi, noTOMy hto HMeeHo oea 
oiuRB BHABHHyja Ha nepBH& niaHi yjiy^meHÍe KpeciBJíHCKaro Óiira. 

*) Cm. HBse, iHTepaTypHoe OÓoaptnie. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



350 h^CTEBKh EBPOnU. 

46.024 6hjo otb 1 Va AO 3 ;^ecaTHH'B, h tojieko y 25.880— óoate 3 A©ca- 
THHi>. EcjiH npntíaBHTB K'B nepBot saTeropÍH h rtu specTBAHi, ko- 
Topue BJihjifyiE IV2 — 3 AecjiTHHaMH Bi hí^cthoctjixi CTennux^B h jAc- 
Huxi, TO OHE yBejiHHHTCA ci 33^0 Ao 54^/0. Gtohmoctb aeiUH, npiofi- 
piTeHHoň noRyno^HBaME nepBoft h Bropot saTeropift, cocTasjuierb 7Vs 
HHjrjiioHOB'B py6j[ei; ctohmoctb seiuiH, npio<!pdkTeHHoft noKynnunum 
TpeTbeň xaTeropÍH — TOJibRo IV2 MHJUiíoHa, npH^ieirb AoniaTU nocjr&A- 
HHX^E óujiH, oTHocHTejibHO, ropasAO Bume. Bce sto ycTpaHiieTB Bcasyi) 
BO8MOSHOCTB yTBepsAftTB, TTO specTBflHCKift 6aHKi cjiyaHTi HHTepecairb 
syjiaBOBfb H MípoixoB^b. YopaB^ieHie óaHROirb ne pasptmaerB TasHXi 
cji('&jiOK'B, B'B ocHOfiaHÍH ROTopiixi jiBHo jcesHTb HB Hys^a, a npHXOTb 
noKynii^HBOB'B. TaRi Hanpnirbpi, b^b 1887 r: oTRasano B'B yTEepi^AemH 
deadnamu-deyxh caíjeori, ne rotophm'b HHoroseiieiBe h sasHTo^HOCTB 
noRynuiiHROBi noBBOJuarjiH oóoěthcb Óesx coA^ftCTBÍfl Óanaa; ho yrBeps- 
AeHu TaRse Tpn caíjirh, no ROTopBnťB noRyuRa ORaaiiBajiacB npesu- 
Diax)iii;eK) pa6o(iia chjhi noRyno^HROBi, h mecTB ca^jori, no RoropuMi 
noRynmiHROM^B dna^njiocB TOBapnn^ecTBO, ho na caifOM^B aI^jA noRynxa 
npeAnpHHHvajiacB bi HHrepecax^B HeMHoriix'B ota'í^bhiix'b jan,'h. AP7* 

rHMH CJIOBaHH, OAHO HSl yCJIOBÍft pa8pdkm6HÍiI CAtjlRH--dTO BOdMOaSHOCTB 

oÓpaÓoraTB noRynaeiiyi) aev jk), Buierb Ch* naA^&JiBHOft, jra^nHiCB Tpy- 
j^oxx noRynu^HRa h ero ceuBH... npoTHB'B cM^Jioft xoraxRH aBTopa „Co- 
BpeMeHHoft Poccíh*' tobophtb en^e J^pyroe, ne Menie Basnoe o6:^tojí- 
TBJíBCTBo. Ecjih6u jiHi^a, cocTaBjiflK)n^ÍJi TOBapHni;ecTBO ajka noRynRH 
deMJiH npH nocpeACTBt RpecxBflHCRaro ÓanRa, 6iuh» óojiBmeK) hectbi), 
nacTOxn^ie hjh 6yji;ynxie RyjiaRH h xipoixu, to hxi 6hjio 6u neMHoro, 
TOBapHu^ecTBa 6ujle 6u xajio^HCJieHHii. ^jia BCflRaro RyjiaRa h MÍpol^a 
nyacHa no^Ba, ROTopyD ohx mopb 6u dRcnjyaTnpoBaTB; CRonHBnriecfl na 
HeÓojiBmoifB npocTpancTBt, ohh napajmsHpoBajiH 6u Apyr^B xpyra, no- 
JCOÓHO Tony, RaRi H6 HoryTib xopomo pocTH A^peBBH, nocaseHHHfl cjiHm- 

ROMTB ÓJEHSRO O^HO OTB ApyrOPO. ?T0 SO MU BHAHM'B Ha CaVOlfB JifkJFb'i 

Bi> 519 TOBapHni;ecTBax'B, nojiy?HBniHX'B ccy^u, yqacTBOBajo 13.275 j^omo- 
xo8HeB'B, coMeficTBa ROTopux^B cocTOAJiH HBi 41.850 Afni'B. Ha RasAoe 

TOBapHU^eCTBO npHXOAHTCJi, CpeAHHMl ^HCJ[0M'B, OROJIO 25 AOMOXOBHeBl 

H OROJIO 80 ^lymi. Mosho jih, bi BH^y Bcero 9Toro, yTBep»AaTB bona 
fíde, ?T0 TOBapHn^ecTBa — ctojib qacTO, npHTOMrB, oÓpasyDu^iaca cb n;'bJU^D 
nepeceieHÍJi, — cjiysaTii pascaAHHRoifB „RyiaROB'B^ u „MÍpoÍAOB'B*'? 

EÓJiBmaH qacTB boiijih, RynjienHofi, bt* 1887 r., npn coaMctbíh 
6aHRa, npHHa^Jiesajia, RaRi h npe»A6, ABop^HaMi h iHHOBHHRairB 
(cjiHniROMi 167 THcaTO AecaTHH-B, fioJiie 76®/o); ne MajioBOMJiH npio(5- 
ptTOHO TaRse H y Ryni^OB-B h Mini^aHi (hoith 31 Tucaqa AecflTUffB, 
6oji4e 14® /o). 0ti OBpeeBi RyoJieHo 1.976 AecaxHHTb, oti HHOCTpaHAeBi 

H HtMI^eBl-ROJIOHHCTOB-B OROJIO 4.000 fl^eCATEWb. HaHMOH^e CHMnaTHÍ- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHRA. — BHyTPEHHEE OBOdi^HIE. 351 

miMH npej^CTaBJíflHyraaí noRynsH 7 specTBflHV, oet BJieKjTh sa coÓod 
TOJiBKO nepexoA'B seMjiH ot% oahhx'^ deunej^ijihnfiBrb k'b ^pyrHiťBy co- 
BepmeHHo 6e3pa3JiHqHU& cb rocy^^apcTBeasofi to^sh sptaifl. K'b c^acTÍH), 
TasHx^b noBj^oKi HeMHoro; owk oÚEjmoJOTb co6ok> Menie 5*/o Bcefi som jih, 
opioÓptTeHHoň CB noMon^Bi) 6aHKa. ynpaBJíeHÍe óansoiCB uocTjnaerB 
coeepmeHHo npaBHJiBHo, He yxBepsAa^ TaBHX'B CAtjioB'B, no KOTopuM^B 
npoxaai^ii-BpeeTBAHe or^ys^aDrB cbok Ha^^Jiii hjih nocjAj^Et>v> cboh) 
aeMaiBEyi) coÓCTBeHHOCTB. Ha droifB ocHOBaHÍH OTBasaHo, wb 1887 r., 
n yTBepsAeHÍH jífiBaTH caíjhobi. IIpesHie BjiaAiJiBitu seMejiB, npo- 
jtaHHUxi npH coAÍficTBÍH 6aHKa, caMH bcjih xos^ftcTBo Ha 92.000 jlb- 
anmh (42^/o); ocTajiBHUJi 127 Tuca^i A^CHTHHrB c^asajiHCB bi apen^y* 
Hs^ HHCjia 167 TUCJim> AecHTHH^B, npoAaHHUXi ABopanaMH h ^rhob- 

HHKaVH, TOJIBBO 50 TUCA^l AOCATHHl HaXOAHJIOCB B^B pyKaX'B JHI^^B, 

SHBiaHX'B na m^ctI; BJiaA^JiBi^u ocTaj[BHiiX'B 117 tuchtb ^QcaTuwb 
npHHaAJiesajiH ki» paspjiAy aÓceHTencTOBi. IIojiOBHHa upo^asHoň aeifjiH 
ÓHia sajiosena; Ha ynjiaTy ;(OJiroB'B npesHHX'B BJ[aA'&JiBi(eB'B nonuio 
Sortě oAHofi Tperu cyiiifi, BupyqeHHuxi otb npoAasu. Bet dTH xaH- 

HIU, BMtcrt B3HTUA, yCTpaHflDTB B03M0SH0CTB CaHTHMeHTaJIBHBIX^B CO- 

xajr&HÍfi Q&h yóujiH ABopaHCsaro semieBJíaAtHifl, coBepmaDiii^eftcfl npn 
eoAÍt<?rBÍH specTBiiHCRaro fiaHsa. BecBMa jiR)($onuTHO 6ujio 6u onpe- 
XksAThj Bi» RasoMi OTHomeHÍH npoAasHHii i^tHu 3eMjiH, KynjreHHOt 
c% HOMon^BE) óaHsa, HaxoAflTCH Ki cpeAHHMi npoAaxHUifx x^tnairB a^h- 
Hofl HtcTHocTH, Bx ji(aHHoe BpcMfl; HO ecjiHÓu H osasajiocB, HTO nep- 
BEEfl Bume Hocjrb^HHX^B, TO 0TCK)Aa HejuBSJi en^e 6ujio 6u saEJiD^HTB, 
9T0 A^HTejiBHocTB RpecTBflHCRa PO 6aHKa BO^eri jťb o6oťaa^eHÍK) noMt- 
n^HsoBi Ha c^ieiTB KpecTBJiH'B HJIH rocy^apcTBa. Heo6xoAHHO homhhtb, 
TTO AJH noaynaTejieft-KpecTBflHi i^^heoctb somjih qacTo yBejiHHHBaercji 

OCOÓUMH yCJIOBÍJiMH, Hanp. CMeSHOCTBK) SeMJIH CB HaAtjlOMl H npHTtcHe- 

HÚMH cociAa. BfiiroAHoň ?,Jia, KpecTBHHi noKynsa MoserB 6iitb, no- 
sToiiy, H TorAa, sor^a ona 6ujia 611I Heeuro^Ha ^Jia scHKaro Apyroro, 
a Kasyn^eecA oóoran^enie noMtn^HRa HBJuercA nnor^a ne n^wb hhumi, 
lasB BanHTajiHsaiiiefl Aoxo^a, KOToput ohi h npesAe yMtjii HSBJíe- 

SaTB He CTOJIBSO HSl SeMJIH, CROJIBBO HBl BA nOJEOSeHÍiSÍ. 

Mu noAXOAHHi TenepB r% o^HOMy hss caMUXB Ba»Hux'B BonpocoBi, 
B086ysAaeiiux'B ^tiiTejiBHocTBiD BpecTBHHCRaro 6aHRa: r^b Bonpocy 06% 
HcnpaBHocTH njsaTejiBii^HROB'B. 3airb^aTejiBHo-6e3yRopH3HeHHaji bi nep- 
Biie roAU cyn^ecTBOBamn ÓaHRa, ona b^b nocjitAHee BpeMa hícrojibro 
noROJieéajiaeb. K^b 1 JiHBapfl 1887 r. niaTesefi, oepemeAniHXi npeA^Jiu 
iBroTHaro cpoRa, ocTaBajiocB 226 tbichhi pyójieí; bi Teqenie ro^a dxa 
cymia yBejiHHHJiacB eni;e na 859 tuch^'b; nocTynHJio bx ynjiaTy 403 tu- 
ea^H, paacpo^eBO h OTcpo^eHO orojio 158 TU&aqi; cnHcano Ha cnerB 
niareset, noAJieauini^uxi r^b HOCTynjieHiK) ci seiiejiBHuxi y^acTROBi, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



352 whCTEíosrh ebpoiiu. 

ocTaBDíHxcfl satíaHROMi, I68V2 Tuciiqi*; ocTajiocB £*& 1 AHsapA 1888 r. 
355 Tucflqi pyfijieft. KoHe?HO, dXH i^H(f)pu ne ocódenao yxtmHTejiLHu; 
HO Heo6xoAHMo HM^Tb Bi BHAJ, BonepBux^, oTHomeHÍe Hxi KT» o6aieĚ 
AH((>P'b njuiTeseŘ, nocTjnMBniHxi b% 1887 r. (2.354 tuca^h py6jiei, 

B'B TOlTb HHCJli 651 TUCfl^a M,0 CpOBa, 277 TUCJlTb — B'B CaMUň MfiBh 

cpoRa, 244 Tucfliu — bi nepBHe AecaTB AQeft nocjrb cpoBa); Bo-BTopiixi 
— coBOKynHOCTb THsejiuxi jcjiOBÍft, nepeacHTUxi, bo MHorHX'L irbcTHo- 

CTAX'B, CeJIBCBHirB XO&flftCTBOM'B. B^B H'bKOTOpi>IX'E ryfiepHÍflx^b — H npH- 
TOM'B TBKHXl, TJS,Í A^JTreJBEOCTB ÓBEKa AOCTEFia BeCBMa BIBpOBHXl 

pa8M^poB'B — npocpo^eHHUxx njiaTeseŘ ohobb iiaJio (b^b sieBCKofi ry- 
6epHÍH — cb HeÓojiBinHux batb Tuc^qi, bi MorHJieBCBoft — Mesie ^eru- 
pexi THcaqab, Bil CMOJieHCBoŘ— OKOJO 7Vs TUCfl^'B py6ji6&); Bcero óojiBme 
HX!B B'B rytfepHÍAXi cTeoHux^ H norpaHH^HUXi cb CTenauMH, cjubho 
nocTpaAaBinHX'B b^b nocjiiAHÍe ro^u ot'b seyposaeBi (eBaTepHHociaB- 
CKaa ry6epHW — 216 thcbi^, noJiTaBCiMui — 121 tucato, Bypcsafl — 112 
TUCA^'B, xapBKOBCsaA — 87 Tucfl^B). Koe-rA'6, b'b BH^y HCTe?eHÍJi bcítb 
jibroTHUX'B cpoBOBB, 6aHEy npHEiJiocB npEfitrsyTB kt> EasEaneEli) ny6- 
jiH^Eoft npoAasE. PesyjiBTaTU aroi Mipu se MoryTi 6utb HasBasii 
yAa^EUME. Jlfi sa^ajia EUEtmEaro roAa noxBeprEyru Óujie npoAast 
CB nyÓJEHiflaro Topra 94 3eMejiBHHX'B yqacTsa, b'b pasMi^pt xo 54 tu- 

CEHl AeCATEE'B, Ea KOTOpiIX'B KO BpeMeEH TOpra qECJUJOCB BaEHTaJilB- 

Earo AOJira 3.174 thcahe e ebaobhoki 492 ihtamis. pyÓJieft. Coctoh- 
lacB nyÓJiEqHaE spo^asa tojibbo no TpeiťB y^acTBairB, npocTpaECTBOiTB 
B'B 187 AecETEE^; sarbMi npoAaEo no BOJiBEoft i^íeš en^e 6.265 xdCE- 
TEB^B. ^eBETEa^i^aTB yqacTROB'B, B^ padEtpdk Bcero 8.050 ffiCHTEWb, 
B03Bpan^eHU, nocji'b HecocToaBEiEXCA ToproBi, npesHEMi BJIaAtJlB^alEl, 
yajiaTBBQiEX'B Bct ^HCJiEBmiflCE Ea EEX'B EeAOEMBE. Ha pyBax'B 6asBa 
ocTaoTCfl saHMi eo^th 40 tbica^i aocateei. Tasoe EOJiosesie Aks^, 
ROEeqEO, se MoserB 6utb npE3saE0 EopMajibEiiirB; ebo^xo^emo npi- 
HCKaTB cnocotíu zi> ero ycxpaseHÍK). Mu cjoLumajiE, qio a^sl aoctesohíb 
dToft iitjifl npo6ETHpyK)TCA M'&pu ^BOBsaro po^a: oj^st — EanpaBJíeEHUB 
Ki óoJiBnieŘ ycntmEOCTE uj6jiimE\iX'b npoAas'B, ApyrÍH — em^dei^íe vb 
BHAy ^ojr^^e EcnpaBEoe nocTynjeEÍe cpoqsux'B EJiaxeseft IIo A^icTByD- 
n^EiCB Tonepb EpaBEJiaMi, npoAasa yqacTsa sa AOJirB BpecTBJSBCEOMy 

ÓaSKy npOfl3BOAETCE B^b BOJIOCTEOMX npaBJíeEÍE TOfi BOJlOCTfl, Vflíb Ha- 

XOAETCA npo^aBaeMufi yqacxoBi. y^acTOEi EaaEaqaercE b^b npo^asy 
Bb no;isoM'b ero cocTaB'k; ajia sejiaroiuEXi ToproBaTbCE o^EsaxeJibEO 
Dpe^cTaBJíeEie sa^aTBa, bi pa3MÍp'k qHCJifln^eflcfl Ea AOJisEEBaxb He- 
AOHMKE, ch DpECoeAEHeEÍeH-b pacxoAOB'b 6aEBa sa cnerb aojijbhbsobi 
H oAEoň AecEToft nacTE BaaETajibEO& ccyAU, 0CTaK)n]^eftcE Eeyojioqefl- 
BOK) KO AHH) Topra. GyMMa, sa soTopyio opio6pÍTeE'b yqacTOR^b, ^oJisEa 
6uTb BEecesa bch cnoJiHa eo uo3se RaKi B'b TeqeEÍe xicEi^a co ahe 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHRA. — BHyiPfiHHEE OBOSP^HIE. 353 

Topra. Bcit 9th nocraHOBJíeHia osasajiuck, na npaBTHKt, Hey^o^HUME 
H 3aTpyAHflK)ii^HMH ycotoiHuň peayjibTarB ny6jiii«iHoň opo^asH. UpoHS- 
BOACTBO ToproBT* opeADOJiaraeTCA HasHaiaTB. cMOTpa no oócToarejiB- 
CTBuirb, jiHÓo ffb noMin^eHÍH yba^Hofi seMCRoň ynpaBU fijmsKaftmaro ro- 
pojia, jih6o Bi BOJiocTHOM^ npaBjíeHiii oahoA h3'b ÓJiMxaňniMX^ bojo- 
creĚ. On» M^THaro orjifbjíema. ósleksl - j^ojis&eo saBHctTB HasHaqeHÍe 
y^acTBa bi apoi^asy i^tjuiKOirB hjih no ^acTAMi. Oři* »ej[aK)ni.HX'B Top- 
roBaTbCA npe^noJiaraeTCJi TpeóoBdTb wb Bujifb saAaTRa tojibko o^ny ^e*- 
cjiryK) ^acTB cyMMU, eocTOfln^eft hs^ HeAOHMBH, pacxoAOBi Óansa h ne- 
jrnjioqeHHoň KanHTajiLHoA ccy^u- A^^ jojiamu ocxajiLHofi noBynnož cynMU 
npeADOjmraeTCfl AonycTHTB paacpoMsy, na Bpeirji otb Tpexii uicaií<&B% 
\o AByxi jAtl. IlpHagaBafl i^-bjíecootípaaHocTL bc'J^x'b dTHX'B npeAnojio- 
senift, MU AyifaeM^b, qro mosho óbijio óu boíth en^e Aa^BUie h Tpe- 
6oBaTb npe^CTaBJíeHitf 3aAaTK0B'b ne otb bcj^xi TopryioniHXCA, a tojibbo 
oTb npoAJiosHBmaro BucmyK) i^'bHy, cb t^mi, hto6u neBBHocB, no nep- 
BOHy Tpe6oBaHÍK), 3aAaTo«iHux'B j^enePB jíwkjn* nociixcTBieMi HeMOA* 
Jieenoe bo3o6h )BjieHÍe Topra, h (iBepxi TOfo BSucBaHie niTpa(i)a, saB^B 
9T0 onpeA'i^eHo otfn^M'B ycTaBOMx rpas^aHcsaro cyAonpoHSBOACTBa. 
UpoAasy 3a AOJir'B RpecTB^HCROMy 6aHRy Heaa^iiMi*, RaRB naMB Raserca, 
oÓcraBJíJiTB 6ojAe crbcHHTejibHiiiifH ycjioBijiiíH, q-bMB Bcazyio Apyryio. 

RaR'B HH Basna ycn'bniHOCTB ToproBB, emfi Basnie, desx comh^hía 
Bce HaopaBJíeHHoe ri bx^b npeAynpesAeniK), T.-e. rb HcnpaBHOMy no-' 
cTynieniiD cpoqHux'B BJiaxeseft. ^o chx;. Hop'B ynpaBJíenie óanROMB 
oTHoeHJocB RB ujiaTejiBu^HRaMB naccHBHo; OHO BusHAajio cpoRa nyÓjiHq- 
Hoi opoxasH, ne npHHHMaa HHRaRHXB ;(pyrHXB MipB rb eaucKaniio 
npocpoHeHHiiiXB njiaTe»efr. Dpu^inna TaRoro o6pa3a A^ftcTBÍň saRjuoHa- 
iacB BB nenoJiHOTi hjeh hoachocth saRona. Tojibro HOAaBHo, bb npa- 
BHJuiXB 30-ro Maji 1888 r., ycTanoBJíenB nop^AOR^B BSUCRani^ ho^oh- 
NORB CB omdtbAhHuxh HMH06^ noseMOJiBHHXi TOBapHni,ecTBi, no onpe- 
ííkxeBm TOBapHn^ecRaro cxo^^a; cjiy^aft HeHcnpaBHocTH ecew TOBapn- 
niecTBa hjih óoAfbtuuHcmea TOBapnn^ež npaBHJiaiíH ho npe;i;ycMOTpj;H%. 

OrCD^a Heo6X0AHM0CTB HOBOÍ 3aR0H0AaTeJ[BH0& M'bpu, O ROTOpoft, RaRB 

ni ciuBiajiH, H xowTaftcTBveTB RpecTBflHCRÍA 6aHRB. ITpeAnoiiaraeTCJi 
jeraHOBHTB, ^to njaTesH no ĎaHsoBHirB ccy^an^ B8HCRHBaK)T«fl cb 

RpeCTBAHCSHXnb 06n^eCTBB T^MB Se nOpJIAROMB, RaRHb H MÍpCRÍa UOBHH- 

ROCTi; ci TOBapHn^ecTBB — cnocoóaMH, yRaBanHUvn bb npaBHJiaxB 
^ro Man 1888 r. (eeRBecxpai^ifl ^oxo^^a, npo^asa abhshmocth h 
cn^oeniA); cb 0Tj('6jiBHHxrB RpecTB^HB — no pacnopAseniiD o6u^ecTBeHHuxB 

ipeCtBABCBHXrB BJUCTeA. npH HeycnimHOMB BSUCRaHÍH HeAOHMORB Rpe- 

eTbflHCRHM^ HanajiBCTBOMB, ooHysA^Hie nocjiiAHflro h caMoe BSucRaníe 

HeXOHMORB SaRB CB CeJIBCRHX'B OÓmOCTBB, TaRB H CB TOBapHO^eCTBB H 

OTi:]^jn»Hux'B RpecTBiiHi, xoJiSHO npoHSBOAHTBCA, no Tpe(SoBaHÍ]D Rpe- 

Tw» m.— MAft, 1889. 28 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



3t)4 B^CTHHKl) EBPOim. 

CTbflHCEaro 6aHRa» nojiHi;iefi, npHMtHHTejiBHo Kb npaBHJiaM'B, ycTasoB- 

JiennUWb Jí^JíH B3HCBaHÍA Ra8eHHUX'B, 8eiICKHX'B H MÍpCKHXl noBHHHocrei. 

3a Tasoň cnocofii Bsucsanifl CToarb Hanóojiie pascyAHTejibHue Hs^b 
HHCJRt caiíHX'B 3aeMii];HE0B'B. BpeAHUA nocji'bACTBÍa npocpoHKH ynaAADTb 
Ha BC^xx, HO HcnpaBHoe MeHbniHHCTBo 6e8CHj[bHo apoTHB'B HeHcnpaB- 
Haro ÓojbíHHHCTBa. B^b opoMesyrosi BpeMeHH Me»Ay. npocpoqsofi h 
HasHaHeHieifB npo^asH sojiH^ecTBO HeAOHMOft'B, npH otcjtctbíh bca- 

KHXl TĚ^pb BdUCRaHia, DOCTOAHHO BOSpaCTaOTl, a I^ibHHOCTb SeiUH 

BecBMa ^acTo yneHBinaeTCA, BCjii^CTBie BupyÓRH Jiica, npojMusH do- 
CTpooRi H T. n.; yposatt cofiapaeTca, a uodbwb ne npoHSBOAHTca. Do- 
HHTHo, TTO BCB STO jífi RpatHocTH Barpy^HAeTO ycH-bniHocTb npoAaacH. 
TaBi saBi nepBue njiaTesH no ccyAaM'b RpecTbflHCEaro 6aHRa noA^e- 
saTb BBHOcy no ucmeHemu noJiyroAia (sa nepBoe noJiyroAie ohh BUtfH- 
TaK)Tca HB'B ccyAH, npH canofi ea BU^a^)) a 3aT^M'B ajia npoAaaKu 
BOMiiH BUSHAaerca en^e oaho nojiyroAie, to HeAo6pocoBÍCTHufi aaeif- 
n^Ri JierRo mos6tb BocnoibdOBaTBCA toaobumi yposaeiťb cb RynjieH- 
Hofi 36MJIH, ne ynjiaTHBnb HHiero, h aaT^ifb npejiocTaBMTb seMjiD bb 
pacnopasenie 6aHRa. Bub&ih, roBopairb, Aase cjiyqaH CTopoHHaro noA* 
roBopa Vb noAOÓHOfi onepai^ÍH, xesAy npo^HM^ co CToponu npoAaB- 
f^OBi, cn'bniHBniHX'B c6utb cbok) somjik). IIomhmo Bcero aroro, npHHyAH- 
TOJiBHaa npoAasa pasopHTejiBHa ajui RpecTBjíHB, qacTo ocTaBjíafl hxi 
wb noJioseniH xyAineiťB ^!íwb to, B'b .ROTopoiťB ohh Óujih ao noRynRH; 
OHa Rpaflne HesuroAHa a^^ RpecTBancRaro 6aHRa hjih, Jiyqme CRasaTb, 
AJia rocyAapcTBa, o6e3neqHBaK)niaro cbohmh cpeACTBaiiH HcnpaBHOCTb 
ynjlaTU npoi^eHTOBi no BunycRaeMUMi ĎanROMi cBHAtTejucTBaMi. Bch- 
Ran npHHyAHxejEbHaji npoAaata conpaseHa cb phcroitb noTopb— a npo- 
Aasa seMOJiB, RyujieHHUXi npn coAtficTBÍH RpecTB^HCRaro 6aHRa, eoie 
6ojAe pHCROBana, q^M^ BoiR&a Apyraa, noroMy hto sth seniCH qacTo 
isiAvyn HacTOflH^yiD i^íhhoctb toibro a^a RynHBuiHXi hx'b RpecTbaH'B. 
Bci dTH coo6pa»eHÍH RasyTca HaMii BnojiH'b yó^AHTejiBHUiiH. KoneqHo, 
BBUCRaHÍe nOJEHI^ettCRHMH MtpaMH C0npH2ReH0 CB BecBMa cepBesHUMH 
HeyAo6cTBaMH — ho OTcuAa eni,e ne cjitAyerB, qTo6H c<t>epa aMctbíí 
BToro BSUcRaHÍA HO HOAJiosaia AaJibHMmeiiy pacmHpeHÍK); HeooxoAinfo 
TOJiBRo HBirbHHTB R'B JiyqmeMy cairaň hophaorb BSUCRaniH. ILiaTexH 
RpecTBHHCROMy 6aHRy HMibDTi 6ojiBmoe cxoactbo cb BURyoHHiiH njia- 
TesaMH. H rb, H Apyrie BUTORaioTi h8'b 3a6oTjiHBocTH rocyAapcTaa 06% 
odesneqeHÍH rpoctbhhi noBeMejiBHOK) cotícTBenHOCTBio; h rb, h Apyne 
HAyTTB Ha noRpuTie oónsaTejOiCTBi, npHHHTux'B Ha ce6a rocyAapcTBOJii 
vb HHTepecax'B soMJieAtJiBqecRaro HacanemH. Ecjih BURynHBie ojutTeiSH 

BSUCRHBaiOTCfl HapaBHt Cl RaSeHHUMH, aeiICRHMH H MÍpCRHMH HOBHHHO- 

CTaHH, to TaRoĚ se cdocoÓb BsucRanifl AOJtseni 6utb, ho Bcefi cnpa- 
boajihbocth, ycTaHOBJíeHB h jim njuiTesett RpecrbaHCROMy 6aHRy. 3jio- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



'-T^ 



XPOHHRA. — BHyrPEHHBE 0B03MHIR. 355 

rnoTpe5jieHÍ;i bosmoshu 3X%cb hb MeHbme, ho h He 6ojibine, ^iu% wh 
xpyrHXi, oAHopoAHHX'B cjiy^ajsxi; qpothb'^ hhxii aojishu óuih npH- 
Bsnu oÓH^iii uifhis H3i KOTopuxi caMOD cyu^ecTBeHHOK) 6ujia 6u nepe- 
jia^a ÓescnopHiiix^ aAMHHHCTpaTHSHUx^ B3UCRaHÍft h3i» pysi nojiHi^iH 

Bl stA^HÍe 0C06UXI c6opiI^HKOBl, CB060AHUX'B OTO nojiHn,eftc&MXi Tpa- 
j^Hi^ifi M npHBHqeK'B. CaMH C060K) npeBpaTHjiHCB 6U Tor^a h B03MyTH- 
TeiBHua ABjeHÍH, hsbícthhji noA'BxapaKTepiiCTHHecRHM% HMeHenii^BU- 

dBaHin Hej^OHMOEl^ . 

OTjiHqHTejn>Hyi) qepry specTBAHCsaro tfaHRa cocTaBJíflJui cb caMaro 
Haqajui h npoAOJisaeT'B cocraBJíATB ao chxx nopi 0T3UBqHB0CTB ^a 

Tpe()0BaHÍ^ 1KH3HH. 1l0JI0SeHÍe o KpeCTBAHCBOM'B ÓBMVA A^CTByeTIb 

ToxbKo mecTB ji'b'rB-~Ho 3a aro sopoTKoe BpeMa coctoaica yse, 6jiaro- 
Aapa HHHi^iaTHBt yopaBioHÍfl óaHSoiťB, uí^jmŘ f&fi,T» AonojiHHTejiBHUxi 
Kb Hexy ysaKOHOHifi. Bi cájfepj jífbjítdJihuocTVL óaHsa bajw^obu paaHUfl 
EaieropiH seiiJieA^bueBi, ynyn^eHHBifl mbi BH^y npn HS^aBÍH uepBo- 
Ha^ajibHaro saBona; AOSBOJiena BU^atia ccyA'B HtcBOABSHMi ceJibCBHMi 
odiiecTBaifB Hepasj^^BHO, a TaK«e or;i^^BHUirb nocejieHÍAiTB, ne co* 
craBjuiDii^HiťB i^tjiaro cejibCBaro o6ii^ecTBa; cosAaea opraHH3aipi[ TOBa- 
pH^ecTBi, noByoaDn^HXi somjik) npH aocpeACTB'b 6aHRa. DpoAOJiseHieMx 
arofi BenpepuBHoft padoru abjíjidtcji aaKOHonpoesTiii^ paBoópaHHue HaMu 
BHme. GaMo co6oid pasyif^erc^i, qxo ops TaBom SHBOM'b oTHomeHÍH 
Ki xíMj ynpaBjíeHie BpecTbaHCBHMi fiaBRom ne Morjio otjioshtb bi 
Jtojirii flu^HRi ycTaHOBJíeBÍe npaBHiií, cyn^ecTBenno BaacHUx^B ajib aas- 
Aaro Rpej^HTHaro yqpesAeHÍa: opaBEJii o ny^Ju^iHofi opo^asi somojil^ 
Huxi yqacTBOBi, 3ajioseHHiiix'B wb 6aHR^. KpecTbAHCRiň ÓanRi yqpeas- 
j(efli» 18-ro Maa 1882 r., a npaBHJia o npoAa2R'b bojt^^iejih saROHO^a- 
Teibuyo caHRi^iiD 28-ro naa 1883 r., do^th oAHOBpeMOHHO cb OTRpuTÍeH'b 
j(ticTBÍ£ 6aHRa; Teaepb, RaR^B mu bha^h, haotb p-bqB yase o aodoji- 
HeBÍH H H3MtHeHÍH HX'B, corjiacHo CB yRasaHÍfliíH oniiiTa. Gobc]^m'b Vb 
ApyroH'B BHA^ npoACTaBjíaeTCJi, ct> dTofi to«h sp^HÍfl, ;^jiTejibH0CTB 
ABopAHCRaro aeMejEBHaro tíaHRa. Ohi yqpesAQHi* wb 1885 r., j^tftcTByerB 
yae qeTBepruž roA'B — a MesAy t4mi ao chx-b nopx ne cymecTByerx 
en^e $i^KaKux^ QpaBHji'B o ny6jiHqHoft apoAas*]^ 3ajioseHHuxi> b'b uewh 
HKtHÍň! Otcdw HaROQJieHie hoj^ohmori, b'b pasMipaxi no hcthhí^ ysa- 
caDa(Hxi». Bi> BumeAMeM'B He^aBHO or^ert ABop^HCRaro 6aHRa sa 

1887 r. Hxi> noRasaHO eu^e He ocoóeHHO mhopo; ojiaTesefl, aepenieAniHX'B 
opexim JiBroTHaro cpoRa, 6ujio Tor^a orojio 369 thca^i pyÓJiefi, h 
HasHaieHÍK) wb upo^asy HOAJeaRajio 361 HM^nie, cb 320 THCiiqaifH 
mjmwb seifjiH H 14V2 MHJuioHaMH RanHTajiBHaro AOJira. K'b ROHii^y 

1888 r. HeAOHMOR^B, nepenieAmMxi* opeA'bjiu JiBroTHaro cpoRa, 6bijio 
yae cjinniRoirB doa MUAAdona py6jieft; HasHa^OHÍK) bx npo;^asy no^Jie- 
sajio 1.405 hmíhíě, cb 1.329 TUCA^aMH xecATHHi somjui h funntide' 

23* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



356 BIICTHHSI BBPOnU. 

cMm%fo ' detfMH MtMÁÍ<maMu RanHTaJiBHaro AOirai ^) dra nocjii^AHaJi 
UH4»pa — noiTU o^Ha mpemh Bcixi ccyj^i, BUj(aHHux'B no 1 xeKa(p£ 
1888 r.l EcTB iawíeih, no BoropuMi ne nocTynHJio hu odmio nÁorneoKa, 
naqHHafl cb caMaro nepearo naaTesnaro cposa (1 HOAÓpji 1886 r.). 
Ob 14x1 nopo^ npomjio oboio norrroAa — h nojioseme a^^jcb, 6e7b co- 
MHtHÍjf, eii];e tíoji^ HSMÍHBJíocb K'B xy^meiiy. Ti^yxHO noH^rb, KasHirb 
ofípasoiTB, B'B BHAy Bcix^L dTHXx (iMt&TOBi, MoseTb 6htb TepnEMa AaiB- 
H^fiinaji oTcpo^Ra bi^ H3AaHÍH npaBHJirB o npoAas'b Hninift, sadioseH- 
Huxnb vh ABopAHCROMi* 6aHB^. mbwb óojibme HaBonjouieTCii ebaobhobi, 
rbwh TpyAHte hx'b ynjiaTa ajia caiiHX'B BJUiA^Bi^eB'B, T^iťB BÍ^poaTHÍto 
ytíuTBH, npH npoAasš, xjlsí ABopaHCKaro óasKa, hjih, lyqme CKaaaTB, 
XJiJi rocy^^apcTBeHHaro sasHa^eficTBa, cpeACTBaMH Koroparo oóesneHH- 
BaeTCfl luaTes^B npoi^eHTOBi no 6aHB0BUMi 3aKJiaAHUM'B iHCTairb. 3a- 
nacHuft BanHTaJi i^BopAHCBaro 6aHRa cocTaBJíAjrB, b^b 1 flEsapa 1888 r., 
TOJiBBo 419 TUCATB pyójiofr; HHCTaa npHÓMJiB ero sa 1887 r. ne npesumaia 
185 Tiicjii'B, HBi BOTopuxi 158 TUcaq'B OT^HCJieHo na nospuTÍe xe4»iiilHTa 
3a npeAmecTBOBaBmift orqerHufi nepioj^'B, a ocTajiBHUfl ynia^eHU rcey^ap* 
cTBennoMy óanay vb BOSBpaTB nosaHMCTBOBannux^B y nero xenerB; Aoira 
rocyj^apcTBeHHOMy Óansy ocTaBajiocB b'b na^ajn^ 1888 ro^a 1.368.000 
py6jiet. A Mesxy tžitb ccyxu h3% ABopjiHCBaro 6aHBa pocTyi-b ci 
qpesBuqaftHOK) Óucrporoio; wh 1886 r. hx^ óujio paspimeno Ha cyioiy 
oBOJio 69 MHjuioHOBi, Wh 1887 r. — na cyMMy cBHme 71 MHJUÍofla 
py6j[ež. PasÓnpafl nepBBifi orqeri tíaHBa, mu mkjoi jxe cjiyqai sa- 
M'bTHTB, qTO BecBMa SHa^HTOjniHaa qacTB ccyA'B BHAaoTCB ne no nop- 
MajiBHofi oi^^HB*]^, a no cneníajiBHoft, Menito, Bootfn];e roBopa, oéesneqH- 
Baion^ež HETopecu tíaHBa; to se caMoe, wh ein,e 6ÓJiBnieS wb^i^ noBTo- 
pfljiocB E B^B 1887 r. no EopMajiBsoft ou^Bst BUiano vb srowb rojty 
1.253 ccyjíH, fla cyímy 24 Va mejijqobobi pyfijefi, no cnei^iaJiBHoft— 
1.299 ccyAx, na cyMMy 46 Ví mhjuíobokb. Ccyj^H, Ea sas^yx) A^cjrrHBy 
seMjni, no HopiiajiBEoi oi^eb*! epexoahtcji cpexEEirB ^hcjioitb 29 py6. 
59 B., no c^e^iaJB[BEofi — 32 py6. 9 Bon.; Mes^y TiifB cnei^iaiBnaa 
oi](tEBa npeoÓJiaj^aeri ne tojibbo vb ryÓepEiaxx ci bucobeitb Baně- 
CTBOM'B seMJiE (6eccapa6cBoft, opjioBCBoft, nojrraBCBoft, xapBBOBCBoi), flo 
E wb TaBEX^B ryÓepEÚix^B, sasi EOBropo^CBan, ncBOBCBafl, nerepfiypr- 
CBaE, MorfljieBCBaE, BasancBaE. B'b 1886 r. (xjxb, npenumaDmiExi 60*/« 
OA'&flBH E, cjT&AOBaTenEO, oeoCeflflo pECBOBaEEHXi, 6uJio BuxaHo 73; 
Bi 1887 r. TasExi ccy^i BU^aso ysice 139. Hmšeíe, BoropuME o6e3- 
ne^EBaiDTCE bte ccy^u, bx 1886 r., (Íhjie oirbEOHU b'b 8.822.660, vh 
1887 r. — B-B 9.225.730 pyójieŘ; BUAAHO no;('B bbx^b b-b ccyjiy wb 1886 r. 
6.140.000, B-B 1887 r.— 6.394,500 pyĎJiet. PasEEi^a Mea^y 60**^o^tHIE 



Mh sioiiCTByeirb 9th nMip^ im J^ 82 „PyocKHxi B^xoHocreft^. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHH&A. — BHyiPEHHEB 0B03raHI£. 357 

H cymfoň AMcTBHrejiBHO BiiAaHHUX'B ccjjí,t> coCTaBjjiJia, RaKi» bt> 1886 r., 
laKi H BTB 1887 r., orojio 850 TUCJiq'B pytíjieft. HpesBuqaAHo chjisho, 
ao opesHeMy, pacxoAHjracb oi;'bHRH caMHX^b BjiaA'i^bueB'b h oi^^hr^ 
(iaHKa; bi* cpeAHeM'B buboa^ uocxbAmsi cocTaBJíAjiu tojebro 59®/o nep- 
Bttxx, a wb H^bBOTopuxi ryÓepHÍaxii — MeHbme 40, Aase MeHLine 30% 
{wb MHHCKoň ryóepHÍH — 35*/o, bi HOBropoACEoS — 26*/o), OsH^aTB otb 
BiaAÍjibi^eBi> cyo^ecTBeHHoi novoiaH bi npaBHjn>HO& oi^íhbí zeujun 
6hEE%, TaKHMi o6pa80Mi, He MoseTS. Bcero 6oMhme uojaajercA no- 
ioiiu>D 6aHBa cpe^Hee seMjieBjaAtHÍe (ynpaBJíeHie óasBOMi oTHOCHrb 
cDAa Tt HirbHid, nox^ KoropuA BU^aHO b'b ccyxy on MficnTE ao cxa 
TucjiTb pyójrefi). B:b 1887 r. Ha ero aojik) npHHuocB 1.284 ccy^u, Ha 
cfMMy 41 MUjuioH^b; Ha aojiid spynnaro 8eMjieBjiaAÍHÍfl — 112 ccyA'B, 
Ha cyMMy 23 V, mhjijúohobi; na aojii> Meju&aro seiueBJíaAtHijaL — 1.016 
ccyAi, Ha cyMMy b^U mhjijiíohobi pyóiefi. Bi» cpeAneiii* buboa'^ Ha 
caxAyi) ccyxy Bucmaro paspa^a npHXOAHTca 6.961 xecflTHHa h 211.000 
pydíefi; Ha sas^yi) ccy^y cpe^HAro paspa^a — 968 aocjíthhi h 32.000 
py6iei; Ha Bas^yi) ccyxy HHsmaro pasp^Aa— 250 MficmEWb u 5.100 
pyóiei. Bb 9thx'b i(H4»pax'B ne ocoÓeHHo mhofo yrbniHTejiBHaro, sasi 
ooTOMy, qTo jibBHHaA AOJia homoh^h 6aHEa AOCTaerca BJiaA^BuaMi, 
Bcero MeBbme HysAaK>^^lMCA b'b noAAopssi, TaB'B h noTOMy, qTo Kpyn- 

HIUl MM^nisiy BCJltACTBÍe SaTpyAHeHÍĚ, CB BOTOpiUIH CODpflSeHa HXl 

opojuisa, npeACTaBjíJiUTCJi, cpaBHHTejiBHO, oóesne^eHieMi* K6H'&e na- 

leMBhOtb. 

Kasx H B'B npeAUAyo^em orqerHOMT roAy, A^^TenHocTB abophh* 
CKaro seMeJibHaro 6aHKa npoAOJisaJia hm-^^tb nocjiiACTBieMi ycHJieHnyK) 
3aAaiseHH0CTb ABopHHCKuxib HMinifi. HMtHiji, yse h npes^o HazoAHB- 
múcii Wb sajiorb, nepe3aBJiaAHBaK)TCA bi Bscmeň cyiufb; hm']^híh, ao 
rkrb HoprB CBOÓoAHua orb saiora, o6peM6HaK)TCH 3HaqHT6j[bHUMH aoj- 
miH. Ha Ka»AyK> AocjiTHHy seicjui, panbme ÓUBnieň B'b aajiori, npn* 
lojpuocb Aoiry, cpeAHUMi» qHCJioirb, 24 py6. 86 son.; Tenepb dTa i^H<f>pa 
fBeuqHjacB AO 31 py6. 81 son., T.-e. no 6 py6. 95 koh. na aoca- 
THHy. Ha BasAyiD AocHTHHy aeMJiH, npesA^ CBo6oAHyK) orb aaaora, 
npHxoAHTca Tenepb AOJiry, cpeAHHiíi» qHCJ[OMi», no 28 pytí. 38 Bon. na 
xecATHHy. Bcero sajioseno bhobb, no 802 CA'i^JnsaM:b, noqTH 418 tu- 
cavb AecHTHHi, na cyímy 11.865.600 pydíefi. SaM-bqaTejíbHO, qTo 
mi^pa AOJira, ynaAaDn^aa Tenepb na BasAJio Aecjnnny nesajioseHHoA 
paHbme aeiuni, npeBumaen Ty, ao BoropoS npocTHpajicji AOJirb no 
saiory wb npe3BHHX'b speAHTHUxi^ yqpesA^HÍJUii^. TaBoe yBejmqenie 
SMoixeHHocTH eABa jm Moserb ÓUTb nasBano o6cTOATejo»CTBOM'b 6xa- 
roapiOTHUiťb j^M& ABopancBaro aeiueBjaAtHÍa, ecjin Aase n AonycTHTb, 
Tro yifeHbniHjacb — ji^ja hm^híž, npessAe cocToaBniHX'b bi aajiorb — 
ipHj^pa eseroAHUxi njiaTeseň. Heo6xoAHMo npntfaBHTb, qTo vb oahomii 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



á56 6tCTtíHRl» Efi^Olty. 

1887 r. XBop^flCKHMi ÓansoiTB paspivmeHU 6ujih bi 170 cjiyqa£rx'b 

BTOpUA HJIH TlOCJťikAyH)!^!^ ZSJUlSiAEUíl Ha HMÍ^HÍA, 3aJI0SeHHUfl B^ óaHB^. 

^McTBie ^uTh aaKjiaAHHxi pacnpocTpaHflercA na ISlV^ THcaqy Ae- 

CflTHHX. 

no cnoco6y Be^ienia xosflňcTBa, 2.552 hm^hía, noA'B Boropsa bua&bo, 
B'& 1887 r., ccy^H ^BopaHCKHMi óaHBoiťB, pacape^ibiiADTCfl cjitAyioiiiHirb 
oópaaoMi. Bt 1.731 HM-imaxi, ct 1.317.527 j^ecOT., xosaftcTBO aejiocb 
caMHM^b Bj[aA'i^Ai>i](eH'b; 570 hm-^^híS, cb 3Í6tuc. xecjiTHHi, HaxoAHJiHCb 
Bt apeHAi, a B^B 251 HirbHiaxi*, Cb 640V2 THca^rB a^cathe^b, cyme- 
CTBOBajTH coBM-ibCTHo o&k cHCTenu xosjíficTBa, T. 6. qacTB mAnia (iféHb- 
mafl) 6iua nrb saB^Jk^uBaHÍM apeH^aTopoBi). 3th i^H({)pu ne noATBepx- 
xaioTi oóuHHaro npe^CTaBjíeaifl o6'b aóceHTeHSM']^ ABopjiH^-aeMJieBjía- 
A'i^Jii>i^eBii H o sanyímeHHocTH abopahcbhx^b xosh&ctb^b — He noATsepx- 
AaiOTx ero js,o TaKofi cTeneHH, too HeBoaBHo BosniiBaeTi ccHH^boie bi> 
uxi To^HocTH. H B'B caMoifB A^jťb, ynpaBjieHÍe óaHKOMx BOBce ne py- 
qaercH 3a uxii aoctob']^phoctb; oho npHSHaerB, ^to BOVHorHX^ xoaafi- 
CTBax^ npieMu HSBJíeHeHiH aoxoaobi noABepraiDTCai OeanpepuBHUifB ks- 
MineHiAM^B, wb saBHCHMOCTu 0Ti» yposaH npeAUfljn^aroroAa, oTBoÓHjiiii 
Hjw oTcyTCTBÍa o6opoTHHX'B cpej^CTBi, a HHorxa jsfiLJRe oTb HacTpoeeiji 
BjiaA^^ua mhlíbíe hjih ero yopasjíADU^aro. En^e Ba3KH'&e to o6cto4i- 
TejiBCTBO, ?To Ki) TOCJiy 3aB'&A7eMux'B caMHiTB BjaAtjibi];eMi oraeceHu, 
Bi> oTqeTfc ABopaHCKaro ÓaHKa, HMinia, b'b BOTopuxi lacTb yroAiA or- 

AaOTCA B1> KpaTKOCpOHHUň HaeMHb, npeHMyiII.eCTBeHHO ntCTHUM^ RpeCTBJi 

naMi. noA'B HHeHeifB apendu ynpaBJíeHie óaHROMi noHHMaeTi, (^"i^AOBa- 
TejiBHO, TOJiBKO apBHAy doAtoepoHuyio: bii paapn ai» apeHAOBanHuxi ee bxo- 
ASTb, TaKHifB oópadOMi, Aase '£^ hm^hía, wh ROTojpiiix'B BCA HJioii^aA^ o6pa- 
6aTBiBaeMoĚ iíjlu dKcnjijaTHpyeMoft somjih HaxoAHTCii bi* pyKax'B KpaTso- 

Cp0^HUX'B HaeMin.HKOB^B, H HHBaBOrO nOMtiniHqBiirO X03AfiCTBa, BT> HaCTOH- 

moMi cMucjii 3Toro cjioBa, HO cymecTByerB. To «e caMoe cjAfijevh CKasaTB 
H 06% HM^HÍAXi, B^ KOTopux'B opeoĎJia^aeTB HcnoJEBHaA o6pa6oTKa sevjíH. 
3a HCKjiiD^eHieiťB bcí^xi dTHXi) KaToropift, qucjio HM^HÍň, i^fbůcmeumeAfaio 
3aB']kAyeMuxii caMUMH BjiaA'i^JiBi^aMH, OKaBajiocL 6uí, no Bceft b^poíithocth, 
cpaBHHTejiBHo HeBucoBUM'B. „SaBiA^BaHíe caííHMi BjiaA'i^bi](eM'B^ He 
opeAnojiaraeTB, npHTOM'B, jra^naro npe<5HBaHifl ero b'b HM'bHÍH hah 
Aa»e qacTux-B nepioAHHecKHXi ero Ty^a npiisAOBx; doa^b bto noe^TÍe 
noAXOAHTB H 3aB4AHBaHÍe mtbBiewb qepes^B nocpe^CTBo yopasjunn^aro. 
6'B HtBOTopuxnb ry6epHÍAX'B, Bopo^eMi, uMi^Hiň, HaxoA^n^HXCfl B'b sa* 
B^A^BaniH caMoro BJiaA^jiBi^a HacqHTUBaercif oqeHB Majio Aase h npH 
TOMii cnocoói rpynnnpoBBH, ROTOpuň upiinsm ĎaHROifB. ^bho apeo&ia- 
Aaei*B coécřBeHHoe xoBflžcTBo bi> ryóepm^x^ i^enrpajiBHuxi, a T&Rxe 
B^b cpeAHeMi) H HHSHeiTb IIpuBOJisb']^; Hao6opoTii, apeHAa 1^'bjmx'b hm^híS 
Bcero 6ojťbe pacopocrpaHena B'b rydepHÍAxi sanaAHUxi h wh AOHcstd 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



otijacTH. PaaiHqíe nesAT tíhu h ApyrHMH MtCTHOCTJiMu aoxoahtb ao 
rpoHa^Hiixi pasMtpoBx; lasi, H3'b 86 HK^HÍft BasaHCKoft ry6epHÍH TOJibKo 
eocem apeH^yiorcji vh hojihomi HX'b cocrast, a b'b ry6epHÍH noAOiB- 

CKOft H3% 34 UMtHÍĚ — 14, Bl AOHCKOfi OÓJiaCTH U31> 131 — 87. „I^H4»pU 

dTH, — HHTaoHi MU Bi* oTiort ^BopjiHCBaro 6aHRa, — HaBO^ATb Ha 
Becufa rpycTHUA pasifunuenÍA. HecMorpji na Bcb ycHJiifl npaBHTejiB- 
CTBa, pyccsie ABop^He-seiueBjíajťikjikii^u sana^Haro Kpaa ^), h6 xoafl&Hu- 
qafl eaMH wb cbohxi hm^húixi h, cjtt^oBaTejibHo, bi orpoMHOirB 6ojn>- 
nnHCTB^ cjiy^aesii ne shba B^b hhxi, He Moryrb OKasaTb Ha spaft to 
noiHTHqecKoe BjiiflHie, soropoe, rjiaBHUiťb o6pa30M'b, uirbJíocB bi» sH^y; 
ABopAHCKoe se 8eicj[eBjiaA'bHÍe na J[,oHy o?6bhaho BCKop4^ cj^tjuieTCfl 

RMCTO HOMHHaJIBHUlťb". 



IIotth o^HOBpeMeHHo noflBHJiHCB Wh ra3eTax'& ^a hsb^ctúi, othoca- 
m^síca Ki» BosocTHUMi cyAaiii». Oaho h3'b hhx&, Bacann^eeca BHyTpeH- 
HHxi ry6epHÍg, saKjmqaercji srb tomx, hto, wb BH^y npej^CToan^ei ne- 
pe^a^H H^bKOTopuxi j^tjii, us^b Bt^eHÍA mhpobuxi cy^eň bi* Bt^eHÍe 
BoiocTHUxi cyAOBi», upeABOJioseHo cocTaBHTB npaBUJia o ho^jlkí cy^o- 

OpOKSBOACTBa Wb dTHXl> CJfiJ^^ H O HauraeifUX^B HMH BSUCKaHÚIXX. 

Qo MfijvovLY HSBtcTÍK), TaKafl se paóoxa npnroTOBJífleTCJi b% nacToa- 
ii^ee BpeMA MHHUcrepcTBOMii iocthiUu j^jlu bojiocthuxi cyAOBi» ocTaek- 
csaro Kpad. O&h aroň nocjE^Heft pafiorfa mu HaxoAHirB aobouho no- 
ApoóHiu ctítjífima. Bi> pHscKofi KoppecQOHAeHnÍH „PyccEHX'B BtAOMocTeň^ 
(}t 94). ^BojiocTHofi cyAeÓHHKi'', cocTaBJí^eMuň a^jia npHĎajiTÍ&CKHXi* 
BoiocTHiáXi* cyAOBi, po^aKTupycTCfl, no cjioBaM^b soppecnoHAOHTa, b% 
Ayxi cyAeÓHux^ ycTaBoai 1S64 r. Ohi OTMtHflero, npes^e Bcero, 
TiiecHoe HaKaaame, orpaHHquB&tf KapaTejibHyK) BjiacTB bojiocthuxi cy- 
lovb apecTOM^B u AonesHUMK BsucKamiiHH. Kor^a, b% usl^bjií mecTH- 
Aeamiarb toaobi, 3a bojiocthumh cyAanu UMnepin ocTasjíeno óujlo npano 

OpicySA&TB BpeCTBAHI» Bl T^OCHOMy HaBaSaHÍBO, dTO MOTHBHpOBaJlOCB 
HeOÓXOAHMOCTBK) „HOAAepsaTB nOpflAOB^B CpeAH KpeCTBflHCSarO COCAOBÍA, 

KOTopoe, noejit ÓucTparo nepexoAa otb aptnocTHoň aaBHCUMOCTH b% hoji- 
Hoi iH^Hoft CBOÚojsik^ HaxoAHJiocB B'B coBopnieHHo HenpHBuqHOMiy BoycTa- 
HOBHBmeMCJi en^e nojioseHÚi*'. 9tu cooÓpaseHÚi, OTHocHBmúíCii ri BpecTBa- 
wě% qHCTO-pyccBHXi ryfiepHÍň, mehhctopctbo iocthiuh naxoAHTi HenpH- 
rňBííuuuTA, ocoóeHHo bi HacT0Aui.ee BpeMA, k% npH6ajrriňcBHM'B ry6ep- 
mwh^ wb KOTopuxi BpecTBflHCKoe HacejieHie yse ci> 1816-19 r. hojil- 
syoTcji jufHHofi cBoóoAoň. EcjiH T'&iecHUfl HaKasanifl Ao chxi» nopi sa^cb 

He OTM^bneHU, to 9T0 OÓlHCHHerCJBÍ „ho A'Í^CTBHTeJ[BHUMH nOTpe($HOCTHMH, 



*) Bi aanaAHHXi ry6epHÚxi aeiueBiaxbjíupi nojibCBaro npoHczosxeeiii Be- 
mtorb, sast hsb^tho, npaea na nojiy^eHÍe ccyxiHSixBopflHCBaroseiiejiBHaroóaHKa. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



B60 BftvrraHXS KBPonti. 

a ooejioBHUMH npej^yó&BAeHÍnMH Toro Kjracca oón^ecTBa, ROTopufi HMijrb 
ana^uTejiBHoe BJiúíme Ha hdb pe(tK)pifu bi npH6ajiTÍficEHX'b rydepHÚxi". 
^anHtttmee coxpaHeHÍe orsHBinaro nop^Asa JiBxajiocb $u, no mh^híd 
MHHucrepcTBa iocthuiíh, ^nojiEMmett aHOMajiieň, tí^mi óojite spe^HoiD, ^ro 
M^CTHoe BpecTKflHCKoe HacejieHie iiHTaeTi wb yHHsaioii^eMy ^ejroBtnecsoe 
AocTOHHCTBo HaRasaHíio BDOJEHŠ cosHaTejuBHoo OTBpau^eHíe''. IIocji'i^iHee 
BupasHJiocb CB AocTaTo^HOK) ACHocTbK) vh MHoro^HCj[eHHux'i> npomeHÍJixi 
o6i OTMibH'b i*&j[ecHaro HaKasaHÍfl, noAaHHUx^ dcrami u JiarumaiiH so 
BpeMA ceHaTopcKOĚ pemam 1882-^3 r. (peBHaynni^Hiii ceHaTopom 

ÓHJI^, BaBX U3B'&CTH0, HUH^IIIHÍft MHHHCTpi DCTHI^Íh). 

ECJEH HaM'bpeHÍ1D MHHHCrepCTBa K)CTHIi;ÍH CySX^HO OCyiI\eCTBHTI>C£. 

npeotfpasoBaHíe bojiocthuxi ey^^oBi* b'b 0CT8eficBHX'B ryÓepHÍAX^B 6yAerb 
HacTOAn^uifB fijiaroAtjiHÍeMi ji.jih MaccH M^CTHaro HaceieHÍA. He Aajn>ine, 
BaBi b^ 1881 r., coCTaBJieHi> 6ujíi» ajia bojiocthuxi cyAOBX ocTseflcsaro 
Rpafl, npH y^acTÍH npeACTaBHrejieft i;eHTpajn»Hoň BJiacTH, npoeKTi bo- 
jiocTHoro cy^eÓHaro ycTasa, coxpaHABímft sa bojiocthhmh cy^av h npaao 
iipHcys^^aTk Ki) rbjtecHOMy HaEasaHin. PasfiKpan, b<b CBoe BpeMfl, stotb 
npoeBTii, MU yKasajra na <{>ajn>niuBoe, TAsejioe nojtoseme, b% soTopoe 
OHI* nocTaBHJii) 6u a^eJlJIfl^ioHHyH) HHCTaHi^iK) Hajťb bojiocthhhh cyj^aiiH 
— MHpoBHXt cy^eft, npHHyj^HBi^ hx^b caHKi^ioHHpoBaTb CBOHMH npiiroBo- 
paMH 0TBpaTHTejn>HH& BHA'B yrojEOBHOfi pacnpaBU. 61 nacTOfl^ee Bpeiu 
BOJiocTHHe cy^H ocTseŘcKHXi ry6epHÍž npeAnoJiaraerca hoa^hhhtb le 

MHp0BUM'B Cyjí^hHWh, a 0C06UM'B BepXHHMl SpOCTBAHCKHlTb Cy^aiTB, H 
TOJIBKO ^pe3l noCpejILCTBO nOCJliAHHXB — MEpOBHlTB CVbdJÍ,a,Wb; HO nojo- 

acenie Bonpoca, cb 3aHHHa]Dnteft Haci» tohsh spiníji, otb aroro ne hs- 
M^HfleTCfl, noTOMy tto ajio. npeAC^^AATOJiefi BepxnnxB BpecTBHHCEHXi 
cjAOWb npoeRTHpyeTC£[ xaKoft se odpasoBaTejDíBHUft i](eH3B, Basi h jim 
MHpoBHXi cy^eft. KaBii 6u hh HasuBaJiCA ofAi, BBJíu^aeMufi vb 
paMKy cyAeÓHHXi* ycTaBOBi 1864 r., npejtocTaBjíeHie eny npasa npH- 
cyacAaTB wb T^jLecBouj HaBaBaHiD 6uso 6h BonÍK)ii^eK) Hecoo6pa3HocTBK), 
BOTopyiD H ycTpaHaerB, bi c^acTiu, hobhS npoeBTi MHHHCTepcTBa 
DCTHi^ÍH. HeyatejiH, OAnaBo, nopa;i.OB:B BemeĚ, npHBnaBaeiíuft — h coBep- 
meHHo cnpaBeAJiHBo — HesosMOSHuirB ape^H 3ctob^ h jaTumeĚ, o6py- 
niHTCA Bceií cBoefi tasoctbid na Bopennoe pyccBOe HacejieHÍe? ?to6u 
ynopflAOHKTB BCJflocTHue cyAH ni, i^eHTpajiBHUXi ryĎepmxix^B, hodóxo- 

AHMO nOA^HHUTB HX%y BaBl H B'B OCTSOfiCBOMl Bpa%, CMÍjnaHJ0fi HH- 
CTaHI^ÍH, Bl* COCTaBl BOTOpoň BXOAHJIli 6u, pA^OMl Cl H^CBOJIBBHlfH 

BOJiocTHUMH cy^BAMu, npe^c^AaTeiiB iíz% cpe^u o6pa30BaHHaro kjlbcol 
By^en^ jík aTorB npejí,&kjí,2LTejn> HMeHOBaTBCfl MHpoBuiTB cy^Beio, seM 

CICHM^ HaHaJIBHHBOM'B HJH BaB'B-HH6yAB HHa^O, OHI, BO BCABOITB (My^aŽ, 

He flfiJORewb 6uTB 7yaBA'B xpa^Hii^ift h BsrjiflAOBi, BupocQiMX'B Ha no^Bi 
cy^eÓHoft pe4)opMBi; otb nero hojibsji h ne cjii^yerTb TpeóOBaTB npHirfc- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



^^rr 



XřOHEKA. — BHFTPEHHEE OB03P«HIE. 361 

EmíL Tasoro Bu^a HaKasami, oAHa uucxb o soropoifb B03Myii^aeT'b 
cobIctb h qyBCTBO ^ecTH. Bi sejiHRopoccificKHXi ry66pHÍAX'b posru 
yze óojtke j^saju^aTH jťbrb adjiaktcoí HCKJiDqHTejiBHOK) npHHaAJiesHocTBK) 
BoiocTHoro cyxa; specTbune ycn'bjiH npHBUKHyTb vh mucjiii, qTo ri* 

9T01Cy HaRaSaHiK) MOSen npHrOBOpHTB UX1> TOJU»RO CBOfi^ RpeCTBUHCRifi 

cyni, a He ,rocnoACKÍfi**, 06;ieqeHie nccjA^naro — noBTopjleM-B, KaKT> 
6u owh HH HasuBajiCA— H6HaBHCTHUM%, oTJKHBiiiHiťB npaBoiťb cpasy yfiu ' 
3U0 6u ero SHaqeHÍe, orroJiKHyjio 6u (yn> nero HHoasecTBo qecTHUX'b, 
Doie3Hiiixi> A^flTejieA h 6ojiBnie híu^ qTO-jiH6o Apyroe CTajio óu npe- 
rpaAoS Ha nyní c6jiHseHÍJi Mes^y ni^^x^Q^A&MH^ u KpecTbflHaMH. Mu ne 
BiAHMi npnqHHU, no Boropoň T']kjiecHiiija[ HasasaBÍJi, onfbHaeMUJi ajih 
KpecTBiiH'B npHÓajLTÍftcBaro spas, MorjnH 6u kjih aojishh 6uju ocTaTbca 
vb CHjrb AJUi RpecTBAHi BejiHRopyccRHX'B ry6epHifi. IIpaB^a, BejHRopyc- 
CKiirb RpecTBanairB jiuqHaJi CBo(M)Aa ^aea dotth nojnyB^ROMi no3se, 
vfem ocTseficRHMi, — HO saTo oHH BOcnojiBBOBajiHCb eiD, de facto, ro- 
pasAo noj[H']be, noTOMy qro sa aoMÍ^n];HRaMu ne 6uio ocTaBJíeHo naTpM- 
MOHÍaibHo& BJiacTH. Heysejra xenepL, no upomecTBÍH ho^th TpHXi^aTH 
jrbrb, Bce en^e Dpo^ojiaRaerc^ to „aepexoAHoe BpenA^, b% bhaj roto- 
paro 0TH'bHa T^ecHuxi HaRa3aHÍ£, npoBosrjianieHHaa bi* 1863 r., ho 
6Eua pacHpocTpaneHa na c4>epy ^^iftCTBÍft bojiocthofo cy^a? UoROJi'bHÍe, 
no coócTBeHHOMy onuxy SHaROMoe ch RpitnocTHUMi* npasoMi, ctomti 
yse Ha pyóes-b CTapocTH; HoysejiH Bcb rk muuíohh rpoctbíihi, ro- 
Topiie Bupocjiu HiH Aase poahjihcb cboóoahumh, Bce em^e HaxoAATc^ 
vh „HeycTaBOBHBmeMCfl noJioseBÍH**, neysejiH JEHqnaA CBoóo^a A^a huxx 
Bce eu^e ,,HenpHBuqHa''? Heysejni „codnaTaiBHoe OTBpan^eHÍe** ri t^- 
lecHHMX HaRa3aHÍ4iMi, AonycRaeMoe bi cejihCRUXi oóuBaxejuixi ocTseň- 
CEaro Rp&a, ao CHX'b nopi qys^o HainuM'B RpecTBAnaiirb, Aase npoineA- 
mm HaqajikHyio ,niROjiy, jifiOLe CHA'bBniHM'i> paaoh% cb ABopflHaMH bx 
seiiCKOMii co6paBÍH hjih HacRaMB'b npHCASHUXii dactxaTejiefi? HeysejiH 
HaKaaaHie, „yHHJKaK)iii.e6 aoctohhctbo^ dCTa hju jiaTuma, He yHHsaeTB 

AOCTOHHCTBa ROpeHHOFO pyCCRaPO?.. JI,ByX1» pa3JIHqHUX'B 0TB'bT0B% Ha 
BCi OTH BOnpOCU, RaRHb HaMl RaSeTCA, ÓHTB ne MOSeOTB, — H BOTTB DO- 

Heny MU paAyeMCjeí H8B'bcTÍK), o6']^n^aK>n^eMy cRopufi nepecMOTpi npaBHJTB 
o imicRaHiAxi*, HaiaraeMUxipyccRHMH BOJiocTHUMH cyAaMH. Mu BnoJinib 
ytitsA^Hu, qro bi ocHOBasÍH o6ohx^ npoeRTOBi bojiocthofo cyAetíHHRa 
— CDei](iajiBHo-ocT3eftcRaro h oÓníepyccRaro— óy^yn nojiosenu oahh h 
tí ze, paayMHUJi h ryMannua naqajia. HejiB3fl aRe npexnojiaraTB, qTO 
sCocjlOBHua npeAy6toAeHÍA^,irí^maBniifl, ao chxi nopi, otmíh*]^ TÍJiec- 
HHXi HaRasanit wb ocTseScROMii Rpai, HaftAyrB yóisHH^e Ha Hameft 
nQ^sb H CA^JiaDTi pyccRoe abopahctbo nacjii^AHHRoirB neqaJiBHoii 
gDpHBHJierÍH^, TepaeMoft abopahctbomi> npHdaATificRUMi). 

no ucTHH:b cqacTJUiBo& cxkfi.^jevh HasnaTB ROMÓHHai^iK) oOctoatoíibctbI} 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



362 D^ďBHR^ EBPOJití. 

vb CHJiy ROTopofi BonpocB o npeo6pa30BaHÍii boj[octhuxi cy^osi* cta- 

HOBHTCJI Ha OHepeJCb OAHOBpeMBHHO ]í,MSl OCTSeňCRarO RpaH H AAň 3eM* 

CRUXB, BHyTpeHHHXi ry6epHÍň. He 6jjs,h en, oTM^ea T&iecHux^b Hasa- 
3aHÍtf no npHroBopaM^ pyccBHxnb bojiocthhxt> cyjiOBi npeAcraBJíflJiacb 
6u ropasAo Mentě B']^poaTHoft. Oahok) U3% caMiiix'B oevajiBBUX^b oco- 
óeHHocTeft Hamero BpeiieHH HBjouieTCA HMeHHo óeasacTtHqHBafl h óes- 
i;epeiioHHaA aau^HTa rbjíecHuxi HasasaHiÉ, ee toíibko bt> cMUCJrb yro- 
jiOBHoA, cyAeÓHoft Rapu, ho h bi* Ra9ecTB']b AHci^Hnj[HHapHO&, a^vHEH- 
CTpaTHBHoii, BOCBHTaTejibHot (!) wbfu* GjiHinROiťb ooqeTHmťb AMA ra* 
aeri, uoAAep»HBaK)iUHXi noj^oÓHfiie B:{rj»iAU, Óujeo 6tí nasBaHÍe ópra* 
HOBT. o6uiecTBeHHaro MHtHÍJi. He AytfaeM'b, qToÓu name oón^ecTBo, xota 
6u wb jívinik SHaMHTejibHoň cBoeft ^acrn, najio tbri hhbbo— ho zapaR- 
TepHCTHHHo yse h to, tto hsx pasHUxi TeMHuxii yrjioBrb nponoBi^xb 
naJiRH H posrn ohjitb BUXOAHrB Ha OTRpurutt BOSAyxi. HnorAa, bm^to 
up^Moft aoo;iorÍH rkiecDuxTi HaRaaaHift, uycRaercii bi» xoa'b <)>Hrypa 
yMOjmania,— HO cyin^HocTB A^jia h Bib dTHX^b cjiy^aflX'£ ocraerc^ Aobojbho 
bchoS. ^Mocrobcría B']bA0M0CTH'' nocBflTHiH HOAaBHo oco6yK> nepe^oByi) 

CTBTBH) „BeJIHROfi dHOX-b pe4>0pM'B*', CB I^'&JIBK> AORBSiaTB, <IT0 BB Heft He 

óujio HH BejiH^LH, HH j^aso pe4>opH'B. IIpeo6pa80BaHÍfl MHHyBinaro qap- 
CTBOBaHÍfl pasA^jiAiDTCii 3A'i^CB Ha AB^ rpynuH: 0Bei]i'B h Rosjnin^ Obi^u 

— 9T0 0CB060SAeHÍe RpeCTBAHl* OTB Rp'&nOCTHOfi SaBUCHMOCTH, »yHpO- 

ui,eHÍe (!]opoRpaTHqecRo& npoi^eAypu no seMCRMicB h ropo^cRHiTL a^- 
jiaifB*', apHBjíeqeHie MtcTHaro naceieHui r'b yqacTiio b% 3aBÍAHBaHÍi 
HMH, riacHocTB, ycTHOCTB H cocTAsaTejiBHocTB cyAODpoHBBOACTBa, orpa- 
HHHeHÍe CHJu 4>opMajiBHUXi AORasaTOJiBCTBii, coRpao^eHÍe cyAeÓHBixi 
HHCTaHi^ift, yqpe»AeHÍe ocoóaro M'bcTHaro cy^a fi,jui M&flRHX'B xbrh^ ne- 
;iaBHCHkocTB o6u;hx'b cyAe6HHX'B ycTanoBJíeHifi ot'b aAMHHHCTpaTHBHUXi, 
jiBFOTBí, A&HHUA ne<iaTH saROHoiťB 6-ro aaptjui 1865 r., ycTasi KJiac- 
CM^ecRHxnb rHMHaaift, oóni^eoÓflBaTejiBHaA BOHHCRaa hobhhhoctb, oórbeAH- 
Henie uojihii^íh ynpasAHeHieiTB TpeTBflro 0TA'6JieHÍa ')i ycTaHOBJíeme ro- 
cyAapcTBeHBaro ROHrpoui na hobb[X'b ocHOBam^iXi, MŠpu vb yjiyqme- 
HÍK) 6uTa AT^OBeHCTBa h Mtpu Ri o6ieAHHeHÍi) saoaAHUxi oRpaHHi 
ci> HMHepíeft. Ko3JD[Hn];a — bto yHM^TOseme mhpobbix'b nocpeAHHROB%, „o6o- 

COÓAeHHOCTB, ÓeSROHTpOJIBHOCTB (!) H fíeSOTB^TCTBeHHOCTB (1) dOMCRarO H 

ropoACRoro caMoynpaBAeHin*', BHA'i^eHie cyAeÓHaro BtAOMCTBa h3% nir 
MfiBiH rocyAapcTBeHHoi babcth (?I), ocjiaÓJieHie aaBHCHMOCTH npoRypa- 
Typu oTi renepajix-npoRypopa (?), HenpaBHJiBHaA oprannaai^iii citAo- 
BaTejiefl, caMoynpaBAeme aABoaaTCROŘ Ropnopai](ÍH, npHCASHue ci» yjmi^u, 
BudopHue H BUA'i^i[eHHue H3% o6iiiaro cyAa MHpoBue cyABH, npeAOCTaa- 



^) Htski, BecB cMHCJii ynpasxHeHk TpeTBJíro orxtJieHÚi sauD^ajic;! bl „o&bexE- 
HeHÍH dojihuíh^? Ckojieko HaMi> noMHHTC^, He dTO npHhtTCTBOBajiH Bi newb x^c 9M0- 
CKOBCKU Bíaomocth** 1880 roAa. 



Digitized by 



GooqIc..^; 



iřOtoÍA.— feHVTřEHHEfe OBOSWiHIt:. ŠGŽ 

leHÍe cjAhAWh npasa TOJisoBaTL 3aR0H'b no oón^eiiy ero CMUcjiy, jhh- 
BepcHTercsift ycrae^b 1863 r., oTA^^a HapoAHaro oópasoBaHÍfl wb sae*]^- 
AHBaHíe seMCBiixi AHJeTTaHTOB'B H pasBpan^aioi^uxii paameameAeú. A 
onfiHa TbjecHUXi HaKasamí Btqno naHATHinfi yRasoM'B 17-ro Sinpkjia 
1863 r.? Efl H6 oKasuBaeTCA qh MesAJ oai^aMu, hh Kes^y RosjíHu^aMu; 
HO HoxHO JIH coMHiBaTb&H B'B TOMi, "iTO, no oóu^eify Ayxy nepe^HA, ea 
ikro — wb nocjiiAHeft ero qacTH? Mu e^Ba jih omnóeMoi, eapo^eMii, 
ecn CBaseM'B, qro, npH HicKOJibBO 6ÓJibme6 oTRpoBeHHOCTH hjih uo- 
cjttxoBaTejiBHOCTH co CTopoHu cocTaBMTejiefií nepeqHif, hí^kotopumi* H31 

UBeai OpHniJIOCb 6U OqyTHTbCH B% paspilA']^ B08JIHII;1>. EcJIH MOCBOBCROa 

rasera cTOJiJia h ctohti sa nacHOCTb cyAoopoHSBOACTBa, to no^exy ace 
oHa ne cuasajia hh cjiOBa npoTHBi sasoHa 12-ro (t>eBpajiA 1887 r., cy- 
u^eeTBeHHo orpann^HBinaro ary ocHOBnyx) ^epry cy^eÓHož pe<t»opMy? 
EexR OHa o^oópnen cocTHsaTejiLHOCTb npoi^ecca, to saKHMi sice o6pa- 
wsťL OHa Moserii oTBopraTb „caMoyupaBjíeHie a^BOKaTCsofi Bopnopai^íu^, 
(esL KOToparo, oco6eHHo Ha namefl no^Bt, HemicjiHMa paBHonpaBHocTb 

OéBHHHTaiH H Ban^HTHHKa, a (^"l^AOBaTeJIbHO H CBOÓOAa SaiUHTU? EcJIH 

iltjieeoo6pa;(HO óujio ycTanoajieHÍe oco6aro m I.CTHaro cy^a a^h MOAKH&nb 
JllI^, TO Hojeny se aKejiaTejiBHa Tenepb ero 3aMtHa a^MHaHcrpaTUB- 
HOD BapaTejibHOK) Bjiacrbu? Ecjih oóii^ía cy^eÓHUH ycraHOBjíeBiA aojishu 
5HTb HesaBMCHMH oTb aAMHHucTpaTHBHUxnb, TO FA^ se pasyMHuA no* 

BOAl Kl SaBHCUMOCTH OTB HMXl MHpOBOPO Cy^a HJIH yqpeSA^HÍii, 3UCTy- 

^aDlI^t^o ero ir&cTo? Ecjih CBoeBpeMOHHU h nojoiesHfii óujih JibroTU, jubluhuh 
oe^aTM B'b 1865 r., to Hoserb jih hath p^qb o CBo6oA'ik neqaTH, pasnb 
<iTo osa HOTepHJtít ÓÓJibmyH) qacTb dTHXi> Jibrorb ^)?.. He roBopHMb yme 
o TOHi, qro saBHCHMocTb apoBypaTypu orb renepajot^ npoRypopa (T.-e. 
on MHHHCTpa locTHi^ifl) y Haci> HHKOPAa ne ocjiaójuijiacb, cy^etinoe Bt- 

AOMCTBO HSX B'Ia^HÍJI POCy^apCTBeHROft BJiaCTH HHKOFAa He BUA^JIJiJIOCb, 

HapoAHoe o6pa30BaHÍe bi saBÍ^AHBaHie „3eMCKMX^ AHJieTraHTOBnb^ hh- 
KorjUL He oTAasajiocb. KoMy ase ne H3B'bcTHo, ^to qo^oóhu^í „hotoiihocth^ 
— Heo6xoAHMaji h HeHSÓtsKHaji npHHaAJiesHocTb apryMeHTai^iH „Mockob- 

CMXT> BiAOMOCTefi"? 

Orapancb paBB^HiaTb h yHHBHTb „BejiHsyK) aaoxy pe(|)opM'b'', iiydJiM- 
AHCTu CTpacTHoro 6yj[bBapa cpaBHHBaK)rb ee c^ npe»HHMH aHajiornq- 
HHHH nepioAaMH pyccKoň HCTopin. Cboóoahumh oti oHiM6oK'b--TaR'b 
paaeysAaeTii MOCROBCRaji raaeTa— He 6ujih Aa»e pe<j)opMu lleTpa Be- 
JiHRaro; „ecjiH jsfiLxe oni noABeprajiHCb, no yRasaniAMi* onuTa, cyu^e- 
CTBeBBUMi nepeM^naMi, to ysi pe<f)opMU[ uamero híka^ coBepmonuuA 
ropa^Ao MOH-be reniajibHUMH npeoópasoBaTejuiMH, euifi xente AOJmnu 



') UpHnoMHHiii sHaMeHRTufi co<t>B3Mi KaTKOBa, rjacflo^iíí, HTO nirb b ne Óujo ne- 
lara 6oite HesaBHCHHofi, vkwb pyccKafl. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



364 sftOTHfraťb EBPOim. 

OTJIH^aTbOfl npUT£3aHÍeM'B na HeQpHROCHOBeHHOCTb. Mu CBJIOHHU Hasu- 

BaTb tieAUKOio BnoxoH)' pe^(ypM^ i^apcTBOBanie llerpa Bejnsaro, A&se 
EEaTepHHU U; ho nponuioe i^apcTBOBanie aojisho 6uTb npHSHaHo b'b 
6ojibnieft M:fepb dnoxoĚ HOBmecTBa h BU3BaHHaro hmi rocyxapcTBeHHaro 

KpU3HCa, HesejH dnOXOfi p6({>0pM'B, TaBli RaKl OHO OTJH^aJlOCL H6 

CToibBO pe4>opMHpoBaHÍeM'B cTapuxii nopflAKOB^) csoJibKo Hacasi^eHteiTB 
Ha PycH coBepmeHHo hobux'b naqajťb*'. HTasi*, pe4K)piiu Derpa Bejra- 
saro 6ujih ne „HOBmecTBOMi*", a tc(Jii»ko no^MHKofl mocbobckhxi y^pex- 
AeniĚ? Ohí He B036yAHJiH HHBaBoro ,rocyAapcTB6HHaro BpHSHca*', óujui 
npHHATu Hapoj^oM^ coBepnieHHo cqoboSho h oxotho? EsaTepHHa n 
HHqero ho saHMCTBOBajui hsi cospeMenniixi e& ({^HJiocoifK^KHXi* h noíH- 
THíecKHXi yneHÍň?.. Co bc4xi> dTHxnb tohce^b sp^núi anoxa Ajie- 
KcaHApa II HH^tui cyn^ecTBeHHo ne pasHHTca oři anoxi llerpa h 
EsaTepHHU. Ecjih npeoSpaaoeamejyu npoHuaFo Bisa h 6ujih reniajiBH^ 
HXi npeeMHHKOBi, to 9T0 Qmfi ne SHa^HTi, tto noaj^HiiftHiifl npeaSpa^ 
aoaoHiji ycTynaK>T% óojrbe paHHHMi. Pe4K)pMii Kerpa coaj^ajiH Morym^e- 
cTBeHHoe rocy^apcTBO, ho HH^ero HenocpeACTBOBHo ee CA&iajiH aju 
Hapo;(Ho& MaccH; oHt orspujiH nepoAi* Pocciei BOJiHRoe óy^yo^ee, ho 
ocTaBHJiH pyccBHXi en^e 6ojťbe fi^ACTBysou^MH h nopa6on];eHHUMH, vbiťb 
np6»Ae. To ace caMoe mosho CBaaaTb ci en^e 6oJibniHM'B npaBOirb h o 
pe4K)pxax'B EKaTopuHU. Pe^pMU npomeAmaro i^apcTBOBaHÍa eeiHKH 
hmohho TÍM'b, vro owb Óbijih npeAnpHHHTu b% nojiBsy Bcero napoAa. 
Konewo, ohí ho óuxsl nenorpiniHMu; „HenpHBOCHOBeHHUHH^ He c^h- 
Taji'b H ne cqHraen hx'b bh oji^hhi hsi HCKpenHHxii hxii sao^HTHH- 
KOBX, — HO cjia6aH ux'b CTopona saKJiiDqajiacb ne bi» tomi, tto ob^ duh 

CJlUHIKOMIi AaJieKO U HSM-bHJlJIH CJEHHIROlťB MHOrOO. HaoÓOpOlTE, HH O^Ha 

H3% HHX'B He 6ujia AOBO^oHa AO KOHua, HH oAHa H3% HHXi ne coxpaHHja 
Aa»e cBOHxi nepBOHaqajiBHuxnb pasirbpoBx. OrcD^a HeAOCTaTBH, dscnjiya- 
THpyoMue Tenepb npHHi^HQiajiBHUMH BparaMu npeotfpasoBaHÍĚ. Otoatb 
3a „BejiHKyD dnoxy pe<t)opM'B^ — ne sna^HrB cjrbno b^phtb b'b itaxxjv) 
HXB 6yBBy; dro dHa^HTB tojibko sejiaTB hxb j(ajn>HÍĚmaro, nopifaiB- 
Haro pasBHTÍfl, hjeh, ho Menbmefi uipi, npeAoxpaHeHk hxi* otb „nonpa- 

BOKB**, paBHOCHJIbHLIXB yHH7T0SeHÍK> H JiOMKt 



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XPOHHBA. 365 



3EMCK0-nP0A0B0;ibCTBEHH0E A^nO, 



Ejisa JIH He caMaa TpyxHaA aa^a^a hsi wbxi» BoajioseHHuxi npaBH- 
TeiBeTBOMi Ha deucKui y^pes^eBiji — oKaaaHÍe noMon^M HacejieHiK) B'b 

rOAHHU opOAOBOABCTBeHHUXl HeBsroA'^. TpyXHOCTB YAOBJíeTBOpHTeJlbHarO 
BHOOlfleniH nOAOÓHOfi Sajia^H HaXOAHTCA, BOHeqHO, Vb SaBHCHMOCTH 0Tb 

rtxi He6jiaronpiflTHim ycaoBÍĚ, wb soTopHfl nocTaBJteno 6ujio irbcTaHH 
ipecTuiHCKoe zoshActbo nocji^ 19-ro 4>eBpajiA 1861 r. He^ocTaToqHue na- 
Jiiiii, B'B 6ajibmHHCTBt cJiy^aeBi, yp'&3aHHue npoTHBi HopMajibHuxi ^), 
Bucoide HJiaTemH, jiesanue Ha deuxk h ana^HTejiBHo npeBuniaBniie, oco- 
6eHHo B% nepBoe BpevA, ea aoxoahoctb, HaBOHeii'B Macca BXopocTeneH- 
Huxi neÓJiaronpÍATHHXi ycjioBiĚ nopoAHJH co6ok) nocTenennoe ocjia6- 
leme xoaaftcTBeHHUXi chjix cejiBCKaro Hace^eHi^. EcrecTBeHHo, tto npH 
T&KHxi oócTOflTBJUiCTBaxi HOAGCTaTORi y HacejiemA cpeACTB'B AJía CBoero 
npo;(OBOJ[BCTBÍa h o6civeHÍHÍa nójieft yrpaTHJTB xapaKTepo^ cjiyqafiHaro 

6%j|CTBÍH, U AJUI HHOFHXl M%CTHOCTefi POCCÍH npOBpaTHJICH B'B HOpMaJIli- 

Hoe ABJíeHie, noBTop^ioniieeca qyrs jih hb eseroAHo. 

QpH cyn^ecTBynn^eft oprannsai^iH npoAOBOJiBCTBeHHaro jifb2i& y nacb 
HirbDTca Tpn HHCTaHiiiH, soropiiH b'b B0CX0ji;HUi;eM<B nopjiAR^ npnxo- 
JMm ea homooib nys^aiDuieftcH AepeBHt. HopnajibBUVb h hoctoah- 
iniMB HeToqHHBOM'B Hovoii^H ^oJiSHu cjiyjKHTB cotfcTBeHHUfl sanacHUH 
q)excTBa cejiBCBHX'B o6m,ecTWb wb imjíjk o6iiiecTBeHHHX'B xjA6uuy.'b 
larasHHOBi hjui j^eHesHHX^ KanHTajiOBi.. Bi cjiyqa'^ oco6eHHB[X'B Ól^js,- 
eTBÍft, Ha HOMon^B hbiadtcji ryóepHCBÍe npoAOBOJiBCTBeHHiie saDRTajtu, 
HiTB KOTopuxi fbsj^EUA sovcTBa HOJiy^aDrB ccyAu, ecjiH y hhx'b ne 
iBaTaen eoóCTBeHHUxi cpe^cTBi A^a y^oBJíerBopenia npoAOBOJiBCTBeH' 
Hn% HysA'b HacejieHÍA. 

Ho, KaKB MU yse csaaajiH, 3eMCTBaM'B, bi nepBiie se roAH hxi 
JChiTeiBHOCTH, B'B o6jiacTH oBasaHifl npoAOBOJiBCTBeHHOĚ noHoiuM nace- 
lenii), npHHuiocB CTaTB j[hi](om:b ri jiHuiy ne cx cjiyqafinuMH ÓtjsfiTBijLWi, 
a ci nocToaHHuifH nysjíaiiH HaceJiem^ bi TaBoĚ domooih. TaRi*, em,e b'b 
1869 r. qepHHroBCRaji ry6. ynpaBa AOJioacHJia co6paHÍK), hto bi TO^eHíe 
1867, 1868 H 1869 rr. tojibro iíByMi yts^am— MrjHHCKOMy h cypa»- 
cioMy — BUAaHO bi ^ccy^y" 146 t. p.— cyíma, paBnan^aacH hotth 



*) HojniaiBRHe HaviiH— rl, botophmh bii^ib specTLUse npH kp^hocthoitb npart. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



366 h^bCTHSíXb £BPonu. 

nojlOBHHt Bcero ry6. npoAOBOJibCTBeHHaro RanHTaJia. HecMorpa ea aro, 
yRasaHHue ji^xu Mcnpa]UHBaK)rb hobuo spe^HTu. „Tasia ÓeaKOHeq- 
HUH Tpe(5oBaHÍa AByxi y'b3;ioB'b,— roBopaTcx b% Aouai^i, — rpo3flii;U 
HCTpe6j[eHÍeM'b Bcero ry6. npoAOBOJibCTBeHHaro sanETajia, oópau^aoTB 
na ceóa oieHB cepsesHoe BHHMaHÍe, rpeÓyDíi^ee HstípaTb HeoóxoxuMuA 
BfaixojCb H3% TaRoro TflSKaro noJioseHÍfl*'. GaMoe se aBOHouHqecKoe nojio- 
xeme HacejieHia ji,oJLxeiA,'h pucyert wh cj[']^AyH)meií'i> bha'6: „BojibmHH- 
CTBO HacejoteHia cypascsaro yts^a, ne hm^h bobco xjr66a, ynorpeójiain-b 
BMtcTO MyRH nepeMOJioTUH xpaBu: ROCTépB, CHHei^'b^ XBOHei^i c% npB- 
MtcsH) MaRyxH H sojyAeft^. EcTecTBeHHO, hto ccy^u, BU^anaeiiua na- 
cejieHÍD, HaxoAan^eHyca wb TaRom noJioseiÍH, ne tojibro ne BosBpa- 
lUaioTca, HO, no cjoBaHi j^ORJiaAa, „h ho bmíi6tcji ocHOBaHift osujiaTb 
B03BpaTa dTott HeAOHiíRu, no RpafiBež Mip%, wb ÓJiHBROirb 6Yjs,jmfiM'b". 
Bi oocjitji^yDíHie rojiu sjíonoJiyqHue yfcs^^H ue nepecTaBaiH BHOBb o6pa- 
u^aTbCfl Ri seMCTBairb sa noHonibK). B'b ROHi^t »e robuobi» nepeHroB- 
CKoe 176. aeMCTBo CA^Jiaio cji4AyK>»U©e nocTaHOBJíeHÍe: „HcromHBi wt 
cpoACTBa H nocoóia, HaxoAan^iacM wb ero pacnopasenÍH, seMCTBO nep- 
HHroBCRofl ry6. c^HTaoTi CBaiii;eHHU]rb AOJiroicb ape^ocTaBHTb Ha óiaro- 
ycMorpiaie npaBHTejibCTBa xo^aTaftcTBo o Toifb, hto6u 6uaa HasHa^eBa 
oco6aa, cocraBJíeHHaa hsi npe^CTaBETejieA pa»4HqHUX'b bIvaohctb^, 
ROMHHOCÍa A^a uBCJitAOBaHia nojtoaceHia HysAaDii^HXca MliCTHocTefl, 
apHqBHi, nopoAHBniHX'b 6'kACTBeHHoe nojioseHÍe oocejiaH'b, u HSucRaHÍa 
MÍjpT> Ri yjiyqnieHÍiD mxi 6uTa" *) 

Bi> TaROMi se nojosemn, no oTHomenii) ri opoAOBOJibCTBeHHoiiy 
jiiuiy, oRa^ajiocb h orpoMHoe óoJibniHHCTBo ApyrHX'b '^eucTWb^ cnaTas- 
niHXTi HysHUHi jsfkiSLTh oAHopoAHbia saaBjíeHÍa cil saaBjeHÍeMi) ^epHH- 
roBCKaro seifCTBa. Bb 1867 r. TBepcROny rytí. aeMCROMy co6paHtD óuio 
AOJOseHo, HTo „nocj['b 19-ro 4^eBpaj[a neyposaH y o6^H'bBniHX'B Rpe- 
CTbaHX CTaHouaTca nopMCMbuuAn eudoMb ceMCKato xoajíňcmea, h tto, 
cjitAOBaTejibHO, coxpaHHTb npoAOBoabCTBeHHuK RanHTaai, RaRi* cpeA* 
CTBO uocToaHHaro o6e3oeqeHÍa, neBosMosHo. SeMCTBy b^ cRopoifb spe- 
MeHH npeACTOHTi o(JpaTHTbca rii noMoni;H o6n^aro npoAOBOxbCTBeHHaro 
RanHTaja^. Ha ocHOBanÍH dTHXii coo6paseHÍfi co6paHÍe noeranoBHio: 
9CA'bJiaTb npeACTaBjíeHie BUcmeMy npaBHTeabCTBy o óucTpo pacnpocrpa- 
HaDn^eMca noBceM*cTHo bt» ryóepHÍH oóťah^hím RpecTbani, «rro6iá npa- 
BUTeabCTBo, Bi BMAy HCTomenia cpeACTBx bomctbi, mopjIo cBoeBpeiienHO 
npuHaTb Mtpu, BuxoAan^ia nsi Rpyi^a cpeACTBi seMCTBa h npeBiunaio- 
n^ia ero B']^A6HÍe, kt> npeAOTBpau^eHÍi) pa3BHBaK)D;aroca erb TaROK) cii- 
aoE) ynaARa RpecTbancKaro xoaaflcTBa". Bi tomi se roAy npeAC*Aa- 
Tejib TBepcRoft rytí. BOMCRoft ynpaBU, RHasb Meui,epcRÍg, cqaix HysHUVb 



1) Cboai> nocTaaoBjíeuiň qepHHroBCKaro ry<5. aeiicTBa 1866—1882 r. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHURA. — 3EMCK0-nP0A0B0JBCTBEHH0E JlfiJlO. 367 

AOlOSHTb MUHHCTpy BHJTpeHHKiXl* A^JVb, „^TO HisOTOpue yl^AU OTl 

iioeT04HHUX'B HeyposaeB'B bi nocjiÍAHie roAU npHnuH bi toboc sa* 
fpyjiHHTejibHoe nojio»eHÍe, vro He MoryrB óuth Buse^eHU h3i Hero 
cpeACTBaMH ry6« npoAOBOJibCTBeHHaro RanHTaJia, 663% coBepmeHHaro 
paacrpoŘCTBa nocji*AHapo" *). 

Ha no^Bb TaKoro paacTpoficTsa KpecTbflHCKaro xosflftcTBa coa^ajioeK h 
Bi Bucmeň CTeneHH saTpyj^HerejiBHoe nojioseide seiíCTBtt npn BunojiHeoiH 

8HH CBOHX'B OÓaSaHHOCTeft no yAOBJieTBOpeHÍK) npOAOBOJ[&CTBeHHUX'B 

HysAi* HacejieHiA. HysK^anmieecji Hacejieme npes^e Bcero, supa^a^cb 
asuKOiTB 3eMCBHX'B AOKJiaAOB'B, npHHAJHOCb „sa pacxBii];eHÍe*' rkxb 
cpeACTB'b, BOTopufl HaxojiHJiHCB Bi ero HenocpeACTBeeooBťB wbflfimn, 
T.-e. o6niecTBeHHUX'B sanacHuxT* MaraaBHOBTi. Sanacu, xpaHHBmieca bi^ 
iara3HHax'b, b^ 6ojibmHHCTB% cjnyiaeBi noTpeÓJieHU nacejieHieMii eiii,e b^ 
DepioAx CB I861I no 1865 r., T.-e. jí,o uBeiemn deucKEVb yqpeiKAeniit u 
nepeAaqH hmi na^sopa sa npaBHjibHUM^ pacxoAOBaníeM^ noAOÓHUXi 
3anacoBi». 06'b dTOM'B, Mes^y npo^iHMx^ aajiBJíeBO 5ujio na oahomi h8'b 
nepBUxi me cotípanifi TBepcRoro ryo. soMCTBa. CMOJieHCRoe seMCTBo b'l 

CBCeiTB XOAaTafiCTBi nepeA'b MHHHCTepCTBOM'B BHyTpeHHHXl AÍJl% TaK»e 

saABijio, ^To „HHsaBHxnb xj[Í6hhxi> aanacoBi ne nepej^ano b% B^Aesie 
aeiiCTfia, TaBi Karb ko BpeMenn oTxpuTifl ero dTH aanacu óujih paso- 
6paHu KpecTBJTHaMH H B% tíojiBniHHCTB-b cjiyqaeBii Aa»e caMua crpoeni^ 
sanacHiixi Mara3HH0B% yHHqTosenu*' ^). RocTpoMCBaii ry6. ynpaBa aojio- 
SHJia coópaniK) b:l 1884 r., qTo „óojBniHHCTBo aanacoB'^ cyn^ecTByeTB 
lanib na ójvslví. Cjia6ocTi» na^sopa sa nojio;KeHÍeM'B 3anacHiiix'B Mara- 
3HB0BI cA'bjiajia pacTpaxy xji'k6a ^BJieHÍeMi, nocToanno B03pacTaK)n^Hii'B. 
Pa3CHHTUBaTk cepbesHO na xpaBJiu;i£cfl !)*& cejibCRHXi narasHHaxi xji'b6'b 
coBepmeHHO HeBosiiosHo^ ^). HojiuHCBafl (b;itcico& ry6.) ybsAHaa ynpaaa 
vh (ytR&rb o cbohxi ^'itficTBiiixi sa 1883-84 rr. BUCRasaja, <ito „ci> 
sanacHUMH xjtónuMH MarasnnaMH opoAOAS&nacb sa osHaqenHbiii roA'b 
npesHiifl HCTopifl nocTeneHHaro HX'b onycrbnÍA. HajiH^nocTb sanacoBi 
eb BasAuiTb roAoiťb cospau^aercii h cospan^aeTca; HeAOHMRa oaHMaro 
xjitóa Aopocjia en^e ao noATopu qeTBepTH na xasAyH) pea. Aymy"- 
EcjH se sanacu vjífb h cyu^ecTByiorb, to „bi* m^tbocthxi óojite 
cHacTiiHBUxx H cocTOATejibHuxi*, a rxi deujiH njioxo poaht^, TaMi oAna 
HaAesAa na npoAOBOAbCTBenHHň BanuTaJi'b sanacu bcí HCToui.eHu** ^). 
&b 6pflHCR0M% y^A^ opjioBCBofi ry6., no AOBJíaAy ynpaBH, „cb t^xi 
oopi saKx Wh Heypo3ffaSHuo toah sanacu bi cejibcsuxi Mara3HHax'b 
Óyjiu pasoópanu, qacTbio caMOBOJibHo, qacTbK) ct> paspimeniA ynpaBu, 



M Cboai MaTepiaiOBi ajia HcropÍH TBepcKoro ry6. seiícTBa. T. IV. 
') ďLypH. DOcraHOBjeHÍe 27-ro 4>eBpaja 1869 r., J^ 1984. 
s) 3eMCfiifi EseroAHHKi sa 1884 r., J^- 874. 
4) Ibid. 900. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



368 B^amvoffb EBPonu. 

nonojiHeHie xjr6(JHUx'B He^oHMOK^b crajio homuc^hmo, bcí^ aoHyAHTejUi- 
HUA ufbpu ocTaJiHCB óesTE nGCjri^j^CTBii**, H BMtcTO 51 T. ^eTBepreí xjiMa, 
ero HMteToa jihiob 2 t. qeTBepTefi ^). SeMcsoMy coópaHix) neTep6ypr- 
cBofi ryó. Tasse AOJioseHo 6ujio yapaBox), hto eft „hbbíctho o nosce- 
MtcTHOM'B noHTH HCTon^eHÍH xjrbóosanacHux^E iiarasHHOBrB, cocraBUi)- 
ii](HX'B rjiaBHuň hcto^hhki oÓesneqeHÍfl HapoxHaro ea ]ribcTax'B npoxo- 
BOjn>cTBÍii*' % BfB pABaHCBoi pyó. „MarasHHH hotth Bcer^a oycru, 
BecBMa p^XKO H Boe-RaKi peMOHTHpyK>TCJi, a y MHoraxi oÓn^ecTBx hxi 
B coBctiTL TsfbTb^ '). Bi TaM6oBCBofi ry6. H81& npe;(CTaBJeHHUX'b no* 
cjrb;(HeMy o^epeABOMy ry6. seMcsoMy co6paBÍiD AaBBiiix'b bbabo, «ito bi 
2.554 BanacBHX^B MarasBBaxi bmí^cto 900 t. lerBep. OBBMaro XAÍ5a 

Ba-JIB^O COCTOBTB JIMBIb 148 T. ^OTB. Qo CJlOBaiTb yopaBH, ^6ÓJIbDiaJI 

qacTb MarasBBOBi BaxoAHTCJi b'b caMOM'b sajiBOM^E cocroaBÍB, coBep- 
mesBo flOBpBroAHOirB ^jia xpaBCHÍ^ xjit6a. BHa^HTeJiBHoe hhcjio caMo- 
BOJibHo Bajioaseso KpecTLflflaMH h npoAaHo, a AeHbrn pasoópanu oo py- 
BaMi. HecMOTpa sa Bct 3a6oTU BOMCTBa h axMBBHCTpai^ÍH, 3acunKa 
xjit6a B'b TeneHie MBorHX^s Mirh cpaxy npoHBBOAiuacB RpaĚBe hohc- 
npaBBo*'. 

Booón^e, mosbo cRasaTB, qTo b'b tí^x'b m^tboctaxi, vmjí specTBiiBe 
BaHóojiie njxMvyrcH bi* npo^^osojiBCTBeflBoft bomob^b, ofin^ecTBeBBue 
xjí^ÓEue sanacu 0TcyTCTByx>rB, b Bcb 3a6oTBi BaB'B aeMCTBa, Tasí* h 
aAMBBBcrpai^iB, BanpaBjíeBBUJi Ba bxi* oópasosaBÍe b noMopsaBie, 
osaauBaDTCj] ÓeanjioAfluiCB. CoBepmeBBo noBarHo, oAHaBO, vlo aanacu 
npo qepBuli aobb mosotb A^aTb tojibbo HejioB^sii cb óóJiBfliBirb bib 
MéBBBiBMi AOCTaTKOMi, a BO desBpopuBBo Bys^ADnuftcB. TaKBM'b oópa- 
30M'B, opoAOBOJiBCTBeBBoe jifbjío BocTeDOSBO yrpa^Bsajio xapaRTop^ 
opraBBBOBaBBoS caMonoMOB^B, nyTeM'B o5pa30BaBÍB BanacBuxi cpe^cTS^ 
3a cqen caMoro BacejieBÍB. 7se b:b caMoirB aa^ajit bomcboA A'bATejiB* 
BOCTH ry6epBCBie BpoxoBOJBCTBOBBue sanBTaiH bbi BBcrpaopAHaap- 
Báro BCToqBHsa ccyA'B speBpaTBJíflCB BOBTOiiy vb opxBBapBiifi. Ho 9totb 
BCToqBBK^B ccyA'B BOCTBraepB, B'B cosajT^BÍK), Ta se cyxBtía, qro b sa- 
nacBue oÓm^ecTBOBBHe MarasBBU. GcyAH TpetíyiOTCA b jí^smítoi, bo bo 
B03BpaB^aK)TCB CBOOBpeMOBBo, ÓJiaro^apA qeMy BBaqBTejiBBaa qacrb ry5. 
npoAOBOJiBCTBeBBUx'B KaBBTaiOB^B qBCJiBTca B'B fleAOB]fKax'B sa Bace- 
jieBÍeiTB, BBorAa óesBa^esBo. Mes^y tím^ BorpeÓBocTB Bacej^eflia wh 

npOXOBOJIBCTBeBBOň BOMOB^B CB KMÍJÍ.UWb rOAOMl» yCBJIBBaJiaCB, B 3eK* 

CTBa BpflBysAeBii tíujiB o6pan^aTBCB k:b BpasBreiBCTBy cb xojiaTaft- 

CTBOlfB o B03aBMCTB0BaBÍJiX'B BBl OÓn^eBMBepOftarO BpOAOBOJBCTBeflBarO 

RaniiTajia. Cey^Bi obbtb pa-aptmajiiCB, BUxaBajiBCb; BOSBpaiAajiflCB se 

*) Ibid. ?K)2. 
») Ibid. 931. 
'> Tbid. 932. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKA. — 3EMCKO-nPOíOBOJBCTBEHHOE AMO. 369 

mhua, Tyro. Bi* koeu/í kohaobi, MHom seiícTBa jiHmnJiHCB rjasHaro 
HCTo^HHica npoj^oBOJiBCTBeHHUx'B cpeACTBi BT> BH^t sanacHuxi^ MarasH- 

flOB^B, HCTpaTHilH HO^TH BeCB CBOfi KaHETaJIl H oKasajiHCB m> 6ojibinoM^ 

Aoiry y npaBUTejLBCTBa, norameHÍe Koroparo OBJíaeTCA jí^a hhxi* ee- 

ffOCHilBHUMl. 

TaKOBa HCTopiji 36MCKO-npoAOBOJiBCTBeHHaro Aijia bo bc^xi noHTH 
ry6epHÚix'B. B'b oahoS hsi caHuxi* xaiÓopoAHuxi^, nanp., ryóepHÍfi — 
eEaTepHH0CJiaBCK0&— AOJiri ry6. aeMCTBa wb o6ii(euMnepcfii& npoAOBOJU>- 
cTBeHHufi KanHTaJiii npocTHpaJiCA wb 1884 r. ao 850 t. p. Co6paflie, 
BatACTBÍe AOBJsaAa yopaeu o toicb, hto BoaBpai^eHie aToro AOJira 
,nojiosHTej[BHO neBOSMosHO, BCJi^ACTBie orcyTCTBia cpeACTBi* y eacejie- 
m, BocnojiB30BaBinarocA ccy^oft'', nocTaHOBHJio xo^aTaňcTBOBaTB o 
pa3cpo7S'b ynjiaTii ero Ha datb jiítb. Ho yse wb 1886 r. sencTBo 
opHHyxAeHO 6ujío HcnpocHTB y npaBHTejibCTBa HOByK) ccy^y bi pas- 
itpt 300 T. p. Bi Apyroft H)aHoli ry6.— TaBpHqecBoft — AOJirb seMCTBa 
ffb uMnepcsifi npoAOBOJKBCTBeHHuň k2luvlt9ljli>, nocTeneHHO Hapociafl, ao- 
CTHrb S7> 1-My jiHBapa cojh;(ho£ cyMMU — 900 t. p., Hai BOTopuxi 
BosBpan^eHa HacejieHieHii tojibko nojioBHHa; Apyraji se hucjihtca bi* 
HeAOHiiRaxx. Bh ApjriíTb ^epeoseMHiixi rytíepHÍAX'B npoAOBOJiBCTBeH- 
floe AtJO o6cTOHT'B ne bi jiynineMi bhaí. PeBHSioHHaa KOMMHCcia, h3- 
SpaHHaa xapbKOBCKHicB ry6. seM. co6paHÍeM'B nponijiaro ro^a, oÓHapyacHJia 
ípesBuqaňHO ne^ajikHoe nojioseHÍe npoAOBOJiBCTBeHHUxi^ cpeACTB'B. Hace- 
jeeie ry6epHÍH aojisho Vb ry6. npoAOBOJiBCTBeHHuň sanHTajii obojio 
500 T. p. H Bt o6meHMnepcKÍfi — óojťbe 200 t. p. Bt CHJiy Bucoqafi- 
maro noBejitHia, ynjiaTa nocjid^AHflro AOJira pascpo^ena Ha 6 .1'bT'B. Ho 
vh nepBuft se roA'B 3eMCTB0MX noJiyqeHO ne^oóopa no BducRaniK) dToro 
Aojra oBOJio 30 t. p., BOTopufi h upM^eTCA noKpun, b^poatho, u3'b 
cníthiixii cyMMi. To^Ho Tasse h ^Jia capaTOBCsoft ry6. opaBHxejiB- 
CTBo npEHysA^BO tíujio OTcpoHHTB HorameHÍe ccy^u bi^ o6ii;iň BanH- 
Taix, HHCJifln^ifiCA sa HacejieEieifB bt> pa3HÍpi okojio 500 t. p. Ho 
H zxkcb B% 1887 r. „osH^ajiocB k'b nocxynjieHiK)" no BOSBpan^eniK) 
Aoira HacejieHieMi 252 t. p.; na caMoifB se ji,ijii nocTynnjio jmmh 
OKOJIO 40 T. p. Heyposafi 1883 ro^a bx opjoBCKoft vj6. noóyAHji-B 
MtcTHoe seMCTBO, 3a HCTon;eHÍeM'B cofícTBeHHUxx cpe^CTB-B, xo^aTaň- 
CTBOBaTB o ccy^i Hst o6ni;aro KanHTajia b-b 300 t. p. CaMoro sjíono- 
jyHHOD, oAHaKo, ryóepHÍefi h3'b pa&oHa, HMeHyenaro „SHTHHi^eS Poc- 
cíh", ABjífleTafl caMapcBaji. Hace^ieHÍe ea bx pasHoe Bpenn h hsx pas- 
HHxi npoAOBOJiBCTBeHHuxx HCTOHHHKOBi HOJiyqHJio ccyA'B Ha cyMMy 

OKOJIO 7 MHJI. p. H31 HHX-B AO IV2 ^^^' VY^' ^HCJIHTCJi Bl fle^OHM- 

KaxT, DO AOJiry b'b HMnepcKift npoAOBOJiBCTBeHHuft KanHTajii. Ho o6u- 
Ha© B036ysAeHO óujoío xo^aTaficTBO oó-b OTcpoHsi, yBasennoe mhh. 
BHyrp. j(tii'E, pasjíosHBmaro ynjiaTy ero na 6 jiíti, naHHHaji cb hu- 

Toirk IIÍ.— Mifi, 1889. 24 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



370 MCTBSnSTb EBPOnH. 

H'bniH£ro roAa. Ho ea HcnpaBHoe oocTyn^ieHie njtiaTesei ci» HacejieHÚi 
B'B c^eTb noramema ccjau HaAes^u o«efli» MajBío, h seMCTBam npH- 
AeTCA SHaquTeJibHyK) qacxB EdHocoai A^JiaTb H3'b co6cTBeHHuxi cpe^CTBi. 
Bi ryóepHÍflxx He^epH03eMHUxi» noJioseHie seMCRO-npoAOBOJU^CTseH- 
Haro A^a eiue nenajiBHte. TaKi, bi sasaHcsoft 176. bcšxi npoAOBOib- 
CTBeHHHX'B AOJiFOBi ^HCJiHJiocB b:e 1884 p. sa HacejEBEieMi 6ojiie 6khji. 

py6.; H8'B HliXl* Bl HMnepCRÍft npOAOBOJIbCTBeHHHŘ RaDHTaJťB — OKOIO 

1.300 T. p. BosBpaTB nocjiiAHefi ccjah pascpoiee-B npaBHTejn>CTBOirB, 

HO SeMCTBa UHlTBLDTb BOCLMa HailO yBŠpeHHOCTH B-B A'b&CTBHTeJIBHOMl 

nocTynieniH onpeA'&iieHHUX'B hmh eseroAHUXi b3hocob:b. Bi y(]>HHcsoň 
ry6., no AOKjmAJ ynpaBu bi* 1884 r., j[,iJio HapoAHaro hpoaobojibctbía 
HaxoAHTCA mB'b caMux'B HofijiaronpúiTHUX^B jcjioBiaxi,*^ . 3% toitb se 
roAy seMCTBOMi HcxoAaTaftcTBOBana y npaBHxejiBCTBa ccyAa bi 1^0 t. p. 

B^B MHHyBmeMl rOAy y<{>HMCKÍJI SOMCTBa BHOBB otfpaTHJHCB KX safiMj 

HSi oÓn^eHMnepcKaro KanHTajia b'b pasMtpš 300 t. p. wb bumj Heo6- 
xoAHMOCTH npHHHTB uifu R-B npeRpan^eHÍK) rojioAHaro TH4>a, cBHpin- 
CTBOBaBDiaro bo bcí^x^b uo^th yÍ3Aaxi. C.-nerepóyprcRafl ry6. seiiCRafl 
ynpaBa HeoAHORpaTHo AORJiaAHBajm co6paHÍK) o fíesoTpaAHOVB cocťoahíh 
cqeroBi ry6. npoAOBOJiBCTBeHHaro RanHTajia, „fiÓJiBinaji qacxB ROToparo 

HHCJIHTCJI B% HeAOHMRaXl 3a yJ^AaMH, ROTOpue, HeCMOTpA Ha dTO, xo- 
AaTaňCTByDTB 06l OTRpUTÍH HMl HOBUX'B RpeAHTOBl* AJUi BUAa^H CCyAB 

RaR'B Ha npoAOBOJiBCTBÍe, xaR-B H Ha o6c^MeH']^HÍe no^iefi'' ^). To^ho raRse 
HenocH JBHUMH AOJtraMu no ccyAaMi h3'b padnaro poAa RanETajioBi o6pe- 
HeHOHo Hacejienie ryfiepnífi bhtcroS, CMOJiencRoft, TBepcRofi, HOBropoACRoft, 
ncROBCRofi, pasancRoft. 

Bi o6uieuT> peayjiBTaT']^, 3a BecBMa neMHorHMH HCRjwqoHÍaMH, BeMCTBa 
npHHysAeHU sepreoBaTB na. yAOBJíeTBopeHie e^eroAHO npeA'BflBJ[Jiefin)ix'B 
HaceJieHÍeMi* Tpe6oBaHÍfi bt> ccyAax-B cbohmh npoAOBOJBCTBeHHUMH RanH- 
xaJiaMH H o6paii;aTbCji r-b npasHTejiBCTBy ci xoAaxaftcTBaMH o6'b ot- 
nycRi cpeACTBi hsi o6meHMnepcRaro RanHxajia. Ho npu BceM'B tok 

tíOJIBIHHHCTBO SeMCTBl HOCXaBJíeHO B'B HeOÓXOAHMOCTB O^ORB HaCTO OTSa- 

BUBaTB B% ccyAax-B u cosHasaTB, hto ero noMon^B ^bjiaotca Ran^ieft b-b 
Mopi RpecTBflHCRoft HysAH. HpH ToifB ycjioBÍH, HTO noTpetíHOCTB Hace- 
jieuiH B% ccyAax'B npeACxaBJíAeTca ne pesyjiBxaxoM-B RaRHx-B-HHÓyAB 
dRCxpaopAHHapHuxi^ 6ÍACXBÍ&, a djioaomii nocxenenHaro paBcxpoicTsa 
RpecxBAHCRaro xo3Jc[ňcxBa, na seMCRHxi co6paHÍflX'B neoAHORpaxHo supa- 
sajiocB coMH^Hie Bi ni^j^jiecooÓpasHocxH caMUX'B cnoco6oB'B oRasaelH 
upoAOBOJiBcxBeHHofi iiomoiu;h HacejieHÍK). Mnom soMcxBa HaxoAHJiH ro- 
pasAo óojiie iiii^jiecooĎpasHUM^ accHFHOBaxB qacxB npoAOBOJiBcxBeHHUx-B 
RanHxajiOB'B Ha yAOBJíexBopenie co6cxBeHHo xosAflcxBeHHuxii HysA'B 



^) 3eMCKÍ& ExeroAH. aa 1884 r. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHBA. — 3EMCK0-nP0A0B0JIBCTBEHH0E ^í* JO. 371 

flacejieHla: npio6p'6TeHÍe tfesjíoniaAHUMH pa6o?aro CKora, ocoÓeHHo docjií 
anisoorifl, noKynsy neoÓxoAHMiixii yro^ifi, opraHHsao^iK) Epe^uTa h t. jí,. 
OfipasoBaHHafl bi 1871 r. TBepcRHMi» ry6. zeucKEWb co6paHÍeM'B som- 
iniccúi npHm^ia, Hanp., bi aasjíDneBÍK), hto, „npH neHvlBÍH b^b j^octb,' 
ToqEoirb Rojiu^ecTBi cBOTa H jfomaAeí, Bu^a^a ccy^i* na oóclMentHie 
floieft He AOCTHraerB ii;^jIh h tojilbo oópeMenoerB npoAOBOJiLCTBeHHuft 
sanHTajTB óeaHaAesHUMH BeAOHMBaMH. HapoAHoe npoAOBOJibCTjiie 6ujío 
6u HecpaBHeHHO óojAe oóesneieHO, ecjiH6u npoAOBOJiBCTBeBHufi xanH- 
mrB nojiyqHJiii ÓoJite niHpoKoe HasHaneHÍe, yQorpeÓJiflACB ne na oaho 
TouRo npoAOBOJibCTBie HapoAa, bo h na noAAep»aHÍe RpecTbAHCRaro 
uióonainecTBa BooÓn^e^. 

^tŘCTBHTeJIBBO, pa3CMaTpHBaa HCTOpÍK) npoAOBOJ[BCTBeHHaro AtJia BX 
pasHHXi* ryĎepHÍflxi, mu bhahmx, hto bi RasAofi hs-b hhx'b hmídtca 
0TA'bJiBHue sjíonojiy^Hiie paĚOHu, HaceJOHÍe Roxopuxx HaxoAHTCfl b% 
oco6eBHO HeÓJiaronpiflTHuxii ycjioBÍAXTi. Ohh Tpe6yK>rB eseroAHoti no* 
loi^H, xoTA dxa noMOii^B BHCROJn>Ro H6 usM^EHerB npHqHH'B, nopoAHB- 
msrh Beo6xoAHMOCTB e^. Tpe6oBaHÍji, xaRHMx o6pa30MX, npoAOJsaDTb 
opejTBiiBjíflTBCA Bi> Te?eHÍe A-j^jiaro pjiAa jAtl h coBepmeHBO hcto- 
miDTb seMCRo-npoAOBOJiBCTBeHHua cpeACTBa. EAHHOBpeafeHBoe Rpyneoe 
nocoóie hjih ccy^a na ycxpaHOHÍe caMUxi HeÓJiaroDpiATHuxi^ ycjiOBift 

Vb X03JiftCTBÍ^ eCTeCTBeHHO JIBHJIOCB 6U BO BC']^X'B DOAOÓHUX^ cjiy^aflxi 

ropasAo 6oJsie pai^ionajiBHUMii a'&jiom'b, q^HX eseroAHUfl npoAOBOJiB- 

CTBeBBUJI nOAaqRH. Ho MHHHCTepCTBO BHyTpeHHHX'B JlfkjVb OTSJIOHXJIO xoAa- 

TaftcTBa semcTBi b% btomii cMucjit, TaRi RaRi*, no ero hh^hík), „HeyAo6- 
CTBo ORasanifl AOJurocpoqHux^ ccyA'B 3aRJiH)qaeTCA, rjiaBHBiM'B ofipasoMi, 

Vb TOVB, HTO CpaBHHXeJIBHaA CB RpaTROCpOf HUMH CCy^aMH JeFROCTB 

Ki!B B03BpaiueHÍfl Hept^Ko noÓysAaoTi HyacAaH)ii(HxcA npocHTB ccy^u 
vh pa3H'6paxi, npeBBiniaK)iiiHX'B ^'^ficTBHTejiBHyK) naAO^HOCTB, 0CJia6jiiBJi 
vh TO se BpeMA no6ysAeHÍe r:b npiHCRaHÍH) 3apa6oTROB'B ^ h orpanu- 
qeHii) cBouxi norpeÓHOCTeft HeoSxoAHHMmaMH npeAMexaMH npoAOBOJiB- 
eTBifl". EpoM% Toro, 3eMCTBaH'B HeoAHORpaTHo Óujio noATBepsAaoMo, 
qTo, no nojoseHÍK) o dencTRaxii, npoAonojiBCTBeHHUMii RanuTajiaMi ne 
voxerB 6uTB AanaeMO HHRaRoro Apyroro ynoipoÓJtenifl, RpoM*]^ OKasaniJi 
ccjAi na o6ciMeH']^BÍe nojieft h npoAOBOJiBCTBÍe HaceJieHÍA. 

Ho na npaRTHR'&, RaRi* mu bea^íjhil, MOJiRÍfl RpaTROcpoqHUfl ccy^u 
CKioD Bomeft npoBpan^aroTCJi b'b AOJirocpoqHua h RpynHua — nyxcM-B 
laKoujieHifl HeAOHMORii H A^JaoMuxi paacpoqeRii no ux'b norameniH). 
TasHH-B oÓpasoMi, ecjinóu seMCTBa cpasy CTajiH na noqey Bu^aqH 
ipynaux^ ccy^i h AOJirocpoqnuxi ccyAi*, to nojiosenie 3eMCRo-npoAO- 
BOjn»cTBeHHUx'B cpoACTBi BO BCflKOM'B cjiyqat He hsmíhhjiocb 6u rs 



^) Cboai MaTepiajioBi f,iíí ncTopÍH iBepcsoro tj6, seMCTBa* 

24* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



372 mcTEBSTb EBPonu. 

xyAineMy. HajUH^HOCTb hxt* ocxajiacB 6u Ta »e, MeatAy tími nocjr^' 
Haro poAa ccy^u osasa^H 6bi HacejeHÍK) ropas^o 6ÓJiLniyK) noiBsy, a 

Bl BHj^y yRadUBaeMOft lfHHHCTepCTBOM'B BHyrp. A^1» nJierKOCTH HZ'B 

BOSBpan^eHifl** caMue npoAOBOJiBCTBeHHue aojifh mofjih 6u c^HTaTi>cji 
fioJiie BaAesHUMH bi aTOMi» CMucjt. 



II. 

EcjiH oóii^ee HeyAOBJíeTBopuTejibHoe nojioseHÍe aeMCBo-apoAOBOJb- 
CTBeHBaro x^^ HaxoAHTCA, rjiaBHUM'B otípasom, B'b saBHCUMOCTH orb 
nporpeccHpyDn^aro yna^Ra 6jiarococToaHÍfl RpecTLani, to Hejiib3fl CKa- 
3aTi>, qTo6u neAocTaTKH bi* caMofi opraHHsauÍH ORasaHÍfl npoAOBOJiB- 
CTBeHHoft noMon^H Be sacjiysHBajiH HHEaKoro BHHMaHÍfl. B'b aroví 
OTHomefliu Ha nepBOMrb ajiant aojisho 6uTb oocTaBJíeHO cyn^ecTBOBanie 
npaBHJia, no KOTopoMy ccy^u h3'b oóii^aro no HMnepiu npoAOBOJiBCTBeH- 
Haro fianHTajia Bu^aiOTCA JiHmB noAi» ycjoBÍeMi OTB^TCTBenHOCTH h 
pyqaTOJiBCTBa ryóepHCKHXi* aeMcxBi sa CBoeBpeMeHHoe npoHSBOACTBo 
eseroAHUx'B njiaTeseft, ch rbwb^ hto ecjra sa saK0&-HH6yAB ne tíujia 
ynjiaqeHa npHHUTaion^aflCfl qacTB, to ona AOJissa bhochtbca wb no;ue- 
sau^ia cm^tu seMCTBa, na oón^eH^s ocHOBanÍH. ^pyraMH cjioBaMH, b'b 
cjiyqa']^ HecocTOATejiBHocTH nojiy^Hemaro ccy^y HacejieHÍJi, soMCTBa 
AOJisHU iipoHSBOAHTB ccy^u Hsi ofiu^Hx-B CBOHX^B eseroAHUx'B cpe^cTBi. 

EjiaroAapji ycxanoBJíeHiK) noAOÓHaro npaBHJia, MHoria sencTBa npH- 
HysAOHu BOBce OTKasuBaTBca orb noMon^H o6n^aro npoAOBOJiBCTBeHHaro 
KanHxajia, KaROBu 6u hh Óujih Hys^u HaceaeHÍa bi> ccyAax'B. HeiBsa 

XJVSLTb, qT06u MHHHCTepCTBO BHyTpeHHHXl JS.ÍJLI, UMIíjIO BX BHJtJ XO- 
CTHSeHÍe HMOHEO 3T0fi Sa^a^H. JI.tftCTBHTeJIBHO, UOCJTb yCTaHOBJíeHÍa 

npaBHJia 27-ro 'wjia 1883 r. soMCTBa Cb aAHHHHCTpai^ie& noM'&HajiHCB 
poJiaMH. Brb BinAj OTKasa mhophxi 3eMCTB'B ovb ccy^u h8'b o6n;aro no 
Huoepiu npoAOBOJiBCTBeHHaro BanHTajna npHSHano Óujio Heo6xoAHMUirB 
npeAocTaBHTB ryÓepHaTopaicB noJiBsoBaTBca ct. 1826 nojios. o seM., no 
KOTopofi, „ecjiH sevcKHMH y^pes^OHÍaMH ne óy^jvb BBinojEHeHU oóasa- 
Te^iBHua noBHHHOCTH, TO TyGopnaTopi, cb paspimenia MHHHCTpa Bny- 
TpeHHHX'B A'^^b^ nuieTb npaBo npHCTynHTB r'b BunojiKneHÍK) hxi sa 
cqerB soMCTBa''. Kor^a rytí. scmctbo, TaRHMi otípasom, ne cosnaBas 
ceóa B'B cocToaniH npnnaTB pyqaTejiBCTBo sa CBoeBpeMeHnoe Bosepa- 
u^eHÍe npaBHTejiBCTBy ccyA'B, CTajo otb hiix'b oTRasuBaTBca, to rytíepn- 
cRaa aAMHHucTpan;ia nojiyqa^a hx'b noMHMo soMCTna, xoxa oTB^TCTseH- 
HOCTB no BOSBpan^OHÍK) ccyAi* Bce-TaRU cb somctbi ne CHHMaiiacB. 

SeHCTBaM^ npnmjiocB BUCJiyniaTB ne Majio ynpoROBi no noBo^y Toro, 
vro HtEOTopna hsi hhxi ne tojibro ne aejiajiH xo^aTažcTBosaiB o 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKA. — 3EMCK0-nP0A0B0JbCTBEHH0E A*.10. 373 

BHA&^ npoAOBOjiBCTBeHHi)ix'B ccyA'B H3Ti oÓn^ETO KanHTOJia, HO Aase 
uporecTOBajiH npoTHBi xo^araflcTBa ofii* dToifB ryóepHcsofi aAMHHH- 
€TpaiiÍH. 3eifCTBa h aAHHHHCTpaii;ifl, jlslkt> mu aaMtTHJiH, noMÍHaiHCB 
poJiiiHH. TaK-B, BasancKoe rytí. seMCBoe cotípaHÍe BostíyAHJo a%jq[u& pflA'B 
loj^aiaflcTBi otít orpaHHqeHiH nojiHoiio^ift rytí. aAMUHHCTpai^iH Hcnpa- 
niHBaTB ccyABi noMHMo nocTanoBJíeHifi caMHxi seMCTBx. Cotípanie, nanp., 

XOAaTatCTBOBaJIO, "ITOtíU tíBIJll yCTaHOBJieH'B MaKCHMaJIBHBift pa8Mtp'B 

dToro poAa ccyA'B, h ^Totíu npeACTaBieuiji o paspi^meBÍH hxx conpo- 
BosAajracB 3aBjiK)^eHÍAMH ynpaBii o CTeneHH HysA'B nacejieHÍa. Bce sto, 

XOHetlHO, SJIOHHJIOCB RX SejiaHÍID OrpaHHqHTB n^eApOCTB aAMHHHCTpai^iH. 

HaAo, oAHaso, npHSHaxBCA, ^to y 3eMCTB'B bi AaHHOMi* cjiyqai hm^botca 
CBOH CMariaiomia BHny otícToaxejiBCTBa. Ccy^a ntKOiopHMH otaíjib- 
HHVH M^&CTHOcTflMH HCDpaiiiiiBajiHCB Ho^TH eseroAHO H HHRorAa nOilHO- 
ctík) He BosBpan^aJiHCB. Ilpn ycjioBÍH se oTBÍTCTBeoHocTH seMCTBa sa 
CBoespeHeHHoe BosBpan^eHÍe hxi, na norameme hx^ Morjia, bx rohi;']^ 

I0HI(OB'B, yXOAHTB, tíOJTl^e HJIH MeH']te, 8HaHHT6J!BHaA ^aCTB SeMCRHXTi 6íDA' 

2eT0B'B. Ha TOMx se RasancRoifB seMCRom cotípaniH BucRasano tíujio, ^to 

,ItH({)pa dTOfi HOBOft otíflSaTeJIBHOĚ CXaTBH SeMCROtt pOCnHCH, HHqtlfB He 

orpaHHHeHHoft, Rponi jiH^Haro BOSBpd^HÍa aAMUHHCTpai^iH, MoserB aoStu 

He TOJIBRO AO ACC^TROBl, HO H Jífi COTeH'B THOiqii H, TaRHBťB otípaSOMX, 
OKOflqaTeJBHO pa3CTpOHTB SeMCROe XOSflllCTBO''. ApyrHMH CJIOBaHH, seM- 

CTBam npnmjiocB 6u OTRaaaTBca ot'b y^oBJíeTBopeHia bcíxti noTpetíno- 
creft Hacejienia h TpaxHTB cboh cpe^CTBa na RopMJieHie hs^ roAa bi 
roAi BJonojiyqHHx-B MicTHocret. Onaceniji noAotíHaro po^a BUCRasanu 
tíHjra H seMCTBaMH ApyrHxi rytíepHÍft. KocTpoMCRaa rytí. ynpaBa AORa- 
ausajia cotípaníiD, ^to nocjíš ycTaHOBJíeHÍn seMCRofi 0TB'&TCTBeHH0CTH sa 
B03Bpaii^eHÍe ecyA'B, njiaTesH no HHiTBJíaryrB Bces) TJisecTBK) Ha 3eM- 
CBÍft tíiDAserB, H „ocTaneTCA oahh^b cnocotíi noRpuTB pacxoAU — dxo 
cospaTHTB Hjra coBepmeHHO npeRpaTHTB Bu^a^y cyMM'B na Apyría 3eM- 
€KÍJi norpetíHocTH, RaR'B nanp. na napoAHoe otípasoBanie, na HeAHii;HH- 
CKy© HacTB H T. A** HaROHeu^B, HiROTopua 3eMCTBa cnpaBeAJHBO yRa- 

SHBaJIH, qTO pyqaTOJlBCTBO BeMCTBl otípeMOHHTeJIBHO AJia HHXl 611^6 H 
BB BHAy TOrO, TTO B3UCRaHÍe HpOAOBOJIBCTBeHHBIX-B AOJirOBl HaXOAHTCH 

BB pyRax'B areHTOB^B, coBepraeHHo He3aBHCHMUX'B otb seMciBa. Bi 
(i6m,ewb^ TaRHifB otípasoMi, nojioseHÍe 3eMCTBX npH BUAaT]^ HacejienÍK) 
€cyA'B H3i^ otíni.eHMnepcRaro RanHTajia npesBunafino saxpyAHHTeaBHO. 
?To RacaoTCji HeyAOBjíeTBopHTejiBHaro coctohhíji cotícTBennux^ Rpe- 

CTBflHCRHX^B SanaCHUX^B CpeACTBX, TO 3AÍ^CB Cl RaSABIlTB FOAOM^B BCe 

6osie H tíojrbe upoHEJLuercii HecooTB^TCTBie vesXy opraHH8aii;ieĚ npo- 
AOBOJiBCTBeHHaro A'bJia h vbuz,, vtb npeACTaBJUierB cotíoK) b'b nacToa- 
mee Bpeiia RpecTBancRoe otín^ecTBo. OtípasoBanie npoAOBOJiBCTBeHHUx^s 
8anacoB'B nonpesneMy cocxaBJíaerB ROJUORTHBHoe jífkjio otín^ecTBa. Ho 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



374 B^CTHHKl* EBPOnU. 

BCflKoe KOJiiieBTiiBHoe npeADpÍHTÍe MoserB nojibsoeaTbCii ycntxoMi jmmh^ 
npH paBeHCTB'6 chji'b u noTpe6HOCTe& yqacTHHBOBi. MesAy tíitb aroro 
paBencTBa n He Ha6jiDAaeTCJi bii cospeMenHOHi* KpecTbJíHCEOVb o$m.e- 

CTB-ik. HaCROJIBBO MOSHO CyAHTB HO 3eMCK0^TaTHCTHqeCBHMl> A&HH£IM%^ 

B-B HacTOJimee BpeiCA b:b ^epesEt otb 20 ao 307o specTBAHi* opuHOA- 
jiemaxi* k% ^hc^ bbojihí necocToaTejibHuxi xodaeB^B, obojio 107o— o6pa- 
BOBajiH C060K) rpyany Óora^eŘ, h jihiob ocxaJibHue 607o ao^ibayiDTCJi 

HOpMaJlbHHMli AOCTaTBOM'B. TaRHH'B otípaSOMl, H3'b BTUX'b yRasaHHbíxi- 

Tpex:E rpynniy na Koropuji pasÓHBaercfl ofin^ecTBo, nepBafl Bcer^a 
HysAaeTCA h HHBaKHX'b sauacoB-B A'bJtaTB ne MoseTi>, a BTopafl Boace 
ne HysAaeTCfl hh b^b KaKHXi HÍpcsHxx 8anacax'B. ^tficTByji cb AByx'& 
npoTUBonoJiosHBix^B ROBi^oBi, o6t 9TH rpynou oOiii;hhhhbob'b b'b 3Ha^ni- 
TejibHoň CTeneHH nóApuBaiorb BoaMosHocxb oprannsoBaTB caMonoMou^ 

3% TOM'B HJIH APyrOMl BHA^. Ha HtBOTOpUX'B SeMCBHX-B C06paHUX'& 

rjutcHue BuacHHJiH, ^T0 sanacHbie ofimecTBeHHue MarasHHU ynpasAHeHH 
Bi» BHAy Toro, HTo noMomibK) H8'B HHX'B oojibdOBajiHCb HO opeHMyii^ecTBy 
Ói^AHBBH, HHBorAa He BOBapan^aBiaie saTivrb ccyA'b*'. SasHTO^Hue 
BpecTBAHe sa^BJíADrL, ^To OHH He sejiaioTB ccbinaTb xjiói cx rbwby 
?To6u 6iAHJiBH no BecHb ero pa3o6pajiH. 

B'B npesHee BpeMH y BpecTbflHX oahhhi* U3'b HCTO^raHBOBx sacBinBB 
Mara3HH0B'B cjiysujiH o6ii;ecTBeHHUJi sanamBE. Ho b'b nacTOflo^ee apeMA^ 

HeCMOTpjl Ha BCABÍJI H']^ponpÍflTÍA co CTOpOHU SOMCTBa H aAHHHHCTpaQin, 

oČn^ecTBeHHHE saoamBH noBCioAy HC^esaxvrb. npEHEHoft 3Toro Aaiema 

ODATb-TaBH CJiySHTB HOpaBeHCTBO XOBAňCTBeHHUXl CHJTB OÓn^HHHHBOBTb, 

npH BOTopoiTB BOueBTHBHaa o($pa6oTBa y^acTsa sen jra A^aeTCA saTpyx- 
HHTeJbHOH). Bi otín^ecTBaxi ecTB yse Macca ÓesseMejbHuxi^, cAaBniHX'B> 
CBOH HaA^JU H yxoAiin^Hxi Ha ji']bTHÍe 3apa6oTBH, ecrb en^e Ódjnbmaji 
qacTb fiesjíomaAHUXx h t. a- BuA^JieHie hjih HaeM'B yqacTBa seiuB 
noAi* oómecTBeHHyK) sananiBy h paBHOMipnoe pacnpeA'i^JieHÍe MesAy 
oónnHHHHsaMH pa6orB npn TasHXi ycjiOBiflXi ho^th HeB03MOSHO. OcTaercA 
AJiH noAAepsaHÍfl 3ananieB'B oaho cpeACTBo — bto npHHysAenie. Ho a 
BT> nocjiŠAHeirB cjiyHa*]^ paóoTaDn^íe HSii-noA^B naJiBH BpecTBane otho- 
cflTCH Bi o6p9l6otkí dTHXi yqacTBOBi o^eHb neópesHo, TaB'B tto ypo- 
»aH Ha HHXi* ÓUBasyrb cauue njioxie. Ci Apyroft cTopoHU, mu bhahm^ r 
^TO o6in;ecTBeBHUJi sananiBH h 6e30 bcjibhxi m'&p!b cxporocTv npoAoi- 
aiaDTb pacnpocTpaHaTBca b'b tíx'b h']^cthocthx:b9 ta^ o6n^ecTBa coxpa- 
HHJiH CBofi npesHÍft naTpiapxajiBHuft cxpofi h pasencTBo fijiarococTOEHifl, 
B'B nocjiiAHee apeva MHorifl seMCTBa B036ysAaH)T% xoAaxatcTBO o npH- 

HyAHTeJIBHOlTB BBeAeHÍH B-B Ce;[BCBHXl 06lI^eCTBaX'B OÓn^eCTBeHHHX^B 

sanameBx. Ho nacBOJibBo D0Jie3HU jí^jih BpecTb^H^ sananiBH, óÓpaayiD- 
^^flCJI no Hxi co6cTBeHHo& HHHi^iaTHBi, HacTOJiBBo se AO CExrb nop^ 



Digitizedby VjOOQICj^, , 



XPOHHKA. — SEMCKO-nPOAOBOJIBCTBEHHOE fl^lO. 375 

OiaSUBaJIHCB fieSDJIOAHUMH BCb nonUTBH HaBflSaTB BOJUieKTHBHSMl TaH'b, 

rxi íM Hero wkvb no^BU. 

To^HO TEKse sejianie hmítb ff,iJio cb KpecTBflHCBHMi oón^ecTBOiťb, 
savB npesHeft naTpiapxajiBHoft KOJueKTHBHofi eAHHHii;eĚ, oKasuBaercH 
lei^iiecooĎpaaHBUťB npH BUAaH'b KpecTBaHaHi ccy^B h3'b pasHaro pojia 
sanHTaiOBi». Ccy^u drn, safi'B h3B']^ctho, BU^aDTCA sa BpyroBoft nopy- 
sot Bcero otfn^ecTBa h no ero npHroBopy. H botb cocTOflTejbHaa ?acTB 
specTBflHi BOBce oTBaBUBaercA A^saTB npHroBopfii ^jsi nojiy^emfl ccja^, 
KasB 6u isH HysxaJiacB &bjíjí!bŘmsLE ^acTB otín^ecTBa. Bmšct^ cb rbwh 
vb OTA^BHHX^B cjiy^aaxi, Kor^a bo rjiaBi specTBancBoi BUÓopHoft 

aXKHHHCTpai^iH CTOATB KJJiaKH, BOJIBSyDIIllieCJi HMeHHO Ha c^iei^B He^o- 

CTSTBa jjA6a, j 6tAHflB0Bi, to npnroBopa aoóhtbch emfi TpyAH'&e. 
EpoKi TorOy KpyroBaA nopysa bobco napajiHSHpyeTB caMoe 6jiaroA'&Tej[B- 
Hoe sHaTOHÍe Bu^aqH ccyA'B. Bi BH^y cyn^ecTBOBaníJi efl, RpecTBane 
BHAaoTB nojiy^eHHyK) ccyxy ne rbwh Ó^juHAKaMi, soropue bb neft 
Hys^aDTca, a k^jí^tl nopoBHy ,no AyniaMi", ves^y bcImh oÓh^hh- 

IHSaMH 6e8:B paaiHHÍfl COCTOJiTejBHOCTH. 0^eBHAHO,^TO CB HBMŽHeHÍflMH 

Vb crpoi specTBaHCSHXTi ofin^ecTBi, npoHcmeAinHMH nocji'^ 19-ro 4^b- 

paJU, H606X0AH1I0 C^HTaiBCJI. 

Tasoe nenajiBHoe nojtoseme 36MCBo-npoAOBOJD»CTBeHHaro A'bjift h cosea- 
Hie seMCTBB, HTO oHH HO MoryTx, npH cyn^ecTByDm^HX^B ycjioBisxi, y^OBJíe- 

TBOpHTOJIBHO CnpaBHTBC£ CB BOBJIOSOBHOD Ha HHX'B Saxa^OH), HOÓyAHJH 
HÍBOTOpHX'B H31 HHX^, KaBB rOBOpATl, o6paTHTBCfl Bl npaBHTOJIBCTBy 
CB XOAaTaiCTBOM^B O&h y^peJBAeHÍH npH MHHHCTepCTB^ BHyTpeHHHX'B 

AtiB 0C060Ě bommhccíh ajui nepecMOTpa h H3M'bHeHÍa hhhí A'&ftcTBy]D* 

mjSTb npaBHj|'B o Hap0AH0M'B np0A0B0jn>CTBÍH, Basi „HeCOOTB'bTCTByiO- 

mjíi'b HCTHHHOMy nojioseHÍK) coBpeneHHaro napoAHaro xosAĚCTBa*'. Ilpn 
dTOHB seHCTBa BUCBasuBaDTrB npocBÓy, HTo6u, wb cjiyf^&i y^oBjíoTBo- 
pesifl HX'B xoAaTaficTBa, wh bommhccík) 6ujih npnrjianieHU seMCBie npe^- 
eraBHTejni. IIo^oÓHafl bomuhccúí, boho^ho, Mor^a 6u BaB'B bujichhtb 
lys;^ T^x^B ir&cTHOCTefi, nacejieHie BoropuxB HaxoAHTCJi b^ oco(5eHHo 
He5jiaroiipÍ4iTHUx& jcjiobísii> h hoctojíhho Tpe6yeTB ^0M0II^[ uwh npo- 

XOBOIBCTBeHHIiIXlk BanaCOBl, TaB'B OT^aCTH H HaftTH CpOACTBa BUSeCTH 

Haceieme dTHXi H'6cTH0CTeĚ H3B xaBoro nojioseHia. PaBHinrB o6pa3oirB, 
iomxhccía Morjia 6u ycTpaHHTB h vb HOAocTaTBH, BOTopue npHcyn^H caMoft 
opraHHsaipH npo^OBOJiBCTBeHHaro aíxsl. Ho, boho^ho, i^eHTp'B t^jbocth 
npH pa3pi^nieHÍH xannaro Bonpoca ocTaneTCH no npeasHOHy b% neofixo- 

AHXOCTH 06n^HX:B MÍpi, HanpaBJieHHlIX'B Bl nO^HATÍK) dBOHOMHHeCBarO 

óiarococTOHHia cejiBCBaro HacejieHia^ nyreiTB yjiy^mema rhxTi ycjioBií, 

BB BOTOpUX'B HaXOAHTCJI TOHOpB BpeCTBHHCBOO XOBHĚCTBO.—B. B. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



376 BI^CTHHKX EBPOHU. 



HHOCTPAHHOE OBOSPIHIE 

1-ro MM 1889. 



noiHTHHecBÚi xijia Bi repnasÍH. — KoHcepsaTEsm h coiaaji&HaA pe<t»opiia.— Bnyrpee- 

HÍe KpHSHCH Kb BeHrpiH, FÍTajiH H PyMHHiH. — KoiOHÍajibHafl HÍMeuKaii nojorniKa.— 

noiosesie UHOflcrepcTBa fii Ahtiíb.— JH^ohi Bpaftrb.— HoBHft (t»a3Hci 6opb6H ci 

6yjaH]KB3M0Hi.— ^Djib $eppH H ero leopia „Taepflott aiacTH". 

CKopo HcnojíHHTca vo,vb CO CMepTH HMnepETopa repMEHCKaro $pha- 
pHxa ni, HO noJio»eHÍe aíji% bt> FepMáHÍH hhcrojbeo ao chxi nopi» se 
onpaBJCUBaeri hh rlxi osB;iaHÍfi, hh tI^xx onacenifi, Rasifl BHCRasBiBajíincB 
npÉ BCTynjieHÍH ea npecT0Ji'B BHJibrejiBMa II. Gi> o^Hofl CTopoHU, BH^mH^A 
noJiHTHRa ocTaeTCH, RaRrb h npH ero jífkjiíb BHJObrejibM^, c;i;epsaHH0X>, 
MHpoJíDÓHBOiD, — HHRaKOĚ oco5eHHoft npe^upiHM^MBOCTH HO oĎHapysH- 
BaeTCH B^b dToft oÓiacTH, a CHCTeMa BoopyacenHaro Mnpa ne 6ojAe beri 
npoAOJMRaeTca. TpoftcTBenHHft corosi ch ABcipiero h HTajriero no npea- 
HOMy c^HTaercA BasHMiiiHM^ odjiotomi cnoROĚCTBia EBponn h 6e30- 
nacHOCTH repMaHÍH. OrHoineHia ae eji Rt $paHii;iH íajieRO ne ctojie Ha- 
TflHyTU, RaR'B Bi He;(aBHee BpeMx, b'b nepioA'B norpaHH^HUXx „hhich- 
ieHT0B'B" H o<j)4)Huio3HHX'L raaoTHHxt yrposx. HpeRpaTHJiacb TaRse bu- 
3HBaH)in;aa nojiCMHRa 6ep;iMHCRoft ae^ara OTHocHTOJibHo Poccíh. Bnyr- 
peHHÍe Bonpocu BUcxynHjiH, noBH^HMOMy, na nepBbiS njiaH'b. 

KoHcepBaTHBHoe eanpaBJíeHie, ROToparo npHAepncHBaeTCii HHH']^mHee 
repMaHCRoe npaBUTejibCTBo, mofjio 5bi 6uTh npnsHaflo bo bc^roě Apyrofi 
cxpanik Aase cjiHinRoifb jm6epsiJihmAU% h nporpeccnBHUHi, TaRi> RaR'B oho 
Bce-TaRH oDHpaeTCA Ha snaHHTejibHoe 5ojibniHHCTBo MMnepcRaro cefina h 
npyccRoft najiaTH jíenyTaTOBi, xoTa h BCipinaerb onno3Hi^ÍK) B-b nporpec- 
CHBHofi qacTH H'bHei^Raro oÓn^ecTBa. EoncepsaTHSicb nie CRasuBaoTca vb 

HiROTOpUXl TOCTHHXX MtpaXX H DpOBRTaXl.,— HanpHMtp-b, BX nOHHTKi 

pacmHpHTb npHutHeHie cneaiajibHaro saRona o coi^iaJiHCTaxi h orpann- 
qHTb CBoÓo^y ne^aTH; ho 3tm MÍpa HMtrorB BTopocteneHHoe SHaHenie 
H Bi cyin;H0CTH ohobb Majio íizw^esiíotií oóu^ifl npaBOBOí xapaRTepi 
H^&MoicRofi nojtTHTHqecRoft SH3HH; TepiiaHifl Bce-TaRH ne Hoseirb 6uti 
HasBana Polizeistaat. IIpoTHBX cepbe3HUX'b Hapymemfi o^mecTBeHHsxi 
npaBx cyn^ecTByDTb ;i;ocTaToqHHa rapaeTÍH wh aaROHOAaxejibCTBt, bti 
najiaTax-b h bi o5in;ecTBeHHOirb mh']^híh. Bca H']^Mei(Rafl sypnaJiHCTHRa 
ropiiHo o5cysAaJia ne^aBno Boiipocb o cyAb6']b paAHRajibnoft 6epj[HHCRoft ra- 
seTU „ Volkszeitung", ri ROTopoft aAMMHHCTpao^ifl npHiťi^HHJia saROHi* o co- 
iliajiHCTax'b, AonycRaK)m.ift aaRpuTie HS^aHÍft, BeAyiAHx^b coii;iajiHCTHHe- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKA. — HHOCTPAHHOE OBOSraHEB. 377 

csyo nponaraHAy. Pacnop^nceHie Bucmefi noJiHi^eficRoS BjiacTH 6ujio 
Bce-TasH oósajioBaHo co6cTB6HHHRaMH raseTU h hotomi oTMineno um- 
nepcKOK) ROHMHCcieiD, TaR'B HTo saROHHoe npaBo bx kohi^'6 robuobi 
nojyqwjo Ha;íJreacamyiD oxpany, 6ed% Toro, ^toĎh RT0-HH6yAb bha^Jts 
Bi dTOMi ROJreóaflie npaBHTejiBCTBeHHaro asTopETexa bx FepMaHiH. 
BooÓoie, HejiLas ne npEsnaTL, qTo H']^MeiiRÍfi o4)$Hi^iaj[LHHfi ROHcepBa- 
TH3MI He HM-fcen Bt ceói Hmero o6in;aro cl t^m-b, ^tó HaatiBaeTca 
peasi^ieio; oqeHB ^acTO owh coBMicTBifB ;i;ase cb HecoMHÍHHUMH pe- 
4K)pMaTopcRHMH TeHAeHii;ijiHH Bi noJiBsy HHsniHXTi RjiaccoBi> BacejieHÍA. 
HpaBjta, TaRx-nasHBaeMaa coaiajiBHaa pe(|)opMa, npe^tnpHHaTaa bha- 
3eirb BHCMapBOMTb, CTpaj^aeTi BecBMa cymecTBeHHHUH He;íocTaTRaMH; ho 
liiTB ne MeH*e ona ofinapyaHBaeTi AiftcTBHTejBHyH) saÓOTy 061 yjiyq- 
menÍH 6uTa paóonaro Rjiacca. 

IIpoeRTB cTpaxoBaHia paĎoqnx^ na BpeM« CTapocTH h neroAHocTH 
SI Tpy^y npHHflTB 6ujix co^yBCTBenHo ROHcepBaTHBHUMH rpynnaMH 
HHnepCRaro cefina, a ue»Ay tívb sto Óescnopno oahh^b hsi caMux^B 
aaóiiixi* coiiiajiBHUX'B npoeRTOBi RaHo^jiepa. Bb neMi 6pocaK)Tca bi 
riasa ab^ xapaRTepHcxHqecRÍa qepTu: BO-nepBUXTi, ^pesMlpno bucoríA 
BoapacTB, ji,snom,iŘ npaBo na neHciiD, h HHqxosecTBO caMLix^B neecift, 
HMi^Du^EXii 6yAxo 6hL oÓesne^HXB paóoíHXTi HHBajiHAOBTi. CxpaxoBu;! 
cfujííi o6padyK)xcH hsx bshocobii caMHxi pa6oqux'B, npH yqacxin xo- 
^evh H HMnepcRaro Rasna^eflctBa; rocy^apcxBo aojisho AaBaxB cbod 
AOJíK) cpe^cxB^ js,Jia cocxaBJíeHifl HMnepcRofi cxpaxoBofi Raccu. a axo 
noaysHTB b:b pyRaxi npaBHxejiBcxBa BecBMa chj[bhuh'b opyAÍeMi* bos- 
A'lficTBÍfl Ha paóo^ee Hacejienie. MojioAue h sAopoBue paÓoxHHRH 6y- 
Ayn ofiaaaxejiBHo A^JaTB bbhoch, a nojiB30BaxBca neHciero 6yAyx^ 
xoiBKo J[K)AH, AOCXHrmie 70 jťbvb hjih npHsnaHHue HecnocoÓHUMH R'b 
paóori. TaRi RaRx oqenB neMHorie h3b paóo^HX-B AocxHraiDxi cxojib 
opeKJioHHaro Bospacxa, xo M'bpa ocxanexcji cosepnieHHo óesnoJiedHos) 
jUfl rpoMaAHaro 6oJiBmHBCxBa xpyA^n^Hxca u bi xohi mucjii ajia xofi 
HneHHo RaxeropiH hxi, ROTopyro hmíjii b-b BM^y saROHOAaxejiB. HaqH- 
mTB cqexi cxapocxH xojbro cb 70 jiíx-b, ana^Hx^, oieBHAHo, Hapy- 
HisTB ofin^enpHHiixuft cmbícjii* canoro hohhxíjí o „cxapocxH^ h yAJiHHHflXB 
^ejoBtqecRyo shbhb ropasAO AajiBme oóuqnaro ea npeA'&J[a, Roxopuft 
^3BuqafiH0 fijí,KO AOCXHraexcA npH neóJiaronpiflXHUXi suxeficRux'B 
ycjiOBiaxii HaeMHaro xpy^a. FaÓoHÍe, AosHBmie, nanpHM-bpi, ao 60 Jiirb 
H BecB cBoi B^Ri A'3^iiaBniie b3hocu bi cxpaxoByK) Raccy, AOJiacHU 6y- 
jijTh aAaxB eme A^caxB jiix^, nroóu hmíxb npaBo HasuBaxBCH cxa- 
pmiM H noJiyqaxB CRyAny© neHci© otb 125 ao 250 MapoRX bx roAi. 
IleHcia flBHTCA BecBMa coMHHxejiBHiiMii H cJiHniROMii Aoporo OBJía^eH- 

HBn A&POM^ Aiia JIIDAeft, ROXOpUMl BCe paBHO npHXOAHXCfl OSHAaXB 

ciepTH. DpeAJiaraxB Hiqxo noAOÓHoe paňoqeMy Rjiaccy, BsaMtHi qyB- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



378 BI^CTHHKB EBPOIIH. 

CTBHTeJLHUX^B SepTBX Ch BTO CTOpOHH, MOSHO TOJIBKO nO HCAOpaST- 

MtHÍK). B'B HMnepcKOMi c^Řvh BUCfiasaHU óujoL vbtKie AOBOAU npo- 

THBl dTOfl CTpaHHOft OCOObHHOCTH HOBarO 3aK0Ha; UpaBHTOJIbCTBO A&3Ke 

corjiacHJiocb coRpaxHTB cpoRi Haqajia CTapocxH ao 66 ji^ti, ho aartiTB 
Bsajío no?eM\-TO o6paTHo CBoe corjiacie, h bi nepBOM'B ^xenÍH npoesTB 
npHHATb napjiaMeHTOMi bi nepsoHa^ajiiiHOMii bea^í. Mhofo roBopHJiocB 
xaiUKe 06% oqeBHAHofi HeAocTaTOHHocTH neHcift ]í,jul caNaro 6ÍAHaro 
cyn^ecTBOBaHia; no aroMy doboaj cocTaBHTejiH npoeRTa saflBiaJiH, tto 
CTapHRH H HHBaJiHAu H31 pa6oqHX'B Moryn BUcejiflTkCA H^b ropoAOB-B 

B'b AepeBHH H B'B ÓOJltO OTj^aJieHHUA 0TB I^eHTpOB^B H']^CTHOCTH, UpH^OHi, 
ROHOHEO, HITB npHOLIOCB 6hL Ha CTapOCTH JltlTB nOKHHJTB pO^HUJi CeMBH H 
npHBUHHUH yCJ[OBÍA SH3HH Jl,JUl OTUCRaHÍa HOBUXli MtCTl Ha ^J7&6^fA. 

8to npe^nojioseHÍe ctojb se CTpaHHO, RaRi h HasHa^eBie MHHHMajiB- 
Haro BOspacTa bi 70 jk^tb jijle nojty^enifl nencift. En^e oaho oócroa- 
TejiBCTBo A^JiaerB dxy pe<ÍK)pMy HenonyjiflpHOD b'b paÓo^eM^B RJtacc]^, — 
dTo HMeHHo BBeAenie paóo^raxi rhhsorx, b'b ROTopux'B ÓyxyrB sanH- 
cuBaTBCji B3H0CU paÓoqHxi H xosfleBi. PaÓoqia rhhsrh, no RoropuirB 
HaHHMaTOJiB tíyAero hmítb tohhují cvkjiema o BpeMOHH h M^bcrj^ npes- 
H^ro cJiyseHÍfl paÓOTHHRa, jí^ojubleu ycHJiHTB qyBCTBO BaBucHMocTH pa6o- 
qflxx on xo3JieBX, yAepsHBaTB otb qacTOĚ nepeM'bHH míctb h sa- 
HflTifi Aase npH o^obhahoA hxi HeBuroAHOCTH, b:b BHj^y bosmoshocth 
ROHTpoJia H OTRasa co CTopoHU tí^xi HpexnpHHHMaTeJiiefi, r'b RoropBiirB 
o6paTjiTCJi pa5oqie, HM'&H)ii^ie sa co6ok), no cji[yHafiHUM'B npE^HoairB^ 
cJiHmROifB nepeMiHHHByK) RappBepy. 

noRa en^e ne buachhjihcb hcteheho mothbh, noÓysAaion^ie npaBE- 
TejiBCTBo H napjiaMeHT^ ynopso orcTasnaTB HecocTOATejiBHUH nojioaKema 
npoeRTa, BonpeRE y6'bAHTejiBHUM'B AOBO^aiTB onnosEi^iH. Butb MoaserB, 
npaBHTejiBCTBO ne pimaercA 6paTB na cbok) 0TB'bTCTBeHH0CTB oóesne- 
HOHie BC']^x'B CTapHROB^ paóoqExi, onacaacB neocyn^ecTBEMOCTH ero b^b 
(t)EHaHC0B0M'B oTHomeHÍH; OHO RaRx 6yATo CTapaeTCA npoBecTH camifi 
npHHi^Hn'B, npe^ocxasjíafl ce&k bhocíiíactbíe hsmžhetb ycjioBÍJi Buj^a^H 
nencift h pa3H'&p'B hx'b, no yRasanÍAMi onuxa. 

MesxyHapoAHaa nojiHTERa TepHaHiE, oco6eHHo EHTepecyioniaji espo- 
ne&CRyD h bi tom'b ^hcjií Hamy ne^aTB, hh b'b qeM^ ne H3M'bHHinu3B 
B'B HocjiiAHee BpeMfl, RaRi 8aM']^qeno yse nume; ho ona noiepoi^jui 
HtROTopufi npaBCTBeHHHft yn^epiSi* bcjhíactbío BOspacraDn^eft nenony- 
jijq)H0CTH TpoficTBeHHaro coDsa b% AByx'B coDBHHXi AepsaBax'B — B^ 
ABCTpo-BenrpiH h HxajiiH. BjiÍATéJEBEMmift ajieifeHrb aBCTpiftcRofi mg- 

napXÍH, Wb JlEJSÍb MaABAp'B, AOBOJTB CBOH npOTeCTH npOTHB^B Htlfl^eB^B 

AO yjiHqHuxi* Bojmenift h ao BOSÓysAenifl MHHECTepcRaro RpHSHca, — 
h6o arHTai^ia npoTEB'B BoeBHaro saRona h npoTHB'B ynoTpe6jieBÍJi hí- 
Mei^Raro asuRa bx nenrepcRoft apiÚH ÓHJia HecoMHŽHHO nanpaBJíeHa 



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XPOHHBA. — HHOCTPAHHOE 0B03MHIE. 379 

npes^e Bcero npornBi TflrocTHUXi o6ji3aTe4bCTB'B, BUTeRaDmiHXi h3'b 
coDsa CB repMEHÍei). Benrepcsift MHHHCTprB-npesHAeHTB THCca TBepjta 
Bmepsui 6ypiD, KOTop&a cjioMEJia 6íi BCflBaro Apyroro MHHHCTpa; ho 

OHI BHmeJI'B H3l ÓOpBÓU CB SHaHHTeJIBHO yMeHBnieHHUM'B aBTOpHTe- 

TorB H MorB Bce dTO Bpeifji coxpaHATB BJiacTB TOJiBRo čjiaroxapA CBoe- 
speMesHUiTB jcrynKaicB, npeo6pa80BaBi» CBoe MHHHCTepcTBO BicjiH)HeHÍeM'B 
Bi Hero AByx^B bhahux'b h TajiaHTJiHBfiixi ^'^Tejieft — AenyxaTOB^B Gh- 
larH H rpa4»a Ganapn. To^ho xasse npoHSomeJi^B oahopoahuř Ka6H- 

HeTHUft KpHSHCB H Bl HTajUH, T^^ HHHHCTp^-npeSHAeHTB KpHCnH J(0J1- 

sefli 6uji:b buřte bi orcTaBsy hoa^b BJii^meirb nefijiaronpiflTHaro na- 
crpoeHÚi napjiaMeHTa; axo Bpas;(e5Hoe Hacrpoenie BUSUBaJnocb h noA- 

AepSHBaJlOCB qpeSSťbpHOD yrOAJIHBOCTBD MHHHCTepČTBa OTHOCHTeJIBHO 

FepvaHiH, — yroAJiHBOCTBD> AoxoAHBineD ao neyM^THaro BuaiiBaBDii^aro 

TOBa 00 OTBOmeHÍK) B'B COCiXfLQŘ <l>paHI^ÍH H BUpasaBmeiDCJI npHTOM^B 

vh HenpepuBHON^B yBOJiHqeHin BoeHHaro 6K)AseTa. KpHCOH, noAofino 
Thccí, chjwhJHi npeoÓpadOBaxB saÓHHeorB, cocTaBjíeHie ROToparo tímio 
BHOBb nopy^eHo eMy sopojieifB TjH6e^ou%; on% yj^epsajii Bjacxb b:b 

CBOHXl P7BaX'B, Sapy^HBIDHCB COAÍ&CTBÍeH'B H^ROTOpUXTi BJIÍHTej[BHUX'B 

npeACTaBHTe^eft uapjiaiieHTCRoft onnosHi^iH. HoBue HTajEBiiHCBie mhhh- 
crpii bdojehí co3HaK)Ti» oniHtísy, 3aKJiiK)?aK)ii^yx>CA bi biicorom'&phom'b 
paapHB^ ToproBUXi neperoBopoBi ch 4>paHi(y3CRHM'B npaBUTejiLCTBOMx; 
OHH seJiajiH 6u nonpaBHTB CA'I^aHHU<i npo]iax'B h npoaBJíJiiDrB saMŽT- 
HyD npoAynpeAHTejiLHOCTB oTHocHTejibHO coctAHeft pecnyÓJiHRH, — ho 
BocjrbAHHH ne mtkerb HHRaRoro noBo^a CTpeMHTBCH R'b BosoÓHOBJíeniK) 
ToproBuxrs oTHomenifi, ROTopufl 6ujui nanóojiie BuroAHu jí^na caMoft 
HTajÚH. Eoraxaji <l>paHii;ÍH ne HM^jia HHRaRoro yfiUTRa orx coRpaiii;eHÍJi 

BBOSa HTaJILflHCRUXli OpO^yRTOBl, HO HTaJIBilHCRÍe npOHSBOAHTBJIH H 

ToproBKu uocTpaxajni BecBva cyn^ecTBenno. HHRaRa^ BHŠmEiíA hoa* 
Aepsxa He ^axinETb BuyTpeHHeft chjiu h óoraTCTsa; HTajiBflHCRie npa- 

BHTeJIH, BBAyMaBHlie CMOTptTB Ha $paHI(ÍK) CBUCORa, nojiyqHJTH ypoR'B, 

BOTopuil, MoserL 6uTB, oRaseTCA nojie^nuwL jpui óy^yn^aro. 

EocBeHHufi noJiHTHqecRÍfi yn^epói noT6pn'&j[a repMaHiji h wl Fy- 
MyHÍH, ROTopan mosotb buřth hs^ c^pu uHTepecoB'B TpoficTBeHBaro 

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4K)pvaj[BH0M'B npHCoeAHHeHÍH He6ojiBmoro RopojiecTBa ri i^enTpajiBHoŘ 
SBťk MHpa; Bi CBasH cb dTHHi npeAopnHHMajiHCB Aoporo ctodhUa 
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cyjiapcTBa BnojiH'& nefiTpaJiBHaro h o^esneneHnaro b'b cboom^b nefiTpa- 
lEreri oóh^hitb npBSHaHieMi EBponu. Ta se noJiHTHqecROH H^ea ocra- 
BajuiCB Bi CHJii H npH Ra6HHer6 Kapna-PoserTH, ne HM^BnieM'B bi> 
cyn^HocTH 5o;KBniHHCTBa b'b pyMuncROM-B napjiaMeHTi. PyMUHCRaA onno* 
3Hii(iji dHeprH^Ho B03CTaBajia npoTHB'B jiH^Hoft noJiHTHRH Ropojia Kapjia* 



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380 B-feCTHHKX EBPOnH. 

rposHBmefi Bosjíeqb crpany b^b cepbesHUfl onacHOCTH H3'b xeji&mB 
yro^^HTb repManiH h Abctpíh. IlaTpiOTU nacTo&^HBo ipeSosajiH BOBBpa- 
menia na nyTt ĎesycjiOBHaro HeftTpajUHTera, CTporo ocy»AajiH expemie- 
Híe npaBHTejibCTBa HCRaTB tohrh onopu b'b BepjiHHt kjih Biwb h ao- 

XOAHJIH Jí,0 npUMUX^B HaMeROB^ Ha Heyj|05CTB0 HHOCTpaHHOfi j^HHaCTÍH, 

BHocflo^efi coo(5pa;seHÍH (j[)aifHJ![LHaro po^CTBa b^ oÓJiacTB BasH']^finiHX'B 
HHTepecoB-B rocy^apcTBa. BHyTpeHHÍ& rphshcb npoAOJisaiíCJi aojuhi u 
BupasajiCH HacTo wb 6ypHHXi napjiaMenTCRHXi h yjraqHuxii ci^eaax-B, 
HanoMHHaBmHX-B BOJiHenifl bi IleinTi. IIoJioseHie AHHacTÍH ToreHn^oj- 
JiepnoBTi 6hjio h Óeat Toro Henpo^Ho b-b PyMumu, BCJiiACTBie otcvt- 
ctbía noTOMCTBa y Ropojia Rapja; DjeMHQHUR'B ero, o^mnfi^-b npyccKoft 
cjíjx,6u, o6xflBJieHHUfi sacjiiAHHRoifE npecTOJia, ocTaHeTCJi aojipo nys- 
^CUM^B HHocTpaHi^eifB A^Ji pyMu^cRaro HacejieHÍa, ROTopoe, ROHenHO, He 
HoxeTii BHA^TB B'B HeMi rapaHTÍH CBoero caMOCTOATejiBHaro pa3BHTÍfl e^ 
éy^yn^eicB. KopoJiB BUHysjíeHx 6uji'b ycTyoHTb, pa^H coxpaHeHÍfl o6ii^e- 
CTBeHHaro cnoRoficTBia; 0H'b p'&inMJ[ca npHSBaTb r^b BJiacTH cxaparo npe^- 
Bo;^HTejix ROHcepBaTHBHofi HJiH Hai^ioHajibHoft naprÍH, JlacRapa RaTap^ai^H, 
ROTopuft H cocTaBHJix CBoft Ra6HHeT'B 12-ro anpÍJiH (hob. ct.), npM 
ynacTÍH HÍROTopu[X'b HJiieHOB'B 6uBiiiaro MHHHCTepcTBa. Mhhhctpu sa- 
iiBHJH Bi> najiaT^, hto nojiHTHqecRaH nporpaMMa hx% 3aRJiH}?aeTCH rjiae- 
HfaiMi o6pa30Mx BB coxpaHeHÍu 3a PyMUHÍeK) BnojiHt neftTpaJibHaro no- 
jiomenÍH Mesjí^y cocíahhmh BejiuRHMH ^ep^asaMH, corjiacHo jcbficTBHTejiB- 
HUMii noTpeÓHocTAifB H sejiaHÍflifB cTpanu. HoBoe UHHHCTepcTBo npHHaTo 
najiaTOH) h o6ii;ecTBeHHHM:B MoliHieHx BecbMa coqyBCTBeHHo. Bcb co3HaH>T-B, 

qTO PyMUHÍA, HaXOAflCb B'B COCfeJlCTB^ Cb TaRHMU HMDepiflHH, RaR'B PoCCLff 

H ABCTpo-BeHrpia, uorjia 6u óhitb xotji h BpeMeHHo, ho JnerRo paaj^ae- 
jiena b^b cjiyqat BoeHHaro CTOJiRHOBeHifl Mexjiy aTHMH AByMH conepHH- 
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HefiTpajiBHoft pojiH u B3AyMaj[a dphhhtb yqacTÍe B'b 6opb6^. EAHHCTBeH- 
Hoe cnac6HÍe PyMunin, RaRi u ApyrHxi neÓojibmHXii 6a;rRaHCRHX'B ro- 

Cy^apCTB-B, COCTOHTli HMeHHO B'B 0TRa3Í OTl BCJIROft aRTHBHOft BH^IIIHeA 

nojiHTHRH, ROTopaji MOPJia 6u noABeprnyxB onacHOCTH canoe cyn^ecTBo- 
BaBie RopojiOBCTBa. Hejb3H oTpHi^aTb, HTO MHHHCTepcRaa nepeM^^Ha, 
npoHcmeAniafl bx ByxapecTt, ho 6BiJia npuTHa ajia jí^iAUJiousnovb Abctpíh 
H repMaHÍH,— noAo6HO TOiry RaRi h coBepmHBmaACfl paHbme nepeM^Ha 
B'B Gep6ÍE yrpoffiajia HUTepecaMi Bi^HCRaro Ra6HHeTa. Ho 6uj^o 6hi 
BpaftHe omHÓoqHo bhaítb bt* pyMHHCRHxii cofiHiiax^ TopaecTBo ne py- 

HUHCRHX'B, a HMeHHO pyCCRUX^b HHTepeCOBl HJH pyCCROfi napTÍH B'B Py- 
MUHÍH, RaRTi CRJIOHHU AyMETb HaOIH HÍROTOpue HyfijIHI^HCTH, — TO^HO TaKTb 

xe RaR'B 3T0 6ujío H ÓyAeTi hob^pho h OTHocHTejiBHO Cep6ÍH. nepeiribsLi 
h% ByxapecT']b h bi B']^JirpaA'fe, bl cbash cb oahopoahhmh cofiuTÍajm 
&!» BeHPpiH H HTajiÍH, cjiyxarb CHMOTOMaMH peaRi^ÍH npoTHBi ojichocto- 



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XPOHHKA. — HHOCTPAHHOE OBOSP^HIE. 381 

poHHeft CHCTeMU pasopHxejiBHUXi coK)30B'b, ycBoeHHofi FepMaHiBK) H pac- 
npocTpaBfleMoS eD j^eLxe Ha He6ojiBinie HapoAH h rocy^apcTBa, — ho He 
óoiie Toro; hh bi» PyMUHÍn, hh BQb Gep6ÍH, hhrto ho AynaerB rocnoA- 
CTBo OAHoro cociAa saMtHHTb rocnoACTBOMTb ^pyroro. 

repMasia noTepn^a oT^acTH ney^any h bi CBoeň KOJioHiajiBHofi no- 
jUTHKt: H3'B-3a ocipoBOB^L Cavoa oHa BosÓyAHJia Hey^oBOJiLCTBÍe b'b Co- 
eAHfieHHuxi inTaTax'B h AOJisHa 6ujia npHHjiTB r'b cbíachíid EaTero- 
pHqecRifl BospaaseHifl BamHHrroHCRaro KaCnHera, noBTopeHHUfl BecbMa 
flCHo Bi noojianÍH r'b soerpeccy HOBaro aMepHBaHCKaro npesH^eHTa Fap- 

pHCOHa. MhHHCTP!B HHOCTpaHHUX'B JÍ,tAT> BejHROft peCOyÓJIHRH, JI.SOMCB 

BidHib, H3BtcTeH'B CBOOH) dHeprieiD H HacToňHHBOCTBK); npH neji-b ne ho- 
sen 6uTB h piqn o6i ycTynqHBOCTH aMepHRaHiieB'B bi Bonpocaxi*, sa- 
TporHBaDniEX'B hx'b MesAJHapojnEue HHiepecu. TaR'B RaRi* hhrto bs 
repnanÍH He Ay^aerB ccophtbca c:b CtBepnoft AMepHRott, to saAynaH- 
Hoe HtifAaMH npeAnpÍATie ocTaneTCJi 6e3'B oco6uilt> pesyjiBTaTOBi. Bne- 
qaxiiHie dToň nojiHTHqecRoň neyAa^H óuao 6u caMo uo ceót noBasHo; 
HO xkjío noJiy^HJio Rpaňne TarocTHyK) ORpacRy no npHqHHt qHCTo-cjiy- 
lafinofi: xpn BoeHHUX'B repMancRHXii Ropa6jiii hofhójih otb 6ypH y rbxs 
se 3jionojiy<iHUX'B ocTpoBOBi^ CaMoa, npHqeM'B yxonyjio ao CTa qejoB'bR'B 
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oT^afi MH^ HOH JterioHuť^-^no a^pecy pyROBOAHTejie& HOBiftmeft rojio- 

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Ha ntROTopoe npeMH saRonqenHUifB RopoTRiň nepioA'B ROJiOHÍajiBHUxi^ 
yBj[e«£eHÍfi repnaníH. 

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ciyqai HO AonycTHJia 6u BOBJie?eHÍH AHrjÚH b% pncROBaHnua Bnimnia 

K0X6HHan;ÍH H ROHHJIHRailÍH. 

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HoiTB noxoA'b raaeTU „Times*' npoTHB'B nonyjiHpHaro bosa^ HpjiaHAÍH, 
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pa3BA3Ry. Cyn^HOCTB aroro A^Jia, saROHqnBmarocH 4)aRTHqecRH eu^e bi^ 
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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



382 BftCTHHKX EBPOnU. 

HaaaA^B HanenaTaHi 6iiat> wh „Times^^^š ;í,jiiíeeíař pají,% cxaTefi^ Bumex- 
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Haneqaxajia 4>&kchmuji6 AByx'B nnceMtB IlapHejUA, b% Boropux^b supa- 
seHo óujEo nojiHoe 0A0($peHÍe yÓiŘCTBa JiopM KaseHAHma h Bopsa. He- 
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jiosHocTH dTHX'b nHceMx, rasexa „Times*' ynopHO CTOUJia na CBoeM^b 
H noAAepsHBajia oÓBHHenie ao uocjŠAHiiro BpeMeHH, ccujiaACb na hm%k>- 
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XPOHHBÁ. — HHOCTPAHHOE OBOSPfiHIE. 383 

poBaxB o6BHHeHíeH'B ero coDdHusa, IlapHejuui. Ha ?acTHUX'B napjia- 
M6HTCKHX'B Bu6opax'B OAepsaHH tíujEH jse HibKOTopHe ycnteH npH- 
BepseHi^aMH j[u6epajiBHod onno8Hi^ÍH. CaMoe ]s,'bJio HpjiaHACKaro caMo- 
yopasjíeHÍ^fl BUHrpajio b'b rjia3ax'B aHrjiHqaH'B b'b bhaj 3JionojiyHHO& 
pasBflSKH BOHcepBaTHBHo-raseTHaro noxo^a npoTHB'B napjiaMeHTCKaro 

npeAB0J^HT6Jlfl HpjaHAiH. IIpH nOA06HUX'B 06CT0JITej[bCTBaX'B, mhhh- 

crepcTBO JiopAa GoJiBCÓepH ne Hosero h Ay^aTb o KaKOHi»-jiH6o bh-j^id- 
newb coD3'b h rbwb 6ojAe o coK>^'i c% nepBouaccHOH) bocehobd ^ep- 
xasoD HaTepHBa. 

HeAaBHo aHrjfiftcsaa jiHÓepaJiBHaA napTÍA jiHinHJiacB oAHoro h3'b 
caM£ix'L ÓjiecTflii^Hxi BerepaHOBi cbohx'b — ^scna 5pafiTa. Oh'b ycxpa- 

BSUICH OTb nOJIMTHqeCBOft A'Í^TeJlBHOCTH yse AOBOJIBHO A^BHO H UOCJli 

npoAOJisHTejiBHoň óoJitSHH CBOH^aJiCii Ha IS-wb roAy shshu. 9to óhji 

OAHHB H3'B rbXT* P']^AKHX'B JUD^et, KOTOpiIO HO OTAMAWTh npHHI^HnOBl 
OTB DpaBTBBH, H AJIA BOTOpiiIX'B lí^esait H6 eCTB nyCTOO CJIOBU, AOJISeH- 

cTByDn^ee cjiysHTB jHmB a^a yspamenid pl^H h m^ npio6pÍTeHíH 
nonyjupHocTH. Ero TOBapHiii;'B no nojiHTiiB'^, rja^CTOHi), DHpasHJica o 
HeMB, 9T0 owb Bcerjca totobii 6ujrh „npHHecTU cboco nonyjiApHocTB b'b 
sepTBy Ha ajiTapB CBoero AOJira^. Jífii ochobhua Hji;eH pysoBOJtHJiH 

MHOrOJltTHeiD nOJIHTHHeCBOH) SH3HBK) EpafiTa: Hffia CB06OAU H HeHaBHCTB 

Ki mŘE'b, BaBi u Bo BCABOMy Booónj^e HacHJiifio. Oh'b npHHHMaji'B anep- 
raqecBoe yqacTÍe b'b 3HaMeHHToft óopBfi*]^ npoTHBi* xjií6hux'b BaBOHOBi, 

BMIcTÍ CB CB0HH'B APyrOHl U COfi03HHBOM'B Ro5AeHOM'B. 0H'B ropflqo B03- 

CTaBaji'B npoTUB'B BpuHCBoft BaHnanÍH, b'b BOTopyi) Ahpjiía BOBJíe^OHa 

ÓHJia JIOpAOHl IlaJlbHepCTOHOMX H JIH6epajIBHUM'B ofilUeCTBeHHUHlb VE'b' 

HieMB; OHI roBopHJTB p']&niHTejiBHo npoTMB'B BofiHu CB PoccíeH), Bor^a 
ero rojiocB Morii BostíyAHTB tojibbo ney^OBO^BCTBie h pasApasenie. Ohii 
cosflaTejiBHO »epTBOBaj['B CBoeio nonyjiApHOCTBK) h ea^ojiro ji,íjih.ji% ce6a 
,HeB03M0»HUH'B^ Bii npaBTHqecBOM'B cvLincjvb, pa^H HAOH cnpaBOA^H- 
BOCTH H paAH BUcniHX'B uHTepecoB'B cxpaHu. T!'b »e ropflqie úpoxecTu 

OpOTHBl* BOfiHU H OpOTUBl nOAAOpSBH TypOB'B DOBTOp^JVB OH'B BO BpeMA 
QUCJT&AHArO BOCTOHHarO BpUSHCa, npH HHHUCTepCTB^ 6HB0HC(})HJIBAa. 

ByAy^H HHHHCTpoH'B Bii BaĎHHeTJb FjiaACTOHa, OH'B pasomejicfl cb npeMBe- 
poMB, Bor^a TOTB npHanajii ny^HUH^ 6oH6apAHpoBaTB AjieEcaHApiio. 
BpafiTB Bumejii* Tor^a h3'b MUHncTepcToa h cb tI^xi nop'B ptABo bu- 
crynajii Ha noapHiii,e npaBTHnecBofi hojihthbu. Ho ohx npoTecTOBaji'B 
npoTHBi BBeAeHifl ocoóaro napjaMeHTa a^^ HpjiaHAÍH, xota BcerAa 
cTOflji-B 3a yAOBjíeTBopenie cnpaBeA^HBBix'B HpjiaHACBHX'B Tpe6oBaHÍft. 
Ohi óujTb cBo6oAeH'B otb mothbobt. qecT0JiH)6ia, BOTopue ctojib *iacTO 
oBjíaAtBaDrB TajiaHTJiHBUMH opaTopaHH h oón^ecTBOHHUMH A'^flTejiflMu; 

KaBB MHHHCTpi, OH'B 6lIJI'B TbWb SBO CTporHM'B B'B Ce6^ MOpaJIHCTOIťB- 

EBasepoMii, BaB'B u Bi qacTHofi »h3hh. BocnHTaHHuS cb Majii]ix'L jiirb 



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384 B^CTHHSX EBPOnU. 

no 3ApaBoft SíETJiiŘcKOŘ cucTeM']^, coe;(HHAK)ii;efi cxapaTejiBHyiD o6pa6oTKy 
yna cb pasBHTÍeHi <i>u3HqecsHX'B CHJVb h cb pasHOofipasieHT- BH^niHHX'B 
BneHaTjrkHiň, EpafiT'B 6wrb oahhmi hsi jiyqiDHX'B npeACTaBHTejie& Tofi 
Kp^DKofi a^^JlíficKoft óypsyaaÍH, soTopaa, eupocniH na nie^axi pa6o- 
Haro KJtuicca, yMterB no KpaSneft u'bf'b AocTaBUTB A^ia cjiyseHÍfl na- 
pojcy CHJLBHue nojiHTn^ecsie xapaKiepu h TajiaHTu. 



^pani^yscEoe npaBHTejiBCTBo AOJuro othochjiocb naccHBHo b^b arn- 
xai^ÍH óyjiaHaRHCTOBB H ne ofipan^ajio Boo6ni;e BnEManÍA na myMHua bu- 
XOARH iix'B Bi» ne^aTH, na MHTHHrax'B h fianKeTaxi, ^ase na yjiiiiiaxi. 
H njioni,aAflX'B. Ha dTOTx pa3'B ono B^pyrii hsmžhhjio TaEXHKy h CTajio 
AtficTBOBaTh ptniHTe;iBHO h TBepAO, BcnoMHHB-B noieMy-To cyn^ecTBo- 
BanÍH aaKOHOBi, BOTopue paHBme ne npHMinfljiHCB. IIpoAojiSHTejiBHoe 
6e3A^ficTBÍe npaBocy;(ifl bii A^^iaxii noJiHTuqecKHxii CRa3UBaeTCA bi t^xi^ 
HeBOJiBHUX^B oniH6Bax'B, BOTopuA jí,'bJiB,v>TCA TeuepB pecny6jiHEaH];aMH 
npH onpeA'J^;ieHÍH sasonnux-B uoboaobx h h'^p'b js^jiíl npeRpan^enía peBO- 
jiEOi^ioHHoft nponaraHjiiBi. PyKOBOAHxejiH JiHrn naTpíoTOB^ Úujihl npe^anbi 
cyxy HcnpaBMTejiBHoft noJiHn^iu no oÓBUHenÍK) bx Dpuna^JiesHocTH k'b 
TafiHOMy o6ni,ecTBy, ho cjxh A0JiseH'B 6uíji'b oapaB^aTB hx'b no dTOMy 
nyHKTy, TaKi KaKi jiHra naipioTOB-B, AiftcTBOBaeniaa Bcer;ía otkphto 
H Aase cjiHniKoifB oTKpuTO, ne Morjia óutb naBBana TaflnuMi o6n^e- 
CTBOMii BB CMuon']^ saKOHa. jiHra naTpioTOBii 6ujia tojbbo HeA03B0JieH- 
HLiifB oóu^ecTBOMii CB T']tx'B Bop^, KaKii oHa lAZuiuHjiSi CBoft nepBOHa- 
^aJiBHiifi ycTaB'B h aan^JiacB cnei^iajiBHo noJiHTn^ecKOK) óopBÓoD bi, ajx^ 
ÓyjiansHSMa; no dTOMy npej(MeTy ^epyjid^^B n ero TOBapHni;H 6ujih npH- 
3HaHH BHHOBHUMH H noABepmyTU He3HaqHTejiBH0My ^eneacHOMy niTpa4>y. 

^'kso, Ha^iaToe npoTHBi jiHrn naTpioToeii, ocTaJiocB TaRHHii o6pa30MT> 
Cesii cepBe3Hux'B nocji'j^;i;cTBÍft; ho oho npHBejio k'b BecBMa BasHCMj 
KOCBeHHOMy pe3y;iBTaTy — kx co6paHÍR) ^aKTHqecKHxi ^annux^ o 3aMu- 
CJiaxi* renepajia Byjianace u ero cok>3Hmkob'b. 9tu CBijí^enia. npnsHaHLi 

ÓUJIH naCTOJIBKO B']^CRHMH, ^TO MHHHCTepCTBO ptniHJIO HeHBAJieHHO OpH - 

HflTB vifu ^Jia B035yacAeHÍA npon^ecca o 3aroBop'b npoTHB'B óeaonac- 
HOCTH rocy^apcTBa. FenepaJiB-AenyTaTi cHeji'B nysnuMB safiiaroape- 
MeHHo HcqesHYTB; ohx coBepmeHHo neoa&HAaHHo y&xajTB bi EejiBrÍK), a 
noTOMx, no npe^Jioacniio óejiBriĚcRaro npaBHTejiBCTBa, bi JIohaoh-b, ocTa- 
BHBx Aase MHoruxi* Apyseň cbohxi bi nojinoMii HeAoyMtHÍH. H^ro- 
Topue H3'B bhahux-b ero npHBepaeniíeB^, RaRi ;^e^yTaT'B MHmjieH-B h 
uepBuň opraHH3aTop'B 6y;iaHsu3Ma Tbcóó, sa^BHJiu bi ra3eTax'B, hto 
ne MoryTx óojvbe npKnaAJieaaTB ri napTÍH, bo»ab ROTopott ú^xbjlim 
3a rpaHHi^y. fiojiBniiiHCTBO ero ctopohhhrobi^, HanpoTHB'B, yBHA'i^Jio bi, 

dTOMli HCie3H0BeHÍH BeCBMa JIOBRÍft MaHeBp'B, TaR'B RaR'B co CTOpOHU 



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XPOHEEÁ. — HHOCTPAHHOE 0B03PÍHIE. 385 

ByjaHse ne hm&io 6u HHKaRoro CMHCJia oT^aTL ce6a AOÓposojibHo vb 
pjSH onnopTyBHCTOB'B, roTOBUxii 6yAT0 6ii cnpaBHTBCJi cb hhh'b kpyto, 
no BoeHHOMj. TtifB BpeHeHeM'B najiaTa AenyTaTOB'B, corjacHo npe^Jio- 
senii) npaBHT6JiBCTBa, pasptmEJia npecj['bAOBaHÍe ero, b'b saclA&HÍH 4-ro 
anp^bjífl, H qepeai híckojibko jímbř oodBHjicfl xenperB o npe^ocTaBjíeHiH 
cenaTy oÓpasoBaTB hsi ceÓA BepxoBHUt cyA'B, na ocHOBanÍH kohcth- 
TyiÚH. ByjiaHse oÓBHHJieTCfl ne npocro wb cocTaBjieHÍH saroBopa, a wb 
noKyni6HÍH Ha rocyAapcTBeHHUft nepeBopoTB; tojibko b'b dToiťB nocjrbx* 
JSBM% cjiyqa'b oh'b mofe 6utb npe^aHi BepxoBHOMy cy^y. Fobopat^, ^to 
oÓBHHeHie opeACTaBjíeHO b'b TaRoft (|>opMib tojibko ajka tofo, hto6íi HsÓ^r- 

HyiB I)pHCAHB^iH Cy^a npiICASHUX'B H AOÓHTBCA 06BHHHTeJIBHar0 npH- 

roBopa Bo ^To 6a to hh cTajio; a Ha nocjťbAHee ^aerb npaBo paac^H- 
TUBaTB cocTaBi cenaTCRaro 6ojiBniHHCTBa. E^Ba ju mosho npeAnojia- 
raTB, ^To MHHHcrpu, npH yqacTlM caHoro npesHAonra Kapno, saT^fljiH 
6b rpoMRÍĚ H cepBeaHuft npoi^ecci Óes^b noJioaKHTeJiBHHxi yjiHRii; en^e 
TpyAHie HpeAHOJioaKHTB, vro pecny6jiHKaHCKÍH rpynnu cenaTa, saRJíK)- 
qaDn^iA Bi> ce6'b MHorHX'B jsjiatejieŘ BnojiH'b HesaBHCHHUxi^ BCTynHJiH 
(u KaR'B óyATO Bi» 8aroBop'B CB npaBHTejiLCTBOM'B AJKA coBepmeHÍfly^li^a 
HesaKOHHaro HJin necnpaBeAJiHBaro. CaMUMi jiyqniHiťB AORasaTeJiLci^cWL 
Toro, mo reHepaji'B Byjianse codHasaJii^ BasHOCTB AOsyueHTOBii, nonas- 
iiiHX'B Bi^ pyRH npaBETejiBCTBa, — Hoacerb cjiysHTB Bnesannoe 6ircTB0 
ero sa rpannuiy. ^Jia BCHKaro acho, ^to renepajii, b'b KaHecTB']^ A^ny- 
TaTa, He uorh osH^aTB apecTa panibe padplmemfl najiaTU, ROTopoe 
Aano 6ujio tojibro qepesi TpH jíjlji nocjit ero orrbtdAa; ohi ho Mori 
TaRxe npuDHCuBaTB MHHucTepcTBy HaiiipeHie coBepmHTb abhoo 6e33a- 
.Kome H Hacujúe, h6o TaRoe A'^ftcTBÍe BosóyAHJio 6u oón^ee Hero^OBasie 
H no^HAJio 6u Ha norn Bctxi HHoroqHCjieHHBix'B ctopohhhrobi 6yjiaH- 
SHCTCRO& naprÍH. Ecjiu reHepaji'B c^HTajii apecrB boshoshhhx h ho- 
MHHyeMuiťB, TO 0H'B dBejvh u npEqHHU, no ROTopuMii B03M0SH0 ocys- 
Aeflie ero cyAOMi na ocHOBanÍH cyiii;ecTByE)Hi.HX'B 8aR0H0B'B. 

y^ajienie 5yjiaHse Bnecjio hobuS ajeHeHTii bi^ nojKOsenie <})paHi](y3- 
CRHxii napTifi; oho oshbhjio Ha^eacAU h óoapoctb oanopTyHHCTOB'B, paso- 
HapoBajio KOHcepBaTopoBi, paacTpoHJio p^AU 6yjuiHsucTCRHX'B A'&aTej[eft 
H aoBUAHHOMy ofijierqHJio CDORO&HyD pasBflSRy RpHSHca. YM-j^peHnua pec- 
nyÓJHRaHCRÍa rasoTU TopsecTBOBaJin oo6ÍAy, xoth h coB'bTOBajiH 6uTb na- 
CTopojRt; owb ne mofjih crputb otb ce5fl, hto ao chxii nop^B Bce yAaaa- 
aocB dTOMy renepajiy, h hto caHua ohobhahua ero omnÓKE h npoTHBo- 
ýknia ne H^majiH nocToaHHOMy BOspacTanÍK) ero uonyjiflpHocTu. ^yBCTBo 
aoó^Au — 611ITB HoserB npesAeBpeHeHHoe—Ďpajio, OAnauo, Bepxi^ HaA'B 
6iaropa3yMÍeH'B, u onaopTyHHCTU Ha^HnaiorB CHOBa saóuBaTb, ^to ycnixH 
6yjiaHsii3Ma b'b HapoA'^^ noposAeflu ne AOCTouHCTBaMH Byjianse, a ne* 
yAaiHOK) nojiHTHROK) caHHxii pecQy6juiRaHi^eB'B. ^idjib ^eppn, neHaBHCT- 

ToMi IIL--MAfi, 1889. 25 



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386 vhcrBBB,% EBPOim. 

Hui 6ojiBinHHC't£y HaceJieHÍA, npoHSHecB He^aBHO jBDóonuTHyi) ýb^h bi co- 
ópaHÍH „Hai^íoHaJiBHaropecnytíjiMKaHCRaro coDsa"; ohi* rosopui bi xa- 
BOH'BTOH'&, TOHHOBCA cTpaHa HJH DO KpaňHei M^pt jnj^inafl efl ?aCTB 
cTOBTrB ÓeaycjioBHo sa oonopryHHcroBi h sa nero, 2£idjui $eppH, a npoAOJi- 
saBnriicji ao chx'b nopi> BeyTpeHHift bph3hci» hh^jh CBOHiťb ejqiHCTBeH- 
HUMl HCTOqHHROH'B He^OCXaTOKT npaBHxejiBCTBeHHot dHeprÍH H BiaCTH 
Bi sa^HTy pecnyÓJiHKH. <^eppu AonycKaen, tto yvlpeHHiie pecayójni- 
KaHAU coBepmujra H^KoropuA onui6KH, tto, ,6utb MoserB, ohh cjiiiiii- 
ROM^B yBjfeuHCB sejiaBÍeM'B ycxpanBaTB Beu](H en grand apH noMon^H 
BejiHRHX'B 4>HHaHC0Bux'B saTpaTB, HjiH noBiJiH ^ep68%-qyp'B AajieKO Wb 
AíjA HsrHaHÍfl pejiuríH evb ]nROj'B h 6ojibhhi^'b'', ho hto rjuiBHoe ne- 
AOBOJiBCTBo HacejieHÍA npoHCxoAHJO HMeHHo oiTB OTcyrcTBúi TBepAaro 
npaBHxeACTBa, Koxopoe 3aH'bHeH0 6ujio „opraHHSOBaHHOK) aHapxiei)''. 
H dxy cH^yiD nonuxKy npeACxaBHXB a^o HasuBopoxib BocxopseHHo 
npHB^TCXByioxi xaKÍe cojiHAHHe opraná neqaxH, Kasi „Temps*. SLdjib 
<^eppu BaKi* óy^xo safiujii o&b ycxpoeneoi hmi paaopHxejiBHoĚ toh- 
KHHCKoft dBcnexHi^iH, O HeHysfliiX'B ycjiosHeHÍiiX'B cb RHxaeirB, o cox- 
Efivk MHJUiioHOB'B esero^Haro A6<i>Hii(Hxa bx rocy^apcxBOBHOiTB Cda 
ftM%, o HacHju>cxBeHHUX'B H'6pax'B npoxHBX AyxoBeHcxBa;-*orob saÓujťB 
o pesyjiBxaxaxi cBoero coócxBeHHaro ynpaBJíeHífl, H3BitoxHHXi h ^ryB- 

CXBHXeJDLBHHXli BC'bH'B H Ba»AOMy BO ^aHI](ÍH. OnOOpxyHHCTH, Bli Jinufk 

$eppH, oxxojiBHyjiH oxB ceófl Maccu napo^a CBoeco ysKO-napxífiHOi) no- 
jiHXHBOH), CBoeK) noroHOK) 3a BB^mEBWb 94)4>eBX0H'B, cBoeK) HeotíAyvan- 
HOK) ni;eApocxBK) bi> <})HHaHcax'B, cbohmii npeneCpeseHieMi si pejmrioa- 
nuwb npHBuqKaH^B h B'bpoBaHúiM'B 6ojiBsiHHcxBa; a xenepB ohh sanB- 
juDTB, Bi juaníb <^eppu, qxo hx'b „npoMaxH^ He Bwbnrh cepBesnaro 

SHa^eHÍA, H qXO HyaCHO XOJIBBO B3AXB XBCpAO BJQiaCTB Bl CBOH pyKH, 

Hxoóu san^HXHXB pecnyfijiuKy orB npoxHBHHKOB'B u hojioshtb soHeirB 
KpH3Hcy. £cjih6u xaKOBU 6ujih mvjLíLjiU 6oJiBniHHcxBa yHtpeeHuxi* pec- 
ny6jiHBaHi^eB'B, xo axo óujio 6u o^obb neqajiBHo; o hhx'b mosho 6ujto 
6u CKasaxB xorAa, qxo ohh Bce noaafiujiH h HHqeMy bhobb ne Hay?HJuicB. 
Tiwb éojíie 9X0 cxpaHHO, tto xasia mucjih BUC